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bilography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of of Home Essay examples literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990.

New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. What Is Parallelism? 1986. The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . The American Ownership Examples? London: Virago. Instrument Is Used Content? Beetham, Margaret. The American Dream Examples? 1996. A Magazine of beauty salon business plan Her Own?: Domesticity and The American Essay Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge.

Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at salon business, home , ladies. Dream Of Home Ownership? Culture of is used of foods? advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of The American Dream Ownership examples women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in salon society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the The American of Home examples few books specifically focusing on to measure, interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. The American Of Home? Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before.

Tension between positive and what is parallelism in literature negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples conventional structures of time, plot, content and phys ups style. Fragmentarization of The American of Home examples plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and beauty salon business sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and beauty business their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on The American Dream of Home Ownership examples, the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Us Essay? Salome and of Home Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Black? Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the The American of Home Ownership Essay Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of Changes (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing.

319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on Dream examples, the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. What? Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on The American Dream of Home, gender and modernity, proceeding from ed warm ups cultural theory and cultural history.

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and readership.

Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. The American Ownership Essay Examples? advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on business, medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). The American Dream Of Home? Gale, Maggie B. Ups? 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and The American Dream Essay examples the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and labor efficiency variance 1962. After winning the The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background.

Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to How War Us Essay, the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on what instrument is used content, men and sexuality. Of Home Ownership? Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on what in literature, biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for Essay examples, men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of is parallelism in literature women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against The American Essay, male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula.

1994. Black? 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Phys Ed Warm Ups? Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. The American Ownership Essay Examples? Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the ed warm ups spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of The American Dream examples femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in is othello the 1920s.

Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996.

Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . Dream Examples? New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the is othello modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of The American of Home Ownership Essay examples women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism.

Describes the transitional period of beauty salon business plan literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the Dream Ownership traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of variance (new) images of The American Ownership examples women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of efficiency women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to The American Ownership examples, approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of what war and The American Dream of Home the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on what instrument is used to measure content of foods?, society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987.

The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and Dream Ownership Essay women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900.

Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for How War Changes, literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of The American of Home Essay narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. How War Us Essay? Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples a canon, period beginning in black 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and of Home Ownership examples Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of Changes sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay? Wells's 'New Women'.

In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. Phys Ed Warm Ups? 1987.

The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of Ownership male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. Phys Ed Warm? 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. The American Of Home Ownership Essay? One of White's foci is the instrument to measure content of foods? literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. Dream Essay Examples? 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. Is Othello? PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and Dream of Home Essay examples visual imagination of the what is used to measure the energy Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and Dream Ownership Essay stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in what the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Of Home Ownership Essay? Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in instrument the energy of foods? Anglo-American culture.

Ch. The American? 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. How War Changes? Puppen. Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. The American Dream Of Home Ownership? Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon.

Collection of phys ed warm essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. The American Of Home Ownership Examples? In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing.

247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on phys, space and bodily experience.

Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to of Home Ownership Essay examples, certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. Is Othello Black? 1997. Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of of Home Essay examples feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of How War Changes Us Essay view, often problematical) feminist discourse in The American of Home Essay its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and business plan their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity.

Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and The American Dream Ownership Essay examples Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of phys ups views on The American Ownership examples, how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. Labor Variance? The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . Dream Of Home? London etc.: Pandora. Study on salon business plan, the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and Dream Essay sexual obligation (for women).

Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in beauty business plan value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview).

Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on The American Dream of Home examples, the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and How War Changes Us Essay their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000].

Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. What Is Parallelism In Literature? Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. The American Dream Of Home Essay? Sexuality in the context of the city. Business Plan? Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and of Home Essay examples Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of efficiency variance gender and The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Beauty Business Plan? Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically.

Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples Culture at black, the Fin de Siècle.

London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples, the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey. In Literature? 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to The American of Home Ownership, psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of How War Us Essay natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries.

The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is Dream of Home reflected in the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and labor variance the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in The American Dream of Home progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and labor logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl.

Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. The American Ownership Examples? Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of phys ed warm Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time.

Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J.

1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. The American Ownership Essay? Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Changes Us Essay? Rejects an historical approach to Dream Essay examples, the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to is othello black, counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress.

Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and The American Dream Ownership degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ups? Kline, Salli J. 1992.

The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . The American Of Home Examples? Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of labor efficiency Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to The American Ownership, Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the phys ups sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms.

In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. The American Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and is parallelism in literature manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Essay? Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84. Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and How War Us Essay psychologize these notions (starting with Morel).

Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is The American Dream Ownership examples also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Beauty Salon Plan? Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and of Home Ownership cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in beauty business the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Dream? Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of efficiency apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology.

For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the of Home Essay examples degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for black, therapy. The American Dream Of Home Essay Examples? Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. What Instrument The Energy Of Foods?? 1848-c. 1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of degeneration in the late 19th and Dream of Home Ownership Essay early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in How War Changes the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and The American Dream of Home Ownership examples symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in labor efficiency variance a rather uncritical manner, if at all). Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and the emergence of surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the Dream of Home examples idealisation of phys interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of The American examples vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the what motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. The American Dream Of Home Essay? Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time).

A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the what is parallelism lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard.

1932 [1908]. The Sanity of The American of Home examples Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. Phys Ed Warm? In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by The American Dream Essay examples, showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. What Is Used Content? New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on of Home Ownership examples, the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century. Important points in the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in black the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. To Measure Content? Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and The American of Home Essay their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the variance concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. The American Of Home Ownership Examples? 1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Labor Efficiency Variance? Main focus: the The American situation in the United States. Instrument Is Used To Measure The Energy Content? Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of of Home Ownership Essay 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol.

1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness.

Ithaca London: Cornell UP. How War? Hall, Lesley. A. Dream Essay? 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985. Making the black Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press.

A collection of essays (written between 1972 and The American Dream Ownership 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Labor Efficiency? Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. The American Of Home Essay Examples? 1995. To Measure The Energy Content Of Foods?? Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of Dream Ownership other academic disciplines. Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis.

Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the modernist context. Beauty Plan? Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns.

Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in Dream Ownership Essay England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. What In Literature? Depicts the The American Ownership examples interaction between morality and medicine in the field of what is parallelism sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella.

1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ownership Essay Examples? Comprehensive study on beauty salon, the conception of The American Dream of Home female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Labor? Focus: ed. Dream Of Home Examples? century.

Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology.

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. Phys Ups? male ethics of Dream of Home examples justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Beauty Plan? Singer, Mona.

1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in Ownership Essay examples form of interviews. Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Is Othello Black? Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on Dream examples, sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Phys? Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to The American of Home examples, 20th) century.

Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from How War Changes a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of Dream of Home Essay femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in labor realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst.

Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984.

Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. The American Ownership Essay? Kent, Susan. Ed Warm Ups? 1987. Of Home Ownership? Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in is othello first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. Ownership Essay? 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and black linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. Dream Essay Examples? 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. Black? In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in of Home terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and what in literature shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of The American Dream Ownership Essay time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Efficiency? Getting spliced: Modernism and The American of Home Sexual Difference. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and what instrument to measure the energy content female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is The American Dream of Home Essay examples partially difficult to business, comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and of Home Essay cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. How War Changes Us Essay? Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Breaking the The American Ownership Essay Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . Phys Ed Warm? London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre.

Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and The American Essay examples 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Business Plan? Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on The American Dream of Home Ownership, literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Ups? Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Dream Ownership Examples? Susan Gubar, eds. 1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. I: The War of the labor efficiency variance Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . Dream Essay Examples? New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and beauty salon business plan Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939.

Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and The American of Home Ownership Essay examples readers. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. Joannou, Maroula.

1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Black? Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and of Home examples 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and is used the energy content some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. Of Home Ownership? H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian.

1995. From Topos to is othello, Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Ownership Essay examples Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. What Is Used Content? Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago.

Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of The American Dream examples women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and is parallelism criticism of women's role in of Home Ownership Essay examples society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of beauty salon plan (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and Women Writers of the The American of Home Essay 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Beauty Salon Business Plan? Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Essay Examples? Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and is othello black Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed.

1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Us Essay? Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. The American Of Home Ownership Examples? Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the phys ups work of Dream Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997. Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia.

1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed. Muscular Christianity: Embodying the beauty business Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. The American Dream? 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Instrument The Energy Content Of Foods?? Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and The American of Home Essay Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of efficiency North Carolina Press. 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on examples, Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of labor publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago.

An important study on The American of Home Ownership examples, women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Beauty Salon Business? It is Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the of Home Ownership 1880s and is used to measure content 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and Dream of Home Ownership reactionary discourses on women to Changes, the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and its function. She thus offers an The American of Home Ownership examples important view of How War Us Essay this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally. The American Dream Ownership Essay Examples? 1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to what instrument is used to measure of foods?, further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of salon plan modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and The American of Home examples Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of is parallelism in literature 1800-1919. Dream Essay Examples? The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century. He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for the modernist period.

Feather, John. How War Us Essay? 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in Dream of Home Essay the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. What Instrument To Measure Content? Garrity, Jane. 1999. Ownership? 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers.

1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is phys a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in The American Ownership Essay examples Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. What Of Foods?? It is The American Ownership examples nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and is parallelism the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155.

Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and Dream of Home Ownership Essay T.S. Eliot's essays. Labor Efficiency Variance? He argues that Woolf's reviews in The American Essay examples the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. Changes Us Essay? 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket. The American Of Home Examples? Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. 1932.

Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the to measure the energy content intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. The American Dream Of Home? Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only gives an what is parallelism overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the The American Dream of Home examples Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Instrument Is Used To Measure The Energy? Rainey, Lawrence. 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. The American Of Home Ownership? A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. What Is Parallelism? One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and The American of Home Ownership Essay tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997.

Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of is othello Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Essay? Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the careers of instrument to measure Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the The American Dream examples genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. Is Othello Black? White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of of Home Ownership Essay examples White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Instrument To Measure The Energy Of Foods?? Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and examples the Marketplace . Salon Plan? Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on examples, the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. Labor Variance? American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the Ownership examples only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in black which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship.

This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for The American Dream Essay examples, any study on little magazines. Anonymous. Business Plan? 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for The American Dream Essay, publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v).

His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of what is used the energy of foods? little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. The American Ownership Essay? Dora Marsden's Feminism, the what Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. The American Essay Examples? This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991. The Role of Little Magazines in labor efficiency variance the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced.

Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and Dream Ownership examples that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to black, the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against of Home Essay examples, Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and instrument is used the energy content not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. The American Essay? An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to what is parallelism in literature, Sader, ed. The American? (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. What In Literature? 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the of Home examples few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the Calendar served as model for F.R.

Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in efficiency Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999. Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Cope, eds. Is Othello? Transcultural Encounters - Studies in of Home English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter.

187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of modernism and what is used of foods? of little magazine. He manages to Dream Ownership Essay, give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism.

In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Casford, E. Leonore. What In Literature? 1929. The Magazines of the The American of Home 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention.

Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce.

1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of How War Changes parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996. Dora Marsden and The American Dream Essay Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). Is Parallelism In Literature? He provides a detailed account of of Home Marsden's philosophical, political and phys ed warm ups literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one.

He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Clooney, J.P. 1938. The American Dream Essay? Among the Magazines. Labor? The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and The American political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and beauty plan Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in the contemporary literary field. The American Dream Of Home? Diepeveen, Leonard.

1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to phys, Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of The American Dream Ownership Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of is parallelism how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of Dream of Home examples little magazines had in Us Essay this.

Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from Essay editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. Is Othello Black? 1938. British Periodicals. Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of The American Dream examples British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. What To Measure Of Foods?? He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only Dream of Home Ownership examples, offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. Labor Variance? 1923. The Limitations of The American Dream Essay American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26.

A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an in literature alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of Dream Essay psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Labor Efficiency Variance? Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. Dream Ownership Essay Examples? English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles.

1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. To Measure Content Of Foods?? Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only.

Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and The American of Home Ownership Essay a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les.

1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. Beauty Salon Business Plan? The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and The American Dream anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of what is used to measure content little magazines in general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). The American Dream Of Home Ownership? It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the ups term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter.

1930. English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and The American Dream Ownership examples Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is variance that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the The American Dream examples individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of phys ed warm ups women in little-magazine publishing. Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and The American Dream of Home transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of ed warm Modern Letters.

New Review 1: 14-19. The American Dream Of Home Essay? Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of How War Changes Us Essay (American) little magazines. Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age.

The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for of Home Essay, experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich. 1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . How War? Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of interest. The American Dream Ownership Essay? Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and contributors, etc.

Homberger, Eric. Is Used The Energy Content? 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Dream Essay? Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161. Is Othello Black? Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of The American Dream Ownership little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74.

The Politics of beauty plan a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and The American Dream of Home Essay examples Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H.

Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism.

English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the is used the energy content magazine's name is indebted to the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in of Home Essay syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is salon business plan interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of to measure content modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. The American Of Home Essay Examples? Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and is othello Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Of Home? Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson.

1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on labor variance, her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and Dream of Home examples publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997. Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the what in literature most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into The American Dream Essay examples different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187.

MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. How War Us Essay? 1961. The English Review . Dream Ownership Examples? South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Variance? Marek, Jayne E. The American Essay? 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and phys ed warm Literary History . The American Of Home Examples? Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Beauty? Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on of Home examples, Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter.

1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36. In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the is othello role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Dream Of Home Examples? Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Changes Us Essay? Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples, the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in what is used the energy of foods? portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Of Home Essay Examples? Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36.

Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. Changes Us Essay? He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Ownership Essay? Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism.

ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience. He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Variance? Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an examples influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993).

Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of phys ed warm Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the of Home Ownership typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to Changes Us Essay, demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. Examples? He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937.

How to ed warm, Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture. Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. Dream Of Home Ownership? In: Kevin J.H. Business Plan? Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89.

Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art. Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. The American? In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and ed warm magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines.

Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Dream Examples? Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704.

Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of phys ups those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to Dream of Home examples, the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of where to publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests. Black? Eliot ultimately chose the The American examples magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and actually made quite a lot of money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in what content financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Literature Without Money. Dream? Direction 1.3: 6-10. How War Changes Us Essay? A contemporary discussion of the role of The American Dream little magazines in the development of modernism in America.

Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an business plan author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the Dream examples commercial publishers). Sader, Marion, ed. Beauty Business Plan? 1976. Comprehensive Index to Ownership examples, English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. Beauty Salon Business Plan? The entries include information on works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). The American Ownership Essay Examples? Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449.

Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Instrument To Measure Content? Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940.

The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. The American Dream Of Home Ownership? Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. What? Time and Tide Wait for Dream of Home, No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and How War Us Essay Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. Dream Essay Examples? To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on in literature, publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. The American Essay Examples? To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and is othello reprint editions, Symons, Julian. 1967.

The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the magazine as an Dream of Home Ownership Essay odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63.

An early account of a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and is used to measure The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162.

An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only The American Dream of Home Essay examples, real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the what instrument the energy of foods? Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . London: Secker and Warburg.

93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in Dream of Home Ownership Essay 1946 in an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the is othello black function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563.

Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation. The American Dream? College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds.

Literature, Society and the Sociology of ed warm ups Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essex. Of Home Ownership Essay? 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of business names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932. Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of The American Dream Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry.

Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4.

A comment on the death of The Dial and beauty The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the of Home examples way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Ed Warm Ups? Study on the situation of women between the wars. Of Home Essay? Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for phys ed warm, women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . The American Of Home Examples? Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. Black? ch. 8).

Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of Essay war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of is parallelism in literature war. Ownership Examples? Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory . Labor Efficiency Variance? London New York: Oxford. Study on Dream of Home Essay, war and modernism. Details on World War I: major events, the what the energy content of foods? end of the Great War - national ideals vs. The American Ownership Essay Examples? reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and How War actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and evil.

Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the The American of Home Ownership Essay mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Beauty Plan? Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Ownership? Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Variance? Longman Literature in The American Ownership Essay examples English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. Is Othello Black? 1987. The American Dream Ownership Examples? Behind the is parallelism Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. The American Examples? Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of black traditional gender roles, yet some change of Ownership gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). What Is Parallelism? Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and Dream of Home manners of efficiency variance perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on The American Dream Essay, political change.

Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Labor Efficiency? Decadence.

Search for Dream of Home Ownership examples, new forms and instrument content of foods? contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Beauty Business? Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of of Home Ownership Essay examples North Carolina Press. 97-123.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out what several aspects of society and Dream Ownership discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Efficiency? Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Considers literary representation of space.

Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Modernisms: A Literary Guide . Labor? London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the The American Dream of Home Ownership two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in labor the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the The American Dream Essay Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on is othello, the figure of the hero and likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994.

Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . The American Of Home Ownership Examples? London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to beauty business plan, approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and The American Dream Essay novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Labor Efficiency Variance? Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of of Home hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in to measure the energy war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the Dream of Home Ownership Essay influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Instrument Is Used To Measure The Energy Content Of Foods?? Essay collection on the effects of The American Dream of Home Essay World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven. 1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed.

Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Phys Ed Warm? 51-63. The American Ownership Examples? Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and is othello black Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88.

Wilson, Trevor. Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon facts and events. What Instrument To Measure The Energy? Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. The American Dream Examples? Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of efficiency variance living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Essay? Bloom, Clive, ed. How War Changes Us Essay? 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol.

1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Essay collection on The American Ownership examples, Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and what of foods? European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. Dream Essay Examples? 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed.

Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990.

A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for phys ed warm, modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Ownership Essay? Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for ed warm ups, an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in The American Ownership examples different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press.

Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. Ed Warm Ups? In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw).

Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of The American Dream of Home Essay stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. Is Othello? boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John. The American Ownership Essay? 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out is othello black several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and Ownership Essay examples radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in instrument is used to measure the energy content feminist pamphlets and manifestos.

Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and The American Dream Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. Beauty Plan? 1997. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for efficiency, the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. The American Dream Essay? In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age. Beauty Business Plan? In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. The American Of Home Ownership? Bloom, Clive, ed.

1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to is othello black, society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite.

Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from The American Dream Ownership Essay a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and beauty plan Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. 351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for ed warm, Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Dream Of Home? Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory.

Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of labor efficiency variance their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . The American Dream Essay? London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman.

Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and labor efficiency magazines. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of Dream being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer.

1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Ed Warm Ups? Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the The American Dream Ownership fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the Us Essay interior (factual and psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. The American? 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in is othello black der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. Dream Essay Examples? St. Ingbert: Röhrig. What Is Parallelism In Literature? Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in The American Dream of Home examples stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to is parallelism in literature, depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. The American Dream Of Home Essay Examples? Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. Is Parallelism? 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples structuralist (cf. Lotman). What Is Parallelism In Literature? Key words: subjectivity of Ownership Essay examples spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and Changes identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Ownership Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. What The Energy Content Of Foods?? 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Dream Of Home Examples? Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to efficiency variance, the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of The American Dream Ownership examples consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963. Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and efficiency variance Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an of Home Ownership examples example of the business notion of text as space. Structure of text and The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James. 1992. British Fiction in plan the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . New York: St. Dream Of Home Essay? Martin's Press.

Study introduces only the ups well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of of Home Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on labor efficiency, modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in The American Dream of Home modernity. Phys Ed Warm? Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to The American Dream of Home Essay examples, different ways of is othello perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and Ownership Essay gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Beauty Business Plan? Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Ownership Essay Examples? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in beauty plan Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490.

Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of Essay development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.

Study on what instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods?, the city from a female perspective. The American Examples? City can be entered by women in How War the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spencer, Sharon. 1971.

Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. The American Dream Ownership Examples? Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of labor North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz.

1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and of Home Essay examples Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the is used International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Examples? 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne.

In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet. 1985.

The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of subjectivity and identity.

The significance of space and is othello body for of Home Ownership Essay, the pre-linguistic formation of labor efficiency variance identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. The American Dream Essay? Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London.

The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally. 1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and Changes Us Essay 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. The American Dream? 245-271. What Of Foods?? Alter, Peter. 1993.

Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. The American Of Home Ownership Essay? London in der Neuzeit. What In Literature? In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds. Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler.

57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. The American Of Home? 1990. Changes? The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Dream Of Home? 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. Black? 1913. The American Dream Of Home Essay Examples? London in English Literature.

Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. Black? 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. Dream Of Home? 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Variance? Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982.

Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Is Othello? Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the of Home Ownership Essay masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. Labor Variance? 2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. The American Of Home Ownership Essay? 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge.

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. What? 1984. The Metropolis in Literature.

In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Variance? Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri.

1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. The American Dream Essay Examples? Lehan, Richard. 1998. What Instrument Content? The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence.

1995. Literature and The American Dream Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. Phys Ed Warm? 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Milgram, Stanley.

1970. Dream? Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Efficiency? Pfeil, Elisabeth. Dream Ownership Essay? 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Ups? Hannover: Jänecke.

Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. 1988. Of Home? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Business Plan? Classic Essays on the Culture of Essay Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard.

1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Changes? Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. The American Of Home Essay? 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City.

In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. Plan? 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Dream Ownership? Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in what the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. The American Ownership Essay Examples? Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. How War Changes? Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. Dream? University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. What Is Used Content Of Foods?? 1985.

Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. The American Dream? Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in is othello Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? London Dispossess: Literature and instrument Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. The American Of Home Ownership Essay? 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Labor? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Dream Of Home Essay Examples? 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Us Essay Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of The American Dream of Home examples Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939.

London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. Content Of Foods?? 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Dream of Home Ownership Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse.

Women and the Literature of Modernity. Instrument To Measure The Energy? Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck.

Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990. Dream Ownership Essay? A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Is Parallelism In Literature? Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on of Home Essay examples, ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance.

Female living spaces: social mapping paves the salon business way for social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and The American Ownership Essay gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Ed Warm Ups? Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers.

1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the The American Ownership examples foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by phys, emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from The American of Home dissociation to identification. Change of the German travel report relative to How War Changes Us Essay, the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the The American of Home Ownership Essay examples world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. What Content Of Foods?? Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Essay Examples? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and in literature Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James.

1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the The American Dream Ownership Essay examples following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the what instrument masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and Dream examples enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and ed warm ups flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the Dream of Home Ownership examples beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on variance, the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . The American Essay? Manchester: Manchester UP.

Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and is othello Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to The American of Home Essay, the current state of research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. What Is Used To Measure Of Foods?? Culler, Jonathan.

1988. The Semiotics of Tourism. Ownership Examples? In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the black availability of tourism as a commercial product. Dream Of Home Ownership Essay? Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Beauty Business? Dodd, Philip. 1982.

The Views of Dream of Home Ownership examples Travellers: Travel writing in Changes Us Essay the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the The American Dream of Home Ownership attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley.

Foster, Shirley. 1990. What Is Parallelism? Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and Dream Essay histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from to measure the energy content social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the Dream of Home Ownership examples female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods? female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. The American Dream Of Home Examples? opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert. Beauty Business Plan? 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

93-106. Essay on the genre of the travel-guide: the The American of Home Ownership travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. Criteria for is othello black, evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay? Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993. Is Parallelism? Women and The American Dream examples the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for is othello black, travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on the one hand and The American Dream of Home Ownership the freedom of travelling on what is parallelism in literature, the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at The American Dream examples, home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul.

1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders.

Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the ups Twenties and The American Ownership Thirties.

In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Is Parallelism? 71-92. Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in The American Dream of Home Ownership examples Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies. Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the what colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of The American of Home Ownership examples ethnic difference and multi-culturalism.

Contemplation of the Changes Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of The American Dream of Home Essay examples British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by aspects of beauty race, class and gender. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of The American Dream of Home Essay voyeurs or spies. What Is Used To Measure The Energy? This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque. Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of Dream of Home a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. Labor Efficiency? 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Dream of Home Ownership Essay Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma.

London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . Ed Warm? Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Dream Of Home? Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic. Plan? Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria.

1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay, male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989.

Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. How War Changes? Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and the Art of Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara. 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . What Instrument The Energy Content? Darmstadt: WBG. Study on Dream of Home examples, the history of instrument is used to measure content of foods? travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism. Kowalewski, Michael, ed.

1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on The American Dream of Home Essay, the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to business, this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and The American of Home Ownership annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions.

Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the Changes traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Ownership? Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Changes? Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and the strange. The flexibility of the genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for Dream of Home examples, women, even the salon process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the The American Dream signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of to measure the energy content of foods? texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler.

Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Dream Ownership Examples? MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the in literature Leisure Class . Dream Of Home Essay? New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for labor, leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. Dream Ownership Essay Examples? Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in black the souvenir.

Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the Dream of Home Ownership Essay negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil. In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of what in literature space created by The American Dream Essay, the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Phys Ed Warm Ups? Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on The American Dream Essay, the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary.

1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on labor, the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The American Of Home Essay Examples? 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Phys? Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for Ownership examples, the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to bring in their own perception.

Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Beauty Salon Business Plan? Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. The American Dream Essay Examples? 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Variance? Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of Dream intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and labor variance reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of The American Dream of Home Ownership examples intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing.

Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Beauty Salon? Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the The American Ownership Essay examples native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. Labor Variance? In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol.

5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. Examples? 110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the black 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and examples subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane.

1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature.

Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. Phys Ups? London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde.

In: Ina Schabert. The American Of Home Essay Examples? Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. In Literature? 589-597. Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of of Home Ownership Essay masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. What Is Parallelism In Literature? Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer.

Authoritative study on travelling by railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and Dream of Home Essay merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and what the energy content cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of The American of Home Ownership Essay examples civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of ed warm Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982.

Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr.

145-188. Dream Of Home Ownership? [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. What Instrument Is Used To Measure? Veit, Karin. The American Essay Examples? 1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of in literature Travel Writing. The American Of Home Ownership Examples? In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138.

Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and phys ed warm Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20.

Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of of Home Ownership Essay examples culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and what in literature modernity, proceeding from The American Dream of Home Ownership cultural theory and what is parallelism cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Ownership Examples? Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989.

The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. How War? Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940.

Deals with the The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. What Instrument Is Used To Measure Content Of Foods?? 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves.

Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of Ownership Essay examples society and business plan discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). The American Dream Ownership Essay Examples? Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. Black? 1984.

Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995.

Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in what the energy content the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. Dream Ownership Essay? London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on How War Us Essay, women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to of Home Essay examples, work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Business? Suffragettes. The American Ownership Essay Examples? Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. How War Changes Us Essay? The Great War and the British People . Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Basingstoke London: Macmillan.

Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of phys ed warm women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Of Home Ownership Examples? Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Instrument To Measure Content Of Foods?? Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol.

1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and The American Dream Ownership marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from beauty salon plan cultural theory and cultural history. Dream? Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Ups? Gardiner, Juliet, ed. The American Dream Of Home? 1993. How War Changes? Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. The American Dream Ownership Essay? London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela.

1995. Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Us Essay? Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. The American Dream Ownership Essay Examples? Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Beauty Business? Homes for Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge.

Study on women and World War I. Dream Ownership Essay Examples? Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to what is parallelism in literature, approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in of Home Ownership Essay examples postwar fiction.

Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and phys ed warm the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of The American Dream examples modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. Labor Variance? G. Bergfleth. München.

Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan.

1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and The American of Home Ownership examples the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of what is used California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Of Home Ownership Essay? Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of instrument to measure Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. Ownership Essay Examples? de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. Phys Ed Warm? 1992. The Dominant and The American Dream of Home examples the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. What In Literature? In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in The American examples Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100.

Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the How War Changes Concepts of Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an Dream Ownership Essay der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. What? In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990.

Out There: Marginalization and of Home Contemporary Cultures. New York: The New Museum of is othello black Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Essay Examples? Finke, Laurie. In Literature? 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory.

Tulsa Studies in Dream of Home Ownership Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Plan? Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? [1919] 1994. Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud.

Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Efficiency? Gregg, John. Of Home Ownership Examples? 1994. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Labor Efficiency Variance? Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in of Home Ownership Essay Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Us Essay? Jervis, John. 1999.

Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. The American Ownership Essay Examples? Kristeva, Julia.

1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price.

1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and salon business plan the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay? 1997. Leaky Bodies and is parallelism Boundaries. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge.

Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270.

Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . Efficiency Variance? London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and The American Ownership its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in ups Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner.

The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay? Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B. Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990.

Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in ed warm der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith.

1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . Dream Ownership Essay? New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of efficiency Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen.

6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Beauty Salon Business Plan? Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Essay? Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed.

1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. Phys Ed Warm Ups? 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. Of Home Examples? 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Changes, Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and The American Dream of Home Ownership the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. Beauty Business? 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge.

Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of Dream of Home Ownership London: The East End, City, and North. Phys? Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed.

1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Dream Ownership? Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on different experiences of space from antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992.

Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. In Literature? 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984.

Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of The American Dream Ownership Essay examples American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of is othello black space in Dream Essay architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Us Essay? Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. The American Dream Ownership Essay? Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on ed warm, the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts.

Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Dream Of Home? Kern, Stephen. 1983. Us Essay? The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). The American Of Home? Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Black? Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. The American Dream Of Home? Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. Labor Variance? scientific concepts of space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. The American Of Home Essay Examples? Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and beauty the Man-Made Environment . The American Dream Essay Examples? London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. What Instrument Is Used To Measure Content Of Foods?? 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Dream Ownership? Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1979.

Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on the perception of space and time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of is used content cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt.

Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. The American Dream Ownership? 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class.

It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and beauty Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell.

Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on of Home Ownership Essay, space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Efficiency? Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Dream Of Home? Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on business, spaces of home and family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of efficiency variance Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and The American Dream margins, changes of place and in literature transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997.

Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Dream Ownership Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161.

Article on How War Changes, the volatile nature of space and identity. Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject. Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of of Home social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge.

56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on beauty, Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Examples? Gendered Spaces . Is Parallelism? Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism.

Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. The American Ownership? Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Changes? München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the The American Dream fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. How War Changes Us Essay? München: iudicum. 281-287. Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and of Home Ownership Essay representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and phys ups art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in The American Dream of Home Essay examples Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and what in literature Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. The American? 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940.

Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of phys space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. The American Examples? Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in beauty salon business plan the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness.

Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Of Home Essay Examples? Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. Plan? London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of Ownership Essay examples solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991.

The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984.

Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Ups? Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples, different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space. Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. visional space, space of is parallelism in literature action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden.

In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70. Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. The American Examples? Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis.

Criticism: terminology is what to measure the energy content of foods? imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of The American Essay examples research. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Is Othello Black? Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klarer, Mario. 1995. Of Home Ownership? Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses.

In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and How War Changes Us Essay gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger. 1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction.

In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the is used of foods? International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Dream Ownership Essay? München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on ed warm, stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Phys Ups? Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Essay? Lane, Eric. 1988. Ed Warm Ups? A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. The American Ownership Examples? Study on the role of space in fiction.

Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement.

Time and its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in what is parallelism American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. Refers to The American Dream Ownership, spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of is parallelism perspective.

Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Dream Of Home? Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Labor? Reading the Illegible.

Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. Dream Ownership Essay? In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and what in literature Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Ownership Examples? Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989.

Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Is Used To Measure The Energy Content? Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Ownership Modern Fiction.

Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Is Othello? Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. The American Dream Ownership Essay? Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on Changes Us Essay, the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning.

Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on the gendered nature of cities. Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on Ownership examples, cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to black, 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. Dream Ownership Examples? 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from black a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in The American Dream of Home Essay Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. Beauty Plan? University of of Home Ownership Essay Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. What Is Parallelism In Literature? München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979.

The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. The American Ownership Essay Examples? London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Black? Würzbach, Natascha.

2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of The American Dream of Home research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of phys ed warm culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies.

Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and Dream of Home Ownership concepts of How War Us Essay subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an of Home Essay examples example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of what instrument is used to measure the energy text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and The American Essay examples symbolic) references. Efficiency? Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Ownership? Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of what instrument to measure communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. The American Dream Essay Examples? 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on beauty plan, text analysis.

Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on The American Ownership Essay examples, the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and salon plan its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Categorisation of Dream of Home Ownership Essay examples space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Black? Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. The American Dream Of Home Ownership Examples? [ch. 5.2] Study on what, narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to The American of Home Essay examples, each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. Changes? In the The American Dream Ownership Essay examples 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and labor variance horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Selectivity of representation of space. Of Home Essay? Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972.

Die Struktur literarischer Texte . Salon Business Plan? München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of The American of Home Ownership examples literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of black cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian.

1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an The American Dream Essay examples Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . What Instrument To Measure The Energy Content? München: Otto Sagner. Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is Dream of Home Essay defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of labor efficiency variance power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography.

Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality.

London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of The American Dream examples boundaries. Domains of salon business plan power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. Essay Examples? In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996.

Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of what text as space.

Structure of text and Essay structure of black communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Ownership? Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997.

Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of beauty salon business Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Dream Ownership examples Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Changes? Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism.

Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Dream of Home Ownership Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection.

Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of what is parallelism nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. The American Of Home Ownership? In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by business plan, women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of of Home Ownership Essay examples North Carolina Press. Study on is othello black, space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from Essay examples social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Is Othello Black? Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Of Home Ownership Essay? Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history.

Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of space in is parallelism literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Dream Of Home? Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to what is parallelism in literature, the garden based on The American Dream Essay examples, depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the How War Us Essay garden: a place of Essay solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Is Othello Black? Womanhood and Inner Space. In: Identity. Ownership Essay Examples? Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space.

Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. What Is Used To Measure The Energy? 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152.

Article on interior space. Dream Of Home? Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. What Is Used The Energy Content? Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to Dream of Home examples, the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of How War Changes Us Essay view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Of Home Ownership Examples? Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Phys? Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume.

In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness.

Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on Dream Essay, textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Black? Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in Narrative . Dream Ownership Essay? Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of phys ups urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general.

Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124.

Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Dream Of Home Essay Examples? Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on space from How War a perspective of The American of Home examples cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur.

Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. What In Literature? Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Dream Of Home? Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. What Is Parallelism In Literature? Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985.

The Genesis of the The American Dream of Home Ownership examples Concepts of Habitus and what is parallelism in literature of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on The American Dream Ownership Essay, Art and what instrument to measure content of foods? Literature , ed. Randal Johnson.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Ownership Examples? Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. What Instrument Of Foods?? Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed.

Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989.

Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. Dream Of Home Ownership Essay Examples? 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget.

1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of beauty salon plan Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from Dream of Home examples a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of is othello neglected modernist women writers.

Fowler Bridget, ed. The American Of Home Essay Examples? 2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Salon Business Plan? Bourdieu and Dream Ownership Essay the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter.

1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Honneth, Axel. 1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Black? Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

93-134. The American Dream Essay Examples? Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. Labor? RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. Of Home Ownership Examples? 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes.

Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of phys ed warm literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes.

In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. The American Of Home Essay? 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. Is Othello Black? 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251.

Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Is Othello Black? Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996. The Theory of of Home Essay examples Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on phys ed warm ups, the Work of The American Dream Ownership Essay Pierre Bourdieu.

International Journal of what Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by The American Essay examples, Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. Is Parallelism In Literature? van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works. Poetics 16: 275-94. The American Ownership? van Rees, Cees J. 1989.

The Institutional Foundation of phys ed warm ups a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture.

London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997.

Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Ownership Essay Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology. Phys Ups? Shiagh, Morag. 1993. 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Dream Essay, Publishing Literary Texts.

Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. 1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bürger, Peter.

1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of labor efficiency variance 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature. Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. The American Dream Of Home Examples? Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on in literature, Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Ownership Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier.

Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Labor Efficiency? Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Dream Ownership Essay Examples? Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per.

1977. Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Salon Plan? Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in The American Dream of Home Ownership the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. 1984. Canons . What? Chicago: Chicago UP.

Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . The American Of Home Ownership? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans. 1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. Schenck, Celeste M. Ed Warm? 1989.

Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and of Home Ownership examples the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 226-250. Efficiency Variance? Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573.

Voßkamp, Wilhelm. The American Of Home Ownership Essay? 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. Is Othello? [1981] 1993. The American Dream Of Home Ownership? The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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A Guide to Information Security Certifications. Many people are confused by the massive number of information security certifications available today. Some people already have one or more and are looking to expand, while others are just getting started with certification and The American Essay examples, need a place to start. This guide aims to help with both scenarios. What Is Parallelism In Literature. I#8217;m going to examples, highlight a few of the certification options and what in literature, offer a couple of recommended paths for professionals in various stages of their careers. I#8217;ll be rating each credential based on the criteria below: ** Note: I currently hold only the CISSP, CISA, GCIA, GSEC, and Security+ information security credentials.

My comments on the others are based on Dream of Home Ownership examples information I have gathered from various sources. Difficulty How hard the test itself is, i.e. study-time needed, difficulty of material, etc. Phys. Who Who should be considering the certification. Respect Respect rating within the technical infosec-geek community. The American Ownership Essay Examples. Renown How well-know the certification is throughout the industry. Requirements What#8217;s needed to get the cert, e.g. prerequisites, exams, practicals, labs, etc. Cost What it#8217;ll cost you (or your company) to How War Us Essay, get the credential. Pros Positive comments about the certification.

Cons Downsides to The American of Home Ownership examples, the certification. How War Changes. Comments My own input on Dream Ownership Essay the credential. ** Note: Numbers are on what in literature a scale from 1-10, with 10 being the highest. Requirements: Single Exam, +-100 Questions. Cost: $225 USD (discounts available online) Who: This certification is for people just getting into the field. Dream Of Home Essay Examples. If you don#8217;t have any other certifications, and your experience/skills are still developing, this is the certification for efficiency you. Pros: It#8217;s a fairly easy cert to The American of Home Essay, get and I understand it#8217;s getting a decent amount of recognition within federal organizations. It#8217;s also a fair, solid test that asks decent questions rather than a bunch of vendor-specific garbage.

Cons: It#8217;s entry-level and thus not strong as a standalone bargaining chip. Comments: I enjoyed taking this test due to its honesty and legitimacy. The study material was good material to be going over, and the test actually covered the material. The questions weren#8217;t particularly tricky; you either knew the content or you didn#8217;t, which I respect. Efficiency. Requirements: Single Exam, 125 Questions, 3 hours; 1 Year Experience. Who: The SSCP is for The American serious, dedicated information security professionals who are not quite ready to take the CISSP exam. Is Othello. Only one (1) year of The American Dream of Home Ownership, experience is required for this exam vs.

3-4 (depending on if you have your bachelors) for the CISSP. Pros: The SSCP is How War Us Essay administered in a very professional fashion, just like the CISSP, and it thus carries some degree of the The American of Home Essay respect that goes along with that credential. Salon Plan. It#8217;s also from ISC 2 just like the CISSP, so that helps it as well. It shows that you#8217;re serious about of Home Ownership Essay examples your career. Cons: Unfortunately, the certification that hurts the phys ed warm SSCP the most is in of Home Essay examples, fact its older sibling #8212; the CISSP. If you check the job boards, precious few jobs ask for the SSCP.

The reasoning there is that the efficiency experience requirement for the CISSP is much of what makes it so respectable. To take that away and ask half the number of questions diminishes the Essay value of the SSCP significantly. Comments: If you can#8217;t show the 3-4 years experience required for the CISSP, or you don#8217;t feel you can pass the CISSP exam, and someone else is How War Us Essay paying, I#8217;d say go for the SSCP. If nothing else, it will help prepare you for the CISSP that will surely be in your future. Also consider that you can take the The American Essay examples CISSP exam even if you don#8217;t have the experience to get the credential. Once you get the experience you#8217;ll then be awarded the certification. That being said, if you want to get a truly valuable credential that doesn#8217;t require the experience (and you#8217;re technical enough), go for what is used to measure content the GSEC (covered below) instead . CISSP (Certified Information Systems Security Professional) Requirements: Single Exam, 250 Questions, 6 hours; 4 Years Experience. Who: The CISSP is for serious, dedicated information security professionals who intend to stay in the field and grow. It says to employers that you are serious about your career and are familiar with the core basics of 10 separate areas within the field. In today#8217;s market, managers and career professionals are expected to Essay examples, have this credential. Pros: The CISSP is the undisputed king of variance, infosec certifications.

It#8217;s the first infosec cert to Essay, receive ISO recognition #8212; a great achievement not only for the certification itself, but also for the field as a whole. It commands a great deal of respect in many IT circles (and HR circles), and this can be clearly seen via job search results. It can help your chances greatly of getting high-paying jobs, and is an beauty salon business plan, excellent addition to Essay examples, any resume. If you are only salon plan, going to get one infosec certification, it should be the CISSP. Cons: While the CISSP is the of Home Ownership king of beauty salon plan, information security certifications, it suffers from being thought of as something it isn#8217;t. Dream Ownership. Many still mistakingly view it as proof that someone is an expert in the field, and salon business plan, that couldn#8217;t be farther from the truth. ISC 2 has explicitly stated in the past that the test is designed to test a broad base of general knowledge, not to certify someone as a master of their field. Also, despite the rumors of impossibility, the exam also supports over a 70% first-time pass rate. Comments: The CISSP is a great exam because it is not easy to take (experience in the field is required ), and once you are able to take it, it#8217;s administered in a professional, controlled environment.

What people fail to realize is that it#8217;s geared for high-level security professionals such as managers. The American Examples. Obviously, anyone can go for it, but it#8217;s not designed to test technical skills or the ability to actually perform in the trenches of an infosec environment. It#8217;s a test designed to ensure that you are familiar with some basic concepts; it#8217;s when people lose sight of this that the confusion starts. As for the difficulty factor, I started studying for mine on a Monday (a #8220;bootcamp#8221;) and passed the exam on phys ed warm that Saturday #8212; and that#8217;s with zero previous exposure to the CISSP study material. A buddy of mine just got his as well, and his study consisted of The American Dream of Home Ownership Essay, around 2 weeks of passively glancing at the material while leveling his WoW character. Again, that#8217;s not to say it#8217;s not an ed warm, excellent certification to have, it#8217;s just that the difficulty (or value) should not be overestimated. Requirements: Single 200 Question Exam, 4 Hours; 5 Years Experience. The American Dream. Who: The CISA credential is ideal for ups anyone already doing, or looking at The American Dream Ownership, getting into information security auditing. If you#8217;re not familiar with auditing, think of accounting.

It#8217;s basically ensuring that proper processes are in place and that people (and technologies) are doing what they#8217;re supposed to Changes Us Essay, be doing. Pros: The credential is highly recognized and sports even more hits than the CISSP via Monster.com and other job searches. It#8217;s highly sought after due to Dream Ownership Essay, the myriad of regulations hitting the infosec industry. Considered a #8220;professional#8221; certification, it seems to borrow some respect from the CPA/Accountant arena. Cons: Again, many jobs that request CISA also will take a CISSP. Certain jobs ask for in literature CISA specifically, but most are just looking for this #8220;class#8221; of of Home, cert, and will accept a CISSP in beauty salon business plan, its place.

Comments: Information security auditing, as a field, is becoming more and more needed. Due to the continued release of new legislation, along with the requirement to enforce what already exists, this will do nothing but accelerate. The American Dream. Adding a CISA to phys ed warm, your resume is definitely a good move, and should probably be your second or third certification, right after your CISSP (unless you go for your GSEC first). Requirements: Single 200 Question Exam, 4 Hours; 5 Years Experience; 3 Years Security Management Experience. Who: The CISM credential is for information security managers. Dream Ownership Examples. It#8217;s for those who wish to show that they can manage an enterprise information security program. Pros: The credential comes from what instrument the energy of foods? ISACA, which is a respected organization, and the position of information security manager is The American Dream Ownership examples so important to companies that any credentials that speak to what in literature, one#8217;s competence will be helpful. Cons: Once again the CISSP is still the leader in this area, and while the certification can definitely help, anyone hiring for an ISM position is going to be looking at Dream of Home Ownership examples, a lot more than certifications. Comments: Anyone wanting to get into an ISM position needs to be looking at this credential, but it doesn#8217;t have the power of CISSP in my view.

I think that out of the two big ISACA certs, the CISA offers more of a punch, albeit not necessarily for managers. Is Used To Measure The Energy Content. Requirements: Two 100-Question, Open-book, Open-Google Online Exams. Essay. Cost: $800 USD (Cost of exam without training) Who: The GSEC is for highly-technical, serious information security professionals who actively work with the ed warm technical side of infosec on a daily basis. Those who are looking to Dream Ownership, show considerable technical knowledge over a large number of infosec subjects would be well-served by black attaining this credential. Pros: The SANS organization is The American of Home Ownership examples universally recognized as a top-notch infosec training and ups, certification organization.

Any certification from Dream them commands a decent degree of respect, both with engineers and increasingly with human resources as well. Cons: The CISSP still owns the majority of the spotlight in this arena. Relatively few employers are aware of the GSEC, and even of is parallelism, those who do recognize it, most view the CISSP as just as (or more) valuable. The American Examples. Comments: The GSEC does not show expertise in any particular infosec area; it shows that the How War Changes Us Essay cert-holder is of Home Essay examples technically-oriented and has a wide base of phys ed warm ups, infosec knowledge, as well as the Dream of Home examples ability to find answers under pressure. No certs at this level demonstrate true mastery.

One particular thing to note with this exam vs. the CISSP is that the salon plan actual exam portions are taken from home and are open-book, meaning you can use anything you want during the exams. Critics claim this makes the exam less respectable than the CISSP since the CISSP is taken under supervision and no study materials may be used. I argue that precisely the opposite is true. Infosec professionals are not databases. We don#8217;t pride ourselves in not having to consult external resources when solving problems; in fact, we do it constantly. To imply that an exam that tests your ability to The American Dream of Home Essay examples, solve problems in precisely this fashion is is othello black somehow less respectable is, in my view, a grave mistake. The GSEC exam structure represents the real world #8212; you#8217;re faced with a difficult problem, you find the answer and solve it. You don#8217;t see consultants losing contracts because they had to Google for solutions that saved their clients money.

Ultimately this debate comes down to an old argument: hands-on vs. academic. The GSEC tests one#8217;s ability to The American Dream of Home Ownership examples, get the answer to semi-difficult questions in a pinch, and for this reason I think it#8217;s a very valuable credential. I expect that the business world#8217;s acceptance of it as a legitimate, respectable certification will only continue to is parallelism, grow. Requirements: Two 100-Question, Open-book, Open-Google, Online Exams. Cost: $800 USD (without training) Who: These various certifications represent the #8220;hardcore#8221; SANS offerings. They are more in-depth and difficult than the GSEC, and they focus on one area specifically. GCFW is for firewalls and VPNs, GCIA is for IDS/IPS, GCUX is for Unix security, GCFA is for forensics, and GCIH is for incident handling. These are just a few of those that are offered, and these are geared towards veteran infosec professionals who have already specialized in an area. If this sounds like you, these certs are the way to go. Pros: The GIAC (SANS) organization is The American of Home Ownership examples universally recognized as a top-notch training and certification organization.

Any certification from them commands a decent degree of respect, and these specialized certs say to an employer or client that you are truly skilled at phys, what you do. Cons: There are very few holders of The American Dream Ownership Essay, these more advanced certifications, and as such many employers (or clients) may ask questions like, #8220;Is that like a CISSP? Is that the is othello black same as a GSEC?#8221; Comments: These certifications do show some degree of mastery of a subject. It doesn#8217;t mean that everyone with one is great, or that those who don#8217;t have one aren#8217;t great. It does mean, however, that the odds of someone with one of these certifications being qualified for The American of Home a job in that respective area are fairly high. Think of these as more advanced, more focused GSECs. Requirements: Must have three (3) GIAC certifications (GSEC, GCIA and GCIH) with GIAC Gold in at How War Us Essay, least two; must pass a proctored GSEC exam with average scores of 80 on both tests; 23 hour onsite testing process consists of a mix of open book written exams, research, hands on exams, group work and an oral presentation. Who: The GSE is for those who have literally mastered a number of areas within information security, have superior talent, have a love of difficult-to-attain credentials, and a lot of time on their hands.

Pros: If you encounter anyone who knows what all the exam involves, you#8217;ll be instantly acknowledged as a world-class information security expert. Cons: You aren#8217;t likely to The American of Home Ownership examples, find any of those people. Plus, anyone with these skills doesn#8217;t need the certification anyway. Comments: The GSE credential is the final destination for in literature anyone pursuing information security certification. It#8217;s a goal in and of itself to The American Dream of Home Ownership examples, me, rather than a means to gain something in the field. In short, nobody with the skills required to get this credential are going to get any additional fame or money because of it. It#8217;s a trophy, plain and simple.

If you are just getting into what is parallelism security and you don#8217;t have much experience with networking or system administration, you need two things: A serious home network that you can use as a learning environment A job where you can start building experience. The American Dream Examples. Both of these are absolutely critical. Once you have your help desk, sysadmin, or other low-level IT job secured, start studying for and take your Cisco CCNA. Study, practice at home, learn everything you can pertaining to operating systems, networking, programming, and the security philosophy and discipline. Once you feel your security skills are decent, start studying for instrument to measure and take the The American Dream Ownership Essay examples Security+ and/or SSCP exams.

Once you#8217;ve been in networking, system administration, programming, and/or security for a while (4 years or so), and you feel your skills are pretty strong, you should be looking at the CISSP. Ignore people who say it#8217;s too easy or that it doesn#8217;t mean much #8212; it doesn#8217;t matter . The fact of the matter is that it#8217;s more beneficial to have a CISSP right now than any other information security certification. Remember, you can take and pass the test without having the required experience; you#8217;ll get the certificate later once you#8217;ve satisfied that requirement. After getting your CISSP, and if you#8217;re a technical person, I suggest you look at the GSEC. It#8217;s the perfect compliment to the CISSP.

The CISSP covers the 10 domains from a manager/birds-eye view, and the GSEC gets down to some technical detail within the same areas. Labor Efficiency Variance. Another option once you have your CISSP is to Dream of Home Essay, go for the CISA instead. If you#8217;re more of a manager anyway, and/or looking to head that way, then it may not be necessary to show technical prowess. If that#8217;s the is othello case then opt for the CISA instead of the GSEC. The certification is absolutely on fire right now, and the odds are good that with a solid resume and a CISSP/CISA combination you could command around $90K/U.S. The American Dream Essay. fairly easily. If you have been in black, infosec for of Home a long time, i.e. 5-10 years or more, and you are a geek at instrument is used to measure content of foods?, the core, start looking at the more advanced SANS certifications. Pick the Dream of Home Essay examples one that matches your area of interest within information security and go for it.

These credentials represent the in literature top tier of technical certifications, and once you#8217;ve achieved one of them you#8217;re going to be better off growing your career via a method other than certification. Finally, remember one important thing about all certification: The value of Essay, a certification is exactly the value that others place on itno more, no less. If you#8217;re interested in the actual value of a given cert, check the job sites, call your recruiter friends, and talk to hiring managers. Just as with currency exchange rates, the only way to determine #8220;true#8221; value is to business, see how much others are willing to pay for it. I hope this short summary of my thoughts has been helpful. The American Dream Essay Examples. Feel free to contact me if I have made any errors, if there is what instrument is used content something you think I should add, or if you just want to comment.:

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Duties Of Good Student Essays and The American Ownership examples Research Papers. Introduction: Students are the repository of all that is vital and vigorous in society. They are the vital forces in the social organism. How War Changes Us Essay! If . the students do not come upto our expectations simply because they are led astray and of Home examples their vigor is drained away, the radiance of our hopes is likely to phys, be dimmed. It is essential, therefore, that students should realize this and make full preparations for playing their proper role in society and answering the call of the time to come.

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A good friend makes our life more abundant. I make a survey at RIS to . consult their opinion about the good friend. Essay! But, what is the good friend? The good friend is a gift for our life. Anaos Nin said: “Each friend represents a world in us, a world possibly not born until they arrive, and it is only by this meeting that a new world.” But, what is the good friend?

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The two most common math courses taken in this form are Business Calculus and plan Business. Abstract algebra , Algebra , Arithmetic 1102 Words | 3 Pages. A Good Student A good student maintains good work habits, follows all directions, and . has a positive attitude towards learning. Of Home Essay! These attributes are the key to not only succeeding in school, but also succeeding in life. Good work habits ensure that all assignments are completed and turned in on time, while following directions affords the labor efficiency variance, student a positive relationship with the teacher. Meanwhile, a positive attitude towards learning shows the instructor that the student appreciates the class. Certified teacher , Education , Learning 522 Words | 2 Pages. moral terms such as ‘ good ’ and ‘bad’, whereas on the other hand there are those who think that ethical language has no meaning as it is Dream Essay, merely . expressions of emotion and is subjective, so cannot be deemed true or false. Cognitivists are a group of thinkers who believe that ethical statements do have meaning as they can be backed up with empirical data and regarded as true or false. A form of this thinking is Ethical Naturalism, a theory which states that something is ‘ good ’ if it physically exists. Empiricism , Intrinsic value , Meta-ethics 910 Words | 3 Pages.

Obiter Dicta is Donoghue V Stevenson [1932] AC 562. Because in this case the in literature, ratio in The American Dream of Home examples, Donoghue V Stevenson is the proposition that a manufacturer owes a . duty of care to the consumer to ensure that manufactured goods have not defects that are likely to cause injury. However, the Us Essay, obiter dicta in Donoghue V Stevenson have been significant in extending the duty of care concept to a range of of Home Ownership Essay examples, relation ships other than that of manufacturer and ed warm consumer. The obiter made by the Loral Atkin’s ‘Neighbour Principle’. Case law , Common law , Judge 821 Words | 3 Pages. Adrian Gonzalez Dr.

Castro ENC0025 01/28/12 Characteristics of a Good Student I believe there are two important . characteristics to Dream of Home examples, be a good student . In Literature! Those characteristics are first dedication, and second, attendance. These two characteristics are not only going to help you now as a student but will definitely help you later on in life; whether it is in your personal life or in your professional life. No matter what you do in this life this two characteristics will be a part of your life. Characteristic , Dedication 2 , Dedication 3 495 Words | 2 Pages. Bad Grades Could Mean You Are a Good Student. Bad Test Scores Could actually be the Sign of a Good Student This past summer I participated in a program known as CSTEP at . Fordham University, the The American Dream of Home Essay, school I previously planned on attending. The five-week summer program included a Math class, Chemistry class, and a Social Problems class. Math is my worst subject; I loathe it with every fiber of my being. Of course we were given exams as a way to is parallelism, measure our understanding, and because I knew that Math was a weak area for me I studied day and.

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Clothing , Dress code , Education 1827 Words | 5 Pages. think it’s right thing to do, while others doesn't. From my work experience, I had seen several people who are really badly at follow the business ethic that . lead them to be in hot water or let go from job. Last summer, I started my new job as student custodian for facilities management services department at Rochester Institute of labor efficiency, Technology. In each custodian department, they have two senior custodians who can take over boss's responsibility if boss is The American Ownership, not here. What! They have more authority by The American Essay examples, have. Applied ethics , Axiology , Business ethics 895 Words | 3 Pages. positive effects of computer games will be humbly reviewed. In following we will talk about the positive effects of video games regarding: motivation, . hand-eye coordination, retention memory and lastly spatial skill. As we all know, the success behind a good project, essay, homework or any achievement in life has one big prerequisite to what to measure content of foods?, it: motivation. This comes in many forms and generally depends on a person’s character and The American Dream of Home Essay examples perseverance but there are methods by which motivation can be enhanced and taught.

Electronic game , Game , Gameplay 1346 Words | 5 Pages. half of the nineteenth century stimulated Straits merchant's interest in prospecting for more of the metal in the tin bearing western coastal Malay . States of Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Efficiency Variance! Britain’s Peel’s Reform Act of 1842 that reduced duties on imported tin also triggered demands from British manufacturers for The American of Home Ownership examples cheaper tin ores. Ed Warm Ups! Favourable global prices for tin and The American Dream of Home Essay examples fresh demands for the metal also coincided with the instrument the energy content, end of China’s opium war in 1842 that opened Chinese ports and encouraged. British Malaya , Federated Malay States , Federation of Malaya 968 Words | 3 Pages. long. The local residents and students always support new restaurants and the tourists do not have fixed preferences. In addition, $10,000 has . been budgeted for a pre-opening advertising and public relations campaign. Marketing Strategy Focusing on the unique aspect of the product theme (healthy, tasty foods) a mix of marketing vehicles will be created to convey our presence, our image, and The American of Home our message. * Print media -- local newspapers, magazines and student publications * Broadcast media --.

Chicago , Food , Marketing 1602 Words | 6 Pages. performance standards, and maintain accountability among the staff. A leader is responsible for ensuring that staff understands what is business, expected of The American, them, . but I think a good leader does not need to micromanage. If expectations are clearly defined, then staff should be allowed the freedom to determine how a task or project will be completed. A good leader acts as a mentor who coaches and How War Changes counsels their staff.

They offer guidance by identifying strengths and weaknesses, and through a collaborative effort. Decision making , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 1456 Words | 5 Pages.

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The folder contains the installer: ForSimSetup.exe . Double-click on the installer file. Note that Windows might ask you to give it a permission to run. Forex Simulator Software installer might ask for permission to run. In this case, click “Yes” and the installer will start. Forex Trading Simulator Iinstallation. Click Next – button and then select the installation folder. Forex Trading Simulator Iinstallation – Select Folder. Next, click Install – button and wait for the installation to complete. Forex Trading Simulator Iinstallation – Completed. Now, click Close – button.

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Enter the email address you used for the purchase and the license code received, and click the Validate button. Forex Trading Simulator – License. If the credentials entered are correct, the license status will change to The American Dream, installed . You can uninstall the license by using Deactivate license button. This function is useful if you need to transfer the license to another computer. To install a newer version of the labor Simulator, follow the same procedure as for the clean install. Dream Ownership Essay. Upgrades don’t require any license manipulations, as long as you don’t uninstall the software prior to upgrading.

In this case, you will need to install the license again. The simulator supports both Back testing and ups, Forward testing on streaming real-time prices. In this mode, you test on the historical market data that you can select on The American of Home Ownership the Data tab. The simulator only uses the tick-by-tick data, which is loaded as a .csv file. You can download free high quality tick-by-tick data from www.truefx.com . There you can get the historical data for 15 main currency pairs since 2009. The price data is what, available in monthly files. You need to download them to The American of Home Ownership, your computer and unzip before using in the Simulator.

To start offline simulation, navigate to the Data tab, click on the Open data file button, and what is used to measure content of foods?, choose an unzipped quotes file. Alternatively, in the File menu, select Open . Examples. The Simulator will first scan the data to check its integrity, and what instrument is used to measure, then load it. Forex Simulator has loaded tick-by-tick data. NOTE : monthly files are usually large, so their loading might take a while. You can monitor the progress of loading in the status bar in the bottom. In the case of any loading errors they will be logged on the History tab. When the file loading is complete, the loaded data interval will be shown on the calendar: light colored, with the first available date highlighted in Dream Ownership Essay examples blue. Forex Trading Simulator – Test Data. Now, select the desired simulation start date by clicking on it in the calendar, and then select the what instrument the energy content start time. The options available include manual time select (after the file upload, it is set to the time of the first tick in the file), and standard times of the major trading sessions – Asian, European and North American. With the date/time selected, click on Start Simulation – button.

The Simulator will switch to the Simulation – tab and the data feed will be started. Forward testing (requires Internet connection) This mode enables you to practice in Ownership examples the real time, when Forex market is open. The Simulator uses streaming price quotes for 10 main currency pairs, provided by www.truefx.com. NOTE: when you start a new simulation, the price graphs are plotted with a small delay. Is Othello Black. This is normal: the The American Dream Ownership Essay examples Simulator is is othello, downloading the recent price data. On start-up, a new live simulation is started automatically by default (a configurable settings). To change the currency pair, end the current running simulation first by pressing the Stop button.

Then navigate to the Real Time tab, where select a new currency pair from the Currency pair drop-down list. Now you can start a new simulation by clicking on Start Online Simulation button. Forex Trading Simulator – Live Data. NOTE: you can also start and stop a simulation by Essay pressing CTRL+L or using Live Feed option in beauty plan the File menu. Real-time simulation requires good Internet connection. The Simulator constantly monitors the quality of your connection by measuring round trip time (RTT). Dream Ownership Essay Examples. The long term RTT values and How War, real-time graph for the last 1 min are available. The Simulator monitors RTT in Online Mode.

RTT is the The American Essay time needed for the Simulator to request and receive one tick from the is othello trading server over the Internet. The American Ownership Essay. The smaller the RTT value, the better you can simulate the what real market. The American Dream Of Home Essay. We recommend you to pay attention to the RTT graph and make sure the average value doesn’t exceed 500 ms. NOTE : if you lose your Internet connection in real-time mode, the is parallelism simulation will be paused. Dream Of Home Essay Examples. The Simulator will log the connection loss on beauty plan the History tab and show the warning ( DATA LOSS ) on the graphs. As soon as the Internet connection is restored, the simulation will resume automatically, but there will be gaps in the graphs. On the candlestick graph the of Home Essay gaps are shown by thin gray vertical lines. Connection restoration will also be logged.

NOTE : The real-time simulation result can only what, be reliable with uninterrupted Internet connection. While the Simulator does its best in handling the connectivity issues, this is only done to improve user experience. The Simulation – tab consists of the control area (on the The American Dream Ownership examples left) and the graphs area (on the right). In the top left corner of the control area you can see the start date/time of the running simulation, followed by the current time. The number in brackets is the is othello black tick count. Forex Trading Simulator – control panel.

2 upper graphs show ticks in The American Dream real-time. The left graph is a zoom view, with min window size of 10 s. The right graph has bigger display window size – from is othello black 2 min to 2 hrs. The middle graph displays averaged quotes, e.g. M15. The light horisontal bar shows the value range from the The American Dream Ownership tick graph. Dashed vertical lines mark the date changes. What Instrument Is Used The Energy. Dashed horizontal line shows current market price. The bottom graph is reserved for indicators (in version 1.3, only RSI is supported).

NOTE : On the Settings tab, you can addjust the visible data window size, graph scale, averaging interval, and The American of Home, the indicator parameters (in version 1.3 – RSI periods). During Offline simulation, you can put the current simulation on hold with Pause button. To unhold the simulation, press Resume button. During Live simulation, you can put the phys ups current simulation on hold with Record button. To unhold the The American Dream Ownership examples simulation, press Play button. To end the Simulation, use Stop button.

NOTE : When you start a new simulation, the previous trading history will be deleted. It is possible to vary the speed of the data feed during Offline simulation and Timeshift . By default, the ups data feed always started in 1X (Normal) mode. The American Dream Of Home Essay Examples. It means that ticks are sourced at exactly the same intervals as they appeared in the market. In 2X(4X) mode ticks are sourced twice (4 times) faster compared to the 1X (Normal) mode. What. These modes are useful to save time when trading in quet markets. E.g. in Asian sessions the of Home Essay examples time intervals between ticks can exceed 1 min. Max – mode doesn’t limit the interval between ticks anyhow, so the feed speed only depends on your hardware. This option is used mainly for debugging and business plan, demonstrations. In 1/2X (1/4X) mode , ticks are sourced twice (4 times) slower compared to the 1X (Normal) mode. Of Home Ownership Essay. These modes can be used in fast-paced markets, e.g. to Changes, practice news trading. The Simulator 1.3 supports one active market order , with linked Stop-loss and Take profit orders.

Pending orders are not yet supported. You can place a market order in one-click mode using BUY and Dream examples, SELL buttons. Active market order is marked on the graph with a black triange pointing up for a buy order and what is parallelism, down for a sell order. The order is also marked with a dashed line drawn at the price the order was opened. The line is colored green if the position is profitable and red in Dream Ownership the opposite case.

The profit (loss) value is beauty salon business plan, writen on the line. You can place the Take Profit and Stop-Loss orders simultaneously with the market order. Dream Essay Examples. For that, before you press the order button, check the Stop Loss or/and Take Profit boxes located just above the Buy button. Set the desired price using arrow buttons or by is parallelism in literature entering it manually. Solid horizontal line is drawn at the price level entered in the control.

Stop orders can also be placed any time after the market order using Take Profit and Stop Loss buttons. Clicking a button opens a dialog window where you can select the desired price level using arrow buttons or by The American Dream of Home entering it manually in the control. The solid horizontal line on the graph helps you to adjust the price. When the price is set, press OK button to place the order. Forex Trading Simulator: editing Takeprofit order. Same buttons can be used to move active stop orders. With the X Take Profit and X Stop Loss buttons you can cancel stops. NOTE : that every time you try to place or move a stop order, the Simulator first checks its distance to the market. What Instrument Is Used To Measure The Energy Content Of Foods?. If the price you enter is too close to Ownership, the current market price, the order fill error will be returned by the trading server.

The minimum distance to is othello black, the market is The American Dream Ownership Essay, configurable by the Stoplevel parameter on the Settings tab. If you use a dialog box to add or move the stops for the active market order, the Simulator automatically calculates the minimum distance to the currently effective market price and labor efficiency, doesn’t accept incorrect values. For your convenience, the arrow buttons are also colored. Red button indicates that the price is Dream of Home Ownership Essay, too close and order placing command won’t be accepted. NOTE : It is How War Changes, still possible for a stop order to be declined after the of Home Ownership examples command was accepted – if the price changed unfavorably before the server receives the command. All your trading activity is presented on the History tab. Timeshift makes it possible to pause/resume a Real-time simulation. If your practice is is othello, interrupted (e.g. by an important phone call), you can put the running live simulation on hold. As long as your Internet connection stays active, the Simulator will continue receiving the market data. So later, you can resume your practice any time.

The recorded data can be also used offline. Timeshift both saves your time and helps you use your time very efficiently. To pause the The American Dream of Home Essay examples simulation in the Real-time mode, press the ups RECORD button. The Simulator will start storing streaming prices internally. The tick graph will display the recording symbol and also show its duration. Forex Simulator with Timeshift in The American Dream Essay examples Online mode.

NOTE : Order operations are not possible during recording. To resume simulation, press PLAY button. The simulation will continue from the tick following the last one shown before the pause. The playback symbol will be displayed, along with the current record duration (i.e. the delay from the current time). All recorded ticks will be rendered with this delay.

Forex Trading Simulator: Playback in Timeshift mode. NOTE: When the playback is active, you can activate recording again at any time. You can fast forward the recorded data using 2X and 4X buttons. In this case, the delay will be decreasing, and eventually the Simulator will go back to the Real-time mode. Fast forwarding is beauty, very helpful when the market was slow moving during the recorded time. You can save your time and catch up without losing anything significant. Online Forex Simulator – Fast Playback. To switch to the Real-time mode immediately, press the LIVE – button or select Max speed. Alternatively, you can slow the playback of the recorded data using 1/2X and 1/4X buttons. In this case, the delay will be increasing. This mode may be helpful during fast market action, e.g. around major news releases.

Order operations are possible during both fast and slow playback. NOTE : If you want to use the recorded data offline, leave the RECORD – button pressed before switching off the network (e.g. before enabling the Airplane – mode). This tab has the Ownership table showing all the orders for the current simulation. For each order, its size, open/close time/price and profit are shown. Salon Business Plan. For the active order, SL and The American Dream, TP values are visible as well.

The profit is shown both in pips and account currency. Forex Trading Simulator – Order History. Below the order list, the simulation log is shown. Most log records are related to order operations, e.g. 08.22 14:48:40 INF BID: 1.31377 ASK: 1.31405 SELL ORDER OPENED AT 1.31377 TICKET: 2 LOTS: 5 SERVER DELAY: 258 MS.

In the Back testing mode, the log timestamps correspond to what instrument is used to measure the energy, that of the historical data used. Also the server response delay is logged. NOTE : Both log and the trading history are rewritten when you start a new simulation. On this tab, you can adjust the graphics parameters, select account currency and lot size, check for software updates, etc. For the The American Dream Ownership tick (zoom) graph , you can select the size of the data window. Default value is what in literature, 10 s, max is 120 s. For the tick graph , you can select the size of the data window. The range is The American Ownership Essay examples, 120-7200 s. For the averaged quote graph , you can set the data window size and averaging interval ( M1/M5/M15/M30/H1 ). You can also select plotting mode: line or candlesticks. If the Scale to orders flag is selected, the vertical scale is How War Us Essay, adjusted to of Home, make visible all the orders placed during currently running simulation. With Plotting accuracy parameter you can adjust the scale of all price graphs.

The parameter value sets how many digits after decimal point are used. The default value is what is parallelism, 4. Indicator graph in the bottom shows RSI. The American Dream Examples. On the middle hraph, you can plot moving averages – (SMA and EMA) ; the number of periods used in their calculation can be set in the Awer. window control. For all graphs, you can activate the offset view. In this mode, the phys ed warm ups graphs will be plotted with a gap on The American the right. Phys Ed Warm Ups. This might make viewing more comfortable. For the trading server, in the version 1.x you can set min and max values of the The American Dream of Home Essay examples response delay. The Simulator generates a random delay value for each request.

This setting is what is used the energy of foods?, only available for Offline (back testing) mode. Stoplevel (measured in Dream Ownership Essay examples pips, default 5) is a minimum allowed distance to market when placing Stop-loss and Take profit orders. The same value is used for ups both. Ownership Essay Examples. Order fill will fail if you try to efficiency, place the order closer to the market than the minimum distance. Pip values and profit are always calculated in Account currency , which is USD by Essay examples default. Another choices depend on the simulation mode. During offline simulation, you can only choose between the what is parallelism currencies of the current pair. In real-time, 6 currencies are available, but not all the combinations of the account currency and the pair are possible.

Default Lot size is Mini (10,000). It can be changed for every simulation run. The deal size is measured in selected lots. The American Dream. Maximum deal size is 100 lots. Version check By default, the Simulator checks for the software updates on Changes Us Essay every start-up. You can disable this by unckecking the box. Of Home Ownership Essay Examples. If a new Simulator version is is parallelism in literature, available, you will be shown the dialog window. Forex Simulator Version Update Check. Clicking OK will open the download page with the update in your browser.

During the check for software updates, the Simulator will also fetch the latest information (e.g. The American Dream Examples. just released features or fixes), and display it in the scrollable info window. Run online simulation at start-up. By default, this flag is enabled. Is Othello. In this case, the live data feed is turned on immediately when the Simulator is started. After the fresh install, the simulation will use the default currency pair (EUR/USD), otherwise the Simulator will automatically recall the pair that was used in Dream of Home Ownership the previous run. Forex Trading Simulator – Coming Up.

Our development is ongoing – so we need your feedback! Please vote for the most needed new features in our poll below. If you have suggestions, please leave a comment or just send us an e-mail. Thanks! The new features coming up in the next releases:

The tick data recorder collects the live market data. You can use it e.g. to record a trading session while you are at work during daytime. And then use the recording and practice on it while commuting home. With trade recorder/player , you can save your practice and analyze it later. In multiuser mode , you can practice together with your friends. You can even have a trading contest, which makes practicing fun. Here, one of the ed warm ups Simulators becomes a trading server for a group of Dream, people so that all would have the same market data.

Automated trader is similar to the energy, the multiuser mode, but here you can compete with an inbuilt automated trading strategy. The American Dream Ownership Essay. Or record how this strategy works. Real time price sync . The Simulatoir will download from the server the price data that you missed during online simulation when your Internet connection was lost.