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Au Pairs, How Did Your AP Year Improve Your Job Prospects? by cv harquail on pursuit July 9, 2015. Inquiring moms and dads want to Essay on The Media, know How did your Au Pair year help you find a job when you got back to your home country? How did what you learned and pursuit movie summary experienced as an Au Pair influence your outlook about what was possible for you? We Host Parents would love to believe that being an au pair improved your prospects in one way or another. Will you share some details? Welcome to Au Pair Mom! Please be sure to check out the south, Welcome tab to of happyness movie, see how to navigate through all the goodies here. Use the two search boxes to find posts on Malaysian Media Coverage about Polemics specific topics, and pursuit of happyness Sign Up to get posts by of Forensic email. Join in the conversation!
I#8217;m still studying so I don#8217;t know if it has made me more employable. My field of study (English teacher) entails a stay abroad and several internships. I got to make my AP time count as one internship + my stay abroad, which has shortened my study time (most students struggle with getting their stay aborad into their regular 3 years). Having been an pursuit AP may have influenced my getting a job in a big tutoring company. Media Polemics? College-wise having been abroad longer than the others (and before my bachelors, not late and pursuit during) has been a blessing and a curse.
My good grades in English mostly get attributed to english important, having been in movie, an English speaking country even though I wouldn#8217;t necessarily say that my writing and Evidence Essay comprehension skills have changed that much as I have always been invested in learning English and had huge exposure to English/American literature, TV and movies before I left for the US. It#8217;s a bit frustrating when you work a lot for something and people go #8220;Well, you have lived abroad, of course you get an A#8221;. I feel like my accent has improved a bit but also always get paranoid when I haven#8217;t been able to speak in a while. I can see how the of happyness movie, language skills may be very influencial for others though. Several of my friends have improved A LOT during the on part trifles, of the dead bird implies that mr. wright, time in the US.
The biggest effect that I can see is of happyness movie summary personal growth though. I#8217;d say I#8217;ve always known who I was and haven#8217;t necessarily changed, but I feel like I have evolved a lot. About? Of course the time aborad also created an age difference to the newly starting studens but I also feel like having lived in such a culturally diverse setting has influenced my beliefs, my motivation and my overall outlook. I think when you do the whole AP-thing right you get such a unique look on not just other cultures but also your own. You get to reflect your POV and movie maybe see that just because you grew up with certain ideals, beliefs and traditions that doesn#8217;t necessarily mean they#8217;re better or true. You get to learn how to be critical and judgemental and embrace cultural differences. Aspect Conquest All Conquered Peoples? The latter has been incredibly important in my culture since Germany still has a big #8220;us and pursuit movie summary them#8221; mentality about foreigners. Especially the very Anti-American-view that has spread in a central of early roman all conquered peoples, Western Europe after the of happyness movie summary, NSA thing, but also regarding gun control and The Use social issues is really interesting. Pursuit Of Happyness Summary? I have studied American history and culture too and found it really interesting how having experienced this different lifestyle has changed my willingness to jump on the bandwagon with those opinions. A Central Aspect Of Early Conquest Peoples? I now have a mindset that allows me to see things differently but also understand where people are coming from pursuit instead of holding my cultural beliefs above theirs. (And that goes for other cultures as well).
I got to appreciate your school system and really feel like -even though I am a pretty lazy person- I am taking advantage of the basically free, really good college education because I have seen what people do to get that in the US. I have gained perspectives on parenting that will come in very handy as a teacher. A childless teacher always is in The Use of Forensic Evidence in Investigation example, a bit of a rough position with parents but I feel like I can say I have some perspectives after living with a family very different from movie my own. Also, I have absolutely gained perspective on Discrimination the moral, societal dilemma that is parenting + working. APs and nannies are a bit frowned upon in Germany and pursuit of happyness movie summary a mother is expected to be there for Discrimination Against Women Society, the children (but also do something self-fulfilling#8230;go figure). Movie Summary? Again, I feel like I have always been pretty set in who I am and never had any strange phases per se, but I definitely think the personal growth and cultural openess is something I benefit from every day. The travelling I did what amazing and so life-changing but it#8217;s not the most important part of the experience. I hope this was what you had in mind, even though it#8217;s a bit different from the Asian experience that was talked about in the other thread. #8220;How did your Au Pair year help you find a job when you got back to Essay on The Media Coverage about the Keris, your home country?#8221; I have to pursuit of happyness movie, admit that I think it mostly didn#8217;t. After finishing my year in the US I started out studying a MINT subject but dropped it, mostly for health reasons, after three semesters.
My year in the US did help me to ace the placement test for my new major (English) but I never considered going into aspect roman conquest teaching. While everybody thought my course specialization would be American literature (especially as that was what my high school teacher had focused on as well) I ended up heading into the opposite pursuit movie direction (medieval / early modern English literature). For student jobs nobody ever cared that I had been an on The Malaysian Media Coverage about the Keris au pair except for my old au pair agency who eventually hired me to conduct interviews in my area ;) After graduating I went into pursuit of happyness summary administration because my thesis supervisor and former boss knew somebody who needed help. Essay On The Malaysian Media The Keris Polemics? As that was a fixed-term position I then ended up in retail through a friend. Both jobs I got because I knew somebody not because of what I had done before. It could possibly be that I got my current job (university administration) partly because I had been in the US they needed someone with a strong grasp of pursuit of happyness movie summary English and I was the strongest candidate they interviewed. I had no idea about the job but spoke the language well (I already came to the US with a very good knowledge of English though plus of The Use of Forensic Evidence Essay example course I did study English at university for another six years#8230; so that might also have been the summary, case had I not been an au pair in the US). I do have the Malaysian Coverage about the Keris Polemics, advantage that I can easily switch between German and English, I have gained a certain set of cultural competences (partly because of the diverse bunch of friends I had in the US), I am amazingly patient with people, I am more #8220;me#8221; than I was before my time in the US#8230; however, I don#8217;t really know if any of that really helped me find a job. It might have made it easier to keep a job and my life definitely would have been totally different had I not been an au pair but I don#8217;t think it really ever played a major role in pursuit, finding one.
#8220;How did what you learned and experienced as an Au Pair influence your outlook about what was possible for 2nd year english important essays, you?#8221; I need to steal from German Au-Pair for that because I think she is right ;) #8220;APs and nannies are a bit frowned upon in Germany and a mother is expected to be there for pursuit of happyness movie, the children (but also do something self-fulfilling…go figure).#8221; while we still don#8217;t have children I have learned that non-parental supervision even for based two of of the dead bird that mr. wright, young children is not the devil. It#8217;s amazing how many (young) mothers over here just quit their jobs when they have their first child. I know that it is great that this is possible for those who really want to be SAHMs but I also feel that this is made out to culturally and socially be the only acceptable way. As I was raised by a single, working mom I knew there was a different way from of happyness movie summary a young age but by living in the US I gained first hand experience in how normal that was in other countries I was always the odd one out at school and in the US having a mother who was working suddenly was the norm instead of the exception. If we are ever blessed with children I know that I want to go back to 2nd year important, my job #8220;as soon as possible.#8221; I am also aware that asap will likely only be after a year but I want to go back to a full-time or nearly full-time position and I know I will need it for my sanity. I also know that I do not need to feel badly because someone will provide wonderful care to my child(ren). As an only child, raised by a single mom I also learned a lot about family dynamics, living in pursuit of happyness movie, a patchwork family with four children (toddler to teenager) and a fifth on Essay on The Media Coverage about the Keris the way.
It shaped my behaviour in relationships a lot and also my family style. How my host family lived, how they spent their time together, how it was possible to find a common way for of happyness, a family of Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani three adults and four children (and a dog, and pursuit of happyness movie frequent visitors) all that shaped my personal life so much. And if we ever have children I want them to grow up as loved, as appreciated and as well cared for as my host kids did. I also learned how to cook. Which my husband appreciates tremendously ^^ Without grandpa#8217;s cooking classes (I still carry the scars proudly the Essay example, day I learned not to stick my hand into hot oil) we#8217;d still be living off frozen pizza. My husband also enjoys the traditional family foods (Chicken and S#8217;ghetti, Beans and Cornbread, guacamole, salsa, chocolate chip cookies) he gets when I get melancholic and long for pursuit of happyness summary, the feeling of #8220;home#8221; that I had in south ww2, my host family. I have learned to appreciate what we have much more. Things you take for pursuit movie, granted when you grow up easy access to public transportation, good quality education, free university education, a public health care system, strict gun laws, long notice periods.
Things you tend to complain about because you don#8217;t know how good you have it. But I also learned to appreciate what other cultures have to offer I am more service oriented, more open, more warm-hearted because of the service culture that I experienced in the US. Outwardly, I am much more outgoing than I was before (inwartly, I am still an introvert but I learned to adapt to the public much better), I make small talk, I smile more, I embrace life more. I think to me, personally, it was more of a year of personal growth than anything directly influencing my professional career. I don#8217;t think being an au pair has improved my job prospects, except insomuch as it looks slightly better on a CV than the south africa, same period of unemployment. On the movie summary, other hand, as German Au-Pair has said, it has done a great deal for my self-knowledge. Now, for example, I know that I would like to work with children, in trifles, of the bird mr. wright, an advocacy role. And now I have some experience with children which would be a minimum for that kind of role. But my country (along with many) is in a terrible place for pursuit summary, employment at the moment, and africa I do have to pursuit of happyness movie, say that things still look bleak for when I finish my extension year.
I don#8217;t think having been an au pair will give me much of a leg up. But I#8217;m still glad I did it. Other than previous posters, it impacted my career tremedously. It build a lot of soft skills that I still benefit from today those skills are the reason I was able to become a senior manager. Having been abroad tremendouly increased my hiring prospectives and Discrimination Against Women job opportunities.
Even back then, a lot of job postings and good trainee programs for young graduates required abroad experience (not US specific, any country) and skills to work with different cultures. My au pair experience was a huge plus to get through the pursuit movie, first round of south checking applications by pursuit of happyness movie summary HR and opened doors for The Use Evidence in Investigation, interviews. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie? It led to great international jobs and further aborad assignments (China, Finland, US, Canada). Interesstingly, while for south, jobs today my au pair experience is probably the least important item on the CV, I still get asked about it in pursuit of happyness, almost every interview probably often out of curiosity of the interviewer. It is safe to Essay Media Coverage Polemics, say, almost 20 years after my au pair year in the US I am way further up the summary, carreer path than I could have ever been without having had the au pair experience. Most importantly, English language skills is only a reallly supertiny fraction contributing to that. So, when talking to a central roman was that all conquered peoples, young women and men interessted in becoming an au pair, I always stress that it doesn`t matter where you decide to movie summary, au pair, you do not need to Against Women in Pakistani Society, chose an pursuit of happyness summary English speaking country. The experience will grow you as a person and broaden your horizon that is the most important benefit that will change your life. Although fun fact: I got one job which did not really match my field of study and experience purely for the reason of having lived and enjoyed living in the USA. Against Women? The employees in the department frequently ended up with their American counterparts yelling at each other and pursuit not getting problems solved. So, they were looking for someone #8220;who can talk to Americans#8221;.
I thrived on the collaboration and still get mails from the former colleagues and the American counterparts today :-) Just some random examples of the skills I have build as an au pair and specifically from living in a family environment where your exposure to a new culture is much deeper than just working abroad: * step out of my cultural shoes: not everything my parents and my native culture taught me as right and wrong is also right and The Use of Forensic wrong in other parts of the world. Living in a family with different values was a (at first almost shocking) eye opener for me. Today I still benefit because it taught me accepting and of happyness even appreciating other peoples views, values and on part of the dead implies mr. wright opinions. I have #8220;lived#8221; it, that something can be #8220;right#8221; in one enviroinment and the opposite is #8220;right#8221; in pursuit movie, another. 2nd Year English Important Essays? * change hurts but you survive the process and come out stronger: moving, new jobs, breakups, new countries#8230; all those changes in life come with the famous 5 stages of of happyness movie summary grief, it is not unique to the cultural shock/ adaption process for The Use Essay, an au pair. I learned a great deal from the experience of pursuit moving to a new country and adapt. * proactively dealing with challenges and find a solution: so what if you are in charge of 3 children and xyz happens you need to deal with it.
And take responsibility and make decisions. Note: there were no mobiles at Discrimination in Pakistani Society Essay the time. Of Happyness Summary? So, I had no way of 2nd year important essays contacting my host parents directly for simple questions. Movie Summary? I would have had to call the reception of the company first. In Pakistani Society Essay? That is of happyness summary my daily life at work and my team sometimes just behaves like a group of kindergarden aged children (in rose colored memories it some days feels even worse). And yes, I have told them more than once that my best management skills come from being an au pair. * ability to fit in: new jobs, new teams, new groups my host family was very different from my native family. Anyway, I loved them from the start. Fitting in a different environment and Essay on The Malaysian make myself at pursuit of happyness home in a new team is still something I benefit from today. * ability to change and do things differently: I did not do everything right as an au pair.
I have made many mistakes and I am sure I needed lots of advice and training during the first 6 weeks. Of Early Conquest Was That All Conquered Peoples? At first I felt bad and it was difficult but I soon learned to appreciate the opportunity to learn doing things in pursuit summary, a different way. Every time I start in a new job/ team/ countryI need to change some of my ways to be successful in english essays, that setting. With this point, my last promotion can be directly related to my au pair year. So, for my career, being an pursuit au pair was the game changer.
I think that the mileage different people get from on part trifles, the symbolism of the bird that their time as an Au Pair varies a great deal depending on pursuit movie the career field they choose to follow. Discrimination In Pakistani Society? It is clearly a little easier to directly relate your experiences to a job working in education, child development, child health care etc, than it is working in other fields. However, it is always possible to take the of happyness summary, different soft skills learned and apply them to Essay on The Media Polemics, professional life. It is also going to movie summary, vary between au pairs depending on where they were in life before the started the aspect of early was that all conquered, program. I had already graduated from University, worked with disabled children for several years, and lived in a couple of countries. As a result, I think the of happyness summary, learning curve was a little shallower for me than for Discrimination Against Society Essay, other au pairs I knew. The thing that I have found it has helped, is as an interesting talking point during interviews.
I am that rather rare breed; the male au pair. The result of of happyness movie that is I have frequently been asked about of Forensic Evidence Essay being an au pair at interviews. If nothing else, this makes you a little more memorable in the minds of interviewers, which is frequently half the battle in getting a job. Now that I am a bit further into my career, I see it mattering less, and I will probably remove it from pursuit of happyness summary my CV in a few more years. The one other big thing I have noticed is that it has put me significantly ahead of my peers in terms of The Use of Forensic Evidence example maturity, ability to take on summary responsibility etc. Society Essay? Often child care is looked down upon, especially when you decide to do it as a man. However the of happyness, level of calm, maturity, ability to problem solve, and generally avoid the desire to kill a five year old when they are having a challenging day and 2nd year english essays driving you up the wall, cannot be underestimated. Pursuit Of Happyness Summary? I find the roman conquest was that, last one especially helpful when dealing with one or two of pursuit of happyness movie summary my more challenging colleagues. Overall, I would definitely say that the a central aspect of early roman was that peoples, good things I gained from being an au pair significantly outweigh any negatives, including delaying starting my career for a year. Oh, and it meant I could finally make it to pursuit summary, the same country as my then long term and very long distance girlfriend (now wife), which was a definite plus. Have a great day.
Just out of curiosity: you had an American girlfriend, went to the US and took her home with you? Being a male AP, I think, also takes some cojones! I would think you#8217;re not gonna do that if you#8217;re super insecure about who you are. Whereas being a female au pair is now pretty much mainstream. The thing I found in talking to south, other male au pairs is of happyness movie summary that most of us thought about The Use of Forensic example whether we really wanted to do it for pursuit of happyness movie, a year, to a greater extent than many of the women. Discrimination Against Women? Not that all take it lightly, but there is often an of happyness summary attitude of #8220;well I am a girl so I can look after kids#8221;. I know that is a very broad generalization, but I have found it to hold true, especially with the au pairs who get a big shock with how tough 40 plus hours a week of child care can be. I actually had an American girlfriend before I was an au pair.
We got. Married and south I stayed here. Of Happyness Summary? I am a permanent resident. “How did your Au Pair year help you find a job when you got back to two of the symbolism dead that mr. wright, your home country?” “How did what you learned and pursuit of happyness experienced as an Au Pair influence your outlook about what was possible for you?” So, for my part, I was an AuPair and Society Essay a Repeat AuPair. I would say my life have changed a lot since my experiences in pursuit, a good or bad way. Essay On The The Keris Polemics? In a bad way to my home country, but in a good/great way in movie summary, others countries. Let me explain, my studies was on Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Essay science/math/physics and being an Aupair right after this bachelor#8217;s wasn#8217;t such a good idea but I did it though. When I came back after one year, I studied one extra year for of happyness, a double bachelor#8217;s Degree and this one year was a real challenge I felt like I didn#8217;t fit in africa ww2, so I started travelling a lot all around and of happyness movie summary tried a job in France but I went back to US for a second time to a central of early roman was that all conquered, be a repeat aupair.
After my second time, it was the worst, companies didn#8217;t want me because of pursuit summary my time there and #8220;seriously who needs English to Essay Coverage the Keris, do math and physics#8221; ( that#8217;s what I heard many time) So I started small jobs until finding one, the right one#8230; post mail, aupair in pursuit of happyness movie summary, Ireland, Aupair Australia, Waitress in Asia#8230;. I wanted my experience to be valuable and not a waste so I searched and I found. From my aupair experiences I gained a lot of The Use of Forensic Evidence in Investigation patience, flexibility, understanding kids and pursuit summary their developments through different age. South? I loved teaching them french or math or any others things so I decided to be a teacher none the less an of happyness summary english teacher abroad. As my two years in based two of the symbolism of the dead that mr. wright, US ( and other years everywhere around the world) makes me an easy person to adapt in a country and to pursuit of happyness movie, adapt to their ideas, I challenged it.
I passed my TEFL ( teaching english as a foreign language), teaching diploma, and, now, it#8217;s been more than one year living in 2nd year important essays, Hong Kong, being a kindergarten teacher. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie? I think it#8217;s up to you to make your experience valuable and worth it back home. All Conquered? In my mind, girls who go there are the pursuit of happyness summary, most approachable and easy in life and most of Coverage about us have a job back home related to our experience in US. It changed my life a lot, I was going to scientific path and be locked up in pursuit summary, labs but now I travel around, have jobs all over the world because of based two of trifles, the symbolism implies that mr. wright those experience, I#8217;m more open to understand countries, people and their culture. I have a home and a job that I love, I speak English and pursuit of happyness movie french every day so I think I would do it all over again this experience if I were going back in time ;) First, it#8217;s a great conversation starter in interviews and makes me memorable. And then, everyone who#8217;s interviewed me has remarked that if I can handle full responsibility of kiddos for 40+ hours a week I can do anything.
Ha. My au pairing was DIRECTLY responsible for my landing my current job. One of my HKs was autistic and another was most definitely spectrum-y. On Part Two Of The Symbolism Of The Dead Bird That? Additionally, I dealt with lots of#8230;fun#8230;behaviors and summary situations that made things#8230;interesting. Against In Pakistani? So now I work in summary, an autism center testing kids for The Use of Forensic in Investigation Essay, autism and pursuit summary other neurodevelomental disorders (as well as behavioral/social/emotional things, learning disabilities, cognitive delays, etc) every day. The girl who originally got the of Forensic Essay example, job quit after the first week.
So I waltzed in, underqualified in terms of education, but having experienced three and five year olds punching me in the face, peeing on me when put in time out, dealing with perseverative behaviors and intense need for routines, epic meltdowns, etc. That#8217;s what landed me the job. And, it was incredibly beneficial for dealing with behavior management, remaining calm and patient when you have boots thrown at your face, or anything along those lines, working with parents, and on and on. Au pairing changed my life and jumpstarted my career, completely unexpectedly. #8216;How did your Au Pair year help you find a job when you got back to your home country?#8217; It didn#8217;t, I currently work in construction and pursuit of happyness summary property development so that bit of childcare experience is irrelevant as to what I#8217;m doing for conquest was that peoples, a living. I did the movie summary, AP thing solely as a career break and had no intention to put it in my resume.
How did what you learned and experienced as an on The Media Coverage the Keris Au Pair influence your outlook about what was possible for pursuit of happyness movie, you? It changed my views on live-in house staff. Essay On The Coverage The Keris? Even though live in nanny would make our lives so much easier, but being an AP made it clear for me, that at the end of the day I don#8217;t want any sitter to hang out in my kitchen when I come from of happyness movie summary work and just want to 2nd year english essays, relax. Also after my own au pair adventure I realized that even if my child was a bit older and movie I wanted the Women in Pakistani Essay, multicultural experience for movie, her NO au pair would ever want to match with my family. South Ww2? I#8217;m not sure if it was your intention or not, but your last paragraph makes it sound like you think the AP program is a bad idea. Why wouldn#8217;t they want to match with you? Not at all, it is pursuit summary a good idea, unless someone does not understand the intention of the on part two of trifles, that mr. wright, whole program at of happyness all. On The Malaysian Coverage About Polemics? There are several reasons why I think au pairs wouldn#8217;t want to pursuit movie summary, match with my family.
We are in Europe so to start with we couldn#8217;t use more than about 30 (maybe 35?) hrs/week. To make use of the a central of early roman conquest was that all conquered peoples, program we could probably do with that but it would have been an unsociable split shift. Movie Summary? We both work long hours, I work in a major city about 1.5 by train one way, I leave really early 3 days a week, so unless my partner wasn#8217;t in Malaysian Media the Keris Polemics, the house that day I would have to have the AP ready to go before 5am. I work Monday to Friday, but my partner works weird patterns, which sometimes change, so there would be no regular shift plan for the au pair. Very rarely his shift changes unexpectedly (within hours notice), and on those days we#8217;re all in trouble :) Weirdly enough it didn#8217;t happen since well over 8 weeks now, but you never know.
We live in a rural area with no public transport. In theory there is a bus with a bus stop, but I guess it#8217;s more like a hail-stop and I have never seen anyone using it. The nearest pub is summary few miles away, the important, only shop in the nearest village is a grocery shop so no shoes and clothes hunting over the weekend unless they wanted to pursuit movie summary, go to the nearby town, or the large city further away. We do have a car that we don#8217;t really use (my car, as I take the trains 90% of the Essay Coverage Polemics, time) but I wouldn#8217;t let the summary, AP drive to the big city on their own#8230;at least for the first few weeks. It would be fine if they wanted to on The Malaysian Media about, drive around the area( for example to the pub) BUT there are no local APs I know about, so unless my AP was a self proclaimed hermit they would be really bored and lonely. Summary? Also, there is no requirement for Essay Polemics, au pairs in Europe to take classes, however if they wanted to, living with us would make it logistically difficult most days. Movie? The only bonus would be weekends off, but then again with no one to hang out with that#8217;s a really sad perspective for most people :-). Two Of Implies That? Having said that, it#8217;s all hypothetical. My child is small and I doubt she could communicate about any issues, so leaving her with a stranger is not an pursuit of happyness option. Our first aupair came to us from China and stayed with us for two years.
Prior to coming to us, she worked in a cell phone store. When she first arrived her English skills (both speaking and understanding) were way less than what we expected (only had one short phone interview). Wow, did she hustle. She said her goal was to become sort of Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society Essay English translator when she returned to China. She attended ESL classes 5 days per week, sometimes twice a day. She was active in her church and pursuit of happyness movie summary several other hobby clubs around town. She was a different person when she left. Since returning to China, she tells me she does have a job translating business papers from Chinese to of Forensic in Investigation example, English and English to Chinese. I know she recieved at least one promotion. She sent me pictures of her new apartment and Vespa she purchased and sounds happy.
We are so proud of her and happy for pursuit movie summary, her. I love these stories. My first AP was from France and she also really worked hard to improve her English, and based trifles, the symbolism of the dead bird that mr. wright she left with near native fluency. Of Happyness Movie Summary? It has been over 2 years since she left and Essay example she#8217;s still trying to get on a career track, but she has found a lot of interesting rewarding work for short stints. I think the English language has helped her, she#8217;s even worked in the UK here and there, but I know that she is movie disappointed with the way things have turned out in general. I think that is mostly the fault of the economy and Evidence Essay example the kind of job she wants to get (in childcare) is a lot more competitive then it would be if the economy was better. Movie Summary? I really think she deserves to Discrimination Against in Pakistani Essay, have her dreams come true- she#8217;s a hard working, nice, intelligent girl. It might just be a matter of time. I know she doesn#8217;t give up. My non European APs have really financially gained from the program (significant change in career trajectory) not so much my gap year European APs. It seems like the APs commenting here tend to all be European.
As a European AP i have to say that the AP-Jobs helped me a lot at my construcion side job. Not actually childcare-stuff, but everything related to summary, it: My organisational skills are way better, I feel that I can handle stressful situations better and stay calm in situations where I got angry before. As a team-leader I take more time for my employees, ask them how they are, if everything works out great or if they feel that something should change. I also think that I#8217;m more helpful and more social since I was an Au Pair. But I actually don#8217;t mention that I was an Discrimination Women Society Essay AP in my CV, instead I wrote #8220;language studies#8221; for movie summary, that time. Living with another family to improve language skills is very traditional in 2nd year english important, Switzerland. At the age of 16 some women/girls go to pursuit, the french-speaking part of switzerland to do a so called #8220;Haushaltsjahr#8221; where they live with an other family, studie french and help the 2nd year english essays, family with cooking, cleaning and childcare if needed (very few hours, no pay but bed, food and language school). But I feel like at the construction-jobs they don#8217;t consider beeing an AP as a great thing (they see young woman playing with children and only haveing fun all day, and don#8217;t think that it is pursuit movie summary hard work, although I had to work more hours as an AP than in my #8220;normal#8221; job), but they love people who did language studies. Comments on Essay on The about the Keris Polemics this entry are closed. Please email your question to movie summary, mom at aupairmom dot com. Check the tab at the top -- Need some advice? -- for particulars.
Also, search the of Forensic Essay example, blog thoroughly. The 'Welcome!' menu has details for finding earlier conversations posts. Anonymous in CA on My Au Pair Is Selling Products on Facebook: Should I care? HRHM on My Au Pair Is Selling Products on Facebook: Should I care? 2 kids and a cat on My Au Pair Is Selling Products on pursuit movie summary Facebook: Should I care? Should be working on in Pakistani Society My Au Pair Is Selling Products on Facebook: Should I care?
TexasHM on My Au Pair Is Selling Products on Facebook: Should I care? Anonymous in CA on Digital Tools for Scheduling Au Pairs: Share your faves Elizabeth on My Au Pair Is Selling Products on Facebook: Should I care? Mama on Digital Tools for pursuit of happyness movie summary, Scheduling Au Pairs: Share your faves LeoAUPair on Do you know what your Au Pair *needs* from you? TexasHM on Do you know what your Au Pair *needs* from you? txmom on Do you know what your Au Pair *needs* from you? London AP on Do you know what your Au Pair *needs* from you?
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Movie Review: The Pursuit of Happyness
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macbeth short essay Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil and ambition: While in Hamlet and pursuit of happyness summary others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon and brooded over his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at africa ww2, a heat and imagined from first to last with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of workmanship. Then, after murdering the King, Macbeth comes to her with his hands all covered with blood and carrying the pursuit of happyness movie, grooms' daggers. Not only that, but he's so unnerved that all he can do is look at his hands and talk about voices that he heard. She tries to be reasonable, saying, Why, worthy thane, / You do unbend your noble strength, to south, think (2.2.41-43), but he's paralyzed with horror. Finally, she has to do what he should have done. She takes the pursuit movie summary, daggers from him, carries them back to Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani, place them with. Essay on The Guilty of the Two in Macbeth.
perpetration. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie? Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare explain how guilt impacts Lady Macbeth: Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is The Use Evidence in Investigation example, piteously afflicted by the memory of of happyness summary, one stain of blood upon her little hand. Ww2? (792) The Tragedy of Macbeth opens in a desert place. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths Character Essay. We can immediately see by her reaction how ambitious Lady Macbeth herself is because she is not satisfied by Macbeth’s big promotion but wants even more power. She may also appear evil by the speed in which she decides killing is the answer. After being informed by a messenger that Macbeth is on her way, Lady Macbeth delivers a famous speech asking for help of spirits to rid her of her natural feminine ways so that she can convince Macbeth to pursuit summary, carry out the bloody deeds needed to take over the crown. Macbeth- the Evil of Lady Macbeth Essay.
themselves, and that their fitness now. (I, vii, 47-53) She says Macbeth is a coward, but then appeals to his pride and manhood saying that when he had the courage to do it he was superhuman, and ready to create an opportunity. Now when he has it, he shrinks back at the thought and will not do it. Lady Macbeth goes further to ww2, threaten him with her love, saying that if he does not do it she will not love him anymore. Moreover, Lady Macbeth is actively part of the pursuit movie, crime that she urges her husband to. Essay on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Not Evil. his son, Malcolm, as his successor, Macbeth realises that, if he is to be king, then he must kill Duncan: The Prince of 2nd year, Cumberland! That is a step on of happyness which I must fall down, or else o'erleap for in my way it lies. Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. (I.iv.49-52). Media Coverage About The Keris? When Lady Macbeth reads in pursuit of happyness summary her husband's letter of the witches' prediction, she, too, realises that Duncan must be killed for it to come true.
She thinks that Macbeth deserves to be great, and should murder. Essay Comparing Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. (1.7.12) Macbeth is conflicted between his morals and his ambition. In stark contrast to her husband Lady Macbeth is not conflicted. In the fifth scene of of early all conquered peoples, act one, she is summary, reading a letter from Macbeth that describes his encounter with the on The Polemics, witches. After she reads the letter she becomes excited and of happyness summary wants to aid her husband in anyway she can. She.
Who is the Dominant Partner between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? As the Essay on The Malaysian Coverage about, more dominant and ruthless of the pursuit summary, two, it is Lady Macbeth that devises the plan for killing Duncan, and ww2 tells Macbeth to “Leave all the rest with me.” This suggests that Lady Macbeth cannot rely on Macbeth to plan the killing of Duncan, as it is not in pursuit his gentle nature, but she knows that Macbeth will be easily persuaded to carry out her wicked plan. After Macbeth kills Duncan he feels very guilty, and says, “will great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from. in a later revision ofMacbeth, inserting passages from his own play, The Witch. A Central Aspect Of Early Conquest Was That All Conquered? Macbeth's curse Macbeth is also known as 'The Scottish Play' due to a long-held superstition that the play has a curse upon it and movie summary that if anyone utters the word 'Macbeth' in a theatre, outside the based two of the symbolism of the that mr. wright, context of a rehearsal or performance, tragedy will befall the production. The characters of Macbeth and movie Lady Macbeth are therefore referred to by a nickname, such as 'Mackers' and 'Lady Mackers' or similar. To remedy. evilmac Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Were Not Evil Essay.
Macbeth and his mistress housekeeper also have their doubts during the proceedings of the murder. Lady Macbeth paces around the room saying that he won't commit the murder, instead of plotting their next move like a true evil-incarnate would do. Macbeth also starts to haunt himself; he says that he heard a voice say Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep (II.II.49-50) And is so paralized by based on part two of the symbolism that mr. wright what he has done that he makes the huge mistake of of happyness, bringing the dagger back. Exploring the Actions of Macbeth that Backfired in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth.
The irony in the murder of King Duncan is 2nd year english, that Macbeth planned on movie becoming king in rightful manner by earning the respect and the title by doing good things such as saving Malcolm but instead of getting closer to the throne by saving him, he got even further away from it since he was named prince which forced Macbeth to become king in an unrighteous way. As a result, the only choice that Macbeth had was to Discrimination Against Essay, kill Duncan. The second murder that Macbeth has committed was also an essential component in. Lady Macbeth as a Wife and as a Woman in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. never shows her true personality. When Macbeth enters the scene, Lady Macbeth showers him with praise and pursuit of happyness summary salutations of his successes and 2nd year important essays his prophesised kingship.
I think that she does this as she is very proud to have a husband who will make her queen. When Macbeth tells her that King Duncan comes her tonight, Lady Macbeth replies and when goes hence? I think that this is a test for Macbeth, as it will let Lady Macbeth know if she should tell him all about her. Essay on movie summary The Effect of based on part the symbolism dead, Evil in Witches and of happyness Lady Macbeth on Macbeth. Macbeth, the a central of early was that all conquered, thane of Glamis, a noble man of Scotland, a general in the Scotland King's army and a great warrior is self-satisfied with his position, until the three witches tell him in the third scene of the first act, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter.
Just after hearing this, Macbeth and pursuit Banquo, his noble friend and a general in the King's army receive a message from Ross that Macbeth has been. However, we also see here that Macbeth can be ruthless as the captain goes on to say ‘- disdaining Fortune- with brandished steel, which smoked with bloody execution’ He is describing how Macbeth was not merciful in the battle, how he killed with such a force that smoke was coming off the cold sword as he sliced at his warm victims. When King Duncan hears the a central conquest was that peoples, success of the battle was largely due to Macbeths bravery he says in Act 1 scene 2-24 ‘Oh valiant cousin, worthy gentleman’ and Act 1 Scene. Androgyny in the Characters of pursuit movie, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay. The nothing of this line connotes absence, and in the language of early modern England this meant absence of a male phallus and a central of early all conquered the presence of female genitalia (Bevington 1090).
Therefore, this proclamation of Macbeth is not merely an pursuit of happyness movie summary excuse for his strange behavior at the dinner table, but is also a symbolic representation that the cause of his downfall can be attributed to the 'woman' in him. Lamentation is an expression of being powerless to effect one's own affective environment, and. Lady Macbeth Is Essentially the Villain in Macbeth Essay. Lady Macbeth begins her quest to achieve what she wants by using his ambition to be King, but as it goes along and he starts to have second thoughts she begins to play on his insecurities as a man. “Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem’s the ornament of life, and live a coward in south africa thine own esteem, letting “I dare not” wait upon of happyness summary, “I would, ” like the poor cat i' th' adage? “ Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth with by basically asking him if he will take the crown he desires badly, or will he live. contaminated by ambition, destiny’s supposed scheme, the temptation of power and the conviction of pleasing his beloved but poisonous wife. Discrimination Against Essay? As Shanley states, Macbeth would have resisted temptation if had he been left to himself, to the non-corrupted man he was before being exposed to the inducements of society. Opposed to pursuit of happyness movie, Shakespeare’s usual heroes, Macbeth is on The Malaysian about the Keris, absolutely aware of the malice present in the act that grants him the reign.
He’s also conscious that most likely the succession of events will lead. murderer kills a person it is an extension of Macbeths inferiority complex. Macbeth believes that being able to kill whom ever he wants he is superior above anyone else and that Macbeth is able to be responsible in the death of a child shows that he is pursuit summary, not the on part two of the symbolism of the implies that mr. wright, same person as the beginning of the play his ego or his illness is now taking him over. Of Happyness? The dead child apparition I believe represents the son. Against Essay? The first apparition represents Macduff telling Macbeth to beware of him for killing his son, he. Essay about of happyness Relationship Between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is the one that is mainly controlling her husband.
She judges his manhood when she says that Macbeth’s ambition needs to match the actions. Essay On The Malaysian Coverage? They would seem like a normal couple but actually they are both greedy. Movie? Macbeth is a respected general in the kingdom and their position must be important if the king is to eat dinner at their home. No matter who was strongest in their marriage, they were certainly in love with each other. However, it was Lady Macbeth who shows strength. Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - The Powerful Lady Macbeth Essay. assassination plot.
Although it is a central aspect roman all conquered, Macbeth who commits the actual deed of murder, it is Lady Macbeth who returns to Duncan's chamber and smears the blood upon the grooms. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie Summary? Her self-control is superhuman; in a central of early roman was that peoples fact, Macbeth is terrified of it and of happyness summary her unfailing resourcefulness. In this example, Shakespeare demonstrates how much self control she has over the evil deed: A little water clears us of this deed: / How easy it is then! (II, ii, 66-67). In fact, Lady Macbeth tried to murder Duncan herself. Macbeth by Shakespeare - Lady Macbeth and Themes Essay. just how she sees them fit and a central aspect of early roman conquest was that peoples tells it like it is.
With out her fortitude and ambition, Macbeth would not have started his killing spree which would have kept him from becoming king of Scotland. Ambition, a strong desire to do or achieve something, is one of the pursuit of happyness movie summary, central theme’s focused on in this work. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to evil as the women, the aggression of Lady Macbeth is more striking because it goes against prevailing expectations of how women ought to. shalt get kings, though thou be none”(Shakespeare 1:3 69). This means that Banquo will not be king, but his descendents in the future will. When the Against Women Society Essay, witches proclaim this prediction, Macbeth is also in of happyness summary the scene. Banquo’s prediction is Media Coverage Polemics, still stuck into movie, Macbeth’s mind even when he becomes the new King of Scotland. Macbeth thinks that Banquo’s prediction is dangerous to him since it means that there is a possibility that he cannot keep his kingship for long and based on part of the dead bird that that he cannot pass down his title to pursuit of happyness movie summary, his. Similarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth – Essay. Even Macbeth does not dare to call upon the devil and evil spirits to kill his emotions to, free him of all capacity to feel, to empty him of all remorse. However Lady Macbeth did this and hence she proves that she has an english important ambition infinitely more vaulting than Macbeth.
Though Lady Macbeth’s ambition may be more vaulting than Macbeth’s, both share the same purpose to usurp the crown and use it for their own evil means: “If it were done when ‘tis done, ‘twere well it were done quickly”. It is here. Macbeth and summary Lady Macbeth, a Dealike Butcher and a Fiend? Essay. a strong evidence of Macbeth acting out of his fear that the prophecies of the south africa, witches were to come true. Though he thinks that murdering the king is a seriously bad sin that cannot be forgiven, Macbeth’s wife has very different ideas.
She believes that Macbeth is to kind hearted and loyal to carry out the deed. ‘Yet do I fear thy nature; it is too full o’ the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way: thou wouldst be great; art not without ambition; but without the pursuit movie, illness should attend it.’ She apprehends that it would be better to get the crown through truth and not doing the deed, but that. The Development of Lady Macbeth in based the symbolism of the bird that William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Macbeth worries about the consequences of summary, DuncanA’s death. Religion and the consequences of sin were very important in ShakespeareA’s time, he speaks about the natural order of life on heaven and earth being ruined he uses alliteration in, A‘trumpet- tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off. And pity like a naked newborn babeA’ to emphasise the imagery of anarchy in the heavens, he also uses the simile because there is nothing more pure, innocent and helpless.
Macbeth: Describe Macbeth as a Tragic Hero Essay. milk of human kindness (Act 1, Sc 5) Lady Macbeth acknowledges that he has ambition but maintains that he lacks the evil that should attend it. Based On Part Of The Dead Bird Implies That? Furthermore, Macbeth yearn for the crown but would as though he is riding high on the crest of the wave and endures the potential to furthur but his flaw of incessant kindness prevents his yearning. It is those strong brave qualities that rise him high in not play foully for it. It is society and Lady Macbeth wishes he would apply them appropriatly. Their. Macbeth And Lady Macbeth, A dealike Butcher And A fiend? Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier.
Phrases such as Valour's minion, which means servant of pursuit of happyness movie, courage and Bellona's bridegroom, which means the husband of war gives out a sense of 2nd year essays, Macbeth's superheroism. Macbeth and Banquo are also described by the captain as eagles and lions unafraid of the opposing army, who were compared to sparrows and hares. The witches made a prophecy that Macbeth was to become Thane of Cawdor, and eventually king of Scotland. It was only after the of happyness movie, first prophecy. Macbeth is not a Hero in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay. man to 2nd year important essays, have had so much blood in him? (314). When Macbeth becomes conscious of her hopeless condition he shows no pity or love. He becomes angry with the doctor as to why he cannot cure her, however he never shows any further interest of her condition. When made aware of her suicide, he expresses no grief, claiming that it was inevitable.
She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for such a word (320). Furthermore, Macbeth is not a tragic hero because he does not achieve. Essay about Supernatural in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - Witches and Macbeth. in Best). Although he is not made physically impotent, Lady Macbeth challenges her husband's manhood by being more aggressive than he is, taunting him, and movie suggesting, When you durst do it, then you were a man(1.7.55).
Secondly, Lady Macbeth calls upon seemingly malevolent . spirits/ That tend on based on part two of bird implies that mortal thoughts (1.5.40-41) to aid her in her plot to overcome her husband's reluctance and to pursuit of happyness, force him to kill Duncan. Although devotedly loyal, she rejects her subordinate role as wife. The Change of a central aspect conquest was that all conquered peoples, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Macbeth’s unwillingness shortly vanishes as he becomes “settled”, in pursuit of happyness summary spite of his guilt, and chooses to commit the crime of murdering the king. Immediately prior to the murder, however, Macbeth experiences a “fatal vision” when he sees a dagger before his eyes and asks the 2nd year english important, infamous question “is this a dagger I see before me?” The hallucination is “a dagger of the pursuit of happyness movie summary, mind, a false creation” and the first of Against Essay, many to come in which Macbeth’s subconscious guilt is expressed. Pursuit? An. Essay about The Images and Imagery of Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Mr. Based The Symbolism Of The Dead Bird Implies? Kenneth Muir, in his introduction to the play - which does not, by the way, interpret it simply from this point of view - aptly describes the cumulative effect of the imagery: The contrast between light and darkness is part of movie, a general antithesis between good and evil, devils and angels, evil and grace, hell and heaven . . . and a central conquest the disease images of IV, iii and in the last act clearly reflect both the pursuit of happyness summary, evil which is a disease, and Macbeth himself who is the of Forensic Essay, disease from which his country suffers.
Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are striving towards masculinity. The importance of masculinity to both of them is an issue of pursuit, power. Lady Macbeth aspires to be a man so that she can show supremacy and english important be more of pursuit movie, a ruler. Macbeth has a mental struggle with his masculinity, mostly because Lady Macbeth convinces him of killing Duncan to become king. Because Lady Macbeth cannot really become a man, she has to work vicariously through Macbeth, making him become king. To control Macbeth, she must use his. the honourable and innocent side of of Forensic Evidence example, Macbeth attempted to alert his mind that the pursuit, actions that he was planning to take are wrong and will only the symbolism dead that mr. wright, result in movie negative consequences. Lady Macbeth plays an important role in this play because she provided a scheme which caused Macbeth to assassinate King Duncan. The Use Evidence Example? After Macbeth had killed King Duncan, he later regrets on pursuit of happyness movie summary his wrong doing, he feels an in Investigation Essay immense amount of guilt and sorrow for what he has done but Lady Macbeth on the other hand, proceeded to alter.
These consequences start to affect Macbeth and of happyness movie summary Lady Macbeth, Macbeth is forced to cover up his wrongdoings, by first killing King Duncan's chamberlains who are blamed for the murder of Women in Pakistani, King Duncan. I am in pursuit of happyness blood stepped in so far that … returning were as tedious as go o'er. This quote indicates that Macbeth has gone too far to stop in his bloodthirsty ways. Banquo's murder and Against Essay the failed murder of his son soon follow once Macbeth fears the truth could be exposed which is one of Macbeth's first. The third witch says that Macbeth will be the king. This is probably the most important part of the prophecy. The three witches and the three parts of the of happyness movie, prophecy show the wickedness and evil that is to Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society Essay, come. The three witches are similar to the three Fates from Greek Mythology. Therefore, this prophecy could be false.
The witches also seem to always appear in stormy, weather. They also appear at times where Macbeth has to of happyness summary, make choices. After Macbeth got his prophecy Banquo also got his. terrible thing bound to happen to you. And that?s exactly what happens to Macbeth. All of 2nd year english important, this killing could've been avoided if Lady Macbeth hand't pushed Macbeth into killing Duncan in the first place, I believe it was all her fault, being Thane of pursuit of happyness movie summary, Cowdor just wasen't good enough she had to be the a central aspect of early roman was that, most powerful person in summary Scotland under the king, Macbeth.
She was greedy for more. What happens in the end was the death of 2nd year essays, Macbeth. He was brutally killed by Macduf, the commander in chief of the english. Introduction to Research Methods Essay. Lecture 01: Introduction to pursuit of happyness movie, Business Research 15 ? EVERYTHING and 2nd year ANYTHING that have no answers can be researched ! Lecture 01: Introduction to Business Research 16 Why the sun rises from the east? Astronomy ? Why plants need water? – Botany ? Why some people don’t like others? – Social (Discrimination) ? Why some workers are more productive than others? - Production ? What makes a consumer buy product A and not B? - Marketing ? Lecture 01: Introduction to of happyness movie summary, Business. fears are less than horrible imaginings” (1, III, 135-139). When Macbeth says this it shows how the two of dead bird implies that mr. wright, witches predictions had him thinking about killing the king from the very beginning. Of Happyness Movie Summary? The witches’ super natural powers are used to tell Macbeth what he wants to see which is two of of the bird that, himself being king for his whole life. The third apparition tells Macbeth “Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no more who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are.
Macbeth shall never vanquished until great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane. Now that Macbeth has been utterly corrupted, Lennox is praying that the English rescue Scotland from pursuit summary, their tyrant of a leader. Lennox describes Macbeth as having “a hand accursed” showing that any respect that he had for him has now vanished. Macbeth has shed all of Essay on The Malaysian Coverage Polemics, his supporters and has put the country that he once longed to rule in terrible suffering. Quotes with context only: 1. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie Summary? Act 5 Scene 1 Lines 75-77 Context: The doctor sees firsthand the sleepwalking, and talking, and crying that. Macbeth Text Response-This Deed, the Murder of King Duncan, Has Unanticipated Consequences for Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth.
Discussed. scene 7, pg 28 lines 14-16). Of Forensic Evidence Essay? However, when Lady Macbeth reproves him for his cowardice, he responds, “I dare do all that may become a man/ who dares do more is none’ (Act 1, scene 7, pg 29 lines 50, 51), and he is convinced to go through with the plan. On the night of the assassination, Macbeth sees an imaginary dagger, leading him to pursuit summary, Duncan’s chamber; the path to Discrimination Society Essay, his destiny. He commits the murder and return to his chamber where Lady Macbeth is waiting for him. They both return back to bed. The Role of the Supernatural in Macbeth Essay. arrangement with the pursuit, witches to Malaysian Coverage, meet them at the 'Pit of Acheron' (a river in hell) to tell Macbeth his destiny 'And at the Pit of Acheron - Meet me I'th'morning'.
She feels Macbeth has become too confident and promises to use witchcraft to ruin him 'he shall spurn fate, scorn death, and bear his hopes 'bove wisdom, grace, and movie summary fear'. The supernatural is also embraced by Lady Macbeth when she calls upon Essay Malaysian Media Coverage about, evil spirits to aid her in killing Duncan. The speech includes a. Essay on Established Government in #x27;Macbeth#x27; steady decline of mental health. Pursuit Of Happyness Summary? He says, But whererfore could not I pronounce Amen? (Act2.Sc3.39-39) describing his belief that his tormenting guilt is the result of his exclusion from God's grace. Nature in Macbeth is often related to God, and there are many examples of God's anger. Macbeth describes Duncan's dead body, saying And his gash'd stabs look'd like a breach in nature / For ruin's wasteful entrance (Act2.Sc3.113-114). And in the description of the night of Duncan's death: Ah, good father.
Uncontrolled Ambition in Macbeth Essay. Despite this belief, Macbeth ends up agreeing to important, kill Duncan. From the of happyness movie summary, following, we learn that Macbeth himself strongly desires power on the border of the obsessive as it impairs his own judgement and 2nd year important essays corrupts it. Pursuit Movie Summary? It essentially motivates him to towards something immoral and treasonous, taking control of his own actions. After the killing of Duncan, he stews in paranoia and lives in constant fear because of his defiance, proving that it does not offer anything pleasantry. Next, after the murder.
Essay on Importantce Of The Witches In Macbeth. Thane of Cawdor! / All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!” (I. On Part Two Of Of The Dead? iii. 50, 51). The witches did plant the of happyness summary, glory of being king in based two of trifles, the symbolism dead bird implies that Macbeth’s head, yet it was his own ambition that led to the murder Duncan. The witches have no control over Macbeth. They can tell the future, and pursuit of happyness movie summary add temptation, yet in Against Women in Pakistani the end, it was Macbeth’s final decision to pursuit, kill Duncan. Macbeth was not strong enough to resist the enticing glory, and on part trifles, of the implies that mr. wright he succumbed to the temptation. Macbeth was leery of the prophecy, yet. the woman did not share chestnuts with her (Shakespeare 1.3.101-104). Before the witches speak to Macbeth, Shakespeare shows us how easily the witches can decide to make one’s life miserable, and that they are masters at plotting and scheming.
The witches enjoy meddling with people’s lives. Pursuit Movie? This is of early roman conquest all conquered, shown in of happyness Act Three when Hecate is speaking to the witches and speaks of based two of the symbolism dead bird implies, “trade and traffic with Macbeth/In riddles and summary affairs of death” (Shakespeare 3.5.1453-1455). It is out of Macbeth’s control that. Macbeth enters carrying a bloody dagger. Macbeth said he has done the deed and if she had heard a noise. Lady Macbeth then reply that she heard the a central aspect of early roman conquest peoples, owl scream and the crickets cry didn’t you say something? Lady Macbeth said that she heard Macbeth speak while he was coming down. Of Happyness? Macbeth then asks who’s sleeping in the second chamber. Lady Macbeth says Donalbain and Macbeth looks at his hand saying this is a sorry sight. Lady Macbeth told him that that’s a stupid thing to say. South Africa Ww2? I’m guessing Macbeth.
Essay on William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The witches recount to Macbeth three prophecies; that Macbeth will be thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glamis and King. These prophecies introduce Macbeth to ideas of greatness, but ultimately it is he who has to make his own decisions. The witches could tell the future, they could add temptation and influence Macbeth. They told Macbeth that he could become king so he became impatient and therefore tried to think of ways that he could become king quicker. But the pursuit, witches cannot control. The Role of english, Witches in Macbeth Essay.
Shakespeare wrote the pursuit of happyness movie summary, play Macbeth for King James I. This was to on The Malaysian, make sure that Shakespeare would have a future of writing plays for pursuit movie, the king. He favoured King James belief in the divine right of kings by defeating evil in the play and showing that when the Malaysian Coverage about the Keris Polemics, rightful king was killed it was unnatural and made unnatural things happen. The language used in the play is not as we would speak today. It is a lot more complex. “if chance will have me king, why chance may. Blood is also used to display the guilt in Lady Macbeth near the end of the summary, play. Throughout the play, Lady Macbeth is the Essay on The Malaysian Coverage the Keris Polemics, one who tries to pursuit of happyness summary, keep Macbeth sane and to keep from breaking. She tells him that he is a man and 2nd year essays things around that nature to try and help him stay in control of himself.
Lady Macbeth seems to accept Macbeth's actions, not showing any sign of of happyness summary, remorse or guilt until the end when she sleepwalks and tells the story of the murder. She reveals her guilt by stating, What, will these.
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1977 dbq essay Step by Step Guide for Writing a Global History DBQ. Approach the DBQ a similar way that you approach the Thematic Essay. The DBQ adds the step of analyzing historical documents, therefore we will have access to pursuit of happyness movie, lots of specific historical details. Always include relevant outside historical data. Step 1 Pre-writing Planning - Think it Through! Read the task or question Read the task again Begin thinking on how to turn the essay Task into your essay focus statement (thesis) HINT: Students may restate the thematic background statement, but should attempt to Essay Malaysian the Keris Polemics, do so in their own words Using a highlighter can help identify key words and phrases Make sure you fully understand what the DBQ Essay is looking for Document Based Question Checklist / Feedback. Use the questions below to complete a review of an DBQ essay process.. 1. How many times are the documents cited? 2. List the pursuit of happyness summary, documents numbers used in the essay. 3. A Central Aspect Of Early Roman Was That Peoples! Do I have a topic sentence in pursuit of happyness movie summary each paragraph?
4. Is it too general or too specific? And why? 5. List 3 examples of outside information used within the document. 6. What is my thesis statement? 7. Do I answer each one of the tasks? 8. Do I copy the documents or do I put it into my own words?
9. Do I have an introduction, body and conclusion? Do I indent for each paragraph? TAKE HOME DBQ DUE MONDAY, JUNE 8. This question is based on the accompanying documents (1–8). This question is designed to test your ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited. for the purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account both the source of each document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Discrimination Against Women Society! Historical Context: Despite the horrors of the Holocaust, abuses of human rights have continued in the post-World War II era. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of global history, write an essay in which you: 1. Describe examples of human rights abuses in pursuit the post -World War II era. 2. Discuss efforts that the world community has made to eliminate these human rights abuses. Part A: Short-Answer Questions. Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in a central aspect roman was that the space provided.
Document 1: Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 1 — All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Article 3 — Everyone has the of happyness summary, right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4 — No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5 — No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 9 — No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Article 13 — 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the aspect of early conquest was that peoples, borders of each State. Of Happyness Movie Summary! 2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. Article 14 — Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in south africa ww2 other countries asylum from persecution.
Article 15 — Everyone has the right to pursuit of happyness movie, a nationality. Article 18 — Everyone has the The Use Evidence in Investigation Essay, right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Article 19 — Everyone has the pursuit of happyness movie, right to freedom of opinion and expression. Article 20 — Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. Article 21 — Everyone has the right to take part in the government of of Forensic Evidence example his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. 1 State two human rights listed in this document.  “Let me see your pass.” Ending Apartheid in South Africa.
1973: United Nations General Assembly declares apartheid a crime against humanity. 1977: United Nations Security Council embargoes arms exports to movie summary, South Africa. 1983: New Constitution gives limited political rights to coloured and Asian minorities. 1986: United States imposes broad economic sanctions. 1990: Mandela released from prison. Legal end of south africa segregation in pursuit movie public places. 1991–93: Dismantling apartheid and enfranchising black majority. 1994: First all-race election. 3 Based on this document, identify two actions taken to end apartheid. Based On Part Two Of The Symbolism Of The Dead Mr. Wright!  From the middle of 1975 to the end of 1978, between one million and three million Cambodians, out. of a population of of happyness about seven million, died at Women Society Essay, the hands of pursuit movie summary Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge. Former. government employees, army personnel, and “intellectuals” were executed in the hundreds of. thousands. Others were killed by of early roman conquest peoples disease, exhaustion, and malnutrition during forced urban. evacuations, migrations, and compulsory labor.
Families were broken apart and communal living. established; men and women. were compelled to movie summary, marry partners selected by the state. Education and religious practices were. —David Hawk, “The Killing of Cambodia,” The New Republic, 1982. 4) Identify two human rights violations carried out by the Khmer Rouge.  The June 4, 1989 massacre of students in Tiananmen Square shocked the world. In the following excerpt, an anonymous Chinese student explains how he felt about Malaysian Coverage about the Keris Polemics what happened: “At 4 a.m. Sunday, lights on the square were suddenly [put out]. Through the loudspeakers, we again heard orders to ‘clear out.’ A voice in my head said over pursuit of happyness summary and over, ‘The moment has come.’ [Moments later,] machine guns erupted. . . . [They] were.
shooting right at 2nd year important essays, the chests and pursuit of happyness heads of the Women in Pakistani Society, students. . . . How many people died altogether? I don’t know. Am I pessimistic? No, I’m not at all pessimistic. Because I have. seen the will of the people. I have seen the hope of China.” Another anonymous student explained his feelings to the San Francisco Examiner as follows: It would be a lie to say that we were not afraid, but we were mentally prepared and very determined. Some students could not believe that the pursuit movie, army really would use deadly force. But most of all, we were motivated by a powerful sense of purpose. We believed that it would be worth sacrificing.
5a What action did the Chinese army take against the students?  b What reason did the Chinese students give for their demonstration?  6a What human rights violation is the cartoonist describing?  b What is the cartoonist suggesting about Europe’s reaction to this human rights violation?  A genocide that killed at least 500,000 people was perpetrated [carried out] in the spring of 1994 in the small central African country of Rwanda. Thousands more were raped, tortured and beaten. The international community failed to stop the was that all conquered peoples, crimes. Rwanda was simply too far away and did not rate highly in pursuit of happyness movie summary the “national interest” calculation of a central of early roman conquest all conquered any of the states capable of intervening. The UN Security Council failed to reinforce the small and lightly armed UN blue helmets already in Rwanda; they acted bravely but their restricted mandate meant they could do little to stop the killing. Months after the genocide ended, the UN Security Council created an international criminal tribunal to prosecute those responsible. The UN, building on the recently established International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, decided that. the genocide in Rwanda required a similar effort to insure prosecution for the most serious crimes, such as genocide and crimes against humanity.
National prosecutions seemed impossible since the pursuit of happyness summary, Rwandese justice system had been destroyed. 7 What was one action taken to address the human rights violations in Rwanda?  Document 8: Statute of Amnesty International. 1. The object of Amnesty International is to contribute to the observance throughout the on The Coverage about, world of human rights as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Pursuit Movie! . Roman Conquest Was That! . Movie! . Recognizing the obligation on each person to extend to others rights and Essay on The Malaysian Media the Keris Polemics freedoms equal to movie, his or her own, Amnesty International adopts as its mandate: •To promote awareness of . . . the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other internationally recognized human rights instruments, . . . and the indivisibility and interdependence of all human rights and freedoms; •To oppose grave violations of the rights of every person freely to hold and to express his or her convictions and to be free from discrimination and of the right of every person to physical and mental integrity. 2nd Year Important! . . . •To oppose grave violations of the rights of every person freely to hold and to express his or her convictions and to pursuit of happyness movie, be free from discrimination and of the right of every person to physical and english important essays mental integrity. . . . 2. In order to achieve the . Pursuit Of Happyness Movie! . . object and mandate, Amnesty International shall: . On The Media The Keris Polemics! . . • Promote as appears appropriate the adoption of constitutions, conventions, treaties and other measures which guarantee the rights contained in the provisionsreferred to of happyness, in Article 1; . . . • Publicize the cases of prisoners of conscience or persons who have otherwisebeen subjected to disabilities in violation of the . Discrimination Against Women In Pakistani! . Pursuit Movie Summary! . provisions; • Investigate and publicize the disappearance of persons where there is reason to believe that they may be victims of violations of the rights set out in Article 1; • Oppose the sending of persons from one country to another where they can reasonably be expected to become prisoners of conscience or to face torture or the death penalty; • Send investigators, where appropriate, to investigate allegations that the a central of early conquest peoples, rights of individuals under the . Pursuit Summary! . . provisions have been violated or threatened. Identify two actions taken by Amnesty International to protect human rights. 
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. many countries encourage participation, but provide limited mechanisms to allow user feedback. When questions about participation are discussed and presented in plans there seem to be a tendency towards understanding openness in terms of access to, and gathering of information through the building of infrastructure, better availability, the use of open standards, securing universal accessibility, etc. This becomes evident when the European governments are elaborating on the implementation of e#150;government (Commission of the European Communities, 2002) within the European community, as well as when American authorities discuss similar issues (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003). Aspects of pursuit of happyness summary, openness regarding how the public should become more able to #147;analyse and utilize#148; this information do not seem to be considered as important as those concerning access and availability.
Commercial information providers have another relationship to the quality and sustainability of information. Ww2? They always have to consider whether the presentation of pursuit summary, information is going to sell their product, and south africa if it is of happyness, going to improve the customer#146;s experience of the product in which they have decided to invest their time and/or money. From a strictly commercial point of view it does not matter if the quality of information in low, inaccurate, or even false, as long as the production costs are kept down compared to the revenue. Commercial actors are therefore encouraged to design systems facilitating openness by the fact that a large number of people are willing to Discrimination Against Women Society Essay produce information for free through participation, being both producers and consumers of information. These systems may be organised as large communities with tens, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of users, or the users may be organised in a large number of small groups where the pursuit of happyness summary members have closer ties. Small groups may also exist within a large community, as in the physical world, and may provide information on a more personal level.
Information with personal qualities interests users, but these qualities may be difficult to achieve . From the point of view of the vendor the different ways of organising a community are of less concern if there is a large number of users who produce and use information on a regular basis, and as long as the work moderating and managing this information is kept to a minimum. Discrimination Against Society? When talking about openness, commercial vendors tend to use the term as part of their strategic thinking to introduce #147;pervasive media environments#148; (Berman, 2004), not necessarily in terms of empowering individuals or technology#146;s democratic potential (Rushkoff, 2003). An interesting observation is that education is pursuit of happyness summary, somewhere in ww2, the middle, being obliged to handle all aspects of openness, from a strictly authoritative approach, where the learners are given access to one understanding of specific information, to an approach where the learners are expected to explore, re#150;contextualise and produce information on their own. When media change information providers are affected most significantly by whether they are able to build new relationships to their previous customers/consumers  who now become potential contributors in movie, a participation culture . Civil services will still be restricted by concerns regarding quality of information, issues that are more complex than the considerations made by individuals writing weblogs, online newspapers providing discussion boards, or vendors facilitating online communities, etc. There may be numerous reasons why the different actors do what they do; I would like to emphasize the increasing differences between how information is Discrimination in Pakistani, created and distributed in various parts of society. These differences were not as evident before as long as most public information was produced centrally by state authorities or the summary press, and distributed to consumers through technical solutions that did not provide any significant possibilities for the symbolism dead mr. wright feedback. To summarise some of pursuit, these approaches to openness: From an official and Malaysian Media Coverage about public service point of view information providers want openness biased towards information access. One tends to encourage participation, but this is understood as mechanisms facilitating feedback , not as tools making the public producers of content . From a commercial point of view information providers also want to facilitate easy access, but these actors also have strong interests in encouraging openness with users acting as producers of content. These actors are more likely to develop an understanding of the #147;quality of information#148; with a bias towards information#146;s ability to appeal and engage an audience. Some approaches to openness in communication.
The complexity of openness in communication systems range from technical issues, like how information is mediated and distributed, via economical concerns, to pursuit movie a number of Discrimination Society, social issues that may influence the availability, use and the potential impact of information in society. Therefore, when trying to make classifications of communication, one should not alone look at the technical properties of technologies, or how they are related to time and space, or solely on the basis of information content. Pursuit Summary? These are all important aspects of any technology, but do not provide a vocabulary capable of describing some important features of digital networked media: the different ways in which the users become both consumers and producers of information (Jensen, 1998). Online networked computers, accompanied by digital cameras, small sound recording devices, techniques for positioning, mobile phones etc. all have the potential of enabling groups of various sizes and individuals to The Use of Forensic Evidence participate actively in the production of information in of happyness movie summary, numerous ways. When looking for a classification that includes different aspects of openness these features of #147;new media#148; have to be considered. Open vs. closed content.
Mayer (1997) building upon earlier work #151; presents a classification of common computer media applications which focuses on the computer#146;s characteristic semiotic nature and on The Coverage about its #147;capacities for symbol manipulation#148;, and the #147;responsive context of summary, reception#148;. Africa? In the table below, content scope, temporal, and of happyness summary spatial attributes are compared, and demonstrate how these characteristics can be used to differentiate between various computer media. The model provides a useful approach to a distinction between open and closed content that is consistent with existing terminology used in traditional media studies. However, this classification fails to grasp the processes related to how this content came into being, or how it is used. Another perspective on south ww2, openness is provided by Benkler  who defines three different layers of communication, a physical layer (wires, cable, radio frequency spectrum), a logical layer (software, protocols), and pursuit of happyness movie summary a content layer (text, images, sound etc). Lessig (2001) uses Benkler#146;s layers when discussing how different communication systems influence on our abilities to act as users instead of mere consumers of information. The table below is an extension of the model presented by Lessig . Lessig discuss 1, 2, 3 8, and uses #147;free#148; vs. #147;closed#148; where I am using #147;open#148; vs. #147;closed#148;: Speakers#146; Corner and Madison Square Garden are two of the examples used by Lessig.
At Speakers#146; Corner (1) anyone who wants to public performance get access to the park (the physical layer), he may do a presentation of his own choice (the logical level), and he is free to chose what to present (the content level). 2nd Year English Essays? One may, however, argue that this openness become a theoretical possibility to of happyness movie most people, not being able to visit Speakers Corner when they have something they want to south say, or not being among the pursuit summary relatively few constituting a #147;public sphere#148; where private people come together #147;as a public and articulating the ww2 needs of society with the state#148; . However, communication will always be limited by summary both physical and social/psychological constraints, and for practical purpose we will only be able to talk about this complete openness within limited communities, though never in the world at large. In an arena like Madison Square Garden (2) an individual will have the same possibilities as at Speakers#146; Corner, save that the building has to be rented. Example? That is because the access to pursuit movie the physical level is restricted by on part trifles, the symbolism dead implies the owner of the infrastructure needed to give a performance. In the telephone system (3) a user will have to pay for access to the system and he has no influence on how the pursuit of happyness content is mediated at the logical level. But the Evidence in Investigation Essay system is open on the content level making the users able to say whatever they want, as long as the system does not discriminate between different users on the basis of the information they are communicating. Writing by hand (4) is an example of a technology that do not imply any restrictions to the content, and where the physical level is fully accessible, at lest for movie most practical purposes. The only restrictions to what the users are able to express is english important essays, found on the logical level as limitations implicit in written language.
An example is writings shortcomings when it comes to describe movement in any fulfilling way. One may also argue that the use of recordable media like CD#150;R, DVD#150;R, and pursuit hard disk recorders, MP3 players etc. Society Essay? can serve as examples of movie, (4), even though the access to the physical level is restricted by the need of specific hardware. However, given that in large parts of the world such recording devices are relatively cheap and easy to purchase, this limitation do not imply any practical restriction that prevents these people from using recording devices. The most severe limitations to the use of The Use Evidence example, digital recording technologies are found on movie summary, the logical level where DRM systems applied in software and the implications of copyright laws are some examples. Lessig argues that the Internet (5) is an example where the physical layer is completely controlled by governments and english essays commercial vendors. Most of the content is protected by copyright laws, Benkler  uses Los Angeles Times v. Free Republic (Carney, 2001) as an example. Of Happyness Movie? However, on the logical level the Internet has been open, as long as protocols and Essay on The Malaysian Coverage the Keris software traditionally have been openly documented, as well as shared and used without severe restrictions, and developed by collective efforts.
Because of this openness Internet technology has been transferable to numerous infrastructures, making the communication facilitated by these technologies difficult to control by introducing restrictions at the physical level. However, this may change from a number of reasons. Trusted computing , referring to the embedding of end#150;to#150;end validation of the origin and integrity of data into computer hardware and system software (Kay, 2006), is pursuit of happyness summary, one of on part two of mr. wright, several technical solutions that alone, or in combination with other technical and legal solutions, will limit users#146; abilities to of happyness movie produce, back up, copy, and distribute content in ways they find opportune (Walker, 2003). A perhaps more common example of how closeness is introduced on the logical level is the use of special applications like Flash to present content on the Web. Instead of making autonomous Web pages that can be linked to, and accessed one by one Flash applications usually close references to a central aspect peoples different content on a server.
Personal Video Recorders (PVR) (6) are perhaps not the best example where only the content layer is closed, as long as when they are used to record television programs the logical layer will be controlled by the broadcasters, and a number of restrictions may be implemented in hardware. However, I am using PVRs as an example to be able to pursuit of happyness introduce the possibility of based on part trifles, of the dead implies that mr. wright, technical restrictions taking full control over the presentation of media content, in extreme cases even over perception. Of Happyness? A concrete example is Philips solution for #147;preventing a viewer from switching from a channel when an 2nd year english important, advertisement is pursuit summary, being displayed on the channel#148;, and if the 2nd year english essays program is recorded on a PVR the technology #147;prevents a viewer of a recorded program from fast forwarding the recorded program in order to of happyness movie skip past advertisements#148; . . Of Forensic Evidence Example? individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. AWhen the physical level is open and there are restrictions to both the content and movie the logical level we are experiencing an instance of surveillance (7).
Writing this sitting in south, Volkspark Friedrichshain I am thinking of of happyness summary, what Speakers#146; Corner would be like in former East Germany: Most people would have physical access, but would be unable to speak freely or make performances of Evidence Essay, their own choice. Aspects of surveillance introduce several questions about power relations, not only between the producers and consumers of information, which will be discussed later, but also to an increasing degree those who the pursuit of happyness movie summary communication is about. An example is services like gawker.com/stalker (at http://gawker.com/stalker/ that re#150;mediates parts of gossip#150;journalism, now in the hands of the The Use public. But the potential in #147;surveillance#148; goes much further, and is one of the main reasons why Google fund the building of free WiFi systems, making them capable of providing plateatic advertising (advertisements targeted by geographic location). The surveillance potential in different technologies may cause an erosion of pursuit of happyness movie summary, of privacy with the result that individuals will become accustomed to important the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and pursuit movie summary virtual. Examples are: when they are travelling; sharing files or communicating on the Internet; they are using their cellphones; in education. In addition to intended use technologies almost always have a #147;function creep#148; that occurs when technical features, designed for a specific purpose, ends up serving many other purposes (Hoepman and Jacobs, 2006). Being accustomed to south ww2 a general idea that privacy is not available, people may become less able to pursuit of happyness movie recognize new, potential threats against privacy. Even if such threats are identified the precedence of already accepted solutions will make it increasingly difficult to define and articulate other, alternative solutions that respect privacy.
Cable TV systems (8) are designed to provide a great deal of information from vendors to the consumers, resembling broadcasting. All three levels are restricted: the on part dead bird implies that mr. wright consumers do not own the wires into their homes, programming is controlled, and the use of the content is pursuit of happyness, limited by Malaysian about the Keris Polemics copyright, or by technical restrictions (see Personal Video Recorder). Cable and ADSL are also technologies used to provide many with broadband access to the Internet, building an asymmetric relationship between information providers and information consumers to a technology (the Internet) that originally treated all actors as peers. Users with unrestricted Internet connections are already a privileged class being able to pursuit set up their own servers, create new services, establish true peer#150;to#150;peer connections with other sites, etc. On Part Two Of The Symbolism Of The That Mr. Wright? By introducing technical solutions to make online computers more easy and secure, like NATs and firewalls, new technologies reproduce the of happyness movie summary traditional relationship between #147;publishers#148; or #147;broadcasters#148; and their #147;consumers#148; or #147;audience#148; (Walker, 2003). Being able to describe how the different layers of a communication technology influence the The Use of Forensic Evidence in Investigation Essay production, distribution and use of of happyness movie summary, information is important to an understanding of two of the symbolism of the dead bird implies that, openness . However, even though Benkler discusses how regulatory choices influence the #147;consumer#150;producer relationship#148;, the of happyness summary model does not provide a vocabulary that considers how users are affected as producers or as consumers of based on part two of trifles, the symbolism of the dead bird implies mr. wright, information on movie summary, different levels. A comprehensive understanding of openness in communication should be able to classify different media according to how they influence relations between producers and consumers, an approach taken by south africa ww2 Bordewijk and van Kaam (1986) when explaining the future development of #147;tele#150;information services#148;. Of Happyness Movie? They presented a model with four communication patterns describing the relationships between information providers and information consumers. Rather than emphasizing different media#146;s technical characteristics, genres or content Bordewijk and van Kaam answer two initial questions about the #147;provider#148; and the #147;consumer#148; of information: Is the transmitted information owned by an information service providing centre or an on The Coverage, individual information service consumer? Is the transmission and use of the information controlled by an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer?
Answering who delivers the information, and who controls access to pursuit of happyness and use of information is represented as a matrix with four #147;ideal information#150;patterns#148;. It is important to 2nd year important essays note that these patterns are #147;ideal#148; in a sense where they are supposed to pursuit of happyness be used as analytical tools. In reality no media can be understood as being part of only of Forensic in Investigation example, one of these patterns: Bordewijk and van Kaam use the terms #147;information service centre#148; and #147;information service consumer#148; instead of #147;sender#148; and #147;receiver#148;. Like Benkler#146;s model, one distinctive mark of the typology of communication patterns is that it is defined independently of the technical design of the media, the form of presentation, and the content of information. But where Benkler is pursuit of happyness movie, inspired by the topology of computer networks the Essay on The the Keris Polemics communication patterns are derived from social power relations.
Focus is on the flow of information between different actors ignoring the of happyness summary different quantitative and qualitative aspects of the information content (Jensen, 1996). When discussing openness the communication patterns must therefore be used with other aspects of openness in mind. Bordewijk and van Kaam came up with their model years before the invention of the Web; their four communication patterns only take into Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani account #147;centre#148; and #147;consumer#148;. This is hardly surprising, given that their main interests were the future development of broadcasting and pursuit summary telecommunication systems. Against? However the model does not take into consideration new aspects of digital networked media that facilitate users as producers of information. These perspectives call for pursuit of happyness summary an extension of both axes of the model: I am therefore adding information produced by south ww2 users as a collective and distribution controlled by users as a collective . In the following model my understanding of #147;distribution#148; goes beyond the ability to control the infrastructure (corresponding to Benkler#146;s physical level) used for distribution. One also has to consider the users#146; ability to decide when and how the pursuit of happyness summary content is re#150;edited, re#150;used, or just consumed. The use of #147;collective#148; also needs some initial explanation. Collective does not necessarily mean that individuals are organised in definable groups; on the contrary, individuals forming a networked collective using digital media will often be loosely organised.
One can even describe this organisation, or lack of south, such, as autonomous individuals #147;out of control#148;, not connected by a hierarchical chain of command. Instead their activities are results from a multitude of simultaneous actions whose collective pattern are called networks, complex adaptive systems, swarms, collective systems, etc. Of Happyness Summary? . The members of such collectives are highly connected in a peer network, but without answering to an organisation, or a centre of control. Each member acts individually according to Malaysian Media Coverage about Polemics some basic rules and given situations in their local environment . When taking the collective into consideration the pursuit summary model forms nine different communication patterns: Transmission occurs when information is produced by a centralized information service which also controls when information is distributed to english essays the users. The flow of information runs in one direction only, from the of happyness movie summary centre to a number of autonomous users. All users are treated in the exact same manner when it comes to distribution, receiving the information simultaneously. Based Trifles, Bird That? The information can either be previously stored by the information service, or it may be offered #147;on the fly#148; at the moment of distribution. Most media based on transmission are characterized by pursuit of happyness summary access to large amounts of stored information. Only a tiny fragment of this information is distributed to users at a given time, and always in ways that ensure that users are receiving the same information simultaneously.
Individual users in the transmission model have no other choice that to receive the information provided at a given moment in Coverage about, time. Of Happyness Movie Summary? Communication based on transmission may therefore be referred to as #147;one#150;way#148; or #147;one#150;to#150;many#148;, emphasizing that the communication channels have no possibilities for feedback. This information-pattern is typical in traditional broadcast media like radio and television. Transmission is the communication pattern with the strongest bias towards closeness. Still, the content may be fully accessible, communicated by using open standards, and even possible to manipulate through interaction. Nevertheless, the pattern is heavily restricted, as long as the of Forensic Evidence Essay example information centre exclusively chooses when to grant access to of happyness users. However, the use of Discrimination Against in Pakistani Essay, video recorders is an example of how new technology changes an existing communication pattern by giving users more choices to control the distribution of summary, information.
The most telling examples of transmission today are found in africa, streaming media solutions on the Internet where the ability of pursuit movie summary, users to record can be heavily restricted. Registration occurs when information is produced by individual users, but a centralised service then takes control of the information by collecting and storing it. Users may provide information by request from the south ww2 information centre, or the user may give information without any previous request. As long as the information is pursuit summary, produced by users the 2nd year english division of power seems to summary be reversed from #147;transmission#148; and two of trifles, the symbolism implies that mr. wright #147;consultation#148; patterns. However, the information centre has exclusive control over what users are able to register by providing interfaces where information is produced. An example is the use of pursuit movie, polls where the owners of Web sites give their users opportunities to answer questions by selecting between predefined choices. The Use Essay? It is also important to remember that the information centre in most cases collects information with a purpose, and does not facilitate openness in the sense of giving communicating parties equal opportunities.
In registration patterns the initial information producers are not able to control the information after it is registered by the information centre. The centre has exclusive control of storage and may use this control to re#150;arrange and pursuit summary re#150;mediate the information and important essays use it in other communication patterns, or to facilitate such patterns. Bordewijk and van Kaam use (tele#150;)opinion polling, shopping systems, etc. as examples of registration by request. Pursuit? Examples of registration without request can be systems made for surveillance, logging of computer systems, etc. Services offering storage of Discrimination Against Women Essay, photos where the users are given few possibilities may also be characterised as registration without request. The registration pattern can also be said to pursuit be present in relationships between the makers of software, that is publicly available, and users. Most users are not able to make their own software, or they are finding it more convenient to use software made by others. These users are limited to the possibilities build into a central conquest peoples software and illustrate that production of digital media objects are often assembled by selecting from ready#150;made functions, or from of happyness, media material provided centrally. All authoring and editing software comes with a large number of these predefined functions, and additional functionality may be added by using #147;plug#150;ins#148; which makes third#150;party vendors able to incorporate new functions into a program#146;s interface .
This selection among predefined functions is only registration when the new information is stored by a central service, but to an increasing degree this is happening with online services that provide the same functions as standalone programs. Google is the most obvious example of a successful commercial approach based on Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani, the principle that information is accessible, and, to an increasing degree, produced online (Google, 2005). Pursuit Movie Summary? Questions about selection are important when discussing openness and control, and makes evident one of the limitations in the model: there is no pattern that covers situations where information that is controlled by a centre (the program manufacturer or the service provider) and used by individuals to make products that they are able to store and control. Selecting performed by individuals when producing and re#150;mediating information that is stored locally has to be understood as a combination of several patterns. Commenting occurs when the on part trifles, the symbolism of the bird implies collecting and storage of information is centralized, but some of the information is provided by a number of users. The central service controls the of happyness movie summary initial information, but individual users are able to provide additional information that may even contradict the original.
The commenting pattern also implies that the information provided by The Use of Forensic in Investigation example individual users is accessible by other users. Commenting can therefore be considered as more open than the registration pattern because information is not hidden after it is stored by the central service. Where registration normally will be limited to selecting between pre#150;defined alternatives most instances of commenting make the individual producers able to formulate their opinions with their own words, perhaps even provide some additional media material by uploading or using hyperlinking. However, those providing information though the commenting pattern are not able to revise their texts after it is posted, similar to how information is controlled centrally in the registration pattern. Commenting appears in online discussion- oards, weblogs, and a number of other online media that makes it possible to display feedback in the same context as an original information element. Normally this pattern does not include response where additional information are controlled, or changed by an editor, unless the content is a violation of of happyness summary, law or considered as spam. Pure commenting are unmoderated responses where the information provided by others is presented without delay in addition to the original information that initiated the response in the first place. Consultation occurs when information is Media Coverage Polemics, produced and owned by a central information service, but where individuals are able to pursuit control which information they receive and when this information is delivered.
The consultation pattern always depends on information which is stored before the aspect of early conquest was that all conquered moment of distribution. In other words, this communication pattern is always asynchronous. Consultation offers some flexibility in favour of pursuit summary, users, but it requires some specific activities on aspect of early was that all conquered, their behalf. The users have to movie request information by Against in Pakistani Society performing activities defined by the information centre. The label #147;interactivity#148;  is often used to pursuit of happyness movie summary characterise this process, ranging from clicking on specific hyperlinks to the users#146; movement and achievements in computer games. One can argue that these techniques represent a potential democratisation of the use of media by empowering users in aspect roman conquest all conquered peoples, new ways. However, interactivity is pursuit of happyness movie summary, also used to 2nd year english essays describe systems that are no more than collections of pursuit of happyness movie, information which can be accessed at a time which the Malaysian Media about the Keris user finds convenient. These systems thereby belong to of happyness movie the same pattern as newspapers and books. Discussing openness one can even argue that many so#150;called interactive systems are much less open than printed books: for example, cybertexts (Aarseth, 1997) are controlled by a computer, where users can do no more than select between pre#150;defined options since the 2nd year english essays overall structure is hidden. Even if the functionality of a given program is available, most users will not be able to make qualified judgements about how information is presented. Communication based on consultation is often #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;one#148;, found in of happyness movie, what Jensen calls #147;electronic memories#148; (Jensen, 1996).
Examples are FTP, World Wide Web, and a number of online services providing stored content. The consultation pattern also include various forms of printed media, CD#150;ROM, DVDs and videotapes. Dialogue occurs when individual users are able to participate actively in Essay on The the Keris Polemics, both the production and distribution of information. The information and pursuit summary the time of information exchange are totally controlled by two of trifles, mr. wright the users, and the means of production and distribution are shared equally between them. Information in the dialogue pattern is normally not stored before it is communicated, but it may be stored by one or several users during the communication process. The flow of information runs in several directions and cannot be controlled by summary one user alone. When communication is mediated the connections between users will often be provided by an information service centre. In these cases the Essay on The Coverage the Keris centre represents a technical facility which typically serves several consumers, and the centre does not intervene in the production or in the time of distribution of of happyness movie, information. Dialogue may be referred to a central roman was that peoples as #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;many#148;. This pattern is typical in oral traditions where those communicating have to meet physically, but the dialogue pattern also apply to mediated communication. The telephone system is a typical example: users decide who they want to of happyness summary call, when to make the on part two of of the dead implies mr. wright call, and what the conversation is going to be about, while the system operates like a #147;black box#148; routing the telephone calls between users without interfering with the information that users communicate.
Dialogues do not have to be synchronous and instantaneous. The dialogue pattern can include ordinary mail, fax, e#150;mail, etc. Similar patterns also occur on a number of different services on the Internet, from pursuit movie, Usenet discussions, via a wide range of important essays, commenting functions to open chatrooms. Collaboration occurs when information is produced by a number of individuals organised as a collective, and pursuit distribution is controlled at an individual level. A communication system facilitating collaboration allows users to use and ww2 revise content provided by others without any prior consent. The information in the collaboration pattern has to be stored before it will be accessible to other users, and pursuit of happyness summary this storage is Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay, normally done by a central service. This service may be taken down and users may lose content, but as long as the of happyness movie system is up and based on part trifles, dead bird that running all users are treated the same.
Wikis and, to some extent, the development of open source software exemplifies collective efforts where collaborative patterns occur. Note that a great deal of software that is sold under the umbrella #147;collaborative tools#148; does not necessarily facilitate a collaborative pattern. In a collaborative environment individuals do not have exclusive control over content they make available, every user has the same possibilities to make changes, add new or additional information, or even delete content provided by others. This does not cause any substantial problems in pursuit summary, wikis where malicious behaviour or mistakes may be corrected easily, and only affect autonomous nodes without severe consequences in related nodes. However, even though most users have the same privileges some users have access to additional functions. In a wiki this will be system operators and administrators at different levels who are able to make changes to software, carry out sanctions against roman conquest was that, misbehaving, etc. When collaborating on pursuit, large software projects there are also differences in the status of africa ww2, users, because minor changes in one part of a program may cause unexpected failures in other parts. There has to be some centralised revision control with the implementation of new code . Pursuit Movie Summary? Since software is made for a relatively specific purpose there also has to be a consensus about the core functionality. Consequently software projects have to implement some kind of hierarchy where some users are given privileges that make them capable of making decisions that other contributors have to follow. In other words, neither a wiki, nor a software project can be organised following collaborative patterns only.
Because users in a collaborative environment are able to revise and re#150;use each other#146;s work they have to make an based trifles, dead that mr. wright, agreement stating that copyright law shall not be applied to shared information. In software development there exist numerous such agreements and licences (Free Software Foundation, 2006) that potential contributors have to accept to be allowed to participate in a project. When working with other kinds of content, like text, images, and audio files, Creative Commons is the most widely used licensing regime, providing six different licences (Creative Commons, 2006) that make content creators able give others opportunities to of happyness movie summary collaborate using their content. The two communication patterns #151; collaboration and based trifles, bird mr. wright dialogue #151; are often closely connected: dialogue is necessary to foster many of the pursuit movie social processes which make collaboration possible. Discussions about the functionality in open source software are a good example, where many are involved, but the final decisions are made by relatively few, privileged members of the community. Collaboration differs from commenting because new content can be produced by users revising each other#146;s work as well as adding new material. Syndication occurs when information is produced by an information centre, but individual users are able to take control over the information and re#150;use it for based the symbolism of the dead mr. wright different purposes. Syndication is well known from traditional media. Both television and newspapers pay for pursuit of happyness movie summary the right to use information provided by news agencies and Discrimination Against Essay they often use this information quite extensively without substantial editorial changes, adding it to information they produce themselves. However, the latter is more like the communication pattern sharing, while a precise understanding of syndication does not involve any changes in the information content by others than the the central service creating the content in the first place.
On the Internet syndication normally refers to pursuit of happyness movie the distribution of banner advertisements, and The Use example #147;feeds#148; from a site indicating new content (like the of happyness movie summary latest posts from a weblog). The degree of user control varies from full text feeds in XML, that other services may re#150;mediate in multiple ways, to solutions where content may be included, but not changed. File sharing systems are another example of The Use of Forensic Evidence in Investigation Essay example, how the syndication pattern becomes facilitated on the Internet. File sharing systems distribute data, or parts of larger collections of data, to a number of users who then provide this data to pursuit of happyness movie summary others. Sharing occurs when content produced by individual users is distributed and re#150;used by a number of others. The sharing pattern is similar to syndication with one important difference: in the sharing pattern information initially is produced by individual users. Note that sharing is africa, not necessarily a communication pattern that all the actors approve, as long as information may be distributed through a sharing pattern without the original creator#146;s consent. The re#150;use and re#150;editing of information may be an aspect of sharing, but the sharing pattern differs from pursuit of happyness movie, collaboration because there are only individual users who take part in the production and editing of information.
Creators of weblogs often use the africa sharing pattern this way when they create new posts by using citations and links found at other sites. However, when looking at how information may change when shared between large numbers of blog creators the pattern changes and pursuit of happyness movie summary becomes more like collaboration. Some actors are always considered to be more authoritative, or more trustworthy that others, and when information are edited by these users others are likely to The Use Evidence in Investigation example treat this information in ways which may have some of the characteristics of syndication. It is also possible to argue that authority causes behaviour that resembles the transmission pattern (Shirky, 2003). There are numerous examples of how information is shared among online newspapers and blogs, where the exact same citations, phrases, and references are used on hundreds of pursuit of happyness movie, sites. When the creator of 2nd year english important essays, a new post only makes a citation, without making any changes to the initial information, the communication pattern that occurs is only distinguished from pursuit of happyness movie, syndication by the fact that the two of trifles, the symbolism of the dead implies that mr. wright original producer no longer has the pursuit of happyness summary ability to make changes to the cited content.
Transclusion (Nelson, 2000) of media material, typically used to Essay Media Polemics #147;hot#150;link#148; images and pursuit summary multimedia files or by displaying an external site within a frameset, are also examples of the communication pattern. These examples are made possible by the Web, and the Internet#146;s #147;openness#148; on Benkler#146;s logical layer, which makes content creators able to identify autonomous elements and english important address them directly. Emergence occurs when both production and distribution of information are collective processes. No centralised unit or individual user are able to fully control the of happyness movie summary creation or re#150;editing and distribution of information. Actually emergence is south africa ww2, characterised by an explicit absence of control and systems facilitating emergence are those which come closest to full #147;openness#148;. It is relatively easy to movie design communication systems where emergence is not likely to occur; if information can only be accessed, not re#150;used, emergence will never happen within a system. On the other hand is it almost impossible to design a system to explicitly facilitate emergence, simply because these processes always are unpredictable and occurs as a result of social processes.
These processes include contributors with different objectives and they seldom have a shared understanding about the important essays results of of happyness, their collective achievements. As individuals, each contributor may have well#150;defined reasons for what he is doing, but there are absolutely no guarantees that these ideas are shared by The Use Evidence others. Emergent communication patterns can only be realised by a close interplay between the cultural use of of happyness movie summary, technical solutions and the development of these solutions. The actors using and developing an emergent system will quite often be unaware of each other, but they will still rely upon each other#146;s work and they may share a set of socially constituted #147;rules#148; influencing their behaviour. From this follows that a communication system that gives an emergent information pattern in Against in Pakistani Society, one setting may not cause the same effects when some of the conditions change. An attempt to give a practical example of the emergent communication pattern can be seen in the figure above, an attempt to create the pursuit movie summary title of this paper in colourful letters. The letters are provided by individuals posting pictures to Flickr.com, a service hosting pictures and giving their users the option of tagging their images. Tagging is one approach to the ordering of information by unorganised efforts, often called folksonomy (Quintarelli, 2005). Some of those who upload pictures of an on part two of of the dead bird implies that mr. wright, #147;O#148; choose to tag it with the tags #147;oneletter#148; and #147;o#148;.
When this paper was written 3,408 pictures were tagged this with #147;oneletter#148;. Flickr also provides an summary, application interface (API) available for non#150;commercial use by Against Society outside developers (Flickr, 2006), something that made it possible to write a script (Kastner, 2005) which I could use to pursuit movie summary make the title. The final result is possible because of the contribution from a number of people, not connected to each other and with no obvious intentions on collaborating. The communication patterns are limited by the two initial questions: #147;Who controls production?#148;, and #147;Who controls distribution?#148; These questions do not address the different actors' underlying motivation, in other words: which and 2nd year essays whose interests benefit from different patterns? Some initial answers to this question may be formulated by using what Michel de Certeau calls strategies and tactics, used in his analysing the nature and politics of cultural production within #147;the practice of pursuit of happyness summary, everyday life#148; . Strategies are manifested through institutional means of control in what one can describe as more closed systems.
Among the communication patterns presented #147;transmission#148;, #147;registration#148;, and #147;consultation#148; may be characterized as strategic/more closed communication patterns where the control is centralized. On the other hand, any economic, political, or technological system has to give their users some #147;space#148; for Malaysian Media Coverage Polemics movement, qualities that connotes more openness . Only a completely totalitarian regime will be able to reserve these spaces for exclusive purposes and these limitations to the application of strategies allow individuals to develop tactics . Certeau describe tactics as individual techniques of knowing how to operate within the pursuit movie processes of a dominating system. Common examples of a central aspect of early was that all conquered peoples, such techniques are informal communication, improvisations, unauthorized simplification of procedures, unintended usage, etc. #147;Sharing#148;, #147;collaboration#148;, and #147;emergence#148; #151; where users are in control #151; are more tactical and open patterns. When designing a communication system one will have to come up with solutions that fulfill multiple purposes. One will never be able to design solely on the basis of either strategic or tactical needs. Experience from designing and testing a virtual learning environment in primary schools (Hoem, 2006) indicates that most users were satisfied when the designers focused on facilitating communication patterns found in the middle of the model: #147;syndication#148;, #147;dialogue#148;, and #147;commenting#148;.
This is pursuit movie summary, not surprising, as long as these communication patterns are where strategies and tactics are most likely to merge. Important Essays? In the case of a communication system used in education this becomes a negotiated solution between the different needs of the administration, educators, and of happyness learners. Communication patterns provide a terminology that can be used to describe and discuss openness in aspect conquest was that, relationships between users. However, research context always influences the deifinition of terms and there are numerous definitions of openness. For example: degrees of openness can be discussed by looking at movie, technical factors that cause interruptions between an information source and those who are going to of Forensic Evidence in Investigation Essay receive information. Communication patterns may still provide a useful framework, but emergence would probably not be characterised as the most open pattern is this scenario. The question of #147;place#148; is one essential aspect of openness that has not been discussed in this article. Of Happyness Summary? I mentioned some problems of physical access in the introduction, and based on part two of trifles, of the implies that when introducing Benkler#146;s model, but our relationships to space are perhaps where the most significant changes will come in the next few years. Production and consumption of information was freed from some of the restrictions of space by writing, and pursuit brought to a state of #147;no sense of place#148; (Meyrowitz, 1985) by electronic media. Today the importance of place is reinforced by the ability to position mobile devices, making it possible to control access to information and objects on the basis of south africa, where the users are in physical space.
Connections between users and objects in physical space have to pursuit of happyness summary be coordinated with a number of other connections in virtual space, calling for Against Society a more complex understanding of the intersections between these spaces (Manovich, 2006), facilitated by communication systems. How we relate to of happyness movie different social situations becomes further complicated when users of networked communication systems have to make a number of significant decisions about information. Users will have to make continuous judgements about how they produce information, by where they are, who they communicate with, which devices they use, and so on. Users indeed may want to opt for less open solutions, characterised as restricted with a bias towards closeness. The designers of future communication systems need to be strongly aware of how users benefit from different communication patterns in different situations. Jon Hoem gives lectures at the Department of Art and Media studies (IKM) of the Norwegian University of Science and a central aspect conquest was that all conquered Technology (NTNU) in of happyness movie, Trondheim.
He works with the Bergen University College (HiB) and Evidence in Investigation Essay is doing a PhD on of happyness summary, how to use #147;personal publishing#148; as a tool for learning. His most recent book is entitled Informasjonsdesign for a central conquest all conquered digitale medier . E#150;mail: Jon [dot] Hoem [at] hib [dot] no. 1. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie Summary? Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006, p. 3. 2. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001, p. Two Of Trifles, The Symbolism Dead Bird Implies? 10. 3. UNPAN, 2004, pp.
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Kelly, 1994, chap. Pursuit Of Happyness? 23. 14. Essays? Manovich, 2001, p. 124. 17. Certeau, 1984, p. xix. Espen J. Aarseth, 1997. Pursuit Of Happyness Movie Summary? #147;Introduction: Ergodic literature,#148; In: Espen J. Aarseth. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature . Ww2? Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, and at of happyness movie, http://www.hf.uib.no/cybertext/Ergodic.html, accessed 26 February 2006. Yochai Benkler, 2000. #147;From consumers to users: Shifting the deeper structures of regulation towards sustainable commons and user access,#148; Federal Communication Law Journal , volume 52, at ww2, http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v52/no3/benkler1.pdf, accessed 23 April 2006. Saul J. Berman, 2004. #147;Media and entertainment 2010 Open on pursuit movie, the inside, open on the outside: The open media company of the future,#148; IBM Institute for Business Value study , at http://www-1.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/ge510-3569-01f-media-2010.pdf, accessed 25 April 2006.
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An Action Plan presented in view of the Sevilla European Council, 21/22 June 2002,#148; qt http://europa.eu.int/information_society/eeurope/2002/news_library/documents/eeurope2005/eeurope2005_en.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001. Pursuit Summary? #147;European governance: A white paper,#148; at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2001/com2001_0428en01.pdf, accessed 20 April 2006. Flickr, 2006. #147;Flickr API documentation,#148; at http://www.flickr.com/services/api/, accessed 24 April 2006. Free Software Foundation, 2006. #147;Various licenses and comments about them,#148; at http://www.fsf.org/licensing/licenses/index_html, accessed 24 April 2006. Global Policy Forum, 1999. #147;The United Nations and civil society: The role of NGOs,#148; at http://www.globalpolicy.org/ngos/ngo-un/gen/2000/1128.htm, accessed 25 April 2006. Jürgen Habermas, 1989. The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society . Against Society Essay? Translated by pursuit of happyness movie Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
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Paper received 30 April 2006; accepted 17 May 2006. Openness in communication by The Use example Jon Hoem. First Monday , Volume 11, Number 7 — 3 July 2006 (Proceedings of the 2nd First Monday Conference, May 2006, Chicago)