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Human Factors: Publications and Papers. Browse publications by year. Chandra, D.C., Markunas, R. (2017). Line Pilot Perspectives on Complexity of Terminal Instrument Flight Procedures, (DOT-VNTSC-FAA-17-06). Cambridge, MA, U.S.DOT Volpe National Transportations Systems Center. Chandra, D.C., Markunas, R. (2016). Line Pilot Perspectives on Complexity of Terminal Instrument Flight Procedures. 35 th Digital Avionics Systems Conference September 25-30, 2016, Sacramento, CA. Coplen, M., and Cantu, C. (2015). “An Evaluation of Safety Culture Initiatives at BNSF Railway,” U.S.
DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 15-05. Hiltunen, D., Chase, S., Kendra, A., and Jo, Y. (2015). Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) 2015 Industry Survey, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-15-10, October 2015. Jette, A., Damm-Luhr, D., Ranney, J., Coplen, M., and Tunna, J. (2015). “Evaluation of FRA Trespass Prevention Research Study,” U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR15-21. Lennertz, T., Sparko, A., Mattson, A., Burki-Cohen, J. (2015). NextGen Flight Deck Data Comm: Auxiliary Synthetic Speech Phase II, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-14-15, July 2015. Ranney, J., and Raslear, T. Person-centered. (2015). Mosaic Membrane. Continued Improvements at One C3RS Site, U.S.
DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 15-07. Sparko, A. L., Chase, S. Person-centered Theory. G. (2015). Identifying representative symbology for Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (LVO/SMGCS) Paper Charts. Empowerment In Nursing. Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium of theory Aviation Psychology (ISAP). Energy. Dayton, OH, May 4-7. Chase, S. Hiltunen, D. (2014). “An Examination of Safety Reports Involving Electronic Flight Bags and Portable Electronic Devices,” DOT-VNTSC-FAA-14-12, June 2014. Gabree, S., Chase, S., Doucette, A., Martino, M. (2014). Countermeasures to Mitigate Intentional Deaths on person-centered, Railroad Rights-of-Way: Lessons Learned and Next Steps, DOT/FRAORD-14/36, November 2014.
Gabree, S., Chase, S., daSilva, M. (2014). “Effect of Dynamic Envelope Pavement Markings on Vehicle Driver Behavior at membrane a Highway-Rail Grade Crossing,” DOT-VNTSC-FRA-13-05, April 2014. Gabree, S., Chase, S., Cardosi, K. (2014). Use of person-centered color on Airport Moving Maps and Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTIs), DOT-VNTSC-FAA-14-13, June 2014. Gabree, S., Chase, S., Doucette, A., Coplen, M. (2014 August). Potential Countermeasures to Mitigate Suicides on the Railroad Rights-of-Way. What Precedent. Paper presented at GLSX 2014: 2014 Global Level Crossing Safety Trespass Prevention Symposium. Urbana, IL, USA. Ranney, J., and Raslear, T. (2014). “Update from C3RS Lessons Learned Team: Four Demonstration Pilots,” U.S.
DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 14-17. Schroeder, J.A., Burki-Cohen, J, Shikany, D.A., Gingras, D.R., Desrochers, P. (2014). An Evaluation of person-centered theory Several Stall Models for Commercial Transport Training. AIAA Modelling and Simulation Technologies Conference . Sparko, A. L., Chase, S. G., Morowsky, K., Jo, Y. J., Norman, R. M., Prinzel, L. Banquo Prophecy. J. III, Kramer, L. J., Arthur, J. J. III, Ellis, K. K. E., Bailey, R. E., Rehfeld, S. S., Yeh, M., and McGray, B. Person-centered. (2014). Low Visibility Operations/Surface Movement Guidance and fluid mosaic of plasma Control System (LVO/SMGCS) Chart Usability: An Examination of Flightcrew Position Awareness in Homogeneous 300 ft/75 m RVR Conditions (DOT-VNTSC-FAA-14-14). Cambridge, MA: Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Zuschlag, M. K., Burki-Cohen, J., Chandra, D.C. (2014).
An Algorithm for Generating Data Accessibility Recommendations for Flight Deck Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Applications, DOT/FAA/TC-14/4; DOT-VNTSC-FAA-14-09, Cambridge, MA, US DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, September 2014. Chandra, D.C. and Grayhem, R. Person-centered Theory. (2013). Evaluation of a Technique to Simplify Area Navigation and Required Navigation Performance Charts, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-13-02, Cambridge, MA, U.S. DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Chase, S., Gabree, S., and DaSilva, M. Energy. (2013). Effect of Gate Skirts on Pedestrian Behavior at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings. Person-centered. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-13-01; DOT/FRA/ORD-13/51. Markos, Stephanie, Pollard, John K. (2013). Nuclear. Passenger Train Emergency Systems: Review of Egress Variables and Egress Simulation Models, DOT-VNTSC-FRA-12-04; DOT/FRA/ORD-13/22, May 2013.
Martino, Michael, Doucette, Ann, Chase, Stephanie, and Gabree, Scott. (2013). Defining Characteristics of Intentional Fatalities on Railway Rights-of-Way in the United States, 2007-2010, DOT/FRA/ORD-13/25, May 2013. Martino, M., Gabree, S., and Chase, S. (2013). Demographic Profile of Intentional Fatalities on Railroad Rights-of-Way in the United States. Theory. RR 13-36. Melnik, Gina, Rosenhand, Hadar, and Isaacs, Matthew. (2013). Cab Technology Integration Laboratory Demonstration with Moving Map Technology, DOT/FRA/ORD-13/14, March 2013. Multer, J., Ranney, J., Hile, J., and Raslear, T. (2013). Perseverance Speeches. Developing an Effective Corrective Action Process: Lessons Learned from Operating a Confidential Close Call Reporting System. Person-centered Theory. In Rail Human Factors: Supporting Reliability, Safety and Cost Reduction. (2013).
Eds. Nastaran Dadashi, Anita Scott, John R Wilson, and Ann Mills. London: Taylor Francis, pp. 659-669. Ranney, J., and Raslear, T. (2013). “Another C3RS Site Improves Safety at Midterm,” U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 13-49.
Ranney, J., and Raslear, T. (2013). “Update from C3RS Lesson Learned Team: Safety Culture and Trend Analysis,” U.S. What Precedent. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 14-18. Roth, Emilie, Rosenhand, Hadar, and Multer, Jordan. (2013). Using Cognitive Task Analysis to Inform Issues in Human Systems Integration in Railroad Operations, DOT/FRA-ORD-13/31, May 2013. Yeh, M., Goh, J., Chase, S., and Gabree, S. (2013).
Capstone 3 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) – Airport Moving Map Operational Evaluation: Human Factors Report, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-13-01, May 2013. Yeh, Michelle, Raslear, Thomas, and Multer, Jordan. (2013) Understanding Driver Behavior at Grade Crossings through Signal Detection Theory, DOT/FRA/ORD-13/01, January 2013. Yeh, M., Jo, Y. J., Donovan, C., and Gabree, S. (2013). Person-centered. Human Factors Considerations in the Design and Evaluation of Flight Deck Displays and fluid model of plasma membrane Controls - Version 1, (DOT/FAA/TC-13/44; DOT-VNTSC-FAA-13-09). Cambridge, MA: U.S. DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. (Note: Version 2 was published in December 2016 and supersedes this version) Zuschlag, Michael, Chandra, Divya C., and Grayhem, Rebecca. (2013).The Usefulness of the person-centered theory Proximate Status Indication as Represented by Symbol Fill on Cockpit Displays of energy Traffic Information, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-13-03; DOT/FAA/TC-13/24, June 2013. Beck, Melissa R.; Trenchard, Michael; van Lamsweerde, Amanda; Goldstein, Rebecca R.; Lohrenz, Maura. (2012). Searching in Clutter: Visual Attention Strategies of Expert Pilots. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, October 22-26, 2012, Boston, MA.
Burki-Cohen, J., and Sparko, A. L. Theory. (2012). Validation of LOC-I interventions. Proceedings of the AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Minneapolis, MN, Aug. 13-16, AIAA-2012-4986. Butchibabu, A., Grayhem, R., Hansman, R.J., and Chandra, D.C. (2012). Evaluating a De-Cluttering Technique for related texts, NextGen RNAV and RNP Charts.
31st Digital Avionics Systems Conference, October 14-18, 2012, Williamsburg, VA. Chandra, D. C. and Grayhem, R. J. Person-centered Theory. (2012). Related. Human Factors Research on theory, Performance-based Navigation Instrument Procedures for NextGen, 31st Digital Avionics Systems Conference, October 14-18, 2012, Williamsburg, VA. Chandra, D. C., Grayhem, R.J., and Butchibabu, A. (2012). Area Navigation and Required Navigation Performance Procedures and banquo prophecy Depictions, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-12-10; DOT/FAA/TC-12/8, September 2012. Gabree, S. H. (2012). Grade Crossing and Trespasser Suicides—Current Research and Future Directions, 2112 Right of theory Way Fatality and Trespass Prevention Workshop, August 14-16, 2012, St. Louis, MO. Hastings A. , Guthy C. , Pollard J. K. and Garay-Vega, L. (2012). Research on Minimum Sound Specifications for banquo prophecy, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, NHTSA , June 2012. Lennertz, T., Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, A., Macchiarella, N., Kring, J., Coman, M., Haritos, T., and Alvarado, J. Person-centered. (2012).
NextGen Flight Deck Data Comm: Auxiliary Synthetic Speech Phase I, DOT/FAA/TC-12/19; DOT-VNTSC-FAA-12-17; December 2012. Lennertz, T., Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, A. L., Macchiarella, N., Kring, J., Coman, M., Haritos, T., and Alvarado, J. (2012). Banquo Prophecy. NextGen Flight Deck Data Comm: Auxiliary Synthetic Speech – Phase I. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 56th Annual Meeting (pp. 31-35). Santa Monica: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Neiderman, Eric; Popkin, Stephen M; Donovan, Colleen; Philips, Brian H.; Chappell, Sheryl; Monk, Chris; Lohrenz, Maura. (2012).
Transportation Research into Practice: a Multi-agency Government Perspective. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, October 22-26, 2012, Boston, MA. Parasuraman, Raja; Isaac, Matthew; Elsmore, George; Fisher, Donald L. (2012). Reducing Major Rule Violations in person-centered Commuter Rail Operations: the Role of Distraction and Attentional Errors. Proceedings of the related texts for journeys Human Factors and person-centered theory Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, October 22-26, 2012, Boston, MA. Pollard, John K.; Guthy, Catherine; Hastings, Aaron; Stearns, Mary D.; Garay-Vega, Lisandra. (2012). Perseverance. Evaluation of person-centered Sounds for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Operating at Low Speed. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, October 22-26, 2012, Boston, MA. Ranney, J., and speeches Raslear, T. (2012). Theory. Derailments Decrease at for journeys a C3RS Site at Midterm, U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 12-04.
Ranney, J., and Raslear, T. (2012). Senior Cross-Functional Support Essential for Implementing Corrective Actions at C3RS Sites, U.S. Person-centered. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 12-09. Rosenhand, Hadar; Roth, Emilie; Multer, Jordan. Fluid Mosaic Model Of Plasma. (2012). Cognitive and Collaborative Demands of Freight Conductor Activities: Results and Implications of a Cognitive Task Analysis, DOT/FRA/ORD-12/13, July 2012. Yeh, Michelle; Raslear, Thomas; Multer, Jordan. (2012). Evaluating the Impact of theory Grade Crossing Safety Factors through Signal Detection Theory. Define. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society annual meeting, October 22-26, 2012, Boston, MA. Zuschlag, Michael K.; Ranney, Joyce M.; Coplen, Michael K.; Harnar, Michael A. (2012).
Transformation of Safety Culture on person-centered, the San Antonio Service Unit of Union Pacific Railroad, DOT-VNTSC-FRA-10-07; DOT/FRA/ORD-12/16, October 2012. Burki-Cohen, J. (2011). Literature for Flight Simulator (Motion) Requirements Research, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, A. Of Plasma Membrane. L., and Bellman, M. (2011). Flight simulator motion literature pertinent to person-centered airline-pilot recurrent training and evaluation. Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference. 8-11 August 2011, Portland, OR. Coplen, M. and perseverance speeches Morrow, S. (2011).
Training and Certification of Work Schedule Managers May Improve Shift Scheduling Practices, FRA- RR11-03 February 2011. Garay-Vega, L., Pollard J. K., Guthy, C. and Hastings, A. (2011). Theory. Auditory Detectability of Hybrid Electric Vehicles by perseverance Pedestrians Who Are Blind, Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, January 23-27, 2011, Washington DC. Hastings A., Pollard J. K., Garay-Vega, L., Stearns M. and Guthy, C. (2011). Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians Phase 2: Development of person-centered Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds, DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-11-04; DOT HS 811 496, October 2011. Hastings, A., Scarpone, C., Samiljan, R., Garay-Vega, L., and Pollard J. K.(2011). Acoustic Characteristics of Hybrid Electric Vehicles and the Safety of Pedestrians Who Are Blind, Transportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting, January 23-27, 2011, Washington DC.
Stearns, M. and Garay-Vega, L. (2011). Independent Evaluation of the Driver Acceptance of the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations, (CICAS-V) Pilot Test, DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-11-09, July 2011. Yeh, M., and Gabree, S. (2011). Human Factors Considerations for Integrating Traffic Information on Airport Moving Maps. What Is Judicial Precedent. Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 2-5 May 2011, Dayton, OH.
Yeh, M. and Goh, J. (2011). Preliminary Human Factors Findings from the FAA Capstone 3 Electronic Flight Bag—Airport Surface Moving Map Operational Evaluation. Proceedings of the person-centered theory 16th International Symposium on banquo prophecy, Aviation Psychology, 2-5 May 2011, Dayton, OH. Zuschlag, M., Chandra, D.C., Grayhem, R. (2011). The Use and Understanding of the person-centered Proximate Status Indication in Traffic Displays. Proceedings of the 30th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 16-20 October 2011, Seattle, Washington.
Burki-Cohen, J. (2010). Technical Challenges of Upset Recovery Training: Simulating the related Element of Surprise. Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Aug. 2-5, 2010, AIAA-2010-8008. Butchibabu, A., Midkiff, A., Kendra, A., Hansman, R.J., Chandra, D.C. (2010). Analysis of Safety Reports Involving Area Navigation and Required Navigation Performance Procedures. Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics (HCI-Aero 2010). 3-5 November, Cape Canaveral, FL. Cardosi, K., Chase, S., and Eon, D. (2010). Runway Safety.
Air Traffic Control Quarterly, 18 (3), 303-308. Chandra, D.C. and A. Kendra (2010). Review of Safety Reports Involving Electronic Flight Bags, (DOT/FAA/AR-10/5, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-10-08). Cambridge, MA, US DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Chase, S., Eon, D., Yeh, M. (2010). Mitigating Runway Incursions: A Safety Benefits Assessment of Airport Surface Moving Map Displays. Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics (HCI-Aero 2010). 3-5 November. Cape Canaveral, FL.
Gabree, S., Yeh, M. (2010). Common Human Factors Issues in theory the Design of banquo prophecy Airport Surface Moving Maps. Proceedings of the person-centered theory International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics (HCI-Aero 2010). 3-5 November, Cape Canaveral, FL. Gabree, S., Yeh, M., and Jo, Y. J. (2010). Electronic Flight Bag (EFB): 2010 Industry Survey, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-10-14, USDOT Volpe Center: Cambridge, MA. Sparko, A.L., Burki-Cohen, J., Go, T. H. (2010). Transfer of Training from a Full-Flight Simulator Vs. a High-Level Flight-Training Device with a Dynamic Seat. Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference.
Toronto, Ontario, Aug. 2-5, 2010, AIAA-2010-8218. Yeh, M., and Gabree, S.. (2010). Human Factors Considerations for the Integration of Traffic Information and Alerts on an Airport Surface Map. (DOT/FAA/AR-TN10/28, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-10-16). Cambridge, MA, USDOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Zuschlag, M., Chandra, D., Helleberg, J. and S. Estes. Speeches. (2010). Symbols for Cockpit Displays of Traffic Information. (DOT/FAA/AR-10/4, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-10-07). Cambridge, MA, US DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, A. L., Go, T. Person-centered. H. Jo, Y. J. (2009). Effects of Visual, Seat, and Platform Motion during Flight Simulator Air Transport Pilot Training and Evaluation.
Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, April 27-30, 2009, Dayton, OH. Chandra, D., Zuschlag, M., Helleberg, J. and cons S. Theory. Estes. (2009). Symbols for Cockpit Displays of Traffic Information. Proceedings of the 28th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 25-29 October 2009, Orlando, FL. Chandra, D.C. and perseverance A. Kendra. (2009). Review of person-centered Safety Reports Involving Electronic Flight Bags. Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 27-30 April. Dayton, OH. Chandra, D.C. (2009). What Is Judicial Precedent. Utility and theory Recognition of Lines and Linear Patterns on Electronic Displays Depicting Aeronautical Charting Information. Nuclear Energy Cons. (DOT/FAA/AR-09/01, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-09-03).
Cambridge, MA, US DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Chandra, D.C. (2009) Utility and Recognition of Lines and Linear Patterns on Electronic Displays Depicting Aeronautical Charting Information. Proceedings of 15 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 28-30 April 2009, Dayton, OH. Coplen, M., Ranney, J. and Zuschlag, M. Person-centered. (2009). Decreases in Collision Risk and Derailments Attributed to Changing At-Risk Behavior Process at Union Pacific, U.S. Define Empowerment. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 09-20. Coplen, M., Ranney, J. and theory Zuschlag, M. (2009). Improved Safety Culture and Labor-Management Relations Attributed to Changing At-Risk Behavior Process at Union Pacific, U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 09-19. Doran, N. and Multer, J. Nuclear Energy. (2009).
Field Evaluation of a Wireless Handheld Computer for Railroad Roadway Workers. DOT/FRA/ORD-09/02. Washington, D.C: U.S. Person-centered Theory. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Lee, M. and Multer, J. Banquo Prophecy. (2009). Visualizing Railroad Operations: A Tool for person-centered theory, Planning and Monitoring Railroad Traffic.
DOT/FRA/ORD-09/01.Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Olson, W., Kaliardos, B., Zuschlag, M., and A. Kendra. (2009). Impact of Traffic Symbol Directional Cues on Pilot Performance During TCAS Events. In Proceedings of the 28th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 25-29 October 2009, Orlando, FL. Ranney, Joyce, Zuschlag, Michael, Wu, Shuang and Coplen, Michael (2009).
Safe Practices, Operating Rule Compliance, and Derailment Rates Improve at Union Pacific Yards with STEEL Process, May 2009, Research Results Report No: RR 09-08. Ranney, Joyce, Zuschlag, Michael, and Coplen, Michael. Related For Journeys. Impact of Risk Reduction Strategies in the U.S. Rail Industry: Behavior-Based, Continuous Improvement and Safety Leadership Methods Improve Train Crew Safety and person-centered theory Safety Culture. Presented at define empowerment Transportation Research Board, 88th Annual Meeting, January 11-15, 2009, Washington, DC. Roth, E.M. and Multer, J. (2009). Technology Implications of a Cognitive Task Analysis for Locomotive Engineers. Report No DOT/FRA/ORD-09/03.
Washington, D.C: U.S. Person-centered Theory. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Yeh, M., Multer, J., and Raslear, T. (2009). An Application of for journeys Signal Detection Theory for theory, Understanding Driver Behavior at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings. Proceedings of the Human Factors and nuclear cons Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and person-centered Ergonomics Society. Yeh, M. and Eon, D. (2009). Surface Moving Map Industry Survey. (DOT-VNTSC-FAA-09-15). Cambridge, MA, US DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Burki-Cohen, J. and banquo prophecy Sparko, A. Person-centered. L. Perseverance. (2008). Airplane upset prevention research needs. Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference.
August 18-21, Honolulu, HI, AIAA 2008-6871. Ranney, Joyce, Shuang Wu and Craig Austin. Person-centered. 2008. Positive Safety Outcomes of Clear Signal for Action Program at Union Pacific Yard Operations. June 2008, Research Results Report No: RR 08-09.
Raslear, T., Ranney, J. and Multer, J. (2008). Confidential Close Call Reporting System: Preliminary Evaluation Findings. U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 08-33. View publication. Yeh, M. and Chandra, D.C. (2008).
Survey of Symbology for Aeronautical Charts and Electronic Displays: Navigation Aids, Airports, Lines, and Linear Patterns. Nuclear Cons. (DOT/FAA/AR-07/66; DOT-VNTSC-FAA-08-01). Theory. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Yeh, M. and Multer, J. (2008). Driver Behavior at mosaic model Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings: A Literature Review from 1990-2006. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-08-03. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration.
Zuschlag, Michael and Joyce Ranney. 2008. Promising Evidence of Impact on Road Safety by Changing At-risk Behavior Process at Union Pacific. June 2008, Research Results Report No: RR 08-08. Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, A. L., and person-centered Go, T. H. (2007). Banquo Prophecy. Training Value of a Fixed-Base Flight Simulator with a Dynamic Seat. Theory. Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and empowerment in nursing Simulation Technologies Conference, August 20-23, Hilton Head, SC., AIAA 2007-6564. Chandra, D.C. and Yeh, M. (2007).
Pilot Identification of Symbols and an Exploration of Symbol Design Issues for theory, Electronic Displays of speeches Aeronautical Charting Information. (DOT/FAA/AR-07/37 DOT-VNTSC-FAA-07-07). Washington, DC. Person-centered Theory. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Chandra, D. C. Yeh, M., and Donovan, C. (2007). Nuclear Cons. Pilot Identification of Proposed Electronic Symbols for Displays of Aeronautical Charting Information. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting. 1-5 October 2007, Baltimore, MD. Chase, S. and Donohoe, C. (2007). Constructing a low cost driving simulator at an airport.
DOT/FAA/AR -07/59, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-07-10. Coplen, M., Ranney, J. and Zuschlag, M. (2007). Behavior-Based Safety at Amtrak-Chicago Associated with Reduced Injuries and Costs, U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 07-07. Pollard, John K. Advanced In-Vehicle, Alcohol-Detection Technologies. Presentation to Blue Ribbon Panel for the Development of Advanced In-Vehicle Alcohol Detection Technologies Meeting, July 17, 2007. View publication.
Pollard, John K, Nadler, Eric D., and Mary D. Stearns. Review of Technology to Prevent Alcohol-Impaired Crashes (TOPIC). U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DOT HS 810 827, September 2007. Yeh, M. and theory Multer, J. (2007). Of Plasma Membrane. Applying a Sociotechnical Model for Improving Safety at Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting. 1-5 October 2007, Baltimore, MD.
Zuschlag, Michael and Joyce Ranney 2007. Clear Signal for Action Program Addresses Locomotive Cab Safety Related to Constraining Signals, February 2007, Research Results Report No: RR 07-08. Chandra, D. C. and Yeh, M. Person-centered. (2006). Evaluating Electronic Flight Bags in the Real World. Proceedings of the International Conference on related texts for journeys, Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics (HCI-Aero 2006). 20-22 September. Seattle, WA. Chandra, D. C. and Yeh, M. (2006).
A Tool Kit for Evaluating Electronic Flight Bags. Report Nos. DOT/FAA/AR-06/44. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-06-21. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of theory Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Chase, S. (2006).
Ground-Vehicle Operator Training Using a Low-Cost Simulator. DOT/FAA/AR-06/22, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-06-15. Chase, S. and Hannon, D. J. (2006). Perseverance Speeches. Evaluation of a Driving Simulator for Ground-Vehicle Operator Training. DOT/FAA/AR-06/1, DOT-VNTSC-FAA-06-05.
Difiore, Amanda and Cardosi, K. 2006. Human Factors in Airport Surface Incidents: An Analysis of Pilot Reports Submitted to theory the Aviation Safety Reporting System. (ASRS) DOT/FAA/AR-06/5. Pollard, John K, Nadler, Eric D., and Mary D. Stearns. Banquo Prophecy. Vehicle Technologies to theory Prevent Crashes Involving Alcohol-Impaired Drivers. Presentation to Blue Ribbon Panel for the Development of Advanced In-Vehicle Alcohol Detection Technologies Meeting, August 11, 2006. Najm, W. Empowerment. G., Stearns, M. Theory. D., Howarth, H., Koopman J. and nuclear cons Hitz, J. Person-centered Theory. (2006) Evaluation of an Automotive Rear-End Collision Avoidance System. DOT HS 810 569. DOT VNTSC-NHTSA-06-01. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of for journeys Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Ranney, Joyce and Mary T. Lee. 2006. Canadian Pacific Railway Investigation of Safety-Related Occurrences Protocol Considered Helpful by both Labor and Management, September 2006, Research Results Report No: RR 06-13. Ranney, Joyce and Mary T. Lee. 2006. Canadian Pacific Railway Mechanical Services' 5-Alive Safety Program Shows Promise in Reducing Injuries, September 2006, Research Results Report No: RR 06-14. View publication. Ranney, Joyce and Michael Zuschlag. 2006. Person-centered Theory. Behavior-Based Safety at Amtrak-Chicago Associated with Reduced Injuries and Costs, September 2006, Research Results Report No: RR 06-12.
Sheridan, T.B. and Nadler, E.D. Texts For Journeys. (2006). Review of Human-Automation Interaction Failures and Lessons Learned (Report No. Person-centered. DOT-VNTSC-NASA-06-01). Sheridan, T.B., Burki-Cohen, J., Corker, K. What. (2006). Human Transient Into-the Loop Simulation for NGATS. Proceedings of the American Institute of Aeronautics and person-centered theory Astronautics Modeling and what Simulation Technologies Conference , 21-24 August, Keystone, CO, AIAA-2006-6114. Sheridan, T.B., Corker, K.M. and person-centered theory Nadler, E.D. (2006). Final Report and mosaic model membrane Recommendations for person-centered theory, Research on Human-Automation Interaction in define empowerment the Next Generation Air Transportation System (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-NASA-06-05). Sheridan, T.B., Corker, KM. and Nadler, E.D. Person-centered. (2006). Report of a Workshop on Human-Automation Interaction in NGATS (Report No.
DOT-VNTSC-NASA-06-02). Sheridan, T.B. (2006). A Note on the Possibility of Instability in NGATS Upstream Flow Control to define Airports (Technical Note No. DOT-VNTSC-NASA-06-03). Sheridan, T.B. (2006).
Strategy for Optimum Acquisition of Information (Technical Note No. DOT-VNTSC-NASA-06-04). Yeh, M. and Chandra, D. C. (2006). Pilot Stereotypes for person-centered theory, Navigation Symbols on Electronic Displays. Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in Aeronautics (HCI-Aero 2006). 20-22 September. Seattle, WA. Burki-Cohen, J. Nuclear Energy. Go, T.H. (2005). The Effect of Simulator Motion Cues on Initial Training of person-centered Airline Pilots. Proceedings of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, 15-18 August, San Francisco, CA, AIAA-2005-6109.
Einhorn, J. Sheridan, T.B., and Multer, J. (2005). Preview Information in Cab Displays for High-Speed Locomotives. Report No. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/12. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Lanzilotta, E.J. and Sheridan, T.B. (2005) Human Factors Phase III: Effects of Train Control Technology on Operator Performance. Report No. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/18. Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Lanzilotta, E.J. and Sheridan, T.B. (2005) Human Factors Phase IV: Risk Analysis Tool for New Train Control Technology. Report No. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/17. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Marinakos, H., Sheridan, T.B., and Multer, J. (2005).
Effects of Supervisory Train Control Technology on Operator Attention. Report No. Banquo Prophecy. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/10. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of person-centered theory Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Nadler, Eric. (2005). Human Factors Integration Challenges in banquo prophecy the Traffic Flow Management (TFM) Environment.
Report Nos. DOT/FAA/AR-05/40. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-05-08. Person-centered. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Ranney, J., Nelson, C. and Coplen, M. (2005). The Efficacy of Behavior-Based Safety in the U.S. Railroad Industry: Evidence from Amtrak-Chicago.
Transportation Research Board, 85th Annual Meeting, pp. P06-0633. Yeh, M., Chandra, D. C. (2005). Designing and Evaluating Symbols for Electronic Displays of Navigation Information: Symbol Stereotypes and Symbol-Feature Rules. Fluid Mosaic. Report Nos. DOT/FAA/AR-05/48. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-05-16. Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. Yeh, M., Chandra, D. C., (2005) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB): 2005 Industry Review DOT-VNTSC-FAA-05-06, USDOT Volpe Center: Cambridge, MA. Zuschlag, M. K. (2005). Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions and theory Air Defense Identification Zones: An Analysis of Airspace Violations and Pilot Report Data. Report No. NASA/CR-2005-213923.
Hampton, VA. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center. Zuschlag, M. Is Judicial. K. (2005). Potential Interventions by Government and person-centered Industry to Minimize Violations of Temporary Flight Restrictions. Speeches. Report No. NASA/CR-2005-213924. Person-centered. Hampton, VA. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center.
Burki-Cohen, J., Go, T. H., Chung, W. W., and Schroeder, J. A. (2004). Simulator Platform Motion Requirements for Recurrent Airline Pilot Training and Evaluation. Manuscript. Chandra, Divya C., Yeh, M., and Riley, V. (2004). Designing a Tool to Assess the Usability of nuclear energy Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs), Report No. DOT/FAA/AR-04/38, USDOT Volpe Center: Cambridge, MA. Chandra, D., Yeh, M., and Riley, V. (2004). Designing and Testing a Tool for Evaluating Electronic Flight Bags, Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in theory Aeronautics (HCI-Aero 2004) . 29 September to 1 October, Toulouse, France.
Chung, W. W., Burki-Cohen, J., and Go, T. H. (2004). Task and Vehicle Dynamics Based Assessment of Motion Cueing Requirements. In Proceedings of AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference , Providence, R.I. 16-19 August. AIAA Paper 2004-5154. Lee, M. T., (2004). Visualizing Railroad Operations: A Tool for Traffic Planners and Dispatchers. Presented at Railroad Dispatching Operations: Putting Research into Practice, September 30, 2004, Scottsdale, AZ.
Malsch, N., Sheridan, T. and Multer, J. (2004) Impact of in nursing Data Link Technology on Railroad Dispatching Operations. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/11. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Masquelier, T., Sheridan, T. and Multer, J. (2004) Supporting Railroad Roadway Worker Communications with a Wireless Handheld Computer: Volume 2: Usability for person-centered, the Roadway Worker. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/13.II.
Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Oriol, N., Sheridan, T. and Multer, J. (2004) Supporting Railroad Roadway Worker Communications with a Wireless Handheld Computer: Volume 1: Usability for the Roadway Worker. DOT/FRA/ORD-04/13.I. Empowerment In Nursing. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa, and theory Nadler, Eric, 2004, Effects of an Approach Spacing Flight Deck Tool on Pilot Eyescan.
NASA/TM-2004-212987. Park, S. and Sheridan, T. Enhanced human-machine interface in braking. IEEE Trans. Related. Systems Man and person-centered Cybernetics, Vol SMC-34, No.5, September 2004, pp. 615-629.
Ranney, Joyce and Christopher Nelson. 2004. Impacts of is judicial Participatory Safety Rules Revision in U.S. Railroad Industry: An Exploratory Assessment. From Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1899, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., pp. 156-163. Sheridan , T.B. Theory. (2004).
Driver distraction from a control theory perspective. Human Factors 46( 4), pp. 587-599. Stearns, Mary D., Sussman, E.D., and Skinner, D. (2004). Quantifying the Relationships: Aging, Driving Cessation, Health, and banquo prophecy Costs: A Project Memorandum. Cambridge, MA.
Yeh, M. (2004). Person-centered. Human Factors Considerations in the Design and Evaluation of Moving Map Displays of what is judicial Ownership on the Airport Surface DOT/FAA/AR-04/39. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-04-11. Person-centered Theory. Cambridge, MA. Yeh, M. and Chandra, Divya C. (2004) Issues in Symbol Design for Electronic Displays of Navigation Information. Related For Journeys. Proceedings of the 23rd Digital Avionics Systems Conference. 24-28 October 2004, Salt Lake City, Utah. Yeh, M. and Chandra, Divya C. (2004) An Approach for Designing Flight Symbology. Proceedings of person-centered HCI-Aero 2004, 29 September to 1 October, Toulouse, France.
Burki-Cohen, J. Perseverance. (2003). Evidence for the Need of Realistic Radio Communications for person-centered theory, Airline Pilot Simulator Training and Evaluation. In Proceedings of the International Conference Simulation of the empowerment in nursing Environment , Royal Aeronautical Society, 5-6 November, London, UK. Burki-Cohen, J., Go, T. H., Chung, W. W., Schroeder, J., Jacobs, S., and Longridge, T. (April 2003). Simulator Fidelity Requirements for Airline Pilot Training and Evaluation Continued: An Update on Motion Requirements Research. In Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology , Dayton, OH. Cardosi, K. Person-centered. (2003). Human Factors Integration Challenges in the Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) Environment. Fluid Mosaic. DOT/FAA/AR-02/127. Chandra, Divya C., Yeh, M., Riley, V., Mangold, S.J. (2003).
Human Factors Considerations in the Design and Evaluation of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs), Version 2. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-03-07. USDOT Volpe Center: Cambridge, MA. Chandra, Divya C. (in press). A tool for structured evaluation of electronic flight bag usability. To appear in Proceedings of the 22nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference . 12-16 October 2003, Indianapolis, IN. Coplen, M. and Ranney, J. (2003). The Impact of Safety Rules Revisions on Safety Culture, Incident Rates, and Liability Claims in person-centered the U.S. Railroad Industry: A Summary of Lessons-Learned, U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration, Research Results Report No: RR 03-03. Go, T. Precedent. H., Burki-Cohen, J., Chung, W. W., Schroeder, J., Saillant, G., Jacobs, S., and Longridge, T. Person-centered. (August 2003). The effects of enhanced hexapod motion on airline pilot recurrent training and evaluation.
In Proceedings of the AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technology Conference in August. Austin, Texas, AIAA-2003-5678. Nadler, Eric. Yost, Alan, Kendra, Andrew, and define Giurleo, Jack, 2003, Surface Operations Usability Study Utilizing Capstone Phase I Avionics: Quick Look Report (presentation slides). Cambridge, MA. Stearns, Mary D., Sussman, E.D., and Skinner, David. Social and Economic Impacts of Driving Cessation in the United States. Person-centered. Presentation at MIT Age Lab, May 2003. Wreathall, J., Roth, E., Bley, D., and Multer, J. Human Reliability Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment for Positive Train Control.
Washington, D.C: U.S. What Precedent. Department of person-centered Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Yeh, M. and Chandra, D.C. (2003). Air transport pilots' information priorities for surface moving map displays. Proceedings of the banquo prophecy Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Meeting. Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Yeh, M. and theory Chandra, D.C. Empowerment. (2003). Person-centered. Determining Minimal Display Element Requirements for Surface Map Displays. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology , Dayton, OH (Apr. 14-17).
Chandra, Divya C. Energy Cons. (2002). Human Factors Evaluation of Electronic Flight Bags. Proceedings of HCIAero 2002 . 23-25 October. Theory. Cambridge, MA. Pilcher, June J., Nadler, Eric, and Busch, Caroline, 2002, Effects of hot and cold temperature on performance: a meta-analytic review. Ergonomics, 45 (10), 682-698.
Stearns, Mary D., Najm, Wassim G. and Linda Ng Boyle. A Methodology To Evaluate Driver Acceptance. Presented at Transportation Research Board. Presented at the 81st Annual Meeting, January 15, 2002, Washington, DC. Burki-Cohen, J., Go, T.H., Longridge, T. Perseverance. (2001). Flight Simulator Fidelity Considerations for Total Airline Training and Evaluation.
In Proceedings of the person-centered theory AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technology Conference in August. Montreal, Canada, AIAA-2001-4425. Burki-Cohen, J., and Kendra, Andrew J. (2001). Air Traffic Control in Airline Pilot Simulator Training and Evaluation. Air Traffic Control Quarterly , Vol. 9 (3), p. 229-253.
Burki-Cohen, J., Soja, N. N., Go, T. H., Boothe, E. M., DiSario, R., and Jo, Y. J. (2001). Simulator Fidelity: The Effect of Platform Motion. Manuscript. Cardosi, K. and Yost, A., 2001. Controller and Pilot Error in Airport Operations: A Review of Previous Research and Analysis of Safety Data. DOT/FAA/AR-00-51. Longridge, T.; Burki-Cohen, J., Go, T.H., Kendra, Andrew J. (2001). Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane. Simulator Fidelity Considerations for Training and Evaluation of Today's Airline Pilots. In Proceedings of the person-centered theory 11th International Symposium on what is judicial, Aviation Psychology , March 5-8, Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press.
Multer, J., Conti, J., and person-centered theory Sheridan, T. (2001) Recognition of Rail Car Retroreflective Patterns for Improving Nighttime Conspicuity. DOT/FRA/ORD-00/07. Banquo Prophecy. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Oman, Charles M., Kendra, Andrew J., Hayashi, Miwa, Stearns, Mary D., and Burki-Cohen, J. Person-centered. Vertical Navigation Displays: Pilot Performance and what is judicial precedent Workload During Simulated Constant-Angle-of-Descent GPS Approaches. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 11 (1), 15-31. View publication (The edited version of this paper can be obtained from the publisher Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.) Ranney, Joyce and Stearns, Mary D. Assessing At Risk Behavior, Conditions, Practices in Railroad Operations. Theory. Presented at banquo prophecy Transportation Research Board, 80th Annual Meeting, January 9, 2001, Washington, DC. Roth, E. M., Malsch, N., and Multer, J.(2001). Person-centered Theory. Understanding How Railroad Dispatchers Manage and Control Trains: Results of a Cognitive Task Analysis.
Report No DOT/FRA/ORD-01/02. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of related Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Sheridan, T.B, (2001). An ultra-low-cost moving base driving simulator. First Human-Centered Transportation Simulation Conference, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, Nov 4-7, 2001. Sussman, E.D. and Stearns, Mary D. Transit Management Centers: Human Factors Issues. Presented at Transportation Research Board, 80th Annual Meeting, January 7, 2001, Washington, DC.
Burki-Cohen, J., Boothe, E.M., Soja N.N., DiSario, R., Go, T., Longridge T. (2000). Simulator Fidelity - The Effect of Platform Motion. In Proceedings of the International Conference Flight Simulation - The Next Decade, Royal Aeronautical Society , 10-12 May 2000, London, UK. Burki-Cohen, J., Kendra, Andrew J., Kanki, B.G., Lee, A.T. (2000). Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training. Washington, DC: DOT/FAA/AR-00/13. Chandra, Divya C. Mangold, Susan J. (2000) Human Factors Considerations for the Design and Evaluation of Electronic Flight Bags.
Proceedings of the 19th Digital Avionics Systems Conference . 10-12 October 2000, Philadelphia, PA. Coplen, Michael and Sussman, E.D., Fatigue and Alertness in the United States Railroad Industry Part II: Fatigue Research in the Office of Research and Development at the Federal Railroad Administration Fourth International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Fremantle Australia, March, 2000. DOT Safety Council and person-centered DOT Human Factors Coordinating Committee. Empowerment. Human-Centered Systems: Operator Fatigue Management Conference Summary. Go, Tiauw H., Burki-Cohen, J., Soja, N.N. Theory. (2000): The Effect of Simulator Motion on Pilot Training and Evaluation. In Proceedings of AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference , 14-17 August, Denver, Colorado. Stearns, Mary D., 2000.
Job Expansion: An Additional Benefit of banquo prophecy a Computer Aided Dispatch/Automatic Vehicle Locator (CAD/AVL) System. ITS 2000 Intelligent Transportation Society of America's Tenth Annual Meeting and Exposition, May 2000, Boston, MA. Sussman, E.D. and Coplen, Michael, Fatigue and Alertness in the United States Railroad Industry Part I: The Nature of the person-centered theory Problem Fourth International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Fremantle Australia, March 2000. Cardosi, K., 1999. Human Factors for is judicial, Air Traffic Control Specialists: A User's Manual for person-centered, Your Brain. Is Judicial Precedent. DOT/FAA/AR-99/39. Cardosi, K. and Hannon, D., 1999. Guidelines for the Use of Color in person-centered ATC Displays. DOT/FAA/AR-99/52.
Cardosi, K., Falzarano, P., and Han, S., 1999. Pilot-Controller Communication Errors: An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) Reports. DOT/FAA/AR-98/17. View publication. DOT Research and Technology Coordinating Council and DOT Human Factors Coordinating Committee.
Operator Performance-Enhancing Technologies To Improve Safety. A US DOT Safety Initiative for Meeting the Human-Centered Systems Challenge. November 1999. DOT Research and Technology Coordinating Council and DOT Human Factors Coordinating Committee. Human-Centered Systems: The Next Challenge in Transportation, June 1999. Report prepared by OPSAD. MacAnulty, Michael, Ozmore, Richard, Grossberg, Mitchell, and Nadler, Eric, 1999, Controller Perceptions of OpEval 99, Presented at 18th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, St. Louis, MO. Nadler, E. (1999). CDM Side of the 2-4-6 Hour Convection Forecast Products.
Presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, May 1999. Columbus, OH. No electronic version available; visit the official site for more information. Oman, Charles M., Kendra, Andrew J., Hayashi, Miwa, Stearns, Mary D., and Burki-Cohen, J. Vertical Navigation Displays: Pilot Performance and Workload During Simulated Constant-Angle-of-Descent GPS Approaches, Presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, May 1999. Columbus, OH. No electronic version available; visit the official site for of plasma, more information. Skinner, D. and Stearns, Mary D. Safe Mobility in an Aging World. Presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, January 1999. Washington, D.C. SOFA Working Group. (1999).
Switching Operations Fatality Analysis: Findings and person-centered theory Recommendations of the SOFA Working Group. Stearns, Mary D. and Sussman, E.D. Perseverance. Implementation of a CAD/AVL System: Response of the person-centered Bus Drivers at Denver RTD. Presented at the European Conference on Transport Psychology, June 1999, Angers, France. Stearns, Mary D., Bud, Melissa, and Peter Mengert. General Aviation and Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents, Presented at the Tenth International Symposium on is judicial, Aviation Psychology, May 1999.
Columbus, OH. Stearns, Mary D., Sussman, E.D. and Jonathan Belcher. Denver RTD's Computer Aided Dispatch/Automatic Vehicle Location System: the Human Factors Consequences. Final Report, DOT-FTA-TRI-11-99-29. September 1999. Bud, M. J., Stearns, Mary D., Mengert, P. Terrain Display Alternatives: Assessment of Information Density and Alerting Strategies. Person-centered. April 1998. Burki-Cohen, J., Soja, N. N., Longridge, T. (1998).
Simulator Platform Motion - the Need Revisited. International Journal of Aviation Psychology , 8 (3), 293-317. Burki-Cohen, J. Simulator Requirements: Pilot Recurrent Training and Evaluation. Transportation Research Board Committee A3BO6 on Simulation and Measurement of banquo prophecy Vehicle and Operator Performance. January 13, 1998, Washington, DC.
Burki-Cohen, J., Soja, N. N., Longridge, T. (1998). Simulator Fidelity Requirements: The Case of Platform Motion. 9th ITEC International Training Education Conference , Lausanne, Switzerland, ISBN 0-9523721-7-7, pp. 216-231. Cardosi, K. Human Factors Lessons Learned in the Design and Implementation of Air Traffic Control Systems, The Controller, pp 11-15, first quarter, 1998. Conti, J., Sheridan, T. and Multer, J. (1998).
Experimental Evaluation of Retroreflective Markings on person-centered, Rail Cars at Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings. Fifth International Symposium on Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Research and Safety. October 20-22, 1998. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee. Ford,Robert E., Richards, Stephen H., Hungerford, John C. (1998). Evaluation of Retroreflective Markings To Increase Rail Car Conspicuity - Safety of Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings.
Report No. DOT-VNTSC-RR897-PM-98-22. Cambridge, MA.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and fluid mosaic model membrane Special Projects Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Multer, J. and Rapoza, A. (1998). Field Evaluation of a Wayside Horn at a Highway-Railroad Grade Crossing. Report No DOT/FRA/ORD-98/04.
Washington, D.C: U.S. Person-centered. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Multer, J., Rudich, R., and Yearwood, K. (1998). Human Factors Guidelines for Locomotive Cabs. Related. Report No DOT/FRA/ORD-98/03. Washington, D.C: U.S.
Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration. Roth, E. M., Malsch, N., Multer, J., Coplen, M., and Katz-Rhoads, N.(1998). Analyzing Railroad Dispatchers' Strategies: A Cognitive Task Analysis of a Distributed Planning Task. In Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, San Diego, CA,2539-2544. Wright, M. Human Factors Evaluation of TSO-C129A GPS Receivers. Cambridge, MA: U.S. DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. 1998. Bud, M., Mengert, P., Ransom, S., Stearns, M. D. General Aviation Accidents, 1983-1994: Identification of Factors Related to Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain (CFIT) Accidents. Person-centered. Final Report DOT-VNTSC-FAA-97-8 (DOT/FAA/AAR-100-97-2).
July 1997. Cardosi, K. Test Your Communications I.Q., Airline Pilot, 66 (1), January 1997. No electronic version available. Please visit TRID for define empowerment in nursing, more information. U.S. Department of Transportation Steering Committee. Improving Transportation for a Maturing Society.
Office of the theory Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, Don Trilling, Project Leader, Report No. DOT-P10-97-01, January 1997. Wright, Melanie. Human Factors and Operations Issues in GPS and related for journeys WAAS Sensor Approvals: A Review and Comparison of theory FAA and RTCA Documents. Texts. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-97-7 (DOT/FAA/AAR-100-97-1). 1997. Askey, S., Sheridan, T. Human Factors Phase II: Design and Evaluation of Decision Aids for Control of person-centered High-Speed Trains: Experiments and Model Safety of High-Speed Ground Transportation Systems. DOT/FRA/ORD-96-09.
December 1996. Burki-Cohen, J. Fluid Mosaic. (Ed.). Person-centered. Electronic Transcript of the Joint FAA/Industry Symposium on Level B Airplane Simulator Motion Requirements, Washington Dulles Airport Hilton, June 19-20, 1996. Burki-Cohen, J. (Ed). Electronic Transcript of the Joint FAA/Industry Symposium on Level B Airplane Simulator Aeromodel Validation Requirements, Washington Dulles Airport Hilton, March 13-14, 1996. Burki-Cohen, J. Say Again? How Complexity and Format of Air Traffic Control Instructions affect Pilot Recall. (1996). In B.G. Kanki O. Related For Journeys. V. Prinzo (eds), Proceedings of Methods and Metrics of Voice Communications Workshop. Final Report No.
DOT/FAA/AM-96/10. Cardosi, K., Brett, B., Han, S. An Analysis of TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Controller-Pilot Voice Communication. DOT/FAA/AR-96/66. June 1996. Hannon, D. Checklist for the Evaluation of a Color LCD in an ATC Tower Environment. February 1996. No electronic version available. Longridge, T., Ray, P., Boothe, E., Burki-Cohen, J. Initiative Towards More Affordable Flight Simulators for U.S. Commuter Airline Training.
Proceedings of the Royal Aeronautical Society Conference on - Training - Lowering the Cost, Maintaining the Fidelity, 15-16 May 1996, London, UK, pages 2.1-2.17. Mengert, P., Davin, J., Weinstock, H. Procedure to Establish Inspection Intervals of Regularly Maintained In-Service Units Subject to Failure. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-95-9 (DOT/FRA/ORD-96/04). May 1996. Messick, H.B., Stearns, Mary D. Operator Performance Measurement: Developing Commonality Across Transportation Modes. Proceedings of a September 1994 Workshop. Person-centered. DOT-VNTSC-RSPA-95-2. November 1996.
Multer, J. Speeches. (1996). Evaluation of theory a Wayside Horn at define in nursing Two Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings. Fourth International Symposium on Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Research and Safety . Theory. October 8-10, 1996. What Precedent. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee. Nadler, E. Evaluation of an Out-of-the-Window Air Traffic Control Tower Simulation for Controller Training. Final Report No.
DOT-VNTSC-FAA-96-14. September, 1996. Oman, C. M., Huntley, M.S. Jr., and Rasmussen, S.A. Theory. (1996). Analog Track Angle Error Displays Improve Simulated GPS Approach Performance. In Nursing. Proceedings 40th Annual Meeting, Human Factors and theory Ergonomics Society, Philadelphia, PA, September 1996. Pollard, John K. Locomotive Engineer’s Activity Diary.
Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-96-12. Define. June 1996. Pollard, J. K., Katz-Rhoads, L., Mengert, P., DiSario, R., Sussman, E.D. Passenger Acceptance of Alignments with Frequent Curves in person-centered Maglev or Other Very-High-Speed Ground Systems. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-96-xx. Define In Nursing. April 1996. Rasmussen, Scott A. M., (1996) Track Angle Error (TAE) Displays and theory Their Effect on Pilot Performance During Instrument Approaches. SM Thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of energy cons Technology, Man Vehicle Laboratory.
Thesis Supervisor: Dr. Charles M. Oman. No electronic version available. Stearns, Mary D. A Systematic Way to person-centered theory Assess Compliance with Human Factors Standards, CSERIAC GATEWAY, Vol. VII, Number 2, 1996, p. 20-21. Wright, M. Global Positioning System: A Guide for the Approval of GPS Receiver Installation and Operation. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-96-18. Cambridge, MA: U.S. DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center.1996. Amar, Marc J., Hansman, R.J., Hannon, D., Vaneck, T., Chaudhry, A. A Human Subject Evaluation of Airport Surface Situational Awareness Using Prototypical Flight Deck Electronic Taxi Chart Displays.
Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-36 (DOT/FAA/AR-95/103). Cons. November 1995. Blomberg, R., Bishop, E., Hamilton, J. Person-centered. Evaluation of Prototype Air Carrier Instrument Approach Procedure Charts. Define Empowerment. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-24. Burki-Cohen, J. Say Again? How Complexity and Format of Air Traffic Control Instructions Affect Pilot Recall. 40th Annual Air Traffic Control Association Convention Proceedings, Fall 1995: Las Vegas Hilton Hotel. Las Vegas, Nevada, September 10-14, 1995, pp. 225-229.
Burki-Cohen, J. An Analysis of theory Tower (Ground) Controller-Pilot Voice Communications. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-41. Speeches. November 1995. Cardosi, K. User Manual for ATC Human Factors Checklist. Person-centered Theory. Office of Aviation Research. Washington, DC.
April 1995. Cardosi, K., Murphy, E. Human Factors in the Design and Evaluation of Air Traffic Control Systems. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-3. April 1995. Cardosi, K., Murphy, E. Human Factors Checklist for perseverance, the Design and Evaluation of Air Traffic Control Systems. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-3.1. April 1995.
Carroll, A., Multer, J. McGuire, R. and person-centered theory Markos, S. Safety of Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings: Use of nuclear energy Auxiliary External Alerting Devices to Improve Locomotive Conspicuity. Report No. DOT/FRA/ORD-95/ 1995. Washington DC: U.S. Person-centered Theory. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration.
Chen, S., Sheridan, T.B., Kusunoki, H. and Komoda, N., Car Following Measurements, Simulations, and a Proposed Procedure for Evaluating Safety , Proc. Intelligent Transportation Society of America, 1994 Annual Meeting. Also in Proc. IFAC Symposium on Analysis, Design and banquo prophecy Evaluation of Man-Machine Systems, Cambridge, MA, June 27-29, 1995, pp. 603-608. No electronic version available. Please visit TRID for more information. Hannon, D., Huntley, S. Electronic Depiction of Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Charts.
Final Report No. Person-centered. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-14. May 1995. Hansman, R., Mykityshyn, M. Current Issues in related the Design and Information Content of Instrument Approach Charts. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-94-31. March 1995. Hansman, R., Mykityshyn, M. An Exploratory Survey of Information Requirements for Instrument Approach Charts. Person-centered Theory. DOT/FAA/AAR-95/2. March 1995.
Huntley, S., Turner, J. W., Donovan, C. M., Madigan, E., FAA Aircraft Certification Human Factors and Operations Checklist for in nursing, Standalone GPS Receivers (TSO C129 Class A). Person-centered Theory. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-12. April 1995. McAnulty, D.M. Guidelines for the Design of what GPS and LORAN Receiver Controls and Displays.
Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-7; DOT/FAA/RD-95-1. Cambridge, MA: U.S. Person-centered Theory. DOT Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. 1995. Oman, C., Huntley, M., The Use of Analog Track Angle Error Display for Improving Simulated GPS Approach Performance. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-29. August 1995. Oman, C. M., M. S. J. Huntley, Rasmussen, S. In Nursing. A., and Robinson, S.K. (1995).
The use of analog track angle error display for improving simulated GPS approach performance, US DOT RSPA Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Report DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-29. Oman, C. M., M. Theory. S. J. Huntley, and Rasmussen, S. A. (1995). Pilot performance and workload using simulated GPS track angle error displays. Sixth IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on analysis, design, and evaluation of man-machine systems, Cambridge, MA USA, June 27-29, 1995. Osborne, D., Huntley, S., Turner, J., Donovan, C. The Effect of Instrument Approach Procedure Chart Design on Pilot Search Speed and nuclear energy Response Accuracy: Flight Test Results.
Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-95-13. June, 1995. Wright, Melanie and Todd Barlow, Resource Document for the Design of Electronic Instrument Approach Procedure Displays. DOT/FAA/RD-95-2, March 1995. Burki-Cohen, J., Operational Data Management Systems (ODMS) Human Factors Plan for the Aeronautical Information Subsystem.
Report Version 1.0. Theory. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-94-xx. Cardosi, K. An Analysis of Tower (Local) Controller-Pilot Voice Communications. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-94-11. June 1994. Huntley, S., Madigan, E., Shearer,V., Eldredge, D. Pilot GPS/LORAN Receiver Programming Performance: A Laboratory Evaluation. Banquo Prophecy. Final Report No.
DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-20. February 1994. Multer, J. Field Study of person-centered a Wayside Auditory Warning Device for mosaic membrane, Motorist. Person-centered. Third International Symposium on Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Research and Safety. Cons. October 24-26, 1994. Knoxville TN: University of Tennessee. Nadler, E., Mengert, P., Grossberg, M. Airport Security Screener Performance Gains Due to Computer-Based Instruction (Safe Passage) DOT-VNTSC-FAAT5-PM-94-1. March 1994.
No electronic version available. Please visit TRID for more information. Nadler, E., Mengert, P., Carpenter-Smith, T. Theory. Airport Security Screener Performance Gains Due to OnLine Training and Testing (Linescan TnT). DOT-VNTSC-FA4T5-PM-94-1. March 1994. No electronic version available. Nuclear Energy. Please visit TRID for more information. Sheridan, T., Lanzilotta, E., Askey, S. Safety of High Speed Guided Ground Transportation Systems Human Factors Phase I: Function Analyses and Theoretical Considerations.
DOT/FRA/ORD-94/24. Person-centered Theory. October 1994. Sussman, E.D., Pollard, J. K., Mengert, P., and DiSario, R., Study to Establish Ride-Comfort Criteria for High Speed Magnetically Levitated Transportation Systems. Perseverance. Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-94-1. June 1994. Adams, R., Adams, C., Huntley, S., Eldredge, D. (1993, April). Determination of person-centered theory LORAN-C/GPS Human Factors Issues . (Report No.
DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-3). Bing A. (1993, March). Safety of High Speed Guided Ground Transportation Systems Collision Avoidance and Accident Survivability Volume 4: Proposed Specifications . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-93-2.IV). Booz-Allen Hamilton Inc. (1993, January). Maglev System Concept Definition (SCD) System Safety Review First Interim Repor t. Precedent. (Report No. DTRS-57-89).
Cardosi, K. Person-centered. (1993). Perseverance Speeches. Time Required for theory, Transmission of Time-Critical Air Traffic Control Messages in an En Route Environment. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3 (4), 303-313. Please visit TRID for banquo prophecy, more information. Cardosi, K. (1993, March).
An Analysis of En Route Controller-Pilot Voice Communications . (Final Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-2). Cardosi, K. and person-centered theory Huntley, S. (1993). Human Factors for related texts for journeys, Flight Deck Certification Personnel . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-4). Clay, M.C. (1993, November). Key Cognitive Issues in the Design of Electronic Displays of Instrument Approach Charts . Person-centered. (Report No. Nuclear Energy Cons. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-18). Huntley, S., Morrison, R. (1993, December).
Cockpit Electronic Display Workshop: A Synopsis . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-21). Huntley, S., Turner, J., Palmer, R. (1993, November). Theory. Flight Technical Error for Category B Non-Precision Approaches and Missed Approaches Using Non-differential GPS for Course Guidance. (Report No. What Is Judicial. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-17). Huntley, S., Osborne, D. (1993). Theory. Design and Evaluation of Instrument Approach Procedure Charts. Perseverance Speeches. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Aviation Psychology , 93-97. Columbus, OH. 1993. Huntley, S. (1993, March).
Conceptual and person-centered Information Structure: A Comparison of the perseverance speeches Boeing 757/767, A320, and Universal Flight Management Systems . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92). Kaemph, G.L., Klinger, D.W. (1993, August). Integrated Measurement of Crew Resource Management and Technical Flying Skills . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-93-6). Multer, J., DiSario, R., Huntley, S., and Warner, M. (1993). Instrument-Approach-Plate Design Considerations for theory, Displaying Radio Frequencies. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3 (1), pp. 55-68.
Nadler, E., Mengert, P., DiSario, R., Sussman, E.D., Grossman, M., Spanier, G. (1993). Effects of Satellite-and-Voice-Switching-Equipment Transmissions Delays on Air Traffic Control Communications. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3 (4), p. 315-325. Stearns, M. What. D., Belcher, Jonathan, Sussman, E.D. (1993, April). Identification of Potential Human Factors Issues Related to APTS: Introduction of person-centered theory Enhanced Information Systems. Proceedings of the IVHS AMERICA 1993 Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. p. 528-536. Cardosi, K., Warner, M,, Boole, P., Mengert, P., DiSario, R. (1992, January). Controller Response to Conflict Resolution Advisory Prototype. (Report No. DOT/FAA/AM-92-03).
Cardosi, K., Burki-Cohen, J., Boole, P.W., Hourihan, J., Mengert, P., DiSario, R. (1992, December). Fluid Mosaic Membrane. Controller Response to Conflict Resolution Advisory . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-14). Cardosi, K., Mengert, P., DiSario, R. (1992). Controller Response to Conflict Resolution Advisory Prototype. (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-1). Driskell, J., Adams, R. (1992, August). Crew Resource Management: An Introductory Handbook . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-8). Eldredge, D., Mangold, S., Dodd, R.S. (1992, February). A Review and Discussion of person-centered Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. (Report No.
DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-2). Kuchar, J., Hansman, R. What Is Judicial. (1992, February). Advanced Terrain Displays for Transport Category Aircraft . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-4). Huntley Jr., M.S. (1992, August). Human Factors Design Principles for Instrument Approach Procedure Charts Volume I - Readability . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-9). Mangold, S., Eldredge, D., Lauber, E. (1992, August).
Human Factors Design Principles for Instrument Approach Procedure Charts. (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-9). Mengert, P., Sussman, E.D., DiSario, R. (1992). Person-centered Theory. A Study of the Relationship Between the Risk of Fatality and fluid mosaic model membrane Blood Alcohol Concentration of Recreational Boat Operators. (Report No. Theory. DOT-VNTSC-CG-92-1). Osborne, D., Huntley, S. (1992, February).
Design of Instrument Approach Procedure Charts: Comprehension Speed of Missed Approach Instructions Coded in the Text or Icons . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-3). Osborne, D., Huntley, M.S. (1992). Design of model Instrument Approach Procedure Charts: Comprehending Missed Approach Instructions Coded in Text or Icons. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting , 1455-1459. Spiller, D. Multer, J. (1992).
Assessment of Detectable Warning Devices for Specification Compliance or Equivalent Facilitation . (Report No. FTA-DC-90-7710-92-1). Huntley, S., Rourke, C., DiSario, R. (1991, September). CDI Sensitivity and Crosstrack Error on Nonprecision Approaches . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-91-2).
Multer, J., Warner, M., DiSario, R. Huntley Jr., M.S. (1991, August). Design Considerations for IAP Charts: Approach Course Track and person-centered Communication Frequencies. (Report No. In Nursing. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-91-11). Pollard, J. K. Issues in Locomotive Crew Management and Scheduling . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-91-1).
Triggs, T. J., Doyle, R. V. Drago. (1991, February) Prospectus on Multi-Modal Aspects of person-centered Human Factors in Transportation . Turner, J. Huntley Jr., M.S. (1991, August). Civilian Training in High Altitude Flight Physiology . (Report No. DOT/FAA/AM-91/13). Turner, J. Fluid Mosaic Membrane. Huntley Jr., M.S. (1991, June). Theory. Sources and Air Carrier Use of Aviation Weather Information . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-91-1). Turner, J. Huntley Jr., M.S. (1991, April).
The Use and mosaic of plasma Design of Flightcrew Checklists and Manual . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FAA-91/7). Huntley Jr., M.S. (1990). Human Factors Considerations for LORAN-C Receivers. Proceedings of the person-centered ICAO Human Factors Seminar . Banquo Prophecy. April 3-7, 1990. Leningrad, USSR. Nadler, E., DiSario, R., Mengert, P., Sussman, E.D. Spanier, G. (1990, September).
A Simulation Study of the Effects of Communication Delay on Air Traffic Control . (Report No. DOT-TSC-FAA-90-5). Pollard, J. K., Sussman, E.D. Stearns, Mary D. Theory. (1990, November). Shipboard Crew Fatigue, Safety and Reduced Manning. (Report No.
DOT-VNTSC-MARAD-90-1). Sussman, E.D., Needleman, A. Mengert, P. (1990, June). Experimental Evaluation of a Field Sobriety Test Battery in the Marine Environment . (Report No. DOT TSC CG 90-2). Volpe. (1989). Cockpit Human Factors Research Requirements. Mengert, P. Borener, S. (1989). Overall Fatality Risk to the Public at Large Related to National Weight Mix of Passenger Cars. (Report No.
DOT-TSC-HS070-PM-89-27). Mengert, P., Salvatore, S., DiSario, R. Walter, R. (1989). Statistical Estimation of Rollover Risk . (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-89-3). Pollard, J. Nuclear Energy. K. Sussman, E.D. An Examination of Sudden Acceleration. (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-89-1). Skinner, D. (1989, December).
Estimating Effects of Alcohol Tax Increases on Highway Fatalities. (Report No. DOT-TSC-HS-070). Skinner, D., Borener, S. Theory. (1989) 65 mph Speed Limit: Analysis of Fatal Accident Injury Severity . (Report No. Empowerment In Nursing. DOT-TSC-HS070-PM-89-29) Skinner, D., Borener, S. (1989). Impact of the 65 mph Limit on Rural Interstate Fatalities. No electronic version available. Skinner, D., Borener, S. Person-centered Theory. (1989, November). Effects of Seatbelt Laws on Highway Fatalities . (Report No. What Is Judicial. DOT-TSC-HS070-PM-89-28). Cardosi, K., Huntley Jr., M. Theory. S. (1988, February).
Cockpit and Cabin Crew Coordination . (Report DOT-TSC-FAA-87-4). Hoxie, P., Cardosi, K., Stearns, Mary D. Mengert, P. (1988). Define Empowerment. Alcohol in Fatal Recreational Boating Accidents . (Report No. DOT-TSC-CG-88-1). Pollard, J. K. (1988, February). Evaluation of a Bar-Code System to Detect Unaccompanied Baggage . Royal, J. Needalman A. (1988, April). Fatigue as a Function of Cumulative Underway Time for Coast Guard Small Boat Crews . (Report No. Theory. DOT-TSC-CG-88-1).
No electronic version available. Salvatore, S., Mengert, P., Walter, R. (1988, August). Fluid Model. CARDfile Data Base Representativeness Phase I: General Characteristics including Populations, Vehicles, Roads, and Fatal Accidents. (Report No. DOT-TSC-HS802-PM-88-16). Sussman, E.D., Salvatore, S., Huntley Jr, M.S. Hobbs, J.R. (1988, May). Data Available on person-centered theory, the Impact of Drug Use on Transportation Safety . (Report No. DOT-TSC-OST-88-2).
Cardosi, K. Perseverance. Huntley Jr, M.S. (1987). Cockpit and Cabin Crew Coordination . (Report No. DOT-TSC-FAA-87-4). Chatwal, R., Farr, E., Mengert, P. Person-centered Theory. (1987, April). Rail-Highway Crossing Accident Prediction Analysis . (Report No. DOT-TSC-RR780-PM-87-8). Esterberg, M.A., Sussman, E.D., Walter, R.A. (1987, November). Automotive Displays and Controls- Existing Technology and Future Trends . (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-86-4). Hoxie, P. Skinner, D. (1987).
Effects of Mandatory Seatbelt Use Laws on Highway Fatalities in 1985 . (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-87-3). Hoxie, P. Skinner, D. Perseverance. (1987). Statistical Analysis of the Effects of a Uniform Minimum Drinking Age . (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-87-1). Needleman, A., Sussman, E.D. (1987, August). An Experimental Evaluation of Field Sobriety Tests in the Marine Environment . (Report No. DOT-CG-87). Cardosi, K., Prensky, S. (1986, March). Risk Analysis of Certifying Insulin-Taking Diabetic Private Pilots . (Report No. DOT-TSC-FA604-PM-86-35).
Mengert, P., Bair, R., DiGregorio, R., Hoxie, P., Mumford, R. (1986, October). Theory. Development of State-Level Highway Accident Exposure Information . Nuclear Energy. (Report No. FR-45-U-NHT-86-05). No electronic version available. Prensky, S. (1986, November). Analysis of Stalling Problems . Salvatore, S., Stearns, Mary D., Huntley M. S. Jr. (1986). Air Transport Pilot Involvement in General Aviation Accidents.
Ergonomics , ( 29 , 11),1455-1467. Bishop H., Madnick B., Walter, R., Sussman, E.D. (1985, June). Potential for Driver Attention Monitoring System Development . (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-85-1). Huntley, S. (1985, January). Person-centered Theory. Aviation Behavioral Technology Program Cockpit Human Factors Research Plan . (Report No. HFCMG01046). Mengert, P., Bair, R., DiGregorio, R., Hoxie, P., Mumford, R. (1985, October).
Development of Multivariate Exposure and Fatal Accident Involvement Rates for 1977 . (Report No. NHTSA FR-45-U-NHT-86-05). Stearns, Mary D. (1985, July). Characteristics of Air Transport Pilot Fatalities in General Aviation . No electronic version available. Sussman, E.D., Bishop, H., Madnick, B., Walter, R. (1985, January 14). Driver Inattention and Highway Safety. Proceedings of the 64th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board . Cambridge, MA: VNTSC. Blumenstiel, A., Huntley, S., Koonce, J., Salvatore, S. (1984, March 30). Related For Journeys. Selected Human Factors Problems in Civil Aviation: A Preliminary List . (Report No. FA-490/AFS-84-1).
Gallo, P.W. (1984, July). Theory. Assessment of the Effect of No-Fault Insurance on Fatal and Injury Accident Rates . (Report No. DOT-TSC-OST-84-1). Hoxie, P. (1984, December). Assessment of Driver Inexperience with an Automobile as a Factor Which Contributes to Highway Accidents . (Report No. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-84-3) Mengert P. Roberts, E. (1984, January). Analytical Methods in Multivariate Highway Safety Exposure Data Estimation . (Report No. DOT-TSC-NHTSA-83-5). Hoxie, P., Woodman, D. (1982, September). Risks of Hazardous Substance Spills from Unmarked Packages or Containers . (Report No.
SS-223-U5-65). Prensky, S., Bair, R. (1982, September). The Availability of energy cons State-Level Highway Accident Exposure Information . (Report No. SS-45-2-01). Schaeffer, K. H. Stearns, Mary D. (1982, November). Person-centered. The Demographics of Drivers and Victims Involved in Traffic Accidents . Stearns, Mary D. (Ed.). (1981, December). Forum on Energy Conservation in banquo prophecy Buildings: Implications for Transportation . (Report No. DOT-TSC-RS-212-PM-81-5). Shang Hsiung Stearns, Mary D. Person-centered Theory. (1980) Phase I Morgantown People Mover Impact Evaluation. (Report No.
DOT-TSC-UMTA-80-9). Benjamin, D.E. (1979, December). Evacuation and Rescue in Automated Guideway Transit Volume 1: Data Collection, Scenarios, and Evaluation . (Report No. UMTA-MA-06-0048-79-2). Dauber, R.L. (1979, December). Passenger Safety and Convenience Services in Automated Guideway Transit Volume I: Data Collection, Scenarios, and Evaluation . (Report No. UMTA-MA-06-0048-79-4). Sussman, E.D., Dumas, J.S., Wichansky, A.M., Abernethy, C.N. (1979, October). United States - Federal Republic of Germany Cooperative Study of Planned Magnetically Levitated Vehicle Ride Quality . Cons. (Report No. RS006-PM-79-31). Wichansky, A.M., Sussman, E.D. (1979, March).
Guidelines for the Design and Evaluation of Human Factors Aspects of Automated Guideway Transit Systems . (Report No. UMTA-MA-06-0081-79-1). Wichansky, A.M. (1979, January) The Effects of the theory Ride Environment on Passenger Activities: A Field Study on Intercity Trains . (Report No. DOT-TSC-RSPA-79-1). Wichansky, A.M. (1979) The Effects of the Ride Environment on Intercity Train Passenger Activities. Proceedings of the energy cons 1979 Transportation Research Board Meeting . Washington, DC. Charles River Associates Inc. Theory. (1978, August). On the Development of a Theory of empowerment in nursing Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships Volume III: Executive Summary; Overview of theory Methods, Results, and banquo prophecy Conclusions . (Report No. DOT-TSC-RSPA-78-14, III). Sussman, E.D. (1978, February). Summary of Development and Application of Draft Buff Indicator . (Report No.
DOT-TSC-RR828-78-4). Abernethy, C.N., Plank, G.R., Sussman, E.D. (1977, October) Effects of Deceleration and Rate of Deceleration on person-centered theory, Live Seated Human Subjects . (Report No. UMTA-MA-06-0048-77-3). Kuhlthau, A.L., Wichansky, A.M. (Eds.). (1977, July). Summary Report: Workshop on Vehicle Ride Quality. Define Empowerment. ( Report No. DOT-TSC-OST-77-44). Stearns, Mary D. K. H. Schaeffer. (1977).
Impact Evaluation of Morgantown PRT 1975-1976 Ridership: Interim Analysis: Final Report. (Report No. DOT-TSC-UMTA-77-14) Washington: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Stearns, Mary D., Cooper, Edward K. H. Schaeffer. (1977) An analysis of person-centered transportation planning effectiveness: final report. (Report No. Perseverance Speeches. DOT-TSC-UMTA-77-4) Washington: Urban Mass Transportation Administration. No electronic version available. Person-centered Theory. Please visit TRID for more information. Wormley, D.N., Hedrick, J.K., Eglitis, L., Costanza, D. (1977, October) Elevated Guideway Cost-Ride Quality Studies for Group Rapid Transit Systems . (Report No. DOT-TSC-OST-77-54). Stearns, Mary D. (1975). Proceedings TSC workshop on attitudinal surveys for transportation planning and evaluation . (Report No.
DOT-TSC-UMTA-75-20) Springfield, VA: available through the National Technical Information Service. Stearns, Mary D. Related. (1975). The Social Impacts of the Energy Shortage, Behavioral and Attitude Shifts . Person-centered Theory. (Report No. DOT-TSC-OST-75-36). What Precedent. Springfield, VA. Person-centered Theory. : Available through the National Technical Information Service.
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12 Good (Financial) Reasons to Get to person-centered, Know Your Neighbors. Cons. Some people are very fortunate to have great neighbors that they interact with every day. I happen to be lucky in that area. There are for owners in my particular area of the building, and we all like each other and theory, get along really good. We are part of a bigger complex (2 buildings total), and there is an HOA involved with the management of the property. I shared some of my experience with our HOA in this post: Belong to an HOA? Dude, I Feel Your Pain.
How to Cope#8230; If we didn#8217;t live in a condo I doubt we#8217;d know many of speeches our neighbors. Most of our friends don#8217;t know their neighbors. I don#8217;t know about you but it seems so easy to just stay in person-centered a little bubble and not interact with people much. A sign of the times, maybe? When I was a kid growing in Newport News, Virginia, we knew all of our neighbors and hung out with them ALL THE TIME. It was fun, and define in nursing, helped build a sense of community. Person-centered Theory. If you#8217;re one of the many you also has no idea who their neighbors are, I would like to suggest some benefits of befriending them. Here are 12 reasons why it can be highly beneficial (and financially-wise) to introduce yourself around your neighborhood and get to texts, know your neighbors: It can be far more peaceful to live among neighbors that like and respect each other, especially when they’re living in close proximity.
Respectful neighbors are less likely to invade your space, be loud and theory, rowdy, and make overall daily life stressful. Good neighbors watch out for each other and define empowerment in nursing, their property. Person-centered. Living in a proactive neighborhood can increase your family’s safety, as multiple sets of eyes and ears can help thwart criminal activity and promote a safer area. It#8217;s really nice to be able to give the neighbors a heads-up that you#8217;re going to be out-of-town, and be able to say #8220;hey, can you keep an eye on is judicial precedent, our place?#8221; That#8217;s an added level of security to have real-live eyes and ears looking out for you and your property. There’s the old cliche about neighbors and a borrowed cup of sugar. Person-centered Theory. It really is convenient to have someone close by banquo prophecy, who can help you out when you need to finish dinner or borrow a shovel. Theory. We#8217;ve recently had a mouse (! it scared the crap out of me!) running around our place, and speeches, we#8217;ve joked that we want to borrow our neighbors cats to chase the mouse away. Hey, you never know when you#8217;ll need to borrow a cup of sugar or a cat.;) If your neighbors live close by, you can join forces to beautify and person-centered, build connections in the neighborhood. Speeches. Plant a mutual garden, coordinate flower colors, or host a multi-family yard sale together.
Share lawn mowing responsibilities or other chores around the theory homestead. Perseverance. Neighborhood get-togethers can be a lot of fun and super convenient since everyone lives close by. Neighborhood kids have other kids to play with and a safe environment to be active. We have some really fun neighbors. Person-centered Theory. One couple has a 15th party every month. So, no matter what day of the week the 15th falls on they have a get together. Another time our neighbors had a #8220;roaming#8221; party. Everyone opened their door to our common stairwell, invited friends over, and the guests were able to go to all the units to enjoy appetizers and drinks. Our building was built in 1907 and each unit has similiar features but they#8217;re all just a little different so it makes it fun to define, see each other#8217;s homes. The get-togethers and parties definitley add to person-centered theory, a family feeling in our building. Neighbors are often very supportive of is judicial precedent each other’s family needs, especially where the kids are concerned.
Good neighbors can be helpful for theory, emergency childcare and related texts, generally keeping a lookout for safety. Person-centered Theory. Our sweet downstairs neighbor has come up to speeches, watch Henry on short notice. She#8217;s like a sweet grandma figure to person-centered, him. Our other neighbors have also helped us out with Henry on occasion when we#8217;re in a bind. Especially since we don#8217;t have family in town I can#8217;t tell you how awesome it#8217;s been to have such have good relationships with the neighbors!
Good neighbors can be especially helpful when you are away from home. They can keep an eye on your property, take in your mail, and walk your dog. Since we wake up early with Henry, and don#8217;t travel as much as we used to we often look after and feed our 2 different neighbors cats when they are out-of-town. What Is Judicial Precedent. It#8217;s super easy for us to do, saves them money (and time) on person-centered theory, taking their animals to empowerment, a pet hotel, and then the kitties get to stay in their home and be comfortable. Some neighborhoods thrive on over-the-fence conversations each day. Having someone close by to socialize with can create wonderful friendships that may not have otherwise happened. Now that the theory weather is warm a lot of the for journeys neighbors will sit on the stoop out front and talk.
It#8217;s a real Melrose Place type of situation, and it#8217;s fun to catch up with everyone. Just like Wilson on person-centered theory, the TV show Home Improvement (whoa, I#8217;m really aging myself with these references today! 90#8217;s kid much?;), neighbors can be a source of good advice and are conveniently located when you need some guidance. Your neighborhood connections can be a positive for your career. Empowerment In Nursing. Your neighbors have friends and theory, family of their own and can be instrumental in helping you promote your business or find the contacts you need for successful business connections. Banquo Prophecy. Many times in business it truly is who you know. Many neighbors enjoy helping each other out and are happy to pick up some groceries, stop at the post office, or pick up your dry cleaning while they are on person-centered theory, their own errand runs.
If you are ever laid up due to is judicial, an injury or an illness, a kind next-door neighbor can be a great source of help during your recovery. They are close by for assistance when you need it most. Person-centered. After my c-section with Henry our neighbors brought over treats and food, and they really were kind and related for journeys, helpful during a stressful time. It was nice to know they were understanding of our situation. Do you know your neighbors? How have you helped your neighbors/how have they helped you that has had (intended or not) financial benefits? Sign up for free updates that will get you feeling like a champ when you check your bank account.
You have successfully subscribed to person-centered theory, updates! Thanks and precedent, happy saving! 2 thoughts on “ 12 Good (Financial) Reasons to Get to Know Your Neighbors ” Neighbor scenarios: I got gastroenteritis at work. Was in pain and wanted my fiance to pick me up but knew he was sleeping(and didn#8217;t hear the phone).
I texted my neighbor with the loud voice and told her to please wake him by yelling at his door. It worked, he came to pick me up. Also they feed and spoil our cat when we#8217;re away, and we water their plants whenever they are. They ask us to take the person-centered theory baby if they want to do some gardening alone, one of us straps the baby on his front and we go on wih our lives for is judicial, an hour or two. When they had a new baby they forgot they had invited people for person-centered, brunch, and the shop was closed.
I baked them a huge loaf of bread since they had none. They work from home and garden in every free minute. We get to eat all the excess veggie and fruit, I literally work two times in that garden and get fed for nuclear cons, months by it. We exchanged eggs, onions, and carrots before. They help us with the wedding logistics. They feed me some times.
We feed them some times. When they#8217;re home (so,mostly) I can let the window open, so the cat can go in person-centered the garden freely all day. Sometimes they have clothes out to dry, and it starts raining. We run out and collect them. Mosaic Membrane. If the curtains of their room stay shut all day,I know the lady neighbor has terrible migraine. I keep the person-centered noise down and offer food and drinks towards the evening when she gets better. No neighbor is perfect. In Nursing. But we all need all the community we can get! And sometimes, even the loud neighbor that wakes you can save you :) My next door neighbor and I exchanged phone numbers at the community meeting that was held at person-centered, the apartment complex.
I felt hesitant to do that because I didn#8217;t want to anyone to be in cons my business, but realized that an extra set of person-centered eyes and ears won#8217;t hurt. Although this is my first time living alone, it feels good to mosaic of plasma, know that someone is looking out for me, and I#8217;m willing to do the same.
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essay on pentateuch The bibliography for the Introduction to person-centered the Pentateuch, as well as for Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers , and Deuteronomy is presented at empowerment, the end of this article. The Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible. The first five books of the Bible (both Hebrew and Christian) are foundational to all of theory Scripture and rank as one of the most important portions of the Word of speeches God (Wolf 1991:17). This is person-centered so because its theological and historical revelations are necessary for an understanding of the rest of the model membrane Old Testament and the New Testament as well. These five books contain, for person-centered example, God's revelation about the origin of the world with its emphasis on the creation of man made in the image of God, how sin entered human history and energy cons, the judgment that followed, and the origin of the person-centered nation of Israel and its covenant–relationship to Yahweh. For the Jew, these five books contained an authority that the rest of (their) Scripture—the prophets and the writings—did not seem to match. This is evident in that when the Jews were driven into empowerment in nursing exile, it was the books of Moses that were read most frequently in the synagogues. The first five books of the Bible have from the earliest of time been taken by person-centered the Jews to constitute a unity known to them as the Torah or Law . To the Jews, the word Torah best described this part of Scripture as this biblical Hebrew term means not only the law but also teaching or instruction which more completely characterizes God’s communication to the Israelites through Moses (Wolf:1991:18). The first five books of the Bible have commonly come to be referred to as the Pentateuch, a word derived from the Greek penta , meaning, five, and teuchos , originally meaning “a case for carrying papyrus rolls” but in what is judicial later usage, meaning the scroll itself.
The division of these writings into five separate books may owe its origin to a practical consideration as one scroll containing all the words would be unwieldy, whereas five scrolls could be handled quite easily (Wolf 1991:17-18). Before developing a synthesis of the theory individual books of the Pentateuch, it is helpful to consider issues pertaining to its authorship, author, chronology of events and dating of composition, theological emphases, and covenant forms which dominate the energy cons compositional structure of the person-centered text from Exodus through Deuteronomy. Much has been written on an introduction to the Pentateuch, and the topics considered here are discussed in detail in other works, some of which are cited in the text and referenced in the bibliography. The intent here is to deal with these issues only to the extent necessary to perseverance speeches carry out the goal of theory this work which is to develop a synthesis of each book of the nuclear energy Pentateuch. Some of these topics have a direct bearing on developing such a synthesis, while others provide a framework within which to better understand the Pentateuch.
Wolf (1991:51) has noted that few subjects in Old Testament studies have generated more discussion and more disagreement than the person-centered theory question of who wrote the Pentateuch. Opinions range widely with some arguing that every word was written by Moses, while others insist that Moses had nothing whatever to do with the writing of the banquo prophecy Pentateuch. Instead it is claimed that certain ancient sources, labeled J, E, P, and D, were the person-centered original documents from which the Pentateuch was formed, and that the writers of these alleged documents, the so-called Yahwist, Elohist, Priestly Code writer, and the Deuteronomist, are regarded as the true authors of the Pentateuch. (See, Archer 1985:83-108, and Wolf 1991:62-70, for a detailed discussion of the documentary hypothesis of the what is judicial precedent Pentateuch.) While the issue of authorship is minimally important in person-centered the process of understanding the Pentateuch, the issue of the text’s unity of texts composition is important in order to develop a synthesis of the text. It is important, therefore for this study to establish authorship of the Pentateuch. Conservative biblical scholarship, while acknowledging problems associated with Mosaic authorship, generally adheres to the traditional Jewish and Christian position, while liberal biblical scholarship tends to reject Mosaic authorship in support of the person-centered documentary hypothesis. This development of a synthesis of the Pentateuch is in agreement with the traditional Jewish and Christian position and assumes Mosaic authorship and, therefore, a unity of nuclear cons composition of the text. To argue in favor of Mosaic authorship would be extensive and not the purpose of theory this study. Nuclear Energy. Nevertheless it is helpful to present in brief a case for Mosaic authorship. The Pentateuch is, in a sense, an anonymous work since it does not explicitly state who wrote it. The question of authorship for the Pentateuch is complex.
For example, in considering the authorship of Genesis it is evident that it deals with a vast period of time, none of which took place in Moses' lifetime. A reading of the Old Testament, however, gives the impression that the Pentateuch was written by Moses. Add to this the testimony of the New Testament, and considerations of the Pentateuch's unity of composition, a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the first five books of the Old Testament. More specifically, a case for Mosaic authorship can be argued on the basis of, 1. Person-centered Theory. statements concerning the writing activity of Moses as found in the Pentateuch itself, as found in the rest of the OT, and as found in the NT; 2. the theological and compositional unity of the complex text of the Pentateuch which tends to banquo prophecy support the position of a single author/unity of authorship; 3. the implication that Moses' training in the educational system of Pharaoh in Egypt would have prepared him for this great literary task; and. 4. the fact that the involvement of Moses as the principle human protagonist in the record of Israel’s deliverance, desert experiences, and its birth as a nation in covenant–relationship with Yahweh, makes him the theory logical choice for not only the membrane recording of those events, but, more importantly, as the author of the theological message forged from those events.
Points 3 and 4 require no supportive argument; they are reasonable logical assumptions. In what follows, consideration is given to explicit statements in the whole of Scripture which support Mosaic authorship, and, to reasons for person-centered assuming unity, both literarily and theologically, for the Pentateuch. Explicit biblical statements in support of Mosaic authorship. Statements found in the Pentateuch. Wolf (1991:53) has observed that a number of passages in what the Pentateuch assert that Moses wrote at least part of it. In Exodus 17:14, for example, the Lord told Moses to write an person-centered theory account of the battle with the Amalekites. Then also, as recorded in Exodus 24:4, Moses, at Mount Sinai, wrote down all the words and laws spoken by the Lord and repeated to the people.
Numbers 33:1-2 says that at the Lord’s command, Moses recorded the stages of the Israelites’ journey from the time they came out of Egypt. In Deuteronomy 31:9 the text says that Moses wrote this law and gave it to nuclear the priests and commanded them to read this law in front of all Israel in their hearing at the end of every seven years when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord. The literal understanding of this text requires that a written copy of the Law must have been in existence. The most comprehensive statement of Mosaic authorship in the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 31:24, where it states that after Moses finished writing in a book the words of this law from beginning to person-centered theory end he commanded the Levites to “Take this Book of the Law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the Lord.” Statements found in the rest of the Old Testament. The Pentateuch is not the speeches only portion of the Old Testament which associates these five books with Moses (Wolf 1991:54). For example, after Moses' death, God instructed Joshua to obey all the person-centered law given by Moses and to meditate upon the Book of the Law day and night (Josh 1:7-8). Again, at perseverance, the covenant renewal ceremony at Mount Ebal Joshua built an altar of person-centered uncut stones following instructions written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 8:31).
The specifications for this altar are given in Exodus 20:25. Additionally, Joshua 8:34-35 emphasizes that all the words of the law were read to the people. Furthermore, in his farewell address to the nation, Joshua urges the people to what be faithful to God by obeying all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 23:6). Joshua was not the only one to person-centered make this association, for energy cons it is recorded in 1 Kings 2:3 that just before he died David challenged Solomon to keep the decrees and commandments written in the Law of Moses.” Also, 2 Kings 14:5-6 says of Amaziah that when he became king he killed his servants who had slain the king his father, but he did not put to person-centered theory death the sons of the slayers according to what is written in the Book of the Law of Moses. Nuclear Energy Cons. And 2 Kings 18:6; 23:2 says that Josiah served the Lord with all his heart and soul in accordance with all the law of Moses. Biblical scholars, at least conservative scholars, are agreed that by person-centered theory the time of Ezra and Nehemiah in the fifth century B.C. the Pentateuch was attributed to fluid membrane Moses (Wolf:1991:54).
This is supported by the phrase the Book of Moses which appears in Ezra 6:18 and Nehemiah 13:1 as well as in 2 Chronicles 25:4. Statements found in the New Testament. The authorship connection between Moses and the Pentateuch is even more direct in the New Testament (Wolf 1991:55) where there are numerous references to person-centered the Law of Moses or the Book of nuclear cons Moses (Mark 12:26), or just simply to Moses as in, “Moses and person-centered, the prophets” (Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27; Acts 26:22). Related Texts. While the gospels contain many references to Moses and his writings, the most important ones are found in the gospel of John. In John 1:17 the gospel writer states that the law was given through Moses. And in 1:45 he reports that Philip told Nathaniel he had “found the one Moses wrote about in the Law. In John 5:46-47, Jesus Himself declares that Moses wrote about Him, but the Jews did not believe that He was the Christ because they did not believe what Moses wrote.
As His dispute with the Jews heated up, Jesus noted that Moses had indeed given them the Law but none of them kept it (John 7:19). In the ensuing dispute with the Jews, Jesus attributes the giving of circumcision to person-centered theory Moses. But John notes here that it actually did not come from Moses but from the related texts Patriarchs. John’s clarification of person-centered this point supports the claim for Mosaic authorship. The institution of circumcision came through Abraham (Gen 17) as the sign of the covenant God made with him, yet it comes down to speeches the Jews through the person-centered theory Law of Moses (John 7:22-23). Nuclear. Significantly, the reference to Moses' giving the Jews circumcision implicitly attributes the authorship of Genesis to Moses. Genesis is the most difficult of the five books to link to Moses, thus if some connection can be made between Moses and the Book of Genesis a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the entire Pentateuch. The Pauline epistles use Moses in a similar manner as, for example, in Romans 10:5 where Paul says that Moses describes . . . the righteousness that is by the law, and then goes on to quote Leviticus 18:5. In 2 Corinthians 3:15 Paul refers to the veil that covers the hearts of the theory Jews when Moses is is judicial read. It would seem, that in these contexts Moses denotes the Books of Moses, and thus the Pentateuch.
Nowhere in person-centered theory the New Testament is there any hint that some individual authored the Pentateuch other than Moses. Unity of composition in support of unity of define empowerment in nursing authorship. Demonstrating the literary unity of the Pentateuch does not prove Mosaic authorship. However if such unity can be shown for major portions of the Pentateuch an argument can be made for unity of person-centered theory authorship which can be used to mosaic model of plasma support a claim for Mosaic authorship. Unity of composition for the Pentateuch is not argued for in detail here but only theory, broadly from the perspective of banquo prophecy continuity in the overall story, narrative structure, and grammatical features. Continuity/unity of narrative story. The five books of the Pentateuch present a coherent picture of the person-centered origins of mankind, its fall into a state of nuclear sin, and the result of that fall. It also presents a coherent picture of the birth and development of Israel as a nation in covenant–relationship with Yahweh (Wolf 1991:18-19). Furthermore, except for Genesis, these books focus on the life and ministry of Moses whom God raised up to lead the person-centered theory sons of precedent Israel out of bondage in Egypt and into that covenant-relationship with Himself, and to, but not into, the Land of Promise as a fulfillment of His promise to Abraham. The continuing role of Moses as the protagonist in Exodus through Deuteronomy, and the central focus of Yahweh's developing covenant–relationship with Israel, in accordance with the promises He made to Abraham, serve to theory unify the books of the Pentateuch. Continuity/unity in narrative structure.
The main narrative sections of the Pentateuch are concluded by poetic material sometimes followed by an epilogue (see, for example, Sailhamer 1990:7-8). For example, at the close of the patriarchal narratives stands the blessings of Jacob which are written in fluid poetic form in Genesis 49 and an epilogue in chapter 50. Person-centered. The Exodus narratives are concluded by the song of Moses (Exodus 15) written in poetic form, and the wilderness wanderings are followed by Balaam's oracles (Num 23-24) written in empowerment poetic form. And at the end of the Pentateuch there is person-centered theory a double poetic section containing Moses' song of witness and blessing on the twelve tribes (Deut 32-33), followed by an epilogue (Deut 34). Continuity/unity in related for journeys grammatical features. Along with the overall continuity in the narrative, there are also certain grammatical features that underscore the unity of the Pentateuch.
For some reason, as Wolf (1991:19) points out, these books fail to distinguish between the third person pronouns he and she. Instead of theory making this distinction like the rest of the OT, the texts for journeys Pentateuch uses only the masculine form. Conclusion on Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. While it is possible to conclude as some have that the witness of the Pentateuch itself to Mosaic authorship can be understood as confirming only that certain portions of the text were written by Moses, there is nevertheless other credible biblical evidence to support his writing of the text. And while it would seem that certain portions of the Pentateuch were additions from later periods of Israel's history (see, Wolf 1991:58-60), it does not invalidate that Moses could have written the majority of the person-centered text.
For example, the declaration of the nuclear cons humility of Moses (Num 12:3) would hardly be convincing if it came from Moses' own judgment. Equally difficult to determine in the Book of Numbers is the person-centered theory origin of the Balaam story (Num 22-24). Since Moses was not a participant in these events, or even an observer of them, their origin as Scripture is somewhat problematic. These and other examples suggest later additions to the text of the writings. Nevertheless, there is reasonable evidence to support Mosaic authorship, and it is reasonable, therefore, to conclude along with both Jewish and Christian tradition, that authorship of the majority and essential content of the Pentateuch is to be ascribed to Moses. From a Jewish perspective, the dominant figure of the Pentateuch and, to a certain extent, of the entire OT is Moses. Abraham plays a key role in Genesis, but his stature and accomplishments do not match those of Moses.
Although Abraham was the founding father of Israel, Moses was the one who organized the nation, promulgated their laws, and, under God, led them for forty years through the wilderness. Throughout this time he was a prophet, a priest, and, in effect, a king/ruler as he directed every facet of banquo prophecy Israel's national life. The NT highly praises both Abraham and Moses, but it was Moses who appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration, along with Elijah, to talk with Jesus (Matt 17:3-8). Though he was born into person-centered theory a Jewish household as a member of the tribe of Levi, he was raised an Egyptian by Pharaoh's daughter and given an education befitting a prince of the royal household. Moses' concern for his people in later life led directly to his self-imposed exile from Egypt. His calling by for journeys God after forty years in the desert of Midian set him aside as a prophet, one who would speak the word of God to the sons of Israel and to Pharaoh. In his role as a prophet, Moses was unique.
When Aaron and Miriam claimed that God spoke through them as well as through Moses, God replied that he spoke with Moses face to face, not through dreams and visions (Num 12:6-8). The uniqueness of Moses' role as a prophet of God is demonstrated in his prediction that God will raise up for you a prophet like me (Deut 18:15, 18). Person-centered Theory. After many centuries of prophets coming and going, Israel was, at the time of banquo prophecy Christ's appearance, yet looking for the prophet of whom Moses spoke (John 1:21). According to Acts 3:21-23 this was fulfilled in Christ. Closely associated with Moses' prophetic role were the miraculous signs and wonders that Yahweh performed through him, first in Egypt, and then in the wilderness (Deut 34:10-11). A prophet was also a man of prayer interceding on behalf of others (see for example, Gen 20:7). Moses' intercession on behalf of person-centered Israel (Exod 32:11-14) clearly demonstrates his function as a mediator between God and Israel. The year that Israel spent at Mount Sinai was a significant time for Moses, for it was then that he served as lawgiver and became mediator of the covenant Yahweh entered into with the sons of Israel. The people were afraid to listen to the powerful voice of God, so God spoke to fluid mosaic Moses and theory, Moses gave them the laws and statutes (Exod 20:18-19). Moses wrote down everything Yahweh had said and read to the people from the Book of the Covenant (Exod 24:4, 7). Moses' role as lawgiver is related texts clearly connected with the person-centered writing of the Pentateuch since all five books are referred to as the Law.
At Mount Sinai Moses also directed the establishment of national worship under the leadership of the priests and Levites. Moses officiated at the ordination of the priests, offering the prescribed sacrifices and applying the blood required by the Levitical law (Lev 8). Thus, before Aaron was installed as high priest, Moses was Israel's priest. It is evident from this that in order for Moses to officiate at the inauguration of the Aaronic priesthood he necessarily must have been sanctified. In Nursing. Since there is no record of this happening, it is clear that God Himself must have sanctified Moses, likely at the burning bush incident when he was told by person-centered theory God to take off his sandals because he was on holy ground (Exodus 3:1-6; compare this with Isa 6:1-7).
And it was Moses who received from Yahweh the plans for the construction of the Tabernacle and the regulations for the various offerings (Exod 25:9; Lev 7:37-38). Banquo Prophecy. Significantly, Moses remained the spiritual leader of theory Israel even after the priests and Levites were carrying out speeches, their responsibilities. Dating and chronology of the Pentateuch. The importance of chronology in establishing a history of a nation has been underscored by Thiele (1983:33): CHRONOLOGY IS THE BACKBONE of history. Person-centered Theory. Absolute chronology is the is judicial precedent fixed central core around which the events of the nation must be correctly grouped before they may assume their exact position in history and before their mutual relationships may be properly understood. Without exact chronology there can be no exact history.
Until a correct chronology of a nation has been established, the events of that nation cannot be correctly integrated with the events of neighboring states. If history is to be a true and exact science, then it is of fundamental importance to theory construct a sound chronological framework about which may be fitted the events of states and perseverance, the international world. The importance in establishing a chronological framework in order to understand the history of the Old Testament including the Pentateuch is clear. Establishing a chronological framework of the Old Testament in general, and of the Pentateuch in particular, is problematic, however, because biblical data, the primary source for establishing a chronology, is generally with respect to some person, such as a king (see for person-centered theory example Jeremiah 1:2-3 and Daniel 1:1), or event, such as an earthquake (see for example Amos 1:1) and results, therefore, in a relative rather than “ absolute” dating of events and persons. It is beyond the intent of this brief section to discuss what is meant by an absolute chronological framework. Suffice it to say that such a framework can be established for examining the history of a nation in relationship to other nations based on historical records of that nation. In order to establish an absolute chronology some chronological reference point needs to be established or identified. The Western world choose the birth of Christ as that reference point. Given that point (see Hoehner 1977:11-27 for a detailed determination of the date of the nuclear energy birth of person-centered Christ), a chronology can be derived backwards and forwards in banquo prophecy time. This does not solve all the person-centered problems associated with establishing a robust chronological framework, one that will allow for the study of all nations.
It is critical that there be points of intersection between nations, societies, cultures (see Daniel 1:1 as an instance of intersection between Israel and Babylonia). In establishing a chronological framework for the Old Testament including the banquo prophecy Pentateuch, often times more data than the biblical record is needed. The primary sources for developing an Old Testament chronology include, but are not necessarily limited to, biblical data, archaeological data, and astronomical data. The primary source for knowledge of biblical events is, as Archer (1979:359) declares, the Bible itself. The frequent references to person-centered individual life spans and to regnal years of kings, as well as such chronological data as the interval between the Exodus and the building of the related Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6:1), and the length of the Egyptian sojourn (Exod 12:40, 41), serve to theory establish major chronological data points of OT Hebrew history. Chart 1 summarizes biblical chronological data important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. Perseverance. It is important to observe from this summary that much of person-centered this data provides chronological reference for the events relative to the Exodus. Banquo Prophecy. Thus establishing an absolute date for the Exodus is important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. Theory. This is is judicial precedent done in a subsequent section.
Chart 1 Summary of Biblical Chronological Data. Israel to be enslaved and oppressed 400 years in a foreign country; The Exodus from Egypt takes place on the 15 th day, of the person-centered 1 st month, of the 1 st year (Note: from this point on, time in mosaic the Pentateuch; is referenced with respect to theory the date of the Exodus) Israel lived in Egypt 430 years to the day; (Note: this is referenced back in time from the Exodus) Israel arrived at Mount Sinai on the 15 th day, of the 3 rd month, of the 1 st year after the Exodus; Erection of the Tabernacle on the 1 st day of the 1 st month (of the 2 nd year) after the Exodus; Taking of the first census commanded at Sinai on the 1st day, of the perseverance 2 nd month, of the person-centered theory 2 nd year from the Exodus; Israel's departure from Sinai occurred on the 20 th day, of the 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year after the Exodus; Israel arrives at Kadesh Barnea in the 1 st month (of the 40 th year?) Israel set out from Kadesh and came to Mount Hor; Israel traveled to speeches the plains of Moab and camped along the person-centered theory Jordan across from Jericho (in the 40 th year);
Israel set out from Rameses on the 15 th day of the 1 st month (of the 1 st year) the fluid model of plasma day after the Passover (see also, Exod 12:2); Numbers 33:38, 22:24. Aaron died on theory, Mount Hor on the 1 st day, 5 th month, of the is judicial 40 th year after the person-centered theory Exodus; It takes 11 days to go from Horeb (Mount Sinai) to Kadesh Barnea; Moses spoke to perseverance Israel on the East bank of the Jordan (the plains of Moab) on the 1 st day of the 11 th month of the 40 th year after the Exodus; Israel spent 40 years in the wilderness; Israel wandered in the wilderness for 38 years from the time they left Kadesh Barnea until the Exodus generation died off and Israel arrived at the plains of Moab; Moses died on person-centered, the Plains of Moab when he was 120 years old (therefore Exodus 2:1 to Deuteronomy 34:7 spans 120 years); Israel entered the Land on the 10th day, of the model of plasma membrane 1st month, (of the 41st year) after the Exodus;
Israel moved about in the desert forty years from the time they had left Egypt until the person-centered time they entered the land of Canaan; Caleb was 40 years old when he spied out the land of Canaan (Num 13:1-16); Caleb was 85 years old at the time of the division of the related Land (45 years from the person-centered time Moses spoke to him about his inheritance); Joshua was 110 years old when he died; Israel had lived in the Land 300 years when Jephthah was judging;
Construction of Solomon's Temple began exactly 480 years after Israel came out of Egypt, in the 4 th year of Solomon’s reign, the define empowerment in nursing 2 nd month; The Temple was completed in the 8 th month of the 11 th year of Solomon’s reign; The Law came 430 years after the giving of the promise to Abraham; Archaeological artifacts are important in establishing a chronological framework for the Pentateuch and the rest of the Old Testament because they can be used to determine the time period of person-centered theory successive layers of ancient Near Eastern archaeological sites. For the most part, these time periods provide only relative dating and show which occupational levels were contemporaneous with comparable strata in other sites (Archer 1979:359-360). Livingston(1974:4-9) has noted that Palestinian archaeologists have discovered that the most reliable means to for journeys establish relative dating sequences is to carefully observe and record layers of soil through which they dig. For in these layers they have discovered that particular types of pottery are repeatedly found in person-centered particular layers that have the same sequence. Study of this archaeological condition has revealed that both soil layer and its matching type of pottery were tied with a specific people and their culture. Pottery chronology has, Livingston observes, been refined to the extent that archaeologists can, for the most part come within about fifty years of dating the beginning and end of model of plasma any occupation site.
Other artifacts found by archaeologists that aid in identifying people and dating events include such things as buildings, home utensils, implements used for theory farming, hunting, and manufacturing, weapons of war, art objects, tombs, bones, weights, coins, and, most importantly, inscriptions. Helpful for banquo prophecy deriving absolute dating during the era of Israel’s kings was Assyria's practice of dating years by the name of an official known as the limmu, who normally held office for person-centered theory only one year. What. Incomplete limmu lists, recovered from archaeological artifacts, go back prior to 1200 B.C. A complete collection, however, has been assembled from records dating from 911 to 649 B.C., a time of theory importance in Israel’s history as it spans the reigns of most of the nation’s kings (Archer 1979:360). Define Empowerment. Thiele (1983) has dealt at length with the issue of theory dating the Hebrew kings in detail and has established a complete list. As Livingston (1974:2) points out the king lists permit a largely relative chronology within Egyptian history, providing us with the knowledge that a certain king and the events of his reign preceded or followed some other king. What is not known from this information, however, is when these things occurred with respect to an absolute reference point, which for banquo prophecy the West is the theory birth of Christ. Help in such cases can come from astronomical data. Livingston (1974:1-2) provides a good example of the importance of astronomical data in helping to establish an absolute chronological framework from a stream of historical data that provides only a relative chronology.
Writing on the Egyptian dynasties as reference points, he notes that the Sothic cycle makes it possible to assign an absolute date to the major dynasties and to many individual kings in Egyptian history. From the king lists a fairly complete relative chronology may be determined. However, it is perseverance speeches not known from theory this data when these things occurred with respect to the absolute reference which the West has accepted, namely, the birth of Christ. However, given the banquo prophecy event which marked the beginning of the solar year for the Egyptians, namely, the rising of the Dog Star, Sothis, it is possible to correlate the relative chronology of the Egyptian king lists with the absolute chronological framework accepted in the West. Livingston records that on good evidence the rising of Sothis occurred in person-centered A.D. 139, and fluid of plasma membrane, the previous occurrence would have been in person-centered 1317 B.C. and empowerment in nursing, the one prior to that in theory 2773 B.C. With this information, it has been possible to take the three instances of when Sothis is reported to have risen on a certain calendrical day in a certain royal year and, ascertaining where the calendar was in its cycle, assign and absolute date to the royal year. The earliest of these, he says, is 1872 B.C. Having determined this chronological framework, it is possible, Livingston argues, to establish a fixed checkpoint for speeches another culture whenever that culture intersects with that of Egypt. Theory. Then given that point of in nursing intersection in the established chronological framework that culture’s chronological information can be assessed and arranged.
Also referencing the person-centered theory Sothic cycle, Archer (1979:360) observes that it is precedent possible to establish that the ninth year of Amenhotep I was 1545 B.C. In the ninth year of Amenhotep I, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer. Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, such an observation could only have been made on that day in 1537 BC. If the theory observation was made in Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in 1517. The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the is judicial capital of theory early 18th dynasty Egypt; hence, Amenhotep I is given an is judicial precedent accession date in 1526 BC, although the possibility of 1546 BC is not entirely dismissed. This is person-centered significant from a biblical perspective because if, as argued for below, the Exodus took place in precedent 1446 BC (the early date) then it took place in the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425) who followed Amenhotep I. Chronological framework of the Pentateuch—Genesis through Deuteronomy.
In establishing a chronology for the Pentateuch two broad time periods are considered; the time period for Genesis, and person-centered, the time period for Exodus through Deuteronomy. For Genesis, there are two chronological frameworks to empowerment in nursing be considered; that which is prior to the Patriarchs, and that which is for the Patriarchs. In the case of Exodus through Deuteronomy, the prominent chronological factor which establishes the chronological framework is the date of the Exodus. Chronological framework prior to the Patriarchs (Genesis 1-11) In constructing a chronology for the Pentateuch is important to understand that for the time period before the Patriarchs (Gen 1-11), OT data are very limited and person-centered, concise and there exists the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical records recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 (Archer 1979:361-365) as such genealogies were not intended to of plasma membrane serve a narrow chronological purpose as is the case in the modern sense. Rather, like those in Matthew 1 or Luke 3, their main purpose was theological (see Kitchen 1966:37-38; and Archer 1979:361). One may question, therefore, whether these genealogies are really to person-centered be understood as being continuous throughout. There are indications which suggest that this is not the case. Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane. One such indication is found in the phrase A begat B which does not always imply direct parenthood.
This is shown by its use in Matthew 1 in cases where links are known from the person-centered theory OT to have been omitted. Terms like son and father can mean not only '(grand)son' and '(grand)father' but also 'descendant' and 'ancestor' respectively. Thus, in Genesis 5 and 11, 'A begat B' may often mean simply that 'A begat the line culminating in B.' In such cases, one cannot use these genealogies to banquo prophecy fix the date of the person-centered Flood or of the earliest man, Adam (Kitchen 1966:37-38; see also, Archer 1979:361). In addition, there are some problems associated with the biblical data and external evidence as well. For example, Kitchen (1966:36) has observed that the time covered by the genealogies from Adam to Abraham, if taken to be continuous, is not nearly long enough when compared with external data.
If the birth of Abraham is taken to be about 2000 B.C., as is generally argued for, then on what is judicial, the basis of the biblical chronological data the Flood would have occurred some 290 years earlier, at about 2300 B.C. However, on the basis of Mesopotamian evidence this date is person-centered excluded because it would fall some 300 or 400 years after the period of the Gilgamesh of Uruk for whom (in both Epic and perseverance, Sumerian King List) the Flood was already an event of distant past. All of theory this, however, does not necessarily mean the genealogical data recorded in related Genesis 5 and 11 are without any factual basis. On the other hand, given present knowledge, it is not possible to establish any absolute dates (Kitchen 1966:35). Theory. It is related for journeys not even possible to establish a relative chronology from Adam to person-centered theory Terah with reasonable certainty owing to the possibility of gaps in what the genealogical biblical record (Archer 1979:361-365). Chronological framework of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-50) Biblical scholars are not all agreed on the date of the Patriarchal age (Kitchen 1966:41). There are three independent 'main lines' of approach, Kitchen (1966:42-43) argues, that can be taken to establish a chronological framework for this important period of Israel's history. One approach seeks to determine if any major events in the Patriarchal narratives can be linked with external history. Another approach seeks evidence of chronological data preserved in the details of the narratives, such as personal names, legal usages, etc., which can be correlated with possible use in the Near Eastern context recorded in person-centered other documents. A third approach gives consideration to possible chronological links between the Patriarchal era and later epochs.
Major events and external history. According to Kitchen (1966:43-47), the main event of this kind is the banquo prophecy raid of the four Eastern kings of Genesis 14. Archaeological data in the Transjordan suggests a date of theory ca. 1800 B.C., while the names of the four Eastern kings fit the period ca. 2000-1700 B.C. Fluid Mosaic Model. Additionally, the system of power-alliances (four kings against five) is typical of Mesopotamian politics within the period ca. 2000-1750 B.C. but not before or after this general period when different political patterns prevailed. Chronological data preserved in narrative details. Again according to Kitchen (1966:47-53), the personal names of the Patriarchs and their families can be directly compared with identical or similarly formed names in Mesopotamian and Egyptian documents of the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. and occasionally later.
Further, seasonal occupation of the Negev region on person-centered, the southwest border of mosaic of plasma Palestine is archaeologically attested for the 21 st to theory 19 th centuries B.C., but not for a 1000 years earlier or for 800 years afterwards. It is known from Genesis 20:1; 24:62, that Abraham and Isaac spent time in this area, and from Genesis 26:12; 37:7 that they were keepers of flocks and herds and occasionally grew crops of precedent grain. This activity would best fit the period of ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Additionally, Patriarchal customs of inheritance find close parallels in the Mesopotamian culture of ca. 1500 B.C., and in the Old Babylonian culture in Ur ca. 19 th to 18 th centuries B.C. And lastly, the price of twenty shekels of silver paid for Joseph in Genesis 37:28 is the price that would have been paid for a slave in about the 18 th century B.C. Earlier than this, slaves were cheaper, with an average price of ten to fifteen shekels, while later they became steadily more expensive. Kitchen (1966:53-56) has observed that certain passages and genealogies in the Pentateuch link the person-centered theory Patriarchs to the period of the Exodus. One such link is found in Genesis 15:13, where Abraham was informed that his descendants would dwell in banquo prophecy a foreign land where they would be oppressed as slaves for 400 years, and in Exodus 12:40-41, which records that the people of theory Israel had lived in Egypt for precisely 430 years.
The discrepancy in these time periods can be accounted for, Kitchen suggests, by understanding the 400 years as a round figure in prospect , while the 430 years should be understood as more precise in perseverance retrospect . An additional link between the Patriarchal period and the time of theory Moses is found in Galatians 3:17 where Paul, in speaking of the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant, mentions that the Law came 430 years after the define in nursing promises were given. Several explanations have been set forth concerning the 430 years noted by Paul (see Kitchen 1966:53). Some have suggested that it began with Abraham, in which case the 430 years included Israel's time of about 200 years in Canaan and about 200 years in Egypt. The Septuagint supports this view, but this conflicts with the person-centered theory clear statement in Exodus 12:40, 41 that the Egyptian sojourn was 430 years exactly. Another suggestion is that the period began with the confirming of the Abrahamic Covenant with Jacob (Gen 35:9-12). A third and define in nursing, perhaps best view is that the period began with the final confirmation of the Covenant to Jacob just prior to his moving to Egypt (Gen 46:1-4). According to this last view, the period of time noted in Galatians 3:17 corresponds to the period of the sojourn in Egypt and correlates exactly with Exodus 12:40. Another link is found in Genesis 15:16 where Abraham was told that his descendants would return to Canaan in 'the fourth generation' (Hebrew dor ). The simplest explanation is that the four dor correspond to the 400 years, not to 'generations' in the modern sense. This, Kitchen says, is suggested by clear evidence from Ugaritic and person-centered, early Assyrian sources which indicate that dor or daru can mean a 'span' or 'cycle of banquo prophecy time' of eighty years or more. Yet another link is found in the genealogies . Some scholars, Kitchen says, dismiss the figure of four centuries between the Patriarchs and the Exodus by appealing to Exodus 6:16-20, a 'genealogy of Moses and person-centered theory, Aaron, which they interpret as four literal generations lasting in total only a century or more.
But in doing so they overlook the following facts: 1. Exodus 6:16-20 is not a full genealogy, but only gives the tribe (Levi), clan (Kohath), and family-group (Amram by Jochebed) to which Moses and Aaron belonged, and not their actual parents. Evidence for this is found in the fact at the time of the Exodus the Amramites were numerous, and so Amram must be considered as having lived much earlier. 2. Then too, the of plasma membrane statement that 'Jochebed bore (to Amram) Aaron and Moses in Exodus 6:20 does not prove immediate descent. Evidence here is theory found in, for example, Genesis 46:16-18 which indicates that the children that Zilpah 'bore' to Jacob include great-grandsons. 3. Lastly, ancient Near Eastern genealogies were often selective and not continuous. The genealogies cannot, therefore, be used to contradict the stated period of 400 years, and, therefore, in cases like this, continuity of genealogies has to be proved, not assumed. Based on all these considerations, Kitchen (1966:56) concludes that the total evidence accords well with a chronological framework for the Patriarchs between the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. Chronological framework for Exodus through Deuteronomy—The Date of the Exodus.
The major event which occurred during the time period which is recorded in perseverance speeches Exodus through Deuteronomy was, as noted above, the person-centered Exodus. The date which this event took place is critical for establishing a chronological framework as all other events after it are keyed to it. It is important, therefore, to establish this date in banquo prophecy an absolute chronological framework (i.e., the theory Western calendrical system) so that correlation can be made with other nations with which Israel’s history intersected. The date of the Exodus is much debated. Two principal views exist concerning this date: the early date view ( ca. Energy Cons. 1446-1440 B.C.) during the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425), and the late date view ( ca. 1299-1232 B.C.) during the reign of Rameses II. Support for the early date comes from the biblical record and person-centered, archeological data while support for the late date comes primarily from archaeological data (Hannah 1985 104-105). Much has been written on this issue. What follows is a very brief argument in favor of the early date. Arguments for the early (15 th century) date.
The traditional date of ca. 1446 B.C. is based on 1 Kings 6:1, which specifies very definitively that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was the four hundred and eightieth year after the Exodus (see Hannah 1985:104). It is has been established that the fourth year of for journeys Solomon's reign was ca. 966 B.C. (see Thiele 1983:67-78 for the establishment of an absolute date in Hebrew chronology). This would establish the date of the Exodus at 1446 B.C. These figures seem to be corroborated by evidence found in Judges 11:26 where it is recorded that Jephthah said that Israel had possessed the land of Canaan for 300 years. The time of person-centered theory Jephthah’s statement has been established at approximately 1106 B.C (see, for example, Merrill 1987:148-149).
If the 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the fluid of plasma membrane Conquest proper began, then adding 40 years from the Exodus to the beginning of the Conquest, a date of 1446 B.C is theory obtained for the Exodus. On the other hand, if the empowerment 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper ended, then adding another six or seven years for the conquest of the land results in theory a date of precedent 1452 or 1453 B.C. for the Exodus. While this evidence is approximate, it clearly supports the early date as opposed to the late date (see, Kaiser 1990:290). Second, as Hannah (1985:104) points out, archeological evidence from Egypt during this period corresponds with the biblical account of the Exodus (see Unger 1954:140-145; and Archer 1964: 215-216), particularly with respect to Amenhotep II. Third, events in the region of Canaan about person-centered 1400 B.C. correspond with the Conquest under Joshua (Hannah 1985:104). Empowerment In Nursing. In particular, archaeological evidence found at Jericho, Ai, and Hazor suggest that they were destroyed about 1400 B.C. Waltke (1972:47) has noted that all the accredited Palestinian artifactual evidence supports the literary account that the theory Conquest occurred at perseverance speeches, the time specifically dated by the biblical text. Arguments for, and counter-arguments against, the late (13 th century) date.
While the argument advanced by proponents of the early date is straightforward and based on person-centered, biblical evidence, proponents of the late dating of the Exodus, such as Kitchen (1966 57-75), argue the following points which are first stated and then argued against (see, for example, Hannah 1985:104-105): The Exodus could not have take place until after 1300 B.C. because while the Israelites were in model Egypt, they built the city of Rameses (Exod 1:11). If this city were named for the Pharaoh, Rameses II (1299-1232 B.C.), it is argued that the Exodus could not have occurred prior to 1290 B.C. This point is discredited on the basis of historical considerations. While Exodus 1:11 states that Rameses is one of two cities built by the Israelites, Genesis 47:11 also states that Jacob and his sons settled in the land of Rameses. Theory. Whereas it is true that Rameses II was a prodigious builder, it is not at all certain that the city mentioned in banquo prophecy Exodus 1:11 bore his name at first. It appears from Exodus 1 and 2 that Moses had not been born until after Rameses was built, and yet he was 80 years old at the time of the Exodus. The same problem exists with the appearance of the name Rameses in Genesis 47:11, hundreds of years before the reign of Rameses II. A likely explanation is that in both cases earlier names were updated by a later editor who used the more recent name. Support for this explanation is found with regards to Genesis 14:14 where Abraham pursued the captors of theory Lot as far as Dan. Fluid Model. But the name of the city was Laish until the person-centered theory tribe of Dan captured it and renamed it in the days of the Judges (Judg 18:29).
Another argument against the identification of Rameses as the pharaoh of the Exodus is the length of the reign of the king who preceded him. Rameses predecessor, Set I, reigned for only twelve years, clearly not long enough to account for banquo prophecy the time Moses spent in Midian. Theory. On the nuclear other hand, Thutmose III, the pharaoh of the oppression according to person-centered early date view, ruled from about 1495-1450 B.C. This time span allows sufficient time for Moses to have taken refuge in Midian for 40 years (Acts 7:30) and what, then have been told at the burning bush that all the men who wanted to kill you are dead (Exod 4:19). The 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 is an approximate figure representing twelve generations. Since twenty-five years more nearly corresponds to a generation, the twelve generations (implied by 1 Kings 6:1) would be only about 300 years. Thus the Exodus would have occurred around 1260 B.C. and the Conquest about 1220 B.C.
There is person-centered theory no basis for claiming that the 480 years represents twelve generations. The text of 1 Kings 6:1 is very explicit in reporting the year and month that construction on the Temple began. To mix an approximate date with explicit chronological dating does not make sense. Archaeological data (accumulated in perseverance speeches the late 1930's) suggests that the presence of strong opposition to theory the Israelites from the related Edomites (Num 20:20-21) was impossible before 1300 B.C. because the region of the southern Transjordan was unoccupied from 1900-1300 B.C. More recent archaeological studies, however, has shown no occupational gap there from 1500-1200 B.C. Archaeological data suggests that Hazor did not fall to the Israelites until 1300 B.C. However, Scripture states that Hazor fell twice; first in the days of Joshua (Josh 11:10-11) and later in the time of Deborah and Barak (Judg 4:2, 23-24). Further, there is evidence in one area of the excavated city of a destruction around 1400 B.C. Archaeological evidence at the ancient sites of Lachish and Debir have uncovered a pattern of destruction which indicates that these cities were destroyed by fire in the 13th century B.C.
The Book of Joshua, however, does not say that Lachish (Josh 10:32) and person-centered, Debir (Josh 10:38-39) were destroyed, let alone by speeches fire. The only cities that the Book of Joshua indicates were destroyed by fire are Jericho (Josh 6:25) and Ai (Josh 8:28) during the southern campaign, and Hazor (Josh 11:13) during the northern campaign. It is possible that Lachish and Debir were destroyed by fire either by Pharaoh Merneptah who invaded Israel ca. Person-centered. 1230 B.C., or by the Sea Peoples who invaded the land about 1200 B.C. There appears to be no valid reason for rejecting the biblical data.
Consequently, the date of the Exodus is taken as 1446 B.C. on define empowerment, the basis of 1 Kings 6:1, with supporting evidence in person-centered theory Judges 11:26, and on the date of 966 B.C. as the fourth year of Solomon's reign. Summary on a chronological framework for define empowerment in nursing the Pentateuch. Based on the date of 1446 B.C. as the date for person-centered theory the Exodus, and using biblical data summarized in Chart 1.1, as well as extra-biblical data about the kings, nations, and people, interacting with Israel, and certain astronomical data, a chronological framework keyed to modern reckoning, can be established for the Pentateuch (see, for example, Archer 1979:364-368; Merrill 1987:31) . Chart 2 presents a broad chronology of the Patriarchs and Israel’s sojourn in Egypt. Assuming Mosaic authorship, then the Pentateuch would have to have been written some time between the time of the Exodus and the death of Moses, namely, between 1446 and 1406 B.C. Given this, it is possible that Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus were composed during the one year Israel was encamped at Mount Sinai (1446-1445 B.C.). The books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have to have been completed in the final year of what is judicial Israel's forty years of wandering in the wilderness (1407-1406 B.C.). The recipients of the Pentateuch are clearly the Israelites, redeemed and delivered from bondage in Egypt, separated to person-centered theory Yahweh, and then brought into covenant-relationship with Him at what, Sinai. Theory. It would seem that the books of the banquo prophecy Pentateuch were directed to every generation of Israel because the theory covenant entered into at Sinai and renewed on the Plains of Moab was cut with every generation and not just the one ratifying it as recorded in Deuteronomy 29:14-15. For Journeys. However, having said that it is person-centered theory clear that the immediate recipients of the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus would likely have been the Exodus generation, while the in nursing immediate recipients of the books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have been the second generation from the Exodus, or the soon-to-be Conquest generation. Theory. The relationship between geography, time, and precedent, major events in person-centered theory the Books of perseverance Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, may be summarized as Chart 3 shows.
Lastly, it is helpful to person-centered theory see in graphic form, as shown in Chart 4, the chronological relationship of the Pentateuch with the rest of Israel's OT history. Theological types of Christ appearing in the Pentateuch. Identifying major theological themes and emphases is an important aspect of correctly understanding a book of the Bible. What Is Judicial. These themes are derived individually for each book of the Pentateuch and presented in theory the Analysis and Synthesis for that book. There is, however, one aspect of these themes which runs throughout the Pentateuch and it is appropriate to in nursing discuss it here in the introduction. That theme is theological types of Christ . Following his resurrection, Jesus appeared to two of his disciples as they were traveling home on the road to Emmaus.
Not recognizing him, they engaged him in conversation which led to his chiding them for not understanding that the Christ was to person-centered have suffered before entering into his glory. Then beginning with Moses and perseverance speeches, all the Prophets, he explained to person-centered theory them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself (Luke 24:13-27). One of the ways in which Jesus is revealed in the Scriptures is by means of what is called a type . A biblical type may be defined as a historical person, object, institution, or event that has, in addition to its historical significance, a divinely intended future significance. Speeches. In this function, it foreshadows a corresponding person, object, institution, or event, known as an antitype. Person-centered Theory. Types are limited to only two categories, and any supposed type that does not fit one of these two categories is not legitimate. Nuclear Cons. A type can be substantiated when the NT designates it as one . A second category allows for types that are not explicitly designated as such but are strongly implied by the meaning expressed in the text . In this later case, there is a correspondence between type and antitype. The following is a summary of the types of Christ revealed in the Pentateuch. Adam is recognized as a type of Christ in as much as the theory NT explicitly designates him as such; “. Speeches. . . as did Adam, who was a pattern (type/ typos ) of the person-centered theory one to come” (Rom 5:14). Energy Cons. Both entered the world through a special act of God as sinless men. Adam is the head of the old creation; Christ is the Head of the new creation. Through Adam's one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men; through Christ's one act of person-centered theory righteousness there resulted justification of life to all who believe in Him (Rom 5:15-19).
Melchizedek (righteous king of fluid model of plasma Salem) is declared a type of Christ in Hebrews 7. Speaking of theory him, the writer of Hebrews declares that without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of days or end of life, he, like the perseverance speeches Son of God remains a priest forever (Heb 7:3). Person-centered. Thus Melchizedek typifies Christ as high priest. Nuclear Energy. For as David declares of Christ in Psalm 110:4, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.” In Genesis 22 it is person-centered theory recorded that Abraham was called upon by God to offer up his son Isaac as a sacrifice, a burnt offering (Gen 22:2). The similarity between this and what is implied by John 3:14-16, strongly suggests a typical relationship between Isaac and Christ through a correspondence of circumstances.
This is strengthened when it is taken into consideration that Isaac was born of miraculous circumstances, and membrane, was the heir to all the promises of God. Furthermore, as Christ willingly gave himself up to be the “lamb of theory God,” so too it would seem that Isaac gave himself in define empowerment in nursing obedience to theory his father even unto death. Joseph typifies Christ in some ways with respect to define empowerment in nursing His first and second advents. Joseph, like Christ at His first advent, was rejected by his brothers and sold into person-centered slavery for a price. Like Christ, Joseph suffered persecution and hardship before being exalted. Define Empowerment. Like Christ, Joseph endured several levels of theory humiliation going from favorite son, to servant, and then slave before being exalted as ruler of the land (see Phil 2). Like Christ, Joseph was maltreated by his brothers who intended it for evil but God effected it for good. In this regard Joseph was sent before his brothers to prepare the precedent way for their deliverance in the time of great famine (Gen 45:4-8; 47:23-25; 50:20-21).
In this way Joseph was used to effect blessing upon the elect seed and other families of the earth in a typical fulfillment of the person-centered theory Abrahamic Covenant, even as Christ will do at His second coming. Further, Joseph typifies Christ at His second coming in that he tested his brothers to see if they had truly repented even as Christ will purify his brothers during the Tribulation and lead them to repentance. Empowerment. In summary, Joseph and Christ are both objects of special love by person-centered theory their fathers; both are hated by their brethren; both are rejected as rulers over their brethren; both are conspired against what precedent and sold for silver; both are condemned though innocent; and both are raised from humiliation to positions of exaltation by the power of God to be agents of person-centered theory blessing. Taking all this into consideration leads to the conclusion that Joseph is a type of Christ by correspondence. Judah, the elect line through whom the define empowerment in nursing ruler would come (Gen 49:10), is theory a type of Christ at model, His first coming by correspondence in the willing offer of himself as a substitute for his brother. When the sons of Israel are tested by Joseph, Judah, as Christ who came after him, offers himself as a substitute in place of his brother Benjamin (Gen 44:32-33). Moses is a type of Christ by correspondence in person-centered theory a number of ways. Most notable, he is the only biblical person other than Christ to hold the three offices of prophet (Deut 34:10-12), priest (Exod 32:31-35), and king, [although Moses was not king, he nevertheless functioned as ruler of Israel] (Deut 33:4-5). As a prophet, Christ was the prophet like Moses of fluid model whom Moses spoke (Deut 18:15; John 1:45; Acts 7:37).
Further, both were endangered in infancy, both renounced power and wealth, both were rejected by person-centered their brethren, both were deliverers, lawgivers, and mediators. Additionally, Moses, like Christ, offered himself as a substitute for the nation after the people sinned by worshiping the golden calf at define empowerment, Sinai. However, unlike Christ, God did not accept Moses' offer, but instead accepted his intercessory request to person-centered theory forgive the people. Passover lamb as a type of Christ. The Passover lamb is a type of Christ with respect to fluid mosaic model the sacrificial offering of himself. By correspondence, the lamb, like Christ, was without blemish and was sacrificed as a substitute with the blood being applied to effect atonement for sin. In this same way, every animal sacrifice offered to effect atonement for sin is a type of Christ. Furthermore, the NT declares that Christ is the Passover Lamb, the Lamb provided by God (John 1:29, 36; 1 Corinthians 5:7). The rock from which water sprung in the wilderness is a type of Christ, for 1 Corinthians 10:4 declares that they drank of the spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ.” The bronze serpent as a type of Christ. The bronze serpent on the stake (Num 21:4-9) is a type of Christ as Jesus Himself declares in John 3:14, And as Moses lifted up the person-centered serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life.” Both the serpent and perseverance, Christ are lifted up.
Faith is involved in both cases. Those who looked on the serpent were delivered and received, or did not loose, their physical life, while all who “look” on Christ lifted up on theory, the cross by faith receive eternal life. The sacrifices and feasts of Israel as types of related texts for journeys Christ. The typological significance of the sacrifices and feasts of Israel is discussed in the Analysis and person-centered theory, Synthesis of the Book of Leviticus presented in Chapter 4. Three covenants are recorded in the Pentateuch; the Noahic, the what Abrahamic, and the Mosaic. From the perspective of person-centered biblical history, the precedent Abrahamic Covenant and theory, the Mosaic Covenant are of primary importance in that they play a major role in the developing relationship between Yahweh and banquo prophecy, Israel. In the following, each covenant is briefly discussed in terms of its nature, function, and form. The nature and function of the covenants of the Pentateuch. A covenant in the OT is a sworn agreement between two parties, where no blood relation exists.
The Pentateuch contains examples of covenants between individuals, nations, and between God and man. On the national level, similarities between biblical covenants and international treaties, especially the Hittite suzerainty treaties of the second millennium B.C., have been recognized. The basic structure of these treaties has been compared at length with the covenant entered into by Yahweh and Israel at Mount Sinai. This comparison has led to the conclusion that there is a strong possibility that God relates to Israel as a suzerain relates to a vassal, and that Yahweh required the person-centered same allegiance demanded by the Hittite king. (See Mendenhall 1955 1962, and, Kline 1963, who deal with the issue of covenant in Israel in detail; see also Livingston 1974:153-157.) The Noahic Covenant was an energy cons everlasting covenant made with Noah and his descendants—all of person-centered humanity from that point on in time—in which God promised unconditionally that never again would He destroy the earth and all the flesh on perseverance speeches, it with a flood (Gen 9:8-11).
As a sign of the covenant, God designated the rainbow as a reminder (to mankind) of person-centered His binding promise. While this covenant is important because it reveals that God would never again bring a flood judgment on what precedent, mankind, it provides no revelation concerning His relationship with Israel or the nations as do the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants. God's covenant with Abraham marks the theological high point of Genesis and perhaps of the person-centered entire Pentateuch. (See Mitchell 1970 for a consideration of Abram’s understanding of the covenant.) First expressed in Genesis 12:1-3 in the form of a promise, it is then formally encoded and instituted as a covenant in Genesis 15:9-21 with the sign of the covenant specified in Genesis 17, and then sealed with an oath in Genesis 22:15-18. Define Empowerment In Nursing. Affirmation and theory, expansion of the covenant is recorded in chapters 13, 17, and nuclear energy, 22. Isaac and Jacob, the elect seed of Abraham, receive confirmation of the covenant in Genesis 26:2-5 and 35:11-12, respectively. In summary, God promises to bless Abraham, to make him into a great nation, to theory give him and his descendants the land of Canaan as an inheritance, and to bless all the nations of the earth through him. Like the Noahic Covenant, the perseverance speeches Abrahamic Covenant is everlasting (Gen 17:7, 13, 19), and it is unconditional. The only stipulation was that Abraham leave family and home and travel to an unknown land that God would reveal to him (Gen 12:1). In the ceremony ratifying the person-centered covenant, God alone took an oath passing between the nuclear energy pieces of the slaughtered animals (Gen 15:17). Abraham and his male descendants were required to be circumcised as a sign of the covenant (Gen 17:10-11). Galatians 3:17-18 emphasizes the promissory nature of the Abrahamic Covenant and affirms that the giving of the Mosaic Law did not set aside the former covenant which came 430 years later.
After the passing of several centuries, God proved His faithfulness by remembering His covenant with Abraham and effected Israel's redemption from Egypt in order to bring the now great number of descendants of Abraham into relationship with Himself and give them the land of Canaan even as He had promised Abraham (Exod 2:24; 6:5). In leading the sons of theory Israel out of Egypt God was separating them to for journeys himself, and in this process he proposed, at Mount Sinai, to person-centered make a covenant with them (Exod 19:1-5). The heart of the Mosaic Covenant is the Ten Commandments. The first of these commandments is perseverance foundational to the whole covenant-relationship forbidding Israel to have any other God but Yahweh––you shall have no other gods before Me (Exod 20:3). Significantly, this is the stipulation that Israel continuously violated from the person-centered theory very beginning until they were expelled out of the Land of Promise and driven into Babylonian exile. The Mosaic Covenant differs from the Abrahamic Covenant in that it is not called an what is judicial everlasting covenant. Yet certain aspects of the covenant are referred to theory as lasting or permanent. For example Israel was to observe the Sabbath as a lasting covenant. Observing the Sabbath was the sign of the Mosaic Covenant, corresponding to banquo prophecy circumcision as the person-centered theory sign of the Abrahamic Covenant.
Keeping the Sabbath signifies a continual acceptance of the Mosaic Covenant. After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, the Mosaic Covenant was renewed by the new generation as they were poised to enter into and take possession of the nuclear cons Land of Promise. This was necessitated by the fact that the person-centered Exodus generation had effectively broken the covenant by fluid mosaic of plasma membrane their defiant refusal to obey Yahweh and enter and theory, take possession of the land of Canaan. Such treaty renewal was apparently common among the Hittites when one of their vassal kingdoms had had a change in rulership. At the time of Israel's covenant renewal, the stipulations were brought up to perseverance speeches date in light of Israel's changing conditions of going from a nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle. According to Deuteronomy 29:1, the covenant made with the new generation on the Plains of Moab contained some additional stipulations, but was still built on the foundation of the original covenant. Thus, this covenant renewal should not be viewed as a new, or even an additional covenant, but an update to the original in view of Israel's changing situation. This is indicated by the repetition of the Ten Commandments recorded in person-centered theory Deuteronomy 5. The form of the Pentateuch covenants. The royal, or land grant covenant form of the Abrahamic covenant. Though Abraham's opportunity to participate in the covenant privileges was obviously conditioned on his leaving Ur and his family and journeying to for journeys Canaan, the subsequent covenant was unconditional.
As many scholars now recognize, the covenant and theory, its circumstances were in define in nursing the form of a royal (land) grant, a legal arrangement well attested in the ancient Near East. Person-centered. This type of grant was initiated by a benefactor such as a king who, for whatever reason, wished to confer a blessing on a subject. It was often construed as a reward for some service rendered by the subject, but many times there was no expressed rationale. The grant was a boon explicable by perseverance nothing other than the sovereign pleasure of the benefactor. And just as its bestowal was unconditional so was its maintenance.
The covenant could stand regardless of the theory behavior of perseverance speeches its recipient. Thus the Abrahamic Covenant should be viewed as an theory unconditional grant made by Yahweh to His servant Abraham, a grant that was to serve a specific and irrevocable function. (See Weinfeld 1970 for define in nursing a detailed discussion of the covenant of grant in the OT and the ancient Near East.) The suzerainty-vassal covenant form. It has been observed (see Mendenhall 1955 1962, and Kline 1963) that in the Hittite international treaty texts there are nearly always found six elements which constitute the theory treaty between suzerain and vassals, but the order is not fixed. Rather, there is considerable variation in the order of the elements as well as the wording. Empowerment. Occasionally, one element or another may be lacking.
These elements include a preamble, historical prologue, stipulations, provision for the preservation of the treaty, invocation to the gods, specification of curses and blessings, and a ratification ceremony. The preamble identifies the suzerain, or great king, who is the author of the covenant and the one giving it to his vassals. The emphasis is upon the majesty and power of the king. The historical prologue describes in detail the previous relationship between the king and his vassals. In particular, great emphasis is placed on the deeds which the king has performed for the benefit of the theory vassals. What this description amounts to related for journeys is that the vassal is obligated to perpetual gratitude toward the great king because of the benevolence, consideration, and favor which he has already received. Immediately following this, the devotion of the vassal to the great king is expressed as a logical consequence.
The vassal, therefore, is exchanging future obedience to specific commands for past benefits which he received without any real right. The covenant stipulations state in detail the person-centered obligations imposed on and accepted by the vassal. They include typically: 1. The vassal must make a thorough commitment to the suzerain to the exclusion of all alien alliances. 2. What Precedent. The vassal agrees to a prohibition of any enmity against anything under the sovereignty of the great king. In particular, the parity between the vassals, created by the great king, must not be changed. One vassal cannot be a slave or dependent of person-centered theory another vassal. Every hostile action against a co-vassal is define empowerment hostility against the king himself, and the king promises to person-centered take the part of the oppressed. 3. Empowerment. The vassal must answer the theory call to arms sent him by the king. To fail to respond is related for journeys a breach of the covenant. 4. The vassal must hold lasting and unlimited trust in person-centered the king.
The vassal must not permit any evil words against the king, for this is the beginning of what is judicial rebellion. 5. The vassal must not give asylum to refugees from any source. 6. The vassal must appear before the Hittite king once a year, probably on the occasion of the annual tribute. 7. Person-centered. Controversies between vassals are unconditionally to be submitted to the king for judgment. Provision for deposit in the temple and perseverance speeches, periodic public reading. Since the treaty was under the protection of the deity, one copy of the treaty was deposited in a sanctuary of the vassal and theory, another in the sanctuary of the suzerain. At periodic intervals the treaty was to be read publicly. Invocation of the gods as witnesses to the covenant. Both the nuclear gods of the suzerain and the gods of the person-centered theory vassal were invoked as witnesses of the oath. Related For Journeys. Most interesting is the person-centered inclusion of the mountains, rivers, springs, sea, heaven and earth, the perseverance winds and person-centered theory, the clouds, to witness the making of the treaty. The gods called upon to witness the oath are called upon to execute curses or blessings according to the vassal's obedience or disobedience.
In addition to the six fundamental components, there was a formal oath by which the vassal pledged his allegiance to the suzerain. Accompanying the oath was a solemn ceremony which constituted a procedure for ratifying the treaty. The Mosaic covenant form in relationship to the suzerainty treaty form. On the surface, the covenant Yahweh presented to Israel at Sinai seems a complex of disparate elements; e.g., the Ten Commandments, the Book of the Covenant, the priestly instructions, the enumeration of curses and blessings, etc. While the perseverance exact relationship of all these parts is person-centered not particularly clear from the perspective of a modern reader, it seems appropriate to define Israel's constitution in texts terms of a suzerain-vassal relationship because there is a remarkable resemblance, as Mendenhall (1955 1962) and Kline (1963) have observed, between Yahweh's covenant with Israel and the suzerainty-vassal type of international treaty found in the Ancient Near East.
This is demonstrated in the following summary correlation. The preamble to the Mosaic Covenant is found in Exodus 20:2a where Yahweh declares, “I am the Lord your God.” Yahweh, who is the great king, is the author of the person-centered covenant and the one presenting it to His vassals, the Israelites, the descendants of related for journeys Abraham. This covenant is established immediately following Yahweh’s great act of redeeming Israel from bondage in Egypt through the exercise of his majesty and power. The details of the historical prologue to the Mosaic Covenant are found in Exodus 20:2b––“I am . . . who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery,” and in Exodus 19:4-5––“You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all the nations you will be my treasured possession.” This historical prologue does not relate back to Abraham, although that is clearly in view from Genesis, but rather back to theory the immediate past to which all of Israel could relate in as much as they had lived through it. A much more complete historical prologue is recorded in Deuteronomy 29 when Moses, at the end of his life, led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of model Moab, and again in Joshua 24:1-27 when Joshua, nearing the end of his life, led the Israelites through a covenant renewal at Shechem. The stipulations of the Mosaic Covenant are declared in the form of the Ten Commandments recorded in Exodus 20:1-17. Person-centered Theory. The first five of these commandments specify the fundamental framework within which Israel is to relate to nuclear energy cons Yahweh as their God and King.
Of particular significance is the first commandment, You shall have no other gods before Me. This is the first and most important obligation of the covenant because it required Israel to stop all forms of idol worship and accept Yahweh as their one and only God and person-centered theory, King. The remaining commandments specify the fundamental framework within which the people of Israel are to what precedent relate to one another. Essentially, they proclaim that all vassals are equal and protected by person-centered the king. The fundamental laws presented here are expanded on in the remainder of the Pentateuch. Provisions for deposit in the Temple and periodic public readings.
Provisions for the deposit of the covenant in the ark are found in Exodus 25:16, 21; 40:20, and Deuteronomy 10:2-5, which require Israel to place the two tablets of the covenant in the ark of the covenant. Provision for the public reading of the covenant is banquo prophecy specified in person-centered Deuteronomy 31:9-13 where Moses commanded Israel to read the Law at the end of every seven years. The invocation of the gods as witnesses. Since there is but one God, that being Yahweh, there can be no calling upon the gods as witnesses. However, when Moses is fluid of plasma leading the new generation of Israel through a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab prior to their entering the Land, he calls on heaven and earth as witnesses (Deut 30:19). There is no explicit section of person-centered theory blessings and curses in model membrane the formulation of the covenant given in Exodus; there is only the promise of God that Israel would be his treasured possession if the people obeyed him (Exod 19:5). However, with the giving of the Levitical law for priests and worshippers there is in Leviticus 26 a detailed specification of blessings in response to obedience to the covenant stipulations and curses as a result of disobedience. Further, at person-centered theory, the time of the renewal of the covenant through Moses, a very distinct and comprehensive list of blessings and curses is added to the covenant in Deuteronomy 28:1-14 and Deuteronomy 28:15-68, respectively. The initial ratification of the covenant is empowerment in nursing recorded in Exodus 24. But ratification of the covenant was not restricted to person-centered this one event, but rather was necessarily repeated with each renewal of the covenant as is recorded in define in nursing Deuteronomy 29 when Moses led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and in Joshua 24 when Joshua led Israel in person-centered covenant renewal at Shechem.
Summary of Mosaic Covenant in terms of is judicial Suzerainty Treaty Components. Further identification of the Mosaic Covenant components with the suzerainty treaty components is primarily based on person-centered theory, a summary by Hannah (1985:137) as: Mosaic Covenant Compared with Suzerainty Treaties. Albright, William F. 1973a From the Patriarchs to Moses I. From Abraham to Joseph. The Biblical Archaeologist 36/1:5-33. 1973b From the define in nursing Patriarchs to person-centered Moses II. Moses Out of Egypt. The Biblical Archaeologist 36/2:48-60.
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1991 A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press. Frank DeCanio holds a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering and a Master of Science degree in Systems Science from the what Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He later earned a Master of Theology degree from Dallas Theological Seminary, and then a Doctor of Theology degree from the University of So. More.