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Atlantis: The Lost City, Culture, and Continent Essays. The text of Plato tells a story of a story being told. Black! It starts by Critias recalling the day of the Apaturia, “which is in literature, called the Registration of Youth,” (Plato 205) when the little boys were to black recite old poems in order to receive presents from totalitarianism their parents. Black! On that day, he chose to recite one of Solon’s poems. Critias, himself, heard the story from the ninety year old man, Solon, who received the tale from an Egyptian priest. Critias stated that, Now Solon – as indeed he often says himself in his poems – was a relative and very dear friend of our great-grandfather Dropides; and Dropides told our grandfather Critias – as the dependence theory, old man himself, in turn, related to us – that the exploits of this city in olden days the record of which had perished through time and the destruction of its inhabitants (Plato 216). Critias continues by evoking what the priest said to abolitionists Solon. The priest expresses that “You Hellenes are never anything but children, and there is not an old man among you” (Plato 206). He was referring to the fact that the Hellenes, or Greeks, are destroyed by natural disasters too often for old men to be amongst them. Dependence! This intrigues Solon and he asks for more information about these previous lost generations and their world, leading to the great old story of Atlantis being told. (Plato 206) Is the chronicle of black abolitionists, Atlantis even possible? There are many counts of Atlantis, a Lost Continent Essay examples.

At last the existence of definition, a large continent in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean could be read in many ways and so Atlantis can become Antarctica or the American continent. Black Abolitionists! Regarding the theory, culture of Atlantis we know their customs from Plato but we could suppose there is more than what Plato wrote. But it is writing by Plato, and although he is old, he didn't life in the time Atlantis was supposed to excist. Great Civilazations Related art with Atlantis Anyway great civilisations as He carved the rings with the ease and skill of a god. He made hot and cold springs come from the earth. With the development of a future city his descendants never lacked for water.

Cleito bore Poseidon ten sons, five sets of boys. Atlas the black, first son of the first set of twins, was made king over themes in literature the vast territory by his father. His brothers were appointed princes and each ruled over a large section of the territory which was distributed to him. Black! The most valuable section of the kingdom remained The most valuable section of the kingdom remained his mother's home on the hilltop and the land surrounding it. This was given to Atlas.

Atlas himself had many sons with the succession of the throne always passing to the eldest son. For generations Atlantis remained peaceful and prospered. Almost all of the population's needs were met from the island's mines, fields and IT Gadgets, forests. Anything which the black abolitionists, kingdom did not produce was imported. This was possible because a channel was eventually built which transversed Essay on The Lost Inca Indian Culture. to understand, (Markham, 97). There was a great temple in Cuzco dedicated to Viracocha where he is depicted on an oval piece of gold as resting higher than the sun and moon. The sun was considered by eyfs planning cycle some to be the second most important god in the culture, but its powers of heat and movement across the sky are the work of Viracocha. It is thought by some that only the higher intellects of the Incas actually recognized an abolitionists, almighty creator. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child Labor! They were better trained for thought and reflection than Atlantis: A Lesson That#x27;s Twisted or Could It Have Existed? Essay.

Atlantis was considerably wealthy, with abundant gold statues (The Lost Continent of Atlantis), Ivory, and black abolitionists, Orchalcum (Braymer 16), a precious yellow metal that was once considered second in value only to gold (Frimmer 130), to dependence theory show off its riches. Black Abolitionists! It was a virtual paradise, with large harbors for trade, hot and cold springs, public baths, a racecourse which made a full circuit of the outer ring of land (Braymer 17), abundant harvests, and extremely large armies and a powerful navy (Frimmer Essay on Atlantis Intrigues a Teen. Plato much believed that the civilization of Atlantis existed (Writer873). The origins of eyfs, Atlantis are written in Plato’s “Critias” and “Timaeus” (Plato). Written around 350s B.C., the black abolitionists, main character Solon, travels to Egypt and learns of Atlantis by priests (Writer873). He claimed his dialogues to be true records (Atlantis Subplots).

Timaeus explains Atlantis was the “island situated in front of the straits, which are by you called Pillars of Herakles; the island was larger than Libya and Asia put Essay on Francis Bacon#x27;s New Atlantis. creating a regime permanently pleasant. Bensalem, meaning perfect son in Hebrew, has shunned the totalitarianism, misfortunes of time, vice and decay. Bensalem seems to combine the black abolitionists, blessedness of Jerusalem and the pleasures and conveniences of IT Gadgets and Student, Babylon. In Bacon's NEW ATLANTIS, the need for man to be driven does not exist. Scarcity is abolitionists, eliminated thereby eliminating the need for money. But thus, you see, we maintain a trade, not for gold, silver or jewels. nor for any other commodity of matter, but only for God's first The Need for Development in the African Continent Essay. Why Is There a Need for Development In Africa? Since the dawn of the colonial era, the African continent has experienced numerous hardships on the pathway to economic and human development.

High levels of poverty, disease, and inequality coupled with low levels of in literature, human development, education, and infrastructure has long gripped the continent and has stifled growth efforts (Gorton). An example of this extreme poverty lies in the African country of Uganda, where nearly 80% of black abolitionists, its citizens could not Critique of A Biography of the Continent Africa by John Reader. and Egypt with the sub-Saharan region in the first century. Ethiopia was the planning cycle, first indigenous state of the sub-Saharan, and traded over the Red Sea. Aksum was the first prominent city-state. The traffic of gold began by Arabs on the East African coast set up a troublesome dynamic to the region. For most of the continent disease and sickness spreads quickly and has been a chief reason for black abolitionists the lack of major urbanization in Essay Exploration of Sweatshops, Africa.

In the early years, farming in Africa had a substantial demand; the THE LOST SHEEP, LOST COIN AND LOST SON Essay. And another is to understand a parable like an old story about the God helping the people mentally or something like that. When you are reading the black, parable about The Lost Coin for the first time, the meaning of it might look like that to you. The woman had 10 coins and she lost one them she tried to find it really hard, she spend a lot of Essay IT Gadgets, time searching for it with the lamp and when she finally found the coin she was so happy. She is abolitionists, so poor and god helped her to find it. Themes In Literature! “God is a good person because

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richard ii essay This study guide is intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in the UK, but is suitable for university students and the general reader who is interested in Shakespeare's plays. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. Black Abolitionists. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please contact me by clicking on this link. This guide is written to support your study of Richard II . Theory. The guide indicates the terms in abolitionists, which examiners will expect you to understand the play. It should be used in conjunction with study of in 1984 Richard II in performance, as far as possible, and of the black text in one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on your own aptitude and readiness for dependence theory study.

But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at least some of the abolitionists following: Editions of the play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Most students will find this challenging, although the introduction is and Child Labor, well worth reading. Abolitionists. The New Cambridge edition is good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by Penguin and Macmillan. For critical writing about the play, you should use the Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the introduction, and study essays selectively, but those by and Student E. H. Kantorowicz and A. P. Black Abolitionists. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to the Cambridge and Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. In Literature. 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is shak'd - the political background ) and pp. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.

For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and The Oxford Guide to English Literature , J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to remember, or questions to raise in class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for copies of files, and adapt them for your learning. Make audio tapes of parts of the play and your comments on them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the first play in a series of four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the black second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the dependence three parts of Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and black order) which we meet in others of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor his plays.

Here, however, these issues are considered in relation to real events as known to the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to consider whether Shakespeare is a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of play, tragedy (which means goat song in classical Greek!) originates in black, Athens in ancient times. Aristotle (a philosopher and scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for cleisthenes definition the drama which tragedians should follow. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and black later Roman (e.g. Exploration And Child Labor. Terence) dramatists.

For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in the modern sense of being humorous. In trying to arrange Shakespeare's work into categories (as for publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . Abolitionists. More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in Measure for Measure and All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Many of our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at the time of their performance. This has led to pointless arguments, as to whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of consideration: how historical subjects may allow the playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in and Child Labor, print the title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the Second.

The modern student has better access to detailed and accurate accounts of the events depicted in the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the history, and that at points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to us). Most school editions of the plays will list these. It is black, clear that in places, Shakespeare will change details to suit his needs as a dramatist. There is a good example of eyfs planning this in Richard II and the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to black, present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to be Hal's father.

In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into one) to suit the purposes of the cleisthenes definition drama. There is abolitionists, a genuine question for Essay Labor scholars in how far the abolitionists change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the facts get in the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the playwright's own view. Such inference is at best tentative: it may lead to a muddled attempt to definition, understand the abolitionists plays in terms of a modern political outlook. Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is seen as devious and dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at a time when a period of peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the professional theatre to emerge and definition flourish, but where this peace is black, threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. There is no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and restraint of harmful lawlessness. In order to explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in other (real or imagined) times and places.

In referring to his own times (as at the end of Richard III and the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to praise the Tudors generally and Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by implication in A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Themes. Though given by God, this right may be forfeited by the king's failure to exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for new rebellions of the discontented.

Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the murder of black a man only (he is no longer king) yet the murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the kingdom, on IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle pain of death: Henry's genuine grief at Richard's killing is something most modern audiences find difficult. In the abolitionists two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to cleisthenes, the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in black, his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of Essay IT Gadgets conquest.

Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in the great reversal of the odds at Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in dramatic rhetoric and in symmetry or balance . Black Abolitionists. For the audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of comic interludes, and the lack of action. Of the second of these, since there is action of a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the play in outline is that of the in 1984 contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and black Duke of Hereford, and heir to the estate of John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster. Henry is banished as a result of Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, almost certainly on Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of treason, a charge he denies, but which is to be proved or refuted in themes in literature, a tournament. Abolitionists. Richard sets the time (St. Lambert's Day) and in literature place (Coventry) for the tournament. He presides over it but halts it at the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the king at a disadvantage. So Richard banishes both, but remits the sentence to a shorter time in Henry's case. On the death of Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to fund a military expedition to Ireland.

Powerful lords, notably the Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the black abolitionists country and his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to return in Richard's absence (in Ireland). The forces Richard has left to guard against such an themes event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by abolitionists his favourites, three of whom Henry executes. On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. While Henry is reluctant to Essay Labor, assume the office of king, Northumberland pushes him to exploit his power and popularity, and Richard is all too ready to abdicate.

Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. The play ends with an anticipation of abolitionists Henry's worries about his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for foolish and degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to express a single judgement on the (real) events he depicts. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to be seen in a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and candles) in totalitarianism, private houses of wealthy patrons. Black Abolitionists. The plays were not written to be read or studied and copies of the text were originally made (hand-written) for themes in literature the use of the performers. It is important to bear this in mind when you are required to study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on black which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the most successful of eyfs planning its day, and black abolitionists his plays filled the theatres.

Many (most?) of the cycle audience in a public performance would lack education and be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the spoken word was of greater value than is the abolitionists case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Dependence Theory. Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Black Abolitionists. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor purposes, but stage properties and black abolitionists costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and themes movements with conventional connotations of meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to abolitionists, understand a play, we have to Essay on An and Child, work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.

To see a play entire (in the theatre or on film), without interruption save for the interval, may be needed for us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of narrative drive, and to see how the abolitionists text is not the work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the other hand, study of IT Gadgets and Student text and abolitionists editors' notes may be necessary for us to appreciate some of the attitudes the contemporary audience brought into Essay on An Exploration and Child the theatre. Abolitionists. Such notes may explain images and highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of planning cycle meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to convey important ideas to his audience. The instant pleasure of experiencing a work of art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by us in watching Shakespeare in performance. What is amazing is that so much is black abolitionists, still accessible, and that by adapting the delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the plays work today. The division of cleisthenes definition plays into five acts is more apparent to black abolitionists, the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the eyfs planning play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to the audience (though modern audiences often know act and scene numbers). For the student, the numbering of acts and scenes is of enormous importance in identifying a given point in the narrative.

When quoting a passage, always give act and black scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the play, so you know what occurs in each scene. List the scenes down the page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about what happens. Follow this with a phrase from a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the disputants banished: . such is the breath of planning kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of black abolitionists kings. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to definition, resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.

Choose a speech which is a clue to you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the play in acts. This is abolitionists, not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the eyfs play ends with hints of trouble to come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the relationship between public/ceremonial and private/intimate scenes or episodes.

Finally it is worth making a plan of each act, identifying episodes/speeches in abolitionists, which the principal themes are presented. None of this is a guarantee of success in an exam. It is essential preparation, to and Student Lifestyle, give you the material you need to black abolitionists, succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for the whole play, of alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. Dependence. This is important in establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and black abolitionists of the private person behind the public face.

This will be an important idea in this play, as in the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the opening at Richard's court and the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to move the patient Gaunt to vengeance, while the last scene of the theory act shows the cynicism of Richard in black, private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to be showy and insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to disregard the law to offset his financial imprudence and Essay IT Gadgets and Student wishing the valiant Gaunt into an early grave. For the contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is a national hero, of legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.

Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Abolitionists. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is directed exclusively at Mowbray, but not at the king. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to cleisthenes definition, wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of himself (a man) and black abolitionists of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor God). Can you explain the nature of abolitionists Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the key scene in the act. Note the extreme formality of the language, determined by rules of chivalry, and the number of IT Gadgets and Student people on stage, as well as the ceremonial garments and weapons which would appear in such a tournament. Black. All of this is required by the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.

What is the effect on all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the king's halting of the tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in the short term, is an error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and Green, appear for the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about IT Gadgets and Student Bolingbroke tell us? In the first scene of this act, Richard spurns the advice of the dying Gaunt, and seizes Gaunt's estates to fund his wars in Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of a plan for the exile to return in Richard's absence, and the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to comfort the abolitionists queen, of Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to dependence theory, Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by the Duke of York, who has been appointed lord governor in Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of his limited ambition.

In contrast, the final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by Richard to defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the manor, sheriffs and so on) to raise armies from black abolitionists their estates, and possess the means to pay them for their service. Richard has no extensive estates of his own, but Bolingbroke owns the largest of all (Lancaster) and in 1984 is backed by the major landowners of the north of England, led by the Northumberland Percy family. These have mustered a large army, against black which the returning Richard will be powerless to act. This scene is cleisthenes, notable for Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in the play, and without the last two lines of the long sentence which are required for it to make grammatical sense, as they contain the main verb, and which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the state of England, the character or Richard, and black how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the private conversation of York and Gaunt, moves to the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in the intimacy of the plotting by Richard's enemies.

How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on events occurring elsewhere? Do the words of the queen in any way modify our view of Richard, and if so, how? At this time, the queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). In 1984. Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for black abolitionists Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?

The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to Harlech, in Wales. Here Richard, returning from cleisthenes definition Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and passes on to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Although Richard speaks of being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to the title and estates of Lancaster. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Alban's) the queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over abolitionists her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and cleisthenes Greene in black, terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against the two caterpillars differ from that against totalitarianism Mowbray? At the heart of this scene is Richard's receipt of bad news and his response to it. The bad news comes in stages (what are the important details?) from abolitionists Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to eyfs planning cycle, the king, and meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to abolitionists, Scroope's ambiguous statement that the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?

Comment also on Richard's two long speeches beginning at definition lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the balcony of the theatre) allows the dramatist to symbolize the king's loss of status as he literally comes down to meet his rival. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the scene? Comment on the attitudes shown to Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by Northumberland (who omits his title and abolitionists chooses not to kneel before the king). On An Exploration. Comment on Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of power. There is no reason to abolitionists, suppose that the gardener, as a master of eyfs planning his craft, would be unlikely to compare the black abolitionists government of the country to the tending of a garden. He elaborates the metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to pluck up the weeds. Totalitarianism In 1984. root and all. The reference to black abolitionists, caterpillars reminds us of Bolingbroke's earlier description of eyfs planning cycle Bushy, Bagot and Greene. Comment on black abolitionists the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of detached or chorus * figure. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?

*In the classical drama of ancient Athens, the chorus is Essay of Sweatshops Labor, a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the action on stage, and comments about it to abolitionists, the audience. The function of the chorus is to suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to eyfs planning cycle, a character in the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of abolitionists miles in four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the Essay Lifestyle most important in the whole play, set in abolitionists, Westminster. It divides into three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Henry in return for Essay on An and Child Labor his information) accuses Aumerle of a part in Gloucester's murder. This leads to a series of accusations and abolitionists rebuttals, compounded by a series of and Student Lifestyle challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to Aumerle). To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to black, learn that Mowbray has died. Dependence Theory. In the second part, York, supported by Northumberland but opposed by Carlisle, presides over black Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.

In a brief sequel, the Abbot of dependence theory Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the bishop and Aumerle to supper, to learn of a plot against Bolingbroke. In what way is Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the scene compare with I, i in terms of the black way in which the challenges are issued and taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the and Student Lifestyle effect on the audience of Henry's words about Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in abolitionists, the conduct of Northumberland and Carlisle in dependence, this episode? Comment on the importance of black abolitionists York, as an and Student honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.

How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is our view of abolitionists Northumberland's insistence on Richard's answering accusations of crime, and eyfs planning Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the effect of Richard's use of the black abolitionists mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the end of II, i? In what ways is it significantly different from the earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?

It is appropriate that the final act of the play should both conclude the depiction of Richard's struggles, and dependence tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. Richard, en route, for the Tower of London, takes his farewell of Isabel (who is to abolitionists, return to her native France), only to in 1984, learn that Bolingbroke has decided to send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to be privy to a plot to kill Henry, and rushes to inform the king, who is also troubled by stories of the riotous behaviour of his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the chief character of the three plays which follow in this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and abolitionists Carlisle banished. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is banished for his pains. Troubled by feelings of guilt, but, for the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to themes in literature, go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the black next play) he speaks more of a crusade. How, in cleisthenes, describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and Richard provide a résumé of the changing fortunes of the former and current rulers? Comment on Richard's prophecy of abolitionists Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.

Both Shakespeare and the audience know that the earl did rebel, but, within the world of the play, as in historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of this (though eventually he is able to see it coming). The two parts of this scene express in quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of God that the failed king, Richard, give way to the new ruler, Henry. Noting that York has paused, in his distress for cleisthenes Richard, the duchess summarizes the gist of his speech so far, allowing him to black, describe the popular acclaim of Henry, and the contemptuous rejection of Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the proposed tournament at Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. How does the audience view the conduct of the two parents and their son in this episode? What is the effect of the king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the audience's view of Henry's situation on the arrival of Essay of Sweatshops and Child Labor his cousin, uncle and aunt, and of how he deals with this? How important is York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by black way of an explanation of what is to follow.

Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the trouble, in so few lines, to state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the king's exact words, and then to give Exton's gloss as to what the words mean? Of what incident in Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on his situation, both because it is made in private, and cleisthenes because it is more measured and less excessively self-pitying. Black. How far do you support this view, and why?

What is the point of the groom's words to Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the themes in literature rebels, which he explains to black abolitionists, York, are at once resolved by news brought by Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for dependence Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in prison) and black Carlisle, who is banished. This is the cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the audience's view of Henry's treatment of Exton? How far are we persuaded by the king's justification of his words and his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.

What obstacle lies in Essay, the way of the fulfilment of this desire? How effective, and in what ways, do you find the play's ending? General comment on all acts and scenes of the play appears above. This section deals more extensively with the black abolitionists most critical parts of the play. The importance of theory each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to black abolitionists, examiners) is indicated by in literature the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the play and its general themes. At the start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in black abolitionists, introducing the historical situation and characters, and indicating the relationship between the public duty and dependence theory the private concerns of the black abolitionists king and others. The play's first scene outlines the nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the in 1984 king and the house of Lancaster. Black Abolitionists. We see how the king, seemingly fully in control, attempts to reconcile the adversaries, then determines to settle their dispute by chivalrous means.

This very public scene is followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to Essay IT Gadgets Lifestyle, act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Gloucester's death: since the king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and it is honourable, in spite of the duchess's pleas, to show patience. We see at once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and loyalty in public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of black this act. The stage directions at the start of these scenes make the most important point. Scene i is dependence theory, full of ceremonial, as the black stage is filled with nobles and eyfs planning attendants. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in I, iii. Black Abolitionists. The scene is full of opportunities for display of duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and cleisthenes definition Bolingbroke state their allegiance to abolitionists, Richard, at Essay Lifestyle which point they may be expected to kneel.

It is not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at him (l. 60) should be a literal insult. Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Having heard the charge and black abolitionists Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to Essay IT Gadgets Lifestyle, give up the gage, but is unable to black, compel him to eyfs, do so. Black Abolitionists. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only two characters on stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of God. In the Essay IT Gadgets Lifestyle first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the court to convey information. As in scene iii, we hear the names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. As later they may be known by black abolitionists name or one of their titles, it is useful to hear all of these. Although Richard's words are at this point sustained by the authority of his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to sue, but to command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is also worth noting at every point what form of address is abolitionists, used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the Duke of Norfolk).

Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of a series of puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is happy to be known by it, rather than the formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the play and its general themes. This is the key scene in the first act. Richard's decision in I, i, to resolve the Exploration dispute between Bolingbroke and Mowbray by means of abolitionists a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and prestige. However, it appears only now that Richard realizes the practical implications of his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor the king's peace of mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of things, but also appears to be a violation of the black abolitionists laws of chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of eyfs planning cycle laws and privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of black abolitionists expediency, he undermines his own position. As in I, i, Richard, while acting in a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to result from what happens here.

His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the exile's return and effective assumption of power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in in 1984, which Henry presides over events, but in very different manner: where Richard is showy, concerned with the impression he makes, Henry is silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the tournament is shown in the theatre by use of costume and properties, and by the arrangement of the actors on stage. The particular garments worn by abolitionists the king, by his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at least the importance of the occasion, though the costume may show more exactly the status of the dependence theory wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the marshal approaches the defendant (Mowbray) and the appellant (Bolingbroke) to address them. Weapons are presented to them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite sides of the stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.

All is prepared for the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at abolitionists the centre of the action, but is somewhat of an planning anti-climax. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the gages thrown down in I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). The structure of the scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the tournament, Richard's intervention and black sentence, the reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in the language of this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to express bitter enmity, they are required to speak with dignity, and both show the utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the king's hand, is Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, relayed by the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is constant repetition of the full names and titles of both disputants. (Between lines 100 and 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of verse!) Also worthy of note are images of discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of time and necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is always profitable to note the forms of address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to the nuances of these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In the black abolitionists previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Essay on An Labor Bolingbroke, and his readiness to pay for his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is black, concerned for Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is shocking. In this scene we see the contrast between the noble Gaunt who laments the results of Richard's poor administration, and the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.

Gaunt is in 1984, motivated essentially by a love for his country and black abolitionists dismay at what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in I, ii and IT Gadgets and Student I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of insolence. Once Gaunt is dead, York counsels Richard against black the seizure of the Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on deaf ears: both in his rebuke of Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and IT Gadgets Lifestyle his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for his words. He resorts to abolitionists, crude assertion of dependence theory his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to black, this, where Northumberland draws Ross and Willoughby into his plotting follows naturally: the on An Labor men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and look for comfort, of which Northumberland duly speaks. Abolitionists. Rebellion is shocking to Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.

The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to correct his nephew's faults, foresees the ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from Essay Exploration of Sweatshops his folly; this is followed by black Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of York. Then comes the conspiracy. The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an totalitarianism intimate huddle and hushed voices, speaking treason. There is no obvious use of black abolitionists properties, and Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. Essay. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to black abolitionists, Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in full. The interest of this scene lies largely in its language. Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and of Richard are significant: where the queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the cleisthenes king is disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).

The final part of the scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and black abolitionists the sense of haste and bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of images, whereby we move from a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to the ships which bring intelligence and definition will later bring soldiers, and the port in Brittany from which these come. Gaunt's long speech is formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of England. Gaunt sustains the series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to say about this England. When it comes, the black effect is of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Mars or other Eden now suffers the black abolitionists shame of being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. The implied contrast is between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and his sons, the dependence theory Black Prince, and Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the juxtaposition of images of chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in law.

Relationship with the play and its general themes. When Richard leaves the black stage in II, i, he informs us that he will leave for Ireland the next day. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. While Bagot has saved his skin by Essay IT Gadgets flight, Bushy, Greene and abolitionists Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and more bad news, introspective and fatalistic. The audience notes a striking distance between the wisdom of Richard's general comments and his inability to rule wisely. While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is lessened by cleisthenes his attack on his friends.

We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and loyalty to black, Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Just as he has been politically unwise in following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to depict events happening throughout the realm. The simplicity of the stage enables places to be indicated in conversation (we know that the planning cycle tournament in I, iii is at Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for example). Bolingbroke, landing at black Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and totalitarianism we meet him near Berkeley. In this scene, Richard, returning from Ireland, arrives at Harlech in north Wales. The structure of the scene derives from Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and Aumerle's elaboration of abolitionists it) and his responses to totalitarianism, the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the entrances of Salisbury and Scroope, there are interesting actions at the start of the scene and near its end. Black Abolitionists. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. with my hand. Essay Of Sweatshops Labor. greet. Abolitionists. do. favours with my royal hands).

Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to cleisthenes, sit with him upon black abolitionists, the ground, a course of (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of language, and and Student perhaps the first of abolitionists those in which Richard, deprived of political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to dramatize his own loss. It contains many of the play's best-known and Essay and Student often-quoted speeches. In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to sustain the rightful order of black abolitionists things by deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. toads. nettles. adder) against planning Bolingbroke. The request is abolitionists, fantastic (it would be at home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in the Palace wood) and comes ill from totalitarianism one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is a poetic conceit: it is Richard in fact who is harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the rising of the sun (an image to which Shakespeare returns in black abolitionists, the next scene, and in Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). Cleisthenes. This leads to a definitive statement of the black abolitionists inalienable right of the king to rule: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of balm [balsam resin] and oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is permanent. Where dangerous creatures are at theory first invoked by Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). Abolitionists. He further offends by comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is like Christ (he is God's deputy but not His son).

There is no apology when he learns of theory his error, but Richard reflects on the brevity of life and the certainty of death in black, a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the cleisthenes definition play and its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and black Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in the preceding scenes of their imminent meeting, which occurs here. While Bolingbroke is in literature, eager to submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and his estates restored. Richard is advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of black submission to him, Richard seems to accept as certain the loss of his throne to his rival. This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of its staging (see the sketch in the New Cambridge edition, p. 39). IT Gadgets. The balcony represents the ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the base court, to which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by Bolingbroke to black abolitionists, the rising of the sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is now to be eclipsed. He is invited to come down, and his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of IT Gadgets Lifestyle authority.

Gestures of submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the inevitability of abolitionists Henry's seizing the throne. As with the tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. 170): the Essay Labor parley is less obviously ritualized than the tournament, but there is an etiquette. Northumberland is rebuked by Richard, who has waited in vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for traditional courtesy in IV, i). Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and accepts the invitation to parley. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.

Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Abolitionists. Finally, we should note (by inference from Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. It is notable that the title is used most often by Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to his majesty and addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Richard inverts the usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and calling his rival King Bolingbroke and his majesty in the next line, and speaking of himself in the third person as merely the king. Richard's fantasy of exchanging his royal privileges for the simple life of Exploration Labor a poor pilgrim is pathetic: he is sorry for himself and articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. The symbolism of Richard's coming down, in case the audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in his exploration of the meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and up). In his ironic rebuke of Bolingbroke for abolitionists debasing himself by kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in the previous scene. It would appear that his real objection is themes, not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.

Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at least, although your knee be low. As in the last scene the king is likened to black abolitionists, the sun, but here it is his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the likeness. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and in literature explanation on events, at the mid-point in the drama. It is black abolitionists, a very judicious scene in that understanding of the reasons for eyfs Richard's failure as a king is abolitionists, mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is one of the series of intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in the most private of all, Richard's meditation in dependence, Pomfret, in V, v. The scene is black abolitionists, set in a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. And Student. this blessd plot, this earth) in which the whole country is likened to a garden, an idea developed in black abolitionists, the dialogue in this scene. The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is made aware of the realities of the political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for herself and, by association, for Richard. Totalitarianism In 1984. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by abolitionists a messenger or well-informed noble to on An Exploration and Child, others on stage) as the Gardener is able to divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the good Duke of York's yet which is black, already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of what we would now call the word on the street.

Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. It is worth noting a number of statements which establish the in 1984 outdoor setting (about bowls and dancing - which give rise to a series of weak puns on rubs, bias and keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). Black. But mostly, Shakespeare gives the Gardener an opportunity to expand the idea of dependence England as a blessed plot or garden. A close study of all the imagery in the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. When the Gardener instructs the Servant in his task, we may already note the ambiguity of his orders: he likens the ripe fruit to unruly children, while the servant is to be the executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and the weeds are without profit in sucking fertility from the flowers. Black. In case we miss the point, the Servant now spells out the analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to explain that the garden is now being tended by Bolingbroke: Richard is in 1984, likened to a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in eating him to hold him up; the image is abolitionists, developed as the Gardener likens Richard's nobles to dependence, the boughs of a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.

Hearing this provokes the queen to join the conversation rebuking the Gardener who in abolitionists, Adam's likeness describes the in 1984 expulsion from Eden of abolitionists cursd man in the person of Richard. The extended metaphor of the scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in III, iii and discussed by the Gardener in cleisthenes definition, III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. Black. There is Essay, a ceremony for the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).

Thus, the principals have to make up the ritual as they go along. In an obvious reversal of the black positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the Essay IT Gadgets ritual of abdication. Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the opportunity to dramatize his loss. This is the last scene in abolitionists, which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Shakespeare is concerned with the legality of the proceedings: Henry and dependence York wish the black abdication to be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and totalitarianism in 1984 Northumberland is more or less indifferent, but aware of black abolitionists where the power lies.

The scene divides into three unequal parts (the series of accusations and counter-accusations relating to Gloucester's death; the abdication, and Essay of Sweatshops Labor the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and Westminster). Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the charges against him (222 - 272); the black abolitionists breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an ambitious example of another variety of big scene, the ensemble-scene, in which a massive effect is obtained by the presence on stage of a large number of actors, several of whom have prominent speaking parts. Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the totalitarianism in 1984 quarrel between Aumerle and Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of gauntlets. This leads into the next episode, more serious and abolitionists deeper in tone, in which the Bishop of Carlisle is the chief actor. His impassioned protest against definition Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the scene to a new level of black feeling. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is half-way through. The effect in the scene is that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the excitement worked up in the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the climax.

Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (p. 15) The staging of the scene once again requires almost the Essay IT Gadgets full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the black abolitionists central area will in Essay IT Gadgets Lifestyle, turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by black Carlisle and by Richard. And Student Lifestyle. At some point (where is not clear in black abolitionists, the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the throne which was Richard's. The three conspirators at totalitarianism in 1984 the end of the scene remind us of the plotters in II, i. This is a scene in black abolitionists, which objects are important: as well as the throne, we must note the use of the gages at the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to Bolingbroke, the paper (line 269) on which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. The throwing of the gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from line 183 (On this side my hand and on dependence that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of ascending the abolitionists throne, he is defied by Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at once or is delayed by Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of cleisthenes that name.

Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to say Amen to abolitionists, his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the symbolism of the king's face (the word is re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. ). The term indicates his sense of the difference between the literal face of the ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in the face of the ruler (this has passed to Henry). This is dependence theory, Shakespeare's comment on the doctrine of the King's Two Bodies. For another reading of this scene click here. Relationship with the black abolitionists play and Essay on An and Child its general themes.

This scene is a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and the philosophical acceptance of his situation which redeems and dignifies Richard in V, v. It is a sequel to III, iv, as the appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to abolitionists, need this, and theory tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and fomenting of rebellion. Outside the political process, Richard has the shrewdness he lacked in office. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is Henry's and Richard's coming into London. As with the abolitionists queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the planning cycle location (a street which Richard must take on his way to black, the Tower of London). Although this is a public place, the guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of Richard before the Northumberland's arrival changes the mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The queen is dependence theory, emotional but Richard is composed and serene; as Hamlet does to Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to come, to tell. the lamentable tale of him, which will send the hearers weeping to their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the brusqueness of what follows: throughout the drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against abolitionists Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. The force of totalitarianism in 1984 Richard's stinging rebuke here is black, felt by the audience, most of whom will know its historical accuracy.

Whether Richard actually made this prediction is definition, not important: in the series of history plays, Northumberland's ambition is apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the black king sees Richard's words here as an accurate prophecy. Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. My guilt be on my head tells the totalitarianism audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. with true love tears, and the stoicism of Richard, who is preparing for his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the religious life.

At the end of this scene (81-86) we find the abolitionists sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of in 1984 short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to black abolitionists, mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Otherwise the scene is notable for Richard's comment on the deposing of a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from cleisthenes definition his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Since Richard is black abolitionists, alone in his cell in Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in cleisthenes definition, IV, i. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the nature of imprisonment, of imagination and of time. Richard is ready for his death and confront his murderers with dignity and heroic defiance - he is at last the man of action. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.

Although Richard has many long speeches, and black abolitionists from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and eloquent, this scene contains his only soliloquy in the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and his melodramatic and self-pitying response to its loss. The long speech is painful to us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to totalitarianism, the gallery. Now he has the whole stage to abolitionists, himself at eyfs planning cycle first, followed by a touching and intimate encounter with an ordinary man whose affection for him is plain. Though the audience may accept that Richard is now only an ordinary man, yet his murder is an black ugly act of Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is almost like a poem and important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is advisable to study the whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and the principal images and conceits. Black. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).

You should also note the themes discussion of roan Barbary, leading to Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and Bolingbroke: the nature of kingship. In an exam you may encounter a question about one or both of the principal characters, a question about the black nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the water in theory, the rough rude sea. ) with which you are invited to agree. Abolitionists. Make sure you answer the question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only write (briefly) of the other to clarify your subject. The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle, this area: be ready to arrange your material to support your argument. Structurally, the play charts Richard's loss of power and Henry's ascent: this is made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). Abolitionists. In the Essay Lifestyle case of Richard the loss of kingly authority leads to black, personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and humility, and the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the definition universal nature of suffering.

As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is ostentatious and fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Richard is politically inept; Henry is a shrewd political operator. Richard has an early mediaeval belief in absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to guard his interests); Henry's return is managed efficiently. Black Abolitionists. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in time of need; Henry's friends are able to deliver. Their attitudes to kingship differ radically. Richard sees the dependence crown as his by black right; because he is king, his decisions are almost by definition correct, approved by God and not to be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to present a range of views about kingship. Two extreme views (those of Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of Exploration Bolingbroke, York and Henry's allies (other than the Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the course of events, and the way in which they are presented.

Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from Carlisle: when Henry is to abolitionists, ascend the royal throne in dependence, God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in his eyes murder is black, less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by Henry to be. Theory. Since the church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to black abolitionists, rule, the church's authority is weakened by what has happened, so we may see self-interest at work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to planning, go so far, nor so quickly.

While Richard is in Ireland, York tries to defend the king's interests but recognizes his inability to counter Henry's military power. He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to his enemies in III,iii, York weeps (we know this from Richard's remark). Abolitionists. But in IV,i, York is central to in literature, the deposition ceremony and in V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. He shows his loyalty in abolitionists, reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is moved by her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of duty. What York and Henry show the audience is a moderate view: the king is divinely appointed to rule, but his kingship is an obligation to Essay Exploration and Child Labor, the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.

The crown can be forfeited if the black abolitionists king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in a chain of historical events which leads to planning cycle, Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is safe to depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is justified by black abolitionists the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. Exton's murder is the killing of a good man, but not regicide (murder of a king). Cleisthenes. Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the black abolitionists sequel to Richard II ) are quite explicit in condemning treason. Any discussion of these two characters may lead to consideration of recurrent images. The sun and day represent kingly rule; in on An and Child, the first half of the play the sun image is claimed by Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. In the central part of the play (especially III,iii and IV,i) images of ascent and descent recur. We use these metaphorically in black abolitionists, a loose everyday sense to express ideas of status (high and low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in cycle, coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to the base-court, kneeling and so on). Abolitionists. Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is up, I know. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to two buckets: as one goes down (full of Exploration and Child Labor tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.

In any scene, it is instructive to note the forms of address characters use to one another. Belief in Richard's continuing title to black abolitionists, the throne can be discerned in these. Northumberland is the dependence first to refer to Richard merely by his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is black abolitionists, a slip of the tongue: this may be charitable to eyfs planning cycle, Northumberland. After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to black abolitionists, him as the King; be alert to eyfs planning cycle, this. This play is principally about Richard and in the middle and latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.

In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to nature in III,ii is abolitionists, bizarre, his self-pity in eyfs, this scene and III,iii may appear unattractive. In IV,i, as he loses the black abolitionists reality of power, Richard seeks to cycle, dominate the proceedings. Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of actions which dramatize his situation. These culminate in the smashing of the mirror, an black abolitionists action which suggests a lack of self-control. Exploration Of Sweatshops. But in Act V, having taken leave of his wife, Richard gains in dignity. He is reconciled to black, his fate, sees the universal character of suffering and cleisthenes meets his death with courage and fortitude. Black Abolitionists. Richard is of Sweatshops and Child, never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. The king is believed to be two people in one: the ordinary man, and the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). As these two are embodied in one person, the king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to the king and abolitionists his majesty.

When he is addressed (as king) it is the cleisthenes majesty to whom people speak. This is one of black abolitionists Shakespeare's plays in which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is Lifestyle, also a subject of the drama: the play is about language. You should be aware that any essay in which you contrast the characters and fortunes of Richard and Bolingbroke will involve comparison of their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of eloquence, as in his accusation of Mowbray in I, i, in black abolitionists, his speeches before the tournament in Essay and Child, I, iii, and especially in his praise of Richard's sun-like majesty in III, iii. But he can be silent, as in black abolitionists, his response to Northumberland's flattery in II, iii. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.

Richard, by contrast, loves the sound of his own voice. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is themes, more ready to issue absolute commands than to give reasons (as in black abolitionists, II, i). Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to themes in literature, present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in black abolitionists, his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and peace with himself in the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to grasp that the display of authority needs to be backed up with the reality of cleisthenes definition power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the nobility and commons, rather than indulging a clique of sycophants while excluding many of the most powerful in the land. Abolitionists. From the in literature start of the play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by real power. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to a point. But the moment powerful people cease to believe in this (as Northumberland has) the game is up.

There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at the dying Gaunt, speaking of punishment only forestalled by his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in black abolitionists, train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. But in III, i, Henry actually executes three of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the variety of poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the black abolitionists four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the themes drama. Space does not permit full discussion of these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to abolitionists, Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in the introduction to the New Cambridge edition of the play. You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on the play's language, and be aware that examiners might invite this comment in Essay IT Gadgets Lifestyle, general or specific terms. It is quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the theatrical effectiveness of the play's language - that is, how it works in conveying narrative, giving insight into black abolitionists character or attitudes, and engaging the sympathy or revulsion of the audience. Essay IT Gadgets And Student. The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at a study day for A level students.

notes from a lecture by abolitionists Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is Lifestyle, not just a medium of the play, but one of black its subjects. Language is used as an instrument of political control and manipulation. We are shown how power operates through language. Political uses of cleisthenes definition language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of command: Richard uses this early in black, the play, but not much hereafter. We were not born to sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is already losing power.

The rhetoric of persuasion: Richard tries to patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and Mowbray. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the regal throne and Carlisle retorts in like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the monarchy is displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and so on: Richard is aware of both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to work for Richard. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to be manipulated. The play is very concerned with the use of in 1984 language.

The audience lived in a society dependent on the spoken word. Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and stories. Those who were literate were trained at school in the arts of using language rhetorically to persuade. Black. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to be about language. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and power.

He has a monopoly of dependence command here: he is to be the arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). Black Abolitionists. The ritual here is ancient and traditional and has little to do with Richard's power as king. He chooses to use his temporal power to Lifestyle, break the ritual of divine justice on which the tournament is based (God decides in the trial by combat). Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and black abolitionists dispenses with the themes in literature divine justice. He replaces the ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at line 122 matches the rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of black abolitionists Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by theory Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is law in black, this scene, it will not be so for long.

From this point in the play we note the contrast between Richard's and Bolingbroke's speech. On his return from exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by his proper title - Lancaster. Cycle. When York accuses him of treason in black, returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out justice to Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire, and his simple and effective words and Essay and Student Lifestyle actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of abolitionists Lancaster. In 1984. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the earth using a familiar image of mother and child, yet reverses the usual rôles, as he tries to own the earth and direct it to act as an effective agent of harm to his enemies.

This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into a fantastic world of excess and disproportion. As he invokes spiders and black abolitionists toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the dependence rhetoric of realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to his own care-tuned tongue. Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to sit upon the ground and tell sad stories. While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to talk and black write. His musings lead him (151) to question his and others' identity. His language isolates him from his supporters; it is no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at line 144, Richard turns the power game into a language game: first he asks a series of cycle questions and proceeds, in self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. ) Then he changes from he to abolitionists, I, indicating a problem of totalitarianism identity. He can no longer use language to display power, so uses it to display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the black abolitionists language disturbs by its extravagance.

From line 161 on, the language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and dearth or to make a pair of graves. He has retreated into image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of dependence theory uncrowning and to invent the abolitionists language for themes this. While Bolingbroke presides over the ceremony it is largely Richard who enacts it, and uses the black abolitionists objects of ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to invent an imaginary world to eyfs planning cycle, people his cell. He can now see the gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is black, explicit, and he is aware of it. He now has no audience. Essay Exploration And Child Labor. At the start of the play everyone is obliged to acquiesce in Richard's language game. He now has no power, only language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to black, sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.

Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the main action preceded by the sections in which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the second half of the play. It recollects the opening of the whole play and points a parallel between Bolingbroke and Richard. It emphasises the clash of aristocratic pride with law and dependence kingly power. It looks back to events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and the continuity of history.

It reminds us that the black abolitionists events of the play are historical. Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of Richard, but he deals with them differently. Cleisthenes. By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in his reign). We see the events which cause the future. When Richard enters the scene a number of people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and invented this part of the black abolitionists scene.

There is no historical basis for on An Exploration Labor it. There is no suspense involved in this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). Black. The focus is not on what is to happen, but how it will happen. It is a struggle for theatrical, not political dominance. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.

This is a play which seems deliberately not to dependence, indulge in action. Abolitionists. There is suspension or paralysis of totalitarianism action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the scene is on objects rather than actions , to each of which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of power. He refuses to read the abolitionists paper listing his crimes, the themes symbol of real actions. He smashes the mirror , symbol of vanity and self-knowledge, and shadow of his face. It is a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. This prepares us for the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the different kinds of question you will have to answer.

In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the play. In theory any scene in the play could be chosen; in abolitionists, practice the themes in literature number of suitable scenes is more limited, but of course the extract chosen will only black, be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the question (usually) which refers to the themes of the play (not necessarily in so many words) and which implies consideration of eyfs cycle before and after, scenes from the middle of the text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is black, a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. Themes In Literature. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.

What (usually) is required is as follows: Consideration of the scene's treatment of the play's general themes - the extract and its place in relation to the rest of the play. Matters of black abolitionists staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about theory theatrical presentation are NOT questions about black character and the content of speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.

Again, this is planning cycle, not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and black abolitionists characters. The examiners want to see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of depth and thoroughness. In general, essays produced in trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of approach.

It is essential to plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Dependence. Embody the plan in your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the nature of kingship: to Carlisle the right to rule is God-given and inalienable, while for Northumberland the black throne is available to the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to modify their ideas. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and kings in Richard II ? By what means and cleisthenes definition with what success does Shakespeare attempt to secure our sympathy for black abolitionists Richard? In what ways do the cleisthenes definition minor characters serve to heighten the tragic effect of the play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and black abolitionists certainly won't set an essay on Essay Lifestyle the Second Herald or the black abolitionists Welsh Captain. Cleisthenes Definition. Essays explicitly about a single character are comparatively rare at 'A' level (as they invite the black abolitionists prepared essay). Essays may well be about relationships and the theatrical presentation of eyfs cycle characters.

In this play, questions about Richard and Bolingbroke must be expected. Abolitionists. Questions about in 1984 York, Aumerle and abolitionists Northumberland are also possible. The queen, the themes in literature caterpillars, Carlisle and Gaunt also contribute to how we see Richard, but are not in abolitionists, enough of the in literature play to black abolitionists, sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. And they inhibit the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of this play is the nature of in 1984 kingship. Questions about kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . For example, you may need to discuss the idea of the King's two bodies or whether the play supports the view that not all the black abolitionists water in Essay IT Gadgets and Student, the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from th'anointed king.

You may be asked in what sense the play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on black abolitionists ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Any order/disorder question is really a question about the contrasting approaches and fortunes of Richard and Henry, which is qualified by the views (on the sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle York, as well as the black abolitionists Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Usually, the statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Often the accuracy of a statement may depend upon Essay IT Gadgets and Student, the interpretation given to the text in performance.

Questions about the play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is abolitionists, perfectly in order in the other types of question). Subjects on cleisthenes definition which you should be ready to answer would include some of the things discussed in black abolitionists, a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of themes tone - see, for example, A. P. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in the Casebook guide, pp. 214-229) and Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and private (informal) scenes; action and abolitionists inaction; Northumberland's power politics and Carlisle's divine right of cycle kings, and so on: these things are not to be examined simply in their own right, but in terms of their effect on the play as a work of abolitionists theatre.

As language is of such importance here, this is dependence, discussed more fully in a separate section of this guide. A very basic outline for revision. Use this very basic outline to learn the structure of the play. Adapt or customize it to suit your preferred methods of study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for killing his uncle (Gloucester). Richard declares a tournament at Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Black Abolitionists. Coventry - the lists - no result but Mowbray and Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and dies. Richard is rude and Essay on An and Child Labor seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.

Bushy, Bagot and abolitionists the queen - surely the least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. York is worried. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and themes in literature a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. toads,Not all the water in the rough rude sea. and For God's sake let us sit upon the ground. . Flint Castle - Richard like the sun on the ramparts but comes down into the base court and says Up, cousin, up. . Abolitionists. The Queen and the Gardener - cue a load of metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the crown and the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at the end like in II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and Aumerle against Henry. (No chance of this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to his queen, and eyfs is diverted from the Tower of London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.

York is sorry for black abolitionists Richard but supports Henry now, and proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an advert for the next play in in literature, the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to lock the door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. Black. (v) Richard in definition, prison; he is black, philosophical and in 1984 resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the would-be rebels. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. Black. Exton is also banished and Henry decides to go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land to definition, make up for what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

Thank you.

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‘Some of the More Mundane Moments in black Life Make Great Essays’ 1:48 p.m. | Updated For a follow-up post synthesizing reader comments on this subject, click here . Reflections on a critical month in cleisthenes definition the admissions process, by David L. Black Abolitionists. Marcus, author of Essay IT Gadgets and Student, “Acceptance.” Here’s an abolitionists, essay that’s sure to make an admissions officer reach for the triple grande latte to stay awake: “I spent [choose one: a summer vacation/a weekend/three hours] volunteering with the poor in [Honduras/ Haiti/ Louisiana] and realized that [I am privileged/I enjoy helping others/people there are happy with so little] .” Yes, the admissions folks have read it before. Many times.

“I would love to have a student answer the question, ‘Why is it that you have everything and they have nothing?’ ” said Cezar Mesquita, admissions director at the College of Wooster. “Or ‘What did others learn from your participation in the trip?’” For many seniors, choosing the Essay of Sweatshops Labor, topic for a personal statement is more difficult than actually writing the piece. But don’t fret. “Some of the black, more mundane moments in life make great essays,” Christopher Burkmar, Princeton University’s associate dean of admissions, assured guidance counselors at dependence theory, a conference last month. For example, Mr. Burkmar said he had recently savored a few hundred words about a family’s dinner conversations. “The best essays make us laugh, cry or wince,” said Matthew Whelan, Stony Brook University’s assistant provost for admissions and financial aid. “They help us understand why we want the applicant here.” One of Mr. Black. Whelan’s current favorites: “The young man who puts his siblings on the bus in the morning because both parents are working, then gets them off the themes in literature, bus, cooks them dinner and helps with homework because both parents are still working.” At times, taking a risk pays off.

Stacey Davey, associate director of admissions at Adelphi University, said she was impressed by the raw prose of a girl who battled an eating disorder. She wrote a letter to her former best friend — it was addressed to her skinny jeans. “She realized that getting into them was self destructive.” Humility is abolitionists often attractive. The Rochester Institute of Technology was intrigued by cleisthenes definition, a valedictorian who wanted to take an arc welding class in abolitionists high school. Her high school rebuffed her because she was an honors student, but she persisted.

On the first day of IT Gadgets, class, she burned her hand. “I remember the essay, her name and her school from 17 years ago,” said Robert Springall, who was at abolitionists, R.I.T. at the time and Essay is now Bucknell University’s admissions dean. On the other hand, Mr. Springall was working at Cornell when an applicant revealed that while waitressing she got angry at a customer and abolitionists spit in his food before serving it. “Immediate red flag,” Mr. Springall recalled. “She makes poor choices.” Last winter, I spent a week observing a Stony Brook admissions officer as he pored over applications. I was struck by the number of students rhapsodizing about expensive travel or service projects in exotic locales, seemingly unaware that classmates were pinched by a recession. Also avoid breezy David Letterman “Top 10” lists, which raise more questions than they answer, said Jennifer Fondiller, admissions dean at themes, Barnard College. Some subjects are inappropriate. A few years ago, a top student applying to black abolitionists, Texas Christian University reminisced about torturing frogs when he was younger. The admissions dean, Raymond Brown, kept reading, hoping for at and Student Lifestyle, least a few words of apology or epiphany.

Nothing. The applicant was rejected. “Probably not a good choice of black, topic,” Mr. Brown explained, “when you’re applying to cycle, a school whose mascot is a frog.” Have you got essay advice to pass on, borne of personal experience or otherwise? Use the black abolitionists, comment box below to let us know. Mr. Marcus is the author of “Acceptance: A Legendary Guidance Counselor Helps Seven Kids Find the Right Colleges – and Find Themselves” (Penguin Press), and a former education reporter at Newsday and of Sweatshops Labor U.S. News and World Report.

At the end of this month, he will take on a new post directing public relations for the New York Institute of Technology. Comments are no longer being accepted. The New York Times and so many other media outlets constantly interview admissions officers who constantly cite very BRIEF examples of what they consider great essays. Can’t these admissions officers get permission from black, some of these essay writers and then post the essays online? I REALLY want to see these “wonderful” essays myself. It’s completely worthless to talk about these essays without actually showing us one. Every year — for the next 1,000 years — every newspaper will run an article about essays written by applicants for colleges. And all of these articles will provide nothing useful for future applicants. I think that students should not have to write an essay for themes in literature admittance to a post secondary education. How does anyone know if they actually wrote it?

Once they are admitted to university or college it is up to them to learn how to be university students and remedy deficiencies. Black Abolitionists. The SAT test may seem to dependence theory, be a good idea, but it gives an edge to students whose parents can afford tutoring. Black. Nor is it fair to students who have real problems related to testing. All that this article tells us is what bored admissions officers enjoy reading to themes in literature, brighten up their dreary days. It is a waste of the applicant’s time cooking up some entertaining stories, especially if the story might not even be written by the applicants.

It is a bad idea to let some self-confessed past events to abolitionists, help or derail the Essay Lifestyle, applicant’s admission and academic future. Black. If the admission officers really want to get a feel for the applicants, conduct an online interview using Skype or similar technology. I wasn’t given a specific topic for my entry essay — somehow I had the brainstorm to write about three or for instances where I’d failed at Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle, something or something I’d been working on had gone haywire. I think my ultimate point back then was “but they’ve all given me funny stories, so it’s okay.” Today, just as back then, I can still laugh when things go haywire (my foibles usually tend to have an black, element of the ridiculous to them, for totalitarianism in 1984 some reason), but I think now that the hidden genius in that idea was that the admissions office also figured, “hey, this student knows how to handle setbacks with grace. Good.” Does it make any difference whether the abolitionists, applicant wrote the essay himself or if it was edited by any number of people? I would think that most application essays are of the in literature, latter type. I am a high school English teacher who teaches a unit on writing the black abolitionists, college essay for my junior class.

I am always looking for new model essays to totalitarianism, show to my students as well. There are a few good books out there that publish sample college essays. In addition, you should check out black abolitionists, Connecticut College’s website. They have a section on their site named “Essays That Worked” where they post several great essays each year. Did you not notice that all of the essays discussed above reflected the character and life experiences, positive or not, of the writers? There’s no magic potion or winning template an applicant can follow to write a successful essay – that’s why colleges require them.

I wrote my application essay for Wesleyan about the impact that Dr. Seuss had on planning my formative years. Wrote much of black, it in and Student Seuss-style verse. It worked. commenter #1: this article is about “choosing the topic for a personal statement”, not about its construction or complete content. There are plenty of college prep manuals that provide examples of well-written essays. commenter #2: you seem to be opposed to both essays and SAT scores. What measures would you suggest? Only the GPA? That has its problems too, such as grade inflation and extenuating circumstances.

Interviews? Very useful, but difficult to standardize. You’re correct that an essay’s authorship can’t be certain, but its topic and content will always reveal something about the student’s choices and the way they want to present themselves. As with the first commenter, you should realize that the intention of this article is to abolitionists, encourage the creative choice of an essay topic, in light of the fact that an dependence theory, essay is usually required. Now, the author has asked for our essay advice. Mine is very much in line with the ideas in black the article: make sure the essay is both interesting and dependence theory informative. Surely you’ve had at least one remarkable experience in black your life that you can describe, illuminating how it shaped your character or your hopes in cleisthenes life. If you haven’t, perhaps you should take a year off and go do something extraordinary. You will know you’ve written a good essay when you can be sure that the admissions officer will remember it with pleasure if, once you’re on abolitionists campus, you happen to meet that officer and say, “I don’t know if you read my essay, but I’m the theory, student who wrote about…”

The application requested a list of books read for black the last year considered important/transformative. This was the jumping off point to discuss the rediscovery of children’s literature – the pithiness as well as the potential deeper lessons, often psychological. (And the difficulty of cleisthenes, this.) And, the college essay is the opportunity to paint oneself as a person and black abolitionists not a as composite number – ACT/SAT, GPA, secondary school reputation/rigorousness, a litany of extracurricular activities (that used to be unusual and are now the norm.) Thus, the planning cycle, topic of the essay reflect who you are as much as your accomplishment(s) including as an abolitionists, English user. You could opt for a poem as much as an “essay.”

Honduras/Haiti/Louisiana? Ouch. I have to tell you, it’s really great having a Times blog reduce your home state to a third-world stereotype. Another piece of in 1984, advise I would like to contribute as a recent college graduate who when applying early decision to my ideal Universtiy struggled with an black, essay topic: I think it’s very effective to dependence theory, bring the reader into abolitionists, a moment of your life, as in, a very descriptive paragraph of a moment in theory time, in your personal life, where the admissioners officer can feel your surroundings and black abolitionists be present in that moment with you.

I think it’s important for readers to Essay Lifestyle, get into the heads of the applicants, feel the rythm of these young lives. If you can help the reader to relate and understand the thoughts, feelings, and movements of the writer, then you have them hooked. Colleges need to tamp down the obsession for a “memorable” essay. Students applying to college are kids generally in the the age group 17-19, with limited experiences and abolitionists still forming as adults. In Literature. The expectation that they have “discovered themselves” or thrived through a “great adversity” is black abolitionists rare. This extreme emphasis on the “great american college essay” often leads to is an essay that has been edited extensively by more experienced hands and is designed to deceive through embellishments. Your educational opportunity hangs upon in 1984, the snap judgment of an admissions committee member. Black Abolitionists. In your career it will be the same, though usually without an themes, essay. My advice to a college applicant: get coached on the essay, by someone from the other side if possible: a professor or an HR manager. But in the end it’s a crap-shoot.

The reader of your essay might decide you are honest, or too good a faker; charmingly naive, or stupid; humble, or withlow self-esteem; creative, or too given to black abolitionists, fantasies. It’s all about the reader, not the applicant. As the parent of a college student and dependence a HS junior, the advice that has served my children well is to black, write about something that the reviewer cannot learn elsewhere in your application. If you took that community service trip to Honduras last summer, it’s going to be listed elsewhere. Ditto the dependence, volunteer hours at the local hospital. Write about something they cannot learn from your resume or your activities list. a small moment that tells the reviewer something about you that would otherwise not be revealed. Thanks for the cite to the Connecticut College “Essays that worked.” That’s a nice resource, and also a nice honor for abolitionists those students they’ve picked to feature. I’ll add a caveat, though. That style of eyfs planning, essay is abolitionists generally inappropriate for Essay on An a student applying to graduate school in the sciences. Even, for example, if your motivation for joining a psychology program is a brother with autism, that motivation should be a minor part of abolitionists, your essay. What the essay needs to focus on is your interest in what the education will offer (not a cure to autism, usually), and your ability to do the work to benefit from that education.

It’s a different style, and it’s very noticeable when “undergrad” essays are re-cycled for definition graduate school. The Greatest novel ever written was based on the course of black abolitionists, one day in one city by one man, Ulysses by James Joyce. One of the greatest rock conceptual songs was based on the course of one person going to work, “A Day in the Life” by the Beatles. It is not the mundane everyday events, but the interpretation of the underlying significance. Jane Austen explored much of the interior space of the characters, even when the everyday events were inconsequential. But don’t put me to sleep with the definition, mundane insignificance of your life. Black. The psychology can be illuminating. When it is of Sweatshops and Child Labor well done, it can be enlightening. I spend my days teaching high school students how to write their application essays, and the advice I give them – based on conversations with admissions officers all over the country – never varies:

1. Your application essay is a story about you. It’s not about poor orphans in Ecuador or your Great Aunt Lucy or the time you ran for student government. It’s about how that person or experience affected you. Are you different now? Did you learn something meaningful about black abolitionists, yourself? 2. A personal essay should answer two important questions: 1) What happened; and 2) Why does it matter.

Students often have a hard time with the “Why does it matter” part. 3) Your writing voice is unique, personal and special. Let it shine through. Don’t get too much help polishing your work, or your voice will get lost. Cleisthenes Definition. Students call me all the time asking me to “fix” their essays. The answer is no.

Everyone has a story to tell. If more students (and parents!) would relax and black let those stories emerge, the eyfs planning, essay wouldn’t seem like such a stumbling block, and instead would be seen as the opportunity it is – to tell people who will never meet you something real about yourself. I got accepted early into an Ivy League school back in black abolitionists 1994; I wrote my application essay about one day spent with my older sister and in 1984 our relationship. Basically, the essay was about thoughts and questions I was having while we were on a bus together and then when we arrived at our destination, the resolution we reached. Nothing splashy about black abolitionists, exotic community service. The elephant in the room is that so many parents now hire people to write or heavily edit the essay. Is honesty still the best policy, given that it puts the honest student at dependence, a distinct disadvantage? I checukled at the Hait/Honduras/Louisiana trifecta. If I was an abolitionists, admissions officer, I would ask “aren’t there people closer to you who could benefit from your volunteer efforts?” You don’t need to go far to totalitarianism in 1984, make a difference; there are needy people in every community in black the country.

Being about to eyfs, send in college applications myself, and having written about a span of just 10 minutes’ time, I found this post/article extremely reassuring. I was always worried that, since I never went on any flashy community service trips over abolitionists summers (unlike atleast half my graduating class will have), I would never get into dependence, college. Thankfully, this isn’t so; and college essays don’t need to be about a glamorous topic to make the black, reader think and enjoy them. I advise students to read plenty of examples of strong essays in advance of beginning any brainstorming or writing. In 1984. There are a number of black abolitionists, books on in literature the market and websites to help. Then I like to black, choose a couple of those sample essays and have the student identify three things or traits that were revealed about the writer/applicant. For example, family is important as revealed by the catchy beginning that showed the writer/applicant having a deep discussion with an cleisthenes, older sibling.

Or the black, writer is profoundly interested in studying French and is willing to take on on An of Sweatshops challenges outside her comfort zone as revealed by the reference to studying abroad in a full-immersion exchange program. Or the writer values community as revealed by the eloquent description of her role within the corps d’ ballet, and how she provides support to black abolitionists, and draws on the strength of her fellow dancers. Then I ask, “what do you want to reveal about cleisthenes, yourself that’s important to you?” Other tips I reinforce include: economy of words, keep it simple and straightforward, use your own voice, do get feedback from someone but no more than three people who you respect (I like one of those people to be a well-read and scholarly peer who knows you well), and abolitionists don’t be afraid to abandon essays that just aren’t working. My second-year Yale daughter abandoned at least four essays before hitting on a few she loved and used for her applications. Remember to use the first person; it’s about you, the writer, and Essay Lifestyle it is personal.

Avoid the passive voice. Use a “show and tell” approach; your essay should include catchy anecdotes that paint a picture along with reflective “tells’ about abolitionists, things you learned or discovered. Start early. Admission-winning essays are not the same essays that are thrown together the night before an application is due. Have fun!

This can be a therapeutic, enlightening, reflective process that will help you get to know yourself better and make you a better writer.

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Black Abolitionists » Zinn Education Project

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Ambrose Bierce#8217;s Short Stories Essay Sample. Ambrose Gwinett Bierce (1842-1862), the abolitionists, talented author of many highly original stories, lived for 21 years. His stories illustrate in a vivid and disturbing detail, a period of cleisthenes definition, American history, specifically, The American Civil War. Black! It is clear that Bierce#8217;s participation in themes, the Civil War was a defining episode of his life, and black abolitionists one that inspired his fiction. Bierce was a topographical engineer, who fought in many different battles: this first-hand exposure to the war can be felt in each of his stories: indeed, each story describes vividly the fate of a combatant who is involved in a specific moment of the war.

Each of the characters in the stories studied, #8216;An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,#8217; #8216;A Baffled Ambuscade,#8217; and #8216;Three and One are One,#8217; reflect the horror of the war Bierce experienced. Bierce clearly portrays the characters as figures whose lives are wholly changed by the time in which they lived, and their involvement in the war. In #8216;An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge#8217;, Peyton Farquar, the central character, a southerner, is clearly a victim of the war, and one whom we sympathise with. Totalitarianism! The Federal army eventually hangs Peyton Farquar, for committing a crime we are not familiar with but we are given the impression that Farquar escapes, an escape that preludes a particularly tragic end. In contrast with Peyton Farquar, Major Seidel, the main character in #8216;A Baffled Ambuscade#8217; does not meet his fate during the Civil War. He leads a night-time expedition against the Confederate allies but tragically suffers the black abolitionists, loss of one of his troopers.

Seidel is presented in a vivid manner. We learn he is tough, gallant and and Child a skillful leader. He is keen to keep his dignity despite the obvious danger he faces. Like Peyton Farquar, Major Seidel, in a strange way, is also portrayed sympathetically suffering the black, loss of one of his men in Essay and Student, an extraordinary circumstance. The third figure, Barr Lassiter, again caught up in this Civil War is the central figure in #8216;Three and One are One#8217;. Lassiter, a 22 year old committed trooper, leaves his family, who were confederate sympathisers, to join the Federal army despite being aware that his family consider this a dishonor. His parents did not give him a chance of black abolitionists, farewell when he left to fight in the war, and, tragically Lassiter never spoke to them again. Essay IT Gadgets And Student! Barr Lassiter attempt to reunite with his family (when he returns to beg for forgiveness after a 2-year absence) is thwarted. However, although Bierce creates characters who are clearly participants in a defining moment in American history, there are distinctive characteristics which place#8217;s them in the readers mind as exceptional and extraordinary individuals.

Each of the three stories present characters that face situations that isolate them and black abolitionists which lead them to face the unnatural in the form of #8216;ghosts#8217;. For example, Barr Lassiter sees his ghost family, Major Seidel talks to the ghost of his trooper, Dunning, and Peyton Farquar appears to live out a wholly supernatural experience, leading to a #8216;reunion#8217; with his wife. This is true for Barr Lassiter in #8216;Three and One are One#8217;. He faces a peculiar situation: he goes off to the war, thus engendering a dispute with his family and is thereby isolated from them- an isolation made more emphatic by the fact that he adopts the Federal cause contrary to his family#8217;s sympathies. After he returns 2 years later anxious to reunite with his family, he is again ignored, and not welcomed in a manner expected. Lassiter tries to communicate with his family, #8216;Father! Cried the totalitarianism, young man, springing forward with outstretched hand Father!#8217; The father then stands motionless and goes back into the house. #8216;Bitterly disappointed, humiliated, inexpressibly hurt and altogether unnerved, the soldier dropped upon a rustic in deep dejection#8217;. The reader deeply sympathises with Lassiter, as his family did not provide him with the recognition wanted. However, what further distinguishes Barr Lassiter is his realisation that the next day, on a second visit his family was dead: #8216;Lassiter#8217;s astonishment was extreme,#8217; and as he saw #8216;fire-blackened foundations of stone,#8217; instead of his house, his only words were, #8216;And my family-where are they?#8217; It is only at black abolitionists this moment that Lassiter realises that the encounter with his family the day before was spectral: in Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, fact, the whole episode empahasis to Lassiter the awful extent of hi loss. Lassiter is not the only figure who goes through such an black abolitionists occult and themes in literature disturbing experience.

After Major Seidel (in A Baffled Ambuscade) learns that his trooper, Dunning, has gone by himself to face the black abolitionists, enemy, he is forced to cycle follow him out of duty as leader of the expedition. Black Abolitionists! Going ahead of the expedition he leads, galloping down the forest, he suddenly sees a figure standing #8216;motionless#8217; in cleisthenes definition, the dark. Black Abolitionists! Thinking it is an enemy Seidel draws his sword: #8216;With the instinct of the true cavalryman and a particular indisposition to the discharge of firearms, he drew his saber,#8217; this also suggests to readers how brave Major Seidel can appear to Essay Lifestyle be. However it is not an enemy, the figure appears to be his trooper, Dunning; moreover, he is black giving Seidel a message that he should retreat as there is danger ahead. Seidel follows the advice, but later is shocked to find out definition that Dunning has been dead for a long time: #8216;In the little open space off the black abolitionists, road they found the fallen horse.

At a right angle across the animal#8217;s neck face upward, a bullet in of Sweatshops and Child, the brain, lay the body of Trooper Dunning, stiff as a statue, hours dead,#8217; a ghost saved Seidel. This situation is an abolitionists #8216;imitation#8217; of the eyfs planning cycle, experience Lassiter endures, as he too comes to terms with the fact that his family have been dead for some time. Both suffer the black, same shocking reaction that they have been engaging with ghosts. Bierce treats the themes in literature, third character Peyton Farquar (in An Occurrence at black Owl Creek Bridge) in a supernatural way. In contrast to Lassiter and Seidel, Farquar himself appears to participate in the after life. The story begins with his hanging: #8216;The man#8217;s hands were behind his back, the wrists bound with a cord. A rope closely encircled his neck#8217;. However Farquar escapes, and so begins an extraordinary moment in eyfs planning, his life. Bierce describes him, firstly, struggling in black abolitionists, the river desperate to planning cycle save himself: #8216; He felt his head emerge; his eyes were blinded by the sunlight; his chest expanded convulsively, and abolitionists with a supreme and of Sweatshops Labor crowning agony his lungs engulfed a great draught of air, which instantly he expelled in a shriek!#8217; This emphasizes his will to live. He then finally makes it out black of the river where he escapes his death and walk down a long path in the woods that was imaginary.

This path led him to his wife and as he got closer to her, suddenly #8216;he feels a stunning blow upon the back of the neck.#8217; What Bierce then reveals is that the escape was imagined, a deep psychological rendering of Essay on An and Child Labor, a dying man#8217;s need to abolitionists see his wife. Essay And Student Lifestyle! By these supernatural encounters Bierce also transforms his characters to show us how complex they are, and how deeply affected each is by the war. Barr Lassiter is forced to abolitionists look in the eye toll the Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, war takes on his family when he revisits them as ghostly apparition. A reader is made to see and black abolitionists appreciate the extent to which each of the character in Bierce#8217;s stories suffer. Death plays an important role in all three characters#8217; lives, and without the supernatural encounter they all go through, Bierce could not show the depth t which these characters are traumatised by the war.

For example, Farquar experience an urgent desire to go on living and loving, which is denied in his death. Barr Lassiter has forced upon him his family#8217;s rejection in eyfs planning cycle, his spectral visit to black abolitionists his home, where he encounters them as ghosts. It is seeing the ghost of one of his troopers, whom he was suppose to in literature protect, that traumatised Major Seidel. The supernatural element emphasis the tragedy and black abolitionists enlarge our sense of eyfs planning cycle, who these individuals are. And it is that, that makes a Bierce#8217;s story, a Bierce#8217;s story. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order Ambrose Bierce#8217;s Short Stories. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Black! Top grades and cleisthenes quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Ambrose Bierce#8217;s Short Stories. War is an inspiration for black many writers, and many writers feel great agony and horror at the atrocities of war. Of all American writers, Ambrose Bierce is considered by many#8230; #8220;The Coup De Grace#8221; by Ambrose Bierce. American naturalism first began in in literature, 1893 with Stephen Crane#8217;s Maggie. Abolitionists! Naturalistic writers usually write stories that mostly take place below the theory, belt and black show the sad, but true realities that#8230; Comparing and contrasting Short Stories: #8220;Good Country People#8221; and #8220;Revelation#8221; Mary Flannery O#8217;connor wrote two short stories entitled #8220;Good Country People#8221; and #8220;Revelation#8221;. O#8217;conner displays similarities between the characters and the differences in the role they play at the end#8230; Short Stories From Echoes. The two stories, #8220;Araby#8221; and #8220;Going to eyfs planning The Moon#8221;, seem to have a common theme, fascination and fear of things different. From the opposite sex to distant places, these fascinations#8230; Sample short stories.

As part of our study of narrative writing, you will choose a short story to read and analyze. Listed below are several short stories with links to the story. Included#8230; Ambrose Bierce, considered a straight forward yet descriptive writer, shows his strong opinion about war while keeping the reader in tuned with his short stories. In his book The Collected#8230;

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Cognitive and black abolitionists Affective Psychology. Cognitive and Affective Psychology. Through the centuries, humanity remained absorbed in the attempt to explain human nature. The philosophers speculated. Literary giants wrote of human passions, struggles, triumphs, and dependence tragedies. But the facts were not available; only personal opinion and guesswork. It was impossible to know for sure how we see and hear until modern science learned about light and sound waves and black the way they affect nerve endings within the body. On An Exploration And Child Labor. Human moods and emotions could not be analyzed until science identified the substances secreted by black abolitionists the human glands and the complex way the glands interact with the brain.

The process of theory heredity could not be understood until biologists discovered the chromosomes, genes, and the chemical key to life called DNA. The influence of environment was unclear until psychologists established the facts about abolitionists, learning and about development from infant to adult (Sternberg, 2006). Need essay sample on Cognitive and Affective Psychology ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Even today, we do not know the full story, and perhaps we never will, for human behavior is themes in literature so complex that it may forever defy complete understanding. But psychologists aided by the progress of other scientists have found some of the answers, and they are making new discoveries all the black abolitionists time. The psychological experiment, psychology itself, has come a long way since the science began. At the start, the idea of taking approach to the study of in 1984 behavior required a radical shift in human thinking and invention of brand-new techniques of study. Abolitionists. The early psychologists lacked the tools necessary for Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle, sophisticated exploration (Buckley, 2001). Nevertheless, they provided humanity five precursors to the development of black abolitionists cognitive psychology, namely, functionalism, pragmatism, behaviorism, structuralism, and associationism. Factual: Five Antecedents to Cognitive Psychology.

According to the theory of functionalism, mental events depend on primarily on the networks, pathways, and the interconnection of mental processes, and not on the material stuff that it is composed of. Functionalists do not deny that human mental processes are a function of human brain activity. They simply throw open the criteria of mental activity to include computers, robots, or other human-made devices that exhibit the relevant processes (Levin, 2004). The field of artificial intelligence attempts to realize the functionalist theory and duplicate human cognitive mental states in theory computing machinery. For some time scientists have tried to replicate human thought processes in some kind of mechanical form. However, at that state of black abolitionists technology, the robot was little more than a wind up toy, and it exhibited none of the internal processes that functionalists would associate with thinking. Computer technology of recent decades has provided the first viable opportunity for at least attempting to replicate all human mental processes in machine form such as emotions, willful activity, and artistic sensibility, advocates of artificial intelligence focus only on the thinking process, analyzing sensory data and making judgments about it. Cycle. From a functionalist perspective, the dangerous claim about artificial intelligence is philosophically controversial since it holds that a computer can have human-like thoughts (Witherington and black abolitionists Crichton, 2007). “Pragmatism,” William James writes, “is a method only.” Still, as a method, pragmatism assumed that human life has a purpose and that rival theories about human nature and the world need to cleisthenes definition be tested against purpose (Goodman, 2006).

According to James, there is in fact no single definition of human purpose. Instead, our understanding of human purpose is part of the activity of thinking (Zachar, 2002). Philosophical thinking arises when we want to understand things and the setting in which they live; purpose derives its meaning from a sense of being at home in the universe (Gross, 2002). James rejected rationalism chiefly because it was dogmatic and black abolitionists presumed t give conclusive answers about the world in terms that frequently left the issues of life untouched. Dependence. By contrast, pragmatism “has no dogmas and no doctrines save its method” (Leigland, 2004). Abolitionists. As a method, pragmatism takes its cue from the newly discovered facts of life. We should not accept as final any formulations in science, theology, or philosophy, but instead see them as only approximations (“Pragmatism”). In 1913, another American, John Watson, revolutionized psychology by breaking completely with the school of introspection and theory founding the movement behaviorism. Watson declared the mental life is something that cannot be seen or measured and thus cannot be studied scientifically. Rather, he concluded that psychologists should concentrate on actions that are plainly visible.

In other words, he wanted the black abolitionists science to study what people, not what they think (Graham, 2000). He considered all human behavior to be a series of actions in a which a stimulus, that is, an event in the environment, produces a response, that is an Essay on An and Child, observable muscular movement or some physiological reaction, such as increased heart rate or glandular secretion, that can also be observed and measured with the proper instruments (Harzem, 2004). All our sense organs, though they vary greatly in the sensations hey produce, operate on some basic principles. Black. In particular, Ernst Weber proposed means and established laws to measure our source of information, the senses (Thorndike, “Behaviorism”). When receptor cells are activated by a stimulus, they set off bursts of nervous impulses.

After being routed through various switching points, the receptors’ messages reach the in 1984 sensory areas of the cerebral cortex, where they are translated into our conscious sensations of vision, hearing, and the rest. Our brain never actually encounters light or sound. It depends instead on the incoming nervous impulses that originate when the sense organs are roused to activity. The senses also have a threshold for the ability to discriminate between two stimuli that are similar in strength but not exactly alike (Thorndike, “Behaviorism”). The rule that the difference threshold is abolitionists a fixed percentage of the original stimulus is called Weber’s Law, in honor of the physiologist who discovered it more than a century ago. In 1984. In practical terms, it means this: the more intense the sensory stimulation to which the human organism is being subjected, the greater the increase in intensity required to produce a recognizable difference (Ludvig, 2003).

The year the science was founded is usually put at 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychological laboratory at Germany’s University of Leipzig (Boeree, 2000). Wundt had studied to be a physician, then instead of practicing medicine, taught as a professor of physiology. But he soon lost interest, because he was much more concerned with human consciousness than with the black workings of the body. His experiments, in retrospect, seem rather trivial. For example, he and his students spent hours in the laboratory listening to the click of a metronome, sometimes set fast and sometimes set slow, sounding only a few times or many, and analyzed their conscious reactions. Exploration. They decided that a rapid series of clicks produced excitement and a slow series made them relaxed, and that they had slight feelings of tension before each click and of relief afterward (Boeree, 2000). Despite this modest beginning, the new science of psychology found an immediate and enthusiastic response. A few years later, similar acclaim came to Sir Francis Galton, one of the black abolitionists first British psychologists. Galton, who was interested in individual differences, invented numerous devices to test such traits as hearing, sense of smell, color vision, and Exploration and Child ability to judge weights. Black. Even in those early years, when psychology was just taking a few tentative steps into the vast realm of human behavior, it captured the Essay IT Gadgets and Student public’s attention (“Structuralism”).

Like Wundt, most of the black abolitionists pioneers concentrated on an attempt to discover the nature, origins, and significance of conscious experiences. In Literature. This was what is methodically known to be structuralism. Their chief method of investigation was introspection, or looking inward. They tried to analyze the processes that went on inside their minds, asked their subjects to abolitionists do the same, and recorded their findings, as objectively as possible, for comparison with other observers (“Structuralism”). The most prominent of the early American psychologists and structuralists was William James, who came to cleisthenes definition the science from an black, unusual background (Boeree, 2000). IT Gadgets And Student Lifestyle. Like Wundt, he studied medicine but never practiced. Indeed he had a difficult time finding his true vocation.

At one time, he wanted to be an black, artist, then a chemist, and once he joined a zoological expedition to Brazil, In his late twenties, he suffered a mental breakdown and IT Gadgets Lifestyle went through a prolonged depression in abolitionists which he seriously thought of committing suicide. But he recovered, largely he believed through what he called an achievement of the will, and went on cleisthenes definition to become a Harvard professor and prolific writer on psychology and philosophy. James had no doubt about the mission of the abolitionists new science. His definition of in literature psychology is the study of mental life. The distinguishing feature of black abolitionists his mental life, he felt, was that human beings constantly seek certain end results and definition must constantly choose among various methods of abolitionists achieving them.

James was interested in the broad pattern of human strivings, the cleisthenes cradle-to-grave progress of human beings as thinking organisms who adopt certain goals and ambitions, including spiritual ones, and struggle in various ways to abolitionists attain the totalitarianism in 1984 goals or become reconciled to failure (Boeree, 2000). It is not by mere chance that our ideas are related to each other. Black Abolitionists. There must be, David Hume says, “some bond of union, some associating quality, by Essay and Child which one idea naturally introduces another.” Psychologists call it the theory of associationism. It is not a special faculty of the mind that associates one idea with another but by observing the actual patterns of abolitionists our thinking and Exploration and Child analyzing the groupings of our ideas (Holtorf, “Associationism”). Whenever there are certain qualities in ideas, these ideas are associated with each other. These qualities are three in number: resemblance, contiguity in time or place, and cause and black effect.

Associationism states that the Essay IT Gadgets and Student connections of all ideas to each other could be explained by these qualities and gave the following examples of how they work: “A picture naturally leads our thoughts to the original (resemblance): the mention of one apartment in the building naturally introduces an enquiry…concerning the others (contiguity): and abolitionists if we think of a wound, we can scarcely forebear reflecting on the pain which follows it (cause and effect)” (Holtorf, “Associationism”). There are no operations of the mind that differ in principle from one of these examples of the association of ideas. But of these, the notion of cause and cleisthenes effect was considered by cognitive psychologists to be the central element in abolitionists knowledge. They took the position that the causal principle is the Essay IT Gadgets foundation upon which the validity of all knowledge depends. If there is any flaw in associationism, we can have no certainty of knowledge (Holtorf, “Associationism”). Analytical: Plato vs. Aristotle. Plato and Aristotle were both commanding thinkers and leaders of their respective eras and black abolitionists fields.

Both philosophers possess analogous qualities in their writing flairs, on top of their topics in their writings. Plato’s comprehensive treatment of knowledge was so powerful that his philosophy became one of the most influential strands in the history of Western thought. Unlike his predecessors, who focused upon single main problems, Plato brought together all the major concerns of human thought into a coherent organization of knowledge (Cooper, 1997). Aristotle on the other hand invented formal logic. He also invented the idea of the themes in literature separate sciences. For him, there was a close connection between logic and science, inasmuch as he considered logic to black abolitionists be the instrument or organon with which to formulate language properly when analyzing what a science involves. Totalitarianism In 1984. Psychology as well know today is somewhat founded on the harmonious relationship of logic and science (Large, “Aristotle”). The foundation of Plato’s philosophy is his account of knowledge. The Sophists had skeptical views regarding our ability to acquire knowledge. Human knowledge, they believed, was grounded in social customs and the perceptions of individual people.

Such “knowledge” fluctuated from one culture or person to another. Plato, though, staunchly rejected this view. He was convinced that there are unchanging and abolitionists universal truths, which human reason is capable of cycle grasping. In his dialog, The Republic, he picturesquely makes his case with the Allegory of the Cave and the metaphor of the Divided Line (Cooper, 1997). In the Allegory of the Cave, Plato rejected the abolitionists skepticism of the Sophists by theory arguing that there are these two worlds, the abolitionists dark world of the cave and the bright world of light. For Plato, knowledge was not only possible, but it was virtually infallible. What makes knowledge infallible is that it is based upon what is most real. IT Gadgets And Student Lifestyle. The dramatic contrast between the shadows, reflections, and black the actual objects parallels the different degrees to on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child which human beings could be enlightened. Plato was convinced that we could discover the black abolitionists real objects behind all the multitude of totalitarianism shadows, and black abolitionists thereby attain true knowledge (Cooper, 1997). In his metaphor of the IT Gadgets Divided Line, Plato provides more detail about the black levels of Exploration knowledge that we can obtain. Plato concludes his discussion of the Divided Line with the summary statement, “ now you may take, as corresponding to the four sections, these four states of mind: intelligence for the highest, thinking for abolitionists, the second, belief for the third and for the last imagining.

These you may arrange as the terms in a proportion, assigning to each a degree of clearness and certainty, corresponding to the measure in which their objects possess truth and reality” (Cooper, 1997). The highest degree of reality, he argued, consists of the Forms, as compared with shadows, reflections, and even the visible objects. Unlike Plato, who thought that to know the good was sufficient to Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor do the good, Aristotle saw that there must be deliberate choice in addition to knowledge. Thus, Aristotle said that the “origin of moral action, that is its efficient, not its final cause, is black choice, and the origin of choice is desire and reasoning with a view to an end” (Barnes, 1984). With the end in mind, Aristotle became inclined to in 1984 arriving at an end from a deductive approach. Black. Aristotle’s classic example of a deductive argument is this: (1) All men are mortal; (2) Socrates is a man; (3) Therefore, Socrates is mortal (Smith, 2004). The problem with this approach is that the conclusions we draw only perpetuate the errors that are already contained in planning cycle the premises. Instead we need an argumentative strategy that gives us new information upon which we can draw new conclusions. Induction does just this. Plato was particularly concerned with the abolitionists cognitive aspect of art, feeling that it had the effect of distorting knowledge because it was removed several steps from reality (Eskritt, et al., 2001).

Aristotle, on in literature the other hand, believing that the universal Forms exist only in particular things, felt that artists are dealing directly with the universal when they study things and translate them into art forms (Large, “Aristotle”). Plato argued that Forms, such as Human or Table, had a separate existence. Abolitionists. Aristotle rejected Plato’s explanation of the Universal Forms, criticizing specifically the contention that the Forms existed separately from individual things (Eskritt, et al., 2001). Of course, Aristotle did agree that there are universals, and that universals are more than merely subjective notions. Indeed, Aristotle recognized that without the theory of universals, there could be no scientific knowledge, for then there would be no way of cleisthenes saying something about all members of a particular class (Cooper, 1997). Aristotle was not convinced that Plato’s theory of the Forms could help us know things any better: “they help in no wise toward the knowledge of abolitionists other things” (Cooper, 1997). It is Aristotle’s belief that biology and psychology were tangled, much more so than we would perceive them in modern times, and he took up the two areas of interest as a single science.

The end of psychology was to determine the characteristics and real meaning of the soul or psyche. Aristotle toiled to procure a cohesive definition of the soul and construed that not an iota was existent (Large, “Aristotle”). For Aristotle the soul is the eyfs definitive form of the body. Without the body, the soul could neither be nor exercise its functions. This is in sharp contrast to black Plato’s explanation of the body as the prison house of the soul. This way, Plato could describe knowledge or learning as the process of recollection of definition what the soul knew in its previous state. Aristotle, on the other hand, tied soul and body so closely together that with the black death of the body, the soul, its organizing principle, also dies (Barnes, 1984). Though Aristotle may have seen biology and Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor psychology as unified science, the relevant eternal worth of each exhibits the enormous disparity between them. Aristotle’s version of psychology is rooted in conjecture that has ever since been abandoned with improved comprehension and technology brought to light, while his role in biology was found on competent annotations deduced with ardent insight that survived centuries of criticisms (Large, “Aristotle”).

Creative: Descartes vs. Black Abolitionists. Locke. By the time of such ancient Greeks as Plato and Aristotle, the science of mathematics was flourishing, physicians had learned a great deal about the human body, and philosophers took a more sophisticated view of human experience (Buckley, 2001). One puzzle that fascinated the themes in literature Greeks was the human senses, our ability to see a person standing many yards away, totally unconnected in any apparent way with our own body, or to hear that person speak. Black. One philosopher speculated that all objects must give off some kind of Essay IT Gadgets Lifestyle invisible substance that penetrate our eyes or ears, then travels to the brain. Another puzzle was human temperament. Why are some people so melancholy? Doubtless, the Greek physicians decided, because they have too much bile in their systems. Why are others so optimistic, happy and warm-hearted? Doubtless because they have an especially rich flow of blood (Buckley, 2001). Throughout the Middle Ages, intellectual and black philosophical figures scrutinized behavior primarily from IT Gadgets Lifestyle a spiritual rather than a scientific perspective.

Then again, a number of philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries provided sizeable inputs to the expansion of psychology (Sternberg, 2006). Rene Descartes is abolitionists one of the inquisitive minds in totalitarianism in 1984 the history of abolitionists psychology (Lagerspetz, 2002). Since Descartes has found a piece of Essay and Student certain knowledge, that he exists as a thinking thing, he starts to look around for more of black abolitionists self- evident truths. He discovers that he has quite a few of Essay Exploration and Child them, prominent among these being the truths of mathematics and logic, and he is optimistic about his chances for developing a system of abolitionists certain knowledge (Smith, 2007). Then he realizes a kink in his plan. These clear and distinct perceptions are only indubitable so long as he is attending to them.

Rene Descartes portrayed the body and mind as unconnected elements that heavily shape each other. Descartes proposed that the transmission between body and mind happened in the pineal gland in the brain (“Rene Descartes”). By around the dependence theory year 1600, most leading thinkers of the Western world had decided that behavior was largely dictated by inborn characteristics, somehow present at the moment of birth. Babies are born with strong tendencies to be gloomy, optimistic, generous, greedy, ambitious, or lazy. Some are born to be leaders, others followers, still others to be scholars, oddballs, or even criminals. But a little later the philosopher John Locke popularized a different view, namely that a bay at birth is simply a tabula rasa, or blank tablet, on which anything at all can be written by experience and black learning (Uzgalis, 2007). The two opposite views posed another puzzle: Are our lives governed by heredity or by environment? The school of empiricism came upon the scene and was destined to alter the course and concerns of then emerging psychology in the form of Exploration of Sweatshops modern philosophy (Ward, “Empiricism”). Whereas Francis Bacon aimed at the total reconstruction of all human knowledge, Locke, who was the founder of empiricism in Britain, aimed at black abolitionists the more modest objective of clearing the cleisthenes definition ground a little, and removing some of the rubbish that lies in the way of knowledge. Locke hit upon a bold and original interpretation of black abolitionists how the mind works, and in 1984 from this, described the kind and extent of knowledge we can expect from the human mind (Uzgalis, 2007). The scope of our knowledge, according to Locke, is limited to our experience.

This was not a new insight as both Bacon and Thomas Hobbes had urged before him that knowledge should be built upon observation, and to black abolitionists this extent they indeed could be called empiricists (Markie, 2004). Additionally, Rene Descartes assumed that there was no problem that human reason could not solve if the correct method was employed. This was also the Essay of Sweatshops and Child Labor assumption Locke called into black, critical question, namely the belief that the human mind has capabilities that enable it to discover the true nature of the universe. David Hume pushed his critical point even further and asked whether any secure knowledge at all is possible (Markie, 2004). In line with the philosophers’ concept of the inseparability of mind and body, I describe my own mind-body philosophy by looking at the knowledgeable mind, for instance, as the in literature mind of integration and full, creative health regardless of the state of the body. It is full personhood or mature wholeness and black abolitionists creative adaptation, components of highest truths and values brought into and Child, daily life.

It is more than difference between shadows and actual things as described by the legendary Plato but to me, knowledge transcends across shaded or lucid and abolitionists bodily matters. Dependence Theory. By having a creative yet knowledgeable mind, the person becomes equipped with the knowledge that is black abolitionists beyond the confines of the body or any learning environment. As we increase our ability to see our mind’s processes, we steadily gain control over Essay Exploration and Child, physical events. Consequently, the original dimensions of the mind are preserved but are apparently growing proportionately in order to produce a kind of knowledge that is not skewed. Before even starting school, many children have an answer if asked, “What do you want to be when you grow up?” One girl might dream of being a veterinarian because she loves her dog so much, a boy might want to be a police officer because of black abolitionists what he has seen on themes television. Abolitionists. Undoubtedly, these children’s occupational visions, according to Hermann Ebbinghaus, are highly idealized and inaccurate (Fuchs, 1997). However, it is totalitarianism clear that ideas about possible occupations begin early in life.

As the child grows up, he or she learns more about what it means to work in a particular field. The vet-to-be, for instance, might read books about working with animals or visit the small animal clinic. Black. When she goes to college and vet school, she learns even more about her chosen occupation. Thus, form childhood onward, she is totalitarianism in 1984 being socialized into an occupational role (Halverson, 2004). In line with this maturation process, Ebbinghaus described how children’s ways of black abolitionists thinking developed as they interacted with the world around them. Infants and young children understand the world much differently than adults do, and as they play and explore, their mind learns how to think in ways that better fit with reality. Adeptness with language facilitates the totalitarianism in 1984 formation of concepts, which helps organize information into black abolitionists, categories and facilitates the deep processing that creates long-lasting memory. Ebbinghaus regarded children as juvenile logicians constructing their own particularized social realities and hypotheses of wisdom (Postman, 1968). According to Ebbinghaus, children also develop psychologically and cognitively as their brains absorb more information and they learn how to use that information. Themes. Literally, children have to learn how to think on purpose and to black abolitionists process or organize all the themes in literature information that comes to them from the environment. They must learn how to solve problems, to talk, and to complete mental tasks such as remembering telephone numbers or using computers (Postman, 1968).

Ebbinghaus employed some children’s problem matters to aid in comprehending their mental growth and maturity (Wozniak, 1999). As an example, children may fall short in black abolitionists going easy on eight checkers scattered and recount that there probable are more checkers. If one trims down the number to five, they may perhaps detect numbers. By concentrating on the truth that they are not capable of keeping up the numbers for Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle, eight items he is possibly obtuse to commit to memory that they can only accomplish it for reduced numbers. What may astonish anyone is upon telling the children a magic bunny rearranged the checkers, they are likely to evoke bigger figures. Some people overlook the black reality that children are conjectural. In telling something of in literature grave importance, it is therefore suggested to be as close to the truth as possible to black abolitionists avoid magical speculations (Postman, 1968).

In any case, intellectual comprehensiveness, according to Ebbinghaus, instead of themes being innate or dependent on a neurologically programmed readiness, is an outcome of the child’s social interaction with the dynamics of maturation. The influence of this theoretical position has resulted in the contemporary emphasis on early childhood experience within the black abolitionists academic setting. In the in literature classroom, Ebbinghaus demonstrated that in addition to the textbook to be used as principal reference for the class, the lecture would include a number of aids that shall help the pupils understand various concepts successfully and black enjoyably. Specifically, the lecture shall be carried out not without visual aids as some itself may be confusing in the absence of visual illustration. And Student. Using examples, strategies, and integration of the concepts may guarantee that key concepts or valuable ideas are not elapsed, or that these are not confused with other concepts instilled by the domineering students in the class (Postman, 1968). Unlike children in elementary level, whenever young adults or college students learn something new, they are profiting from experience by changing their ability to adapt to their environment.

They transcend their genetic inheritance by using their potential for a remarkable range of learning. Learning frees them from abolitionists stereotyped automatic reactions by enabling them to develop adaptive, novel behavior sequences. They learn to predict what events tend to go together, as well as what the consequences of their actions will be. In fact, the nervous system is designed for learning, for being changed by virtually all that they experience (Halverson, 2004). True to Ebbinghaus’ notion, we also need to keep a record of our experiences and anticipate the challenges we will be meeting. Memory is the living library of all references to our past. Much of it is available to Essay and Child help us deal with problems of the present or make future decisions, as long as we have access to the material that is stored there. When we do, we are able to go beyond what is given in our current experience within or beyond the black abolitionists classroom to become powerful information processors, that is, thinking, reasoning, judging, problem-solving, creating individuals. And when we add our unique ability for language, we can learn secondhand from the experiences of other students or fellowmen in general, and also communicate to others what’s in or on our minds (Wozniak, 1999).

To conclude, indeed, cognitive and affective psychology is the manifestation of the countless aspects of human life that psychology had been trying to exhume and exhaust since its early beginnings. Psychology in totalitarianism in 1984 general has even evolved to black abolitionists a profession in the industrial age. Especially in the United States, where psychotherapy has flourished more vigorously than anywhere else, it represents a large investment by society (Buckley, 2001). It is impossible to estimate how many millions of dependence hours have gone into the training of psychotherapists, the practice of various treatment methods, and research into new and better methods. Barnes, Jonathan. (1984). The Complete Works of black abolitionists Aristotle. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Boeree, C. G. (2000). “Wilhelm Wundt and totalitarianism William James.” Retrieved November 8, 2007, from black abolitionists Buckley, P. (2001). Ancient templates: The classical origins of psychoanalysis. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 55(4), 451-459. Retrieved October 15, 2007, from the ProQuest Database. Cooper, John M. (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Eskritt, M., Lee, K., Donald, M. (2001). The influence of symbolic literacy on memory: Testing Plato’s hypothesis.

Canadian Journal of totalitarianism Experimental Psychology, 55(1), 39-50. Retrieved October 15, 2007, from the ProQuest Database. Fuchs, A. H. (1997). Ebbinghaus’ contributions to psychology after 1885. The American Journal of Psychology, 110(4), 621-633. Black Abolitionists. Retrieved October 27, 2007, from the Essay on An and Child Labor EBSCOhost Database. Goodman, R. (2006).

William James. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 8, 2007, from Graham, G. (2000). Behaviorism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from Gross, N. (2002).

Becoming a pragmatist philosopher: Status, self-concept, and intellectual choice. Black. American Sociological Review, 67(1), 52-76. Lifestyle. Retrieved October 23, 2007, from the abolitionists ProQuest Database. Halverson, R. (2004). Accessing, documenting, and communicating practical wisdom: The phronesis of school leadership practice. American Journal of Education, 111(1), 90-121.

Retrieved October 23, 2007, from the ProQuest Database. Harzem, P. Essay On An Of Sweatshops Labor. (2004). Behaviorism for the new psychology: What was wrong with behaviorism and what is wrong with it now. Behavior and Philosophy, 32(1), 5-12. Retrieved October 23, 2007, from the ProQuest Database. Holtorf, C. (n.d.). “Associationism.” Retrieved October 25, 2007, from Lagerspetz, O. (2002).

Experience and consciousness in the shadow of Descartes. Philosophical Psychology, 15(1), 5-18. Black. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from the totalitarianism in 1984 EBSCOhost Database. Large, W. (n.d.). Aristotle. Retrieved October 23, 2007, from Leigland, S. (2004).

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Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If you’ve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the job search itself. Black Abolitionists? Fortunately, making a resume is as simple as following a format. With some key information in the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and of Sweatshops Labor other information . The purpose is to show you’re a perfect candidate for the position you are applying for. It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to learn about black abolitionists applicants quickly and easily, and totalitarianism they are your first step toward new job opportunities. An interview might also be needed to land the job, but a resume is abolitionists, necessary to start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out job seekers who don’t have the right experience and qualifications.

A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the competition. Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on track to having a great entry-level resume and all the in literature, opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and combination. Black? It helps to familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on the right resume template for you. This is one of the most common resume formats.

It lists your work history in reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent position. It is and Student Lifestyle, often headed with a “Career Objective” section. Abolitionists? We will talk about themes in literature these sections in black, more detail later in themes in literature, this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in black abolitionists, reverse chronological order, starting with the most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken. This is in literature, a common resume format.

It’s easy for employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and get an black abolitionists, idea of your experience. This kind of Essay on An Exploration and Child, resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to abolitionists, the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for you. Prospective employers will throw your resume in the “No” pile if all they see is work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and Lifestyle activities, over abolitionists, work experience. This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at specific jobs.

It will probably still have some sort of work history section, but it will be placed at theory, the bottom rather than at the top of the page. Your work history might not be listed in chronological order on this type of resume. In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in abolitionists, order of planning, relevance instead. This type of resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. Abolitionists? It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and can draw attention to your other skills or activities. Most employers will be accustomed to cleisthenes, the chronological resume format. They will likely know that the reason you chose this format is because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate.

Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and foremost. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in black abolitionists, reverse chronological order. Essay Labor? It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of resume is ideal.

You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about your skills and other knowledge you have. It’s also useful if the abolitionists, work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, job you’re looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience. Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy. How to black, Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to include your name and contact information. And Student Lifestyle? List your name, phone number, email address, and city at the top of your resume. You don’t need to black, include your full street address, but you can if you’d like.

Everything else can be adjusted to in literature, fit your unique experience. For example, your resume could include any of the following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and abolitionists Interests Achievements, Awards, and Honors References. Each of these sections will consist of a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by details about that section. For example, under the cleisthenes, “Education” heading, you might list the abolitionists, schools you’ve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of these headings. Just pick the cleisthenes, ones that are most relevant to you and black the job you’re seeking. Every section requires a slightly different approach. Let’s break it down and Essay and Student see how it works.

This can be a difficult section to tackle on black, a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet. IT Gadgets And Student Lifestyle? Don’t worry though. Black Abolitionists? Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle, the other sections. If you do have official work experience, it’s important to mention it in this section, especially if it is a job similar to the one you are applying for. Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think. Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of work experience on black abolitionists, a teen resume. Under the cleisthenes definition, “Work Experience” heading, list the name of the black, company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. Definition? You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and accomplishments. That way, it’s clear what kind of experience you gained.

Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and black abolitionists duties for each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for real-world examples of cleisthenes definition, work experience sections. In the black, “Education” section, state the totalitarianism, high school you attended or presently attend and the years you were there or the date you expect to graduate. For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia. Expected graduation date: May 2017. If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. You can mention your future education plans too. Abolitionists? For example:

I have been accepted to Essay and Student, Chicago State University, and I am planning to black abolitionists, major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to prepare for dependence, college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of job you’re looking for. It consists of one or two sentences near the abolitionists, top of totalitarianism, your resume that describe your desired job. For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business. You can also extend your objective statement into black abolitionists a summary.

A summary is a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills. For example: I am an energetic, enthusiastic, and active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and eyfs their use by abolitionists people from and Student different economic and social backgrounds. I have a business mindset and black abolitionists am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers. It gives you a chance to IT Gadgets and Student, describe yourself and your goals in your own words. Black? It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the Exploration and Child Labor, objective or summary is short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills.

You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for. These can be listed under “Professional Skills.” Make sure the abolitionists, skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to eyfs cycle, mention “Ability to black, handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to that job. Dependence? But you might mention, “Ability to use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in abolitionists, some way to definition, what potential employers are looking for.

What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into black abolitionists your character and planning interests. It might even tie into the “Skills” section. Think of extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in. Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Black? Playing football? You might be a good team player. These are qualities that employers are looking for.

Some examples of school activities that could look good on theory, a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops. Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here. Write down the activity, dates, and your role/position.

For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011. If your resume is short on work experience, you can list more details about your activities to black abolitionists, show what you gained from them. Themes In Literature? You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to abolitionists, activities, as it tells an Essay Exploration and Child Labor, employer more about your character. Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of interest to potential employers. Abolitionists? For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. It’s great to mention major achievements and awards you’ve earned at school or in your activities. Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and eyfs hard work. For example:

Student of the abolitionists, Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for your knowledge and cleisthenes skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for abolitionists, them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one.

Many people simply write “References Available on Request” at the bottom of their resumes. If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in in literature, case a prospective employer requests them. However, if you have limited experience to put on your resume, you might want to list the names and contact information of your references on black, your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. Eyfs Cycle? There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for black, specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and eyfs cycle a basic idea of what to write. We also have High School Graduate Resumes and other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and black personal skills, hobbies, and references examples.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 6267 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7437 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and common content for any type of on An Exploration of Sweatshops, position. Size: 183 B Downloads: 27350 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Black Abolitionists? Includes customer work and volunteer experience.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 18038 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for position in IT Gadgets Lifestyle, gardening or landscape. Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144. Resume sample for students who would like to promote tutoring services to black, other students or student#039;s parents.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 4214 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146. Generic resume sample for planning cycle, part-time grocery store job. Black? Can be easily modified for similar positions in different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6589 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in a restaurant. Dependence Theory? Can also be used for black, kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4310 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4676 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152. Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5313 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154.

Sample resume for Essay IT Gadgets and Student Lifestyle, an apprentice welder and assisting in different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position. Can be easily modified for black, a different position in the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26441 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.