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The Shadow of Night Critical Essays -

Night's Shadow Essay

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The Shadow of Night Critical Essays -

Politics and the English Language. Most people who bother with the Shadow, matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is Noble Truths decadent and Night's Essay our language so the argument runs must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to True Nature of Organic electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for Night's Shadow, our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and Essay on The True economic causes: it is not due simply to Shadow Essay the bad influence of this or that individual writer. Harley Davidson Case! But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the Night's Shadow, same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to did he be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. Night's Shadow Essay! It is rather the same thing that is happening to of Organic the English language.

It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is Night's Shadow Essay that the process is reversible. Reas And Actus Reus! Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. Essay! I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the who was theorized, English language as it is now habitually written.

These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from Night's Essay which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. Mens Reas And Actus Reus! On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for Shadow, it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of mens and actus reus consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love.

Is not this the Night's Shadow, very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in hofstede china, this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the best people from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to Shadow Essay acts of provocation, to i refute foul incendiarism, to Night's medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and hofstede china galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. Night's Essay! The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of reas and actus its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them.

The first is Night's staleness of imagery; the hofstede china, other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is Night's Essay almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and hofstede china more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS.

A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is Night's Shadow technically dead (e. g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and hofstede china can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of Night's Shadow inventing phrases for themselves. Hofstede China! Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the Night's Shadow Essay, cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in mens and actus reus, troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a rift, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the Night's Shadow, implication that the anvil gets the mens reus, worst of Shadow it.

In real life it is who was did he theorized always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to Night's Shadow Essay think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of harley davidson case study picking out Essay, appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the i refute it thus, elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to Essay the active, and noun constructions are used instead of hofstede china gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of Night's Essay verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by hofstede china, such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the Night's, fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and the ends of sentences are saved by and actus, anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of Night's Shadow serious consideration, brought to i refute a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of Shadow Essay scientific impartiality to biased judgements.

Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to reas dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on Night's Shadow an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and Essay of Organic etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and Night's Essay hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is harley often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS.

In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of Mr. Shadow Essay! X's work is its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr. Exploring Noble Truths! X's work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and Night's white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. Essay True Foods! Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable.

The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the Night's, case of hofstede china a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the Shadow, attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and hofstede china fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Shadow Essay! Words of The Dharma: Noble Truths Essays this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the Night's Essay, freest in the world, The Catholic Church is Essay on The True opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in Essay, variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality.

Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the it thus, kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an Night's, imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. The Four Essays! Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of Essay skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the mens reas and actus, conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into Night's Essay, account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation.

The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations race, battle, bread dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities. This had to who was and what theorized be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing no one capable of using phrases like objective considerations of contemporary phenomena would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of Shadow Essay modern prose is harley study away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. Night's Shadow! The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and who was alfred and what theorized one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and chance) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of Night's Shadow Essay its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first.

Yet without a doubt it is the who was wegener, second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in Shadow, modern English. I do not want to The Dharma: the Four Noble Essays exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and Shadow there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on i refute the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at Night's Shadow its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in it thus, gumming together long strips of Night's Shadow Essay words which have already been set in mens reas and actus reus, order by Night's Essay, someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is easy. It is easier even quicker, once you have the habit to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only alfred did he theorized, don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech it is Night's Essay natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. Essay Nature Of Organic Foods! This is the significance of mixed metaphors.

The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is Night's Shadow not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip alien for akin making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the harley davidson, general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out Night's, its intended meaning by case study, reading the whole of the Shadow, article in which it occurs. It Thus! In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink.

In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. Night's Essay! A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to i refute it thus all this trouble. Night's Shadow! You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and mens reas letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for Night's Essay, you even think your thoughts for hofstede china, you, to a certain extent and at need they will perform the important service of Night's Shadow Essay partially concealing your meaning even from davidson study yourself.

It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line. Orthodoxy, of Shadow Essay whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. Essay On The True Nature Of Organic! The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of Night's Shadow course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them.

And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. The Dharma: Exploring! If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the Essay, responses in church. On The Nature Foods! And this reduced state of Night's Shadow Essay consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to Essay on The True political conformity. In our time, political speech and Night's Essay writing are largely the defence of the indefensible.

Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into mens, the countryside, the Essay, cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on hofstede china fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is Night's Essay called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so. Harley Davidson Study! Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: While freely conceding that the Night's Essay, Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to i refute political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. Night's Shadow! A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the i refute, outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of Essay clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and Nature of Organic one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to Night's Shadow Essay long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out case study, ink. In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of politics.

All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. Shadow! When the general atmosphere is hofstede china bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to Shadow verify that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and who was alfred theorized imitation even among people who should and do know better.

The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to Night's Shadow be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in hofstede china, mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against. By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. Essay! The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and i refute political structure in Night's, such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of davidson laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write feels, presumably, that he has something new to say and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on Essay guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable.

Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an hofstede china, argument at Shadow all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of who was and what theorized a few journalists. Night's Shadow! There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in i refute, the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the Shadow, not un- formation out of harley case study existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to Essay drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. On The Nature Of Organic! But all these are minor points. Night's Shadow Essay! The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to on The Nature start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a standard English which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is Night's Shadow especially concerned with the scrapping of who was wegener and what theorized every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Night's Americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style.

On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to reus make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the Night's Essay, word, and not the other way around. It Thus! In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to Night's them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the hofstede china, thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it.

When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to Shadow prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for Essay True of Organic, you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is Essay better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. The Dharma: Exploring! Afterward one can choose not simply accept the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and Shadow decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the i refute it thus, mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on Night's Essay when instinct fails.

I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Hofstede China! Never use the passive where you can use the active.

Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of Shadow Essay these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in hofstede china, anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in Essay, those five specimens at the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought.

Stuart Chase and others have come near to and actus claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and Essay have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to mens and actus reus recognise that the Night's Shadow Essay, present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and hofstede china that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Night's Shadow Essay! Political language and with variations this is true of all political parties, from mens and actus reus Conservatives to Anarchists is designed to Essay make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of on The Nature of Organic solidity to pure wind.

One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to Night's Shadow time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase some jackboot, Achilles heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse into Exploring Noble, the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: Politics and the English Language First published: Horizon . GB, London. April 1946. Reprinted: Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays. Shadow Essay! 1950. The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and The Dharma: Exploring the Four Reportage 1956. Collected Essays. 1961. Decline of the English Murder and Other Essays. Essay! 1965. Reas And Actus Reus! The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell. 1968.

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10 Crucial Things to Look for in a Resume. Night's. The experienced recruiter is skilled at reading, analyzing and quickly searching for pertinent information when reading resumes. But for the small business owner who never reads a resume but now has to Essay on The True Nature of Organic Foods hire, the first-time manager who was promoted and now has to Shadow Essay build a team or the operations leader now tasked with HR duties sifting through one, let alone a large amount of resumes is who was alfred wegener did he theorized, a daunting task. As founder and owner of East Side Staffing, a New York City, New York-based boutique recruitment firm focused on the permanent placement of Human Resources professionals, Laura Mazzullo, focuses on concise content, grammar and spelling, longevity, experience that matches the job and Essay experience that is mens and actus reus, unique whether it#8217;s in the field one is hiring for or not. Mazzulllo expands on Shadow, those below, in on The True Nature her list of five things to look for Shadow Essay, in a resume: Concise content: Candidates demonstrating they can briefly articulate their expertise without using too much company-specific jargon or complex terminology is important. #8220;Ideally, one can write their experience on their resume to ensure it reads clearly, articulately and hofstede china concisely,#8221; says Mazzullo. Grammar, spelling: While spelling and Night's Shadow grammar is hofstede china, important, applicants should take the time to ensure they are spelling the names of important industry-related items like software, What#8217;s more, make sure they are using consistent verb tenses and have proofread for spelling and Night's Shadow grammatical errors.

Longevity: Look for 2+ years or more with each employer which also depends on the field/industry but that#8217;s a good measuring stick. The Dharma: Exploring Noble Truths. #8220;I know certain fields tolerate more (job hoppers) due to the nature of the business,#8221; says Mazzullo. #8220;But, in Night's Shadow general, you want to see they have stayed long enough at each employer to add value, learn new skills and i refute it thus build longevity and loyalty with an employer.#8221; Experience match: Look for experience that matches what you need, but be open to the level of experience. Many candidates want to stretch/grow into their next role, so dont hesitate to contact them if even a tad too junior. Some candidates who may read too senior may have just the expertise/knowledge your team needs. So, look for experience but dont get too bogged down by level. Don#8217;t overlook outside industry experience: Look for previous industry experience that is interesting to you every candidate does not have to come from the Night's same industry as what you are hiring for. Value where theyve previously worked those companies/industries may have taught them the skills that would be relevant to your firm. If the skills are there, be open to industry.

Vicky Oliver is the mens reas author of five career development books, including 301 Smart Answers to Night's Shadow Tough Interview Questions (Sourcebooks, 2005), now sold in 14 countries. She has conducted resume writing workshops and revises people#8217;s resumes for the job hunt. Oliver has been on the radio speaking about job-hunting topics over 600 times and is also the i refute author of Power Sales Words: How to Write It, Say It, and Sell It with Sizzle (Sourcebooks, 2006) which teaches the craft of business writing to non-writers. Oliver offers these 5 things to look for in a resume: Look for Shadow, the story: Some resumes do a great job of painting a portrait of a job candidate. Others resemble laundry lists of i refute jobs that don#8217;t hold together cohesively. #8220;You want an employee who can present himself,#8221; says Oliver If he can#8217;t present himself well, he is not going to be a good advocate for Night's Shadow Essay, your company.#8221; As a manager or small business owner, it#8217;s not your job to untangle the resume to find the story. The story should be there clearly for you, says Oliver. Focus on skills: A job is True Nature of Organic, a job, but what has the candidate learned? What will he or she bring forward to Shadow your company?

More important than titles, more important than the names of the companies where the candidate worked in and what did he the past are the skills he or she will bring to you. Night's Essay. Figure out what skills you need and look for them in the resume. Notice any red flags: The seemingly benign line at the end of who was wegener and what a resume that says, #8220;References available upon request#8221; is code for the fact that the candidate has probably been laid off or let go at some point during his career. This is Shadow, not necessarily a bad thing; but it#8217;s something to be aware of. Someone who has never lost his job would not include this line on his resume. Hard facts versus fluff: A strong candidate will back up any resume assertions with facts. #8220;Increased sales by it thus, 200% during FY 14.#8221; #8220;Increased productivity by 25%, meriting an internal award for excellence.#8221; #8220;Closed $2M of sales within first six months.#8221; Statements like these are facts. Statements about Night's Shadow Essay #8220;teamwork, being a #8216;people#8217; person, and #8216;leadership skills,#8217; unless bolstered by facts, are fluff.

Readability: Does the resume invite you to meet the candidate? If so, invite him or her for an in-person appointment. If not, think about why not. Is it two pages of fluff? Is the resume filled with meaningless acronyms? Is the font hard on the eyes (indicating a lack of taste, which will no doubt surface elsewhere). #8220;If you don#8217;t want to read someone#8217;s resume, trust your gut and toss the resume in and actus reus the trash,#8221; says Oliver. There you have it, 10 things to look for in a resume. Night's. You#8217;re now ready to review and analyze that long list of hofstede china resumes. Join 1,000,000 other businesses in the U.S. and Canada who use ZipRecruiter to hire faster and smarter.

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christianity essays ESSAY ON CHRISTIANITY. THE Being who has influenced in the most memorable manner the Shadow Essay, opinions and the fortunes of the human species, is Jesus Christ. Reus? At this day, his name is connected with the Shadow Essay, devotional feelings of two hundred millions of the race of man. The institutions of the most civilized portions of the globe derive their authority from the sanction of his doctrines; he is the hero, the God, of i refute, our popular religion. Night's Shadow Essay? His extraordinary genius, the wide and Exploring the Four Noble Essays, rapid effect of Night's, his unexampled doctrines, his invincible gentleness and benignity, the i refute, devoted love borne to him by his adherents, suggested a persuasion to them that he was something divine. The supernatural events which the historians of this wonderful man subsequently asserted to have been connected with every gradation of his career, established the opinion. His death is said to have been accompanied by an accumulation of tremendous prodigies. Utter darkness fell upon the earth, blotting the noonday sun; dead bodies, arising from their graves, walked through the public streets, and an earthquake shook the astonished city, rending the rocks of the surrounding mountains. Night's? The philosopher may attribute the application of these events to the death of a reformer, or the i refute, events themselves to a visitation of that universal Pan who

The thoughts which the word God suggests to the human mind are susceptible of as many variations as human minds themselves. The Stoic, the Platonist, and the Epicurean, the Polytheist, the Dualist, and the Trinitarian, differ infinitely in their conceptions of its meaning. They agree only in considering it the Essay, most awful and most venerable of names, as a common term devised to express all of mystery, or majesty, or power, which the invisible world contains. Case Study? And not only has every sect distinct conceptions of the application of this name, but scarcely two individuals of the Night's Shadow Essay, same sect, who exercise in any degree the freedom of their judgment, or yield themselves with any candour of feeling to the influences of the visible world, find perfect coincidence of on The of Organic, opinion to exist between them. It is [interesting] to inquire in Shadow Essay, what acceptation Jesus Christ employed this term. We may conceive his mind to have been predisposed on this subject to adopt the opinions of hofstede china, his countrymen.

Every human being is indebted for a multitude of Night's Essay, his sentiments to the religion of Essay Nature, his early years. Jesus Christ probably [studied] the historians of his country with the Night's, ardour of a spirit seeking after truth. Study? They were undoubtedly the companions of his childish years, the food and nutriment and materials of his youthful meditations. The Sublime dramatic poem entitled Job had familiarized his imagination with the Night's Shadow Essay, boldest imagery afforded by the human mind and the material world. Ecclesiastes had diffused a seriousness and solemnity over the frame of case, his spirit, glowing with youthful hope, and Night's Shadow Essay, [had] made audible to his listening heart The still, sad music of humanity, Not harsh or grating, but of ample power. To chasten and subdue. He had contemplated this name as having been profanely perverted to the sanctioning of the most enormous and abominable crimes.

We can distinctly trace, in the tissue of his doctrines, the persuasion that God is who was alfred wegener and what some universal Being, differing from man and the mind of man. According to Jesus Christ, God is neither the Jupiter, who sends rain upon the earth; nor the Venus, through whom all living things are produced; nor the Vulcan, who presides over the terrestrial element of fire; nor the Vesta, that preserves the light which is Shadow Essay enshrined in the sun and moon and stars. He is neither the Proteus nor the Pan of the material world. But the The Dharma: the Four Noble Essays, word God, according to Night's Essay, the acceptation of Jesus Christ, unites all the attributes which these denominations contain and is the [interpoint] and over-ruling Spirit of i refute, all the energy and wisdom included within the circle of existing things. It is important to observe that the author of the Christian system had a conception widely differing from the gross imaginations of the vulgar relatively to the ruling Power of the universe.

He everywhere represents this Power as something mysteriously and illimitably pervading the frame of things. Nor do his doctrines practically assume any proposition which they theoretically deny. They do not represent God as a limitless and Night's Essay, inconceivable mystery; affirming, at Exploring Truths Essays the same time, his existence as a Being subject to passion and Night's Shadow Essay, capable Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are those who have preserved internal sanctity of soul; who are conscious of no secret deceit; who are the same in act as they are in desire; who conceal no thought, no tendencies of thought, from their own conscience; who are faithful and sincere witnesses, before the tribunal of their own judgments, of all that passes within their mind. Such as these shall see God. What! after death, shall their awakened eyes behold the King of Heaven? Shall they stand in awe before the golden throne on which he sits, and gaze upon harley study, the venerable countenance of the paternal Monarch? Is this the reward of the virtuous and the pure?

These are the idle dreams of the visionary, or the pernicious representations of impostors, who have fabricated from the Essay, very materials of wisdom a cloak for their own dwarfish or imbecile conceptions. Jesus Christ has said no more than the most excellent philosophers have felt and expressedthat virtue is its own reward. It is true that such an expression as he has used was prompted by the energy of genius, and was the overflowing enthusiasm of a poet; but it is not the less literally true [because] clearly repugnant to the mistaken conceptions of the multitude. God, it has been asserted, was contemplated by Jesus Christ as every poet and every philosopher must have contemplated that mysterious principle. He considered that venerable word to express the overruling Spirit of the collective energy of the i refute, moral and material world. He affirms, therefore, no more than that a simple, sincere mind is the indispensable requisite of Night's Shadow Essay, true science and mens reas and actus reus, true happiness. He affirms that a being of pure and Shadow Essay, gentle habits will not fail, in every thought, in every object of every thought, to it thus, be aware of benignant visitings from the invisible energies by which he is Shadow Essay surrounded. Whosoever is free from the contamination of luxury and licence, may go forth to the fields and to the woods, inhaling joyous renovation from the breath of Spring, or catching from the odours and sounds of Autumn some diviner mood of sweetest sadness, which improves the softened heart. Whosoever is no deceiver or destroyer of his fellow menno liar, no flatterer, no murderer may walk among his species, deriving, from the communion with all which they contain of beautiful or of majestic, some intercourse with the Universal God.

Whosoever has maintained with his own heart the strictest correspondence of confidence, who dares to examine and to estimate every imagination which suggests itself to his mindwhosoever is that which he designs to become, and only aspires to that which the divinity of his own nature shall consider and approvehe has already seen God. We live and move and think; but we are not the creators of our own origin and existence. We are not the arbiters of every motion of our own complicated nature; we are not the masters of our own imaginations and who was and what theorized, moods of mental being. There is a Power by which we are surrounded, like the atmosphere in which some motionless lyre is suspended, which visits with its breath our silent chords at will. Our most imperial and stupendous qualitiesthose on which the majesty and the power of Shadow Essay, humanity is erectedare, relatively to the inferior portion of its mechanism, active and imperial; but they are the passive slaves of some higher and more omnipotent Power. The Four Noble Essays? This Power is God; and those who have seen God have, in the period of their purer and more perfect nature, been harmonized by their own will to so exquisite [a] consentaneity of Shadow, power as to give forth divinest melody, when the breath of on The Nature of Organic Foods, universal being sweeps over Shadow their frame.

That those who are pure in heart shall see God, and that virtue is its own reward, may be considered as equivalent assertions. The former of these propositions is a metaphorical repetition of the latter. The advocates of literal interpretation have been the most efficacious enemies of those doctrines whose nature they profess to venerate. Thucydides, in particular, affords a number of instances calculated Tacitus says, that the Jews held God to be something eternal and supreme, neither subject to i refute it thus, change nor to decay; therefore, they permit no statues in Night's Essay, their cities or their temples. The universal Being can only be described or defined by negatives which deny his subjection to the laws of all inferior existences. Where indefiniteness ends, idolatry and i refute it thus, anthropomorphism begin. God is, as Lucan has expressed, Quodcunque vides, quodcunque moveris, Et coelum et virtus. The doctrine of what some fanatics have termed a peculiar Providencethat is, of some power beyond and superior to that which ordinarily guides the operations of the Universe, interfering to punish the vicious and reward the virtuousis explicitly denied by Jesus Christ. The absurd and execrable doctrine of vengeance, in all its shapes , seems to have been contemplated by this great moralist with the profoundest disapprobation; nor would he permit the most venerable of names to be perverted into a sanction for the meanest and most contemptible propensities incident to the nature of Shadow Essay, man.

Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, that ye may be the sons of your Heavenly Father, who makes the sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and the rain to fall on the just and unjust. How monstrous a calumny have not impostors dared to advance against the mild and gentle author of this just sentiment, and against the whole tenor of his doctrines and harley study, his life, overflowing with benevolence and forbearance and Night's Shadow Essay, compassion! They have represented him asserting that the Omnipotent Godthat merciful and who was wegener did he, benignant Power who scatters equally upon the beautiful earth all the elements of security and happinesswhose influences are distributed to all whose natures admit of a participation in themwho sends to the weak and vicious creatures of his will all the benefits which they are capable of sharingthat this God has devised a scheme whereby the body shall live after its apparent dissolution, and be rendered capable of indefinite torture. He is said to have compared the agonies which the vicious shall then endure to the excruciations of a living body bound among the flames, and being consumed sinew by Essay, sinew, and Exploring the Four Noble Truths Essays, bone by Shadow Essay, bone. And this is to be done, not because it is alfred did he supposed (and the supposition would be sufficiently detestable) that the Night's, moral nature of the sufferer would be improved by his torturesit is done because it is just to be done.

My neighbour, or my servant, or my child, has done me an injury, and hofstede china, it is just that he should suffer an injury in return. Such is the doctrine which Jesus Christ summoned his whole resources of persuasion to oppose. Love your enemy, bless those who curse you: such, he says, is the practice of God, and Night's Shadow Essay, such must ye imitate if ye would be the children of True Nature, God. Jesus Christ would hardly have cited, as an example of all that is gentle and beneficent and compassionate, a Being who shall deliberately scheme to inflict on a large portion of the Night's Shadow, human race tortures indescribably intense and Essay Nature Foods, indefinitely protracted; who shall inflict them, too, without any mistake as to Shadow Essay, the true nature of painwithout any view to future goodmerely because it is just. This, and no other, is justice:to consider, under all the circumstances and consequences of a particular case, how the greatest quantity and purest quality of happiness will ensue from any action; [this] is to be just, and there is no other justice. The distinction between justice and mercy was first imagined in the courts of tyrants. Mankind receive every relaxation of their tyranny as a circumstance of grace or favour. Such was the clemency of Julius Caesar, who, having achieved by who was and what, a series of treachery and bloodshed the ruin of the liberties of his country, receives the fame of mercy because, possessing the power to slay the noblest men of Rome, he restrained his sanguinary soul, arrogating to himself as a merit an Night's Essay, abstinence from actions which if he had committed, he would only have added one other atrocity to his deeds. His assassins understood justice better.

They saw the most virtuous and civilized community of The Dharma: Exploring Noble Truths Essays, mankind under the Night's Shadow, insolent dominion of and what theorized, one wicked man; and they murdered him. Night's? They destroyed the usurper of the reas and actus, liberties of their countrymen, not because they hated him, not because they would revenge the wrongs which they had sustained (Brutus, it is said, was his most familiar friend; most of the Shadow, conspirators were habituated to domestic intercourse with the man whom they destroyed): it was in affection, inextinguishable love for all that is venerable and dear to the human heart, in case, the names of Country, Liberty, and Virtue; it was in a serious and solemn and reluctant mood, that these holy patriots murdered their father and Night's Shadow, their friend. They would have spared his violent death, if he could have deposited the rights which he had assumed. His own selfish and narrow nature necessitated the sacrifices they made. They required that he should change all those habits which debauchery and bloodshed had twined around the fibres of his inmost frame of thought; that he should participate with them and with his country those privileges which, having corrupted by assuming to himself, he would no longer value. They would have sacrificed their lives if they could have made him worthy of the sacrifice. Such are the Essay True, feelings which Jesus Christ asserts to belong to the ruling Power of the world. He desireth not the death of a sinner; he makes the sun to shine upon the just and unjust.

The nature of a narrow and malevolent spirit is so essentially incompatible with happiness as to render it inaccessible to the influences of the benignant God. All that his own perverse propensities will permit him to receive, that God abundantly pours forth upon him. If there is the slightest overbalance of happiness, which can be allotted to the most atrocious offender, consistently with the nature of things, that is rigidly made his portion by the ever-watchful Power of God. In every case, the human mind enjoys the Essay, utmost pleasure which it is mens reas capable of enjoying. God is represented by Jesus Christ as the Power from which, and through which, the Essay, streams of all that is excellent and delightful flow; the Power which models, as they pass, all the elements of this mixed universe to the purest and most perfect shape which it belongs to their nature to assume. Jesus Christ attributes to this Power the faculty of Will. How far such a doctrine, in its ordinary sense, may be philosophically true, or how far Jesus Christ intentionally availed himself of a metaphor easily understood, is foreign to the subject to consider. This much is certain, that Jesus Christ represents God as the fountain of all goodness, the eternal enemy of pain and evil, the uniform and unchanging motive of the salutary operations of the wegener and what did he theorized, material world. The supposition that this cause is excited to action by some principle analogous to the human will, adds weight to the persuasion that it is foreign to its beneficent nature to Night's Shadow Essay, inflict the study, slightest pain. According to Jesus Christ, and according to the indisputable facts of the case, some evil spirit has dominion in Night's Shadow Essay, this imperfect world.

But there will come a time when the human mind shall be visited exclusively by the influences of the benignant Power. Men shall die, and their bodies shall rot under the ground; all the it thus, organs through which their knowledge and Night's Essay, their feelings have flowed, or in which they have originated, shall assume other forms, and become ministrant to purposes the most foreign from their former tendencies. There is a time when we shall neither be heard or be seen by the multitude of beings like ourselves by whom we have been so long surrounded. They shall go to graves; where then? It appears that we moulder to a heap of senseless dust; to a few worms, that arise and perish, like ourselves. Harley Davidson Study? Jesus Christ asserts that these appearances are fallacious, and that a gloomy and cold imagination alone suggests the conception that thought can cease to be. Another and a more extensive state of being, rather than the complete extinction of being will follow from Essay, that mysterious change which we call Death. There shall be no misery, no pain, no fear.

The empire of who was wegener did he, evil spirits extends not beyond the boundaries of the grave. The unobscured irradiations from the fountain-fire of all goodness shall reveal all that is mysterious and unintelligible, until the mutual communications of knowledge and of happiness throughout all thinking natures, constitute a harmony of good that ever varies and never ends. This is Heaven, when pain and evil cease, and when the Benignant Principle, untrammelled and Shadow, uncontrolled, visits in who was wegener and what theorized, the fulness of its power the universal frame of things. Human life, with all its unreal ills and transitory hopes, is as a dream, which departs before the Shadow, dawn, leaving no trace of its evanescent lines. All that it contains of pure or of divine visits the passive mind in some serenest mood. Most holy are the The Dharma: Noble Truths Essays, feelings through which our fellow beings are rendered dear and [venerable] to the heart. The remembrance of their sweetness, and the completion of the hopes which they [excite], constitute, when we awaken from the sleep of life, the fulfilment of the prophecies of its most majestic and beautiful visions. We die, says Jesus Christ; and, when we awaken from the languor of disease, the glories and the happiness of Paradise are around us. All evil and pain have ceased for ever. Our happiness also corresponds with, and is adapted to, the nature of what is most excellent in our being.

We see God, and we see that he is good. How delightful a picture, even if it be not true! How magnificent is the conception which this bold theory suggests to the contemplation, even if it be no more than the imagination of some sublimest and most holy poet, who, impressed with the loveliness and majesty of his own nature, is impatient and discontented with the narrow limits which this imperfect life and the dark grave have assigned for ever as his melancholy portion. It is not to Night's, be believed that Hell, or punishment, was the conception of this daring mind. It is not to hofstede china, be believed that the most prominent group of this picture, which is framed so heart-moving and lovelythe accomplishment of all human hope, the extinction of all morbid fear and anguishwould consist of millions of sensitive beings enduring, in Shadow Essay, every variety of torture which Omniscient vengeance could invent, immortal agony. Jesus Christ opposed with earnest eloquence the True of Organic Foods, panic fears and Night's Shadow Essay, hateful superstitions which have enslaved mankind for ages. Nations had risen against who was wegener, nations, employing the subtlest devices of mechanism and mind to waste, and excruciate, and overthrow. The great community of mankind had been subdivided into ten thousand communities, each organized for the ruin of the other. Wheel within wheel, the vast machine was instinct with the restless spirit of desolation.

Pain had been inflicted; therefore, pain should be inflicted in return. Retaliation of injuries is the only remedy which can be applied to violence, because it teaches the injurer the true nature of his own conduct, and operates as a warning against its repetition. Shadow Essay? Nor must the same measure of calamity be returned as was received. And What Theorized? If a man borrows a certain sum from me, he is bound to repay that sum. Shall no more be required of the enemy who destroys my reputation, or ravages my fields?

It is just that he should suffer ten times the loss which he has inflicted, that the legitimate consequences of his deed may never be obliterated from his remembrance, and that others may clearly discern and feel the danger of Night's Shadow, invading the peace of human society. Nature Foods? Such reasonings, and the impetuous feelings arising from them, have armed nation against Night's, nation, family against case, family, man against man. An Athenian soldier, in Essay, the Ionian army which had assembled for the purpose of vindicating the liberty of the Asiatic Greeks, accidentally set fire to Sardis. The city, being composed of hofstede china, combustible materials, was burned to the ground. The Persians believed that this circumstance of aggression made it their duty to retaliate on Athens. They assembled successive expeditions on the most extensive scale. Every nation of the East was united to Night's Shadow Essay, ruin the Grecian States. Essay On The? Athens was burned to the ground, the whole territory laid waste, and every living thing which it contained [destroyed].

After suffering and inflicting incalculable mischiefs, they desisted from their purpose only when they became impotent to effect it. The desire of Shadow, revenge for Essay on The Nature of Organic Foods the aggression of Persia outlived, among the Greeks, that love of liberty which bad been their most glorious distinction among the nations of mankind; and Essay, Alexander became the instrument of its completion. The mischiefs attendant on this consummation of fruitless ruin are too manifold and too tremendous to be related. Who Was Alfred And What? If all the thought which had been expended on Shadow Essay, the construction of engines of agony and deaththe modes of aggression and defence, the raising of armies, and the acquirement of those arts of tyranny and falsehood without which mixed multitudes could neither be led nor governedhad been employed to promote the true welfare and extend the real empire of man, how different would have been the present situation of human society! how different the state of knowledge in physical and moral science, upon harley davidson study, which the power and happiness of Shadow, mankind essentially depend! What nation has the i refute it thus, example of the desolation of Night's Essay, Attica by Mardonius and Xerxes, or the extinction of the Persian empire by Alexander of Macedon, restrained from outrage? Was not the pretext of this latter system of spoliation derived immediately from the former? Had revenge in this instance any other effect than to davidson case study, increase, instead of diminishing, the mass of malice and evil already existing in the world?

The emptiness and folly of retaliation are apparent from every example which can be brought forward. Not only Jesus Christ, but the most eminent professors of every sect of philosophy, have reasoned against this futile superstition. Legislation is, in one point of view, to be considered as an attempt to provide against Night's Shadow Essay, the excesses of this deplorable mistake. It professes to assign the it thus, penalty of all private injuries, and denies to individuals the right of vindicating their proper cause. This end is certainly not attained without some accommodation to the propensities which it desires to destroy. Still, it recognizes no principle but the production of the greatest eventual good with the least immediate injuryand regards the torture, or the death, of any human being as unjust, of whatever mischief be may have been the author, so that the result shall not more than compensate for Essay the immediate pain. Mankind, transmitting from generation to reas reus, generation the legacy of accumulated vengeances, and pursuing with the Night's Essay, feelings of duty the misery of their fellow-beings, have not failed to attribute to the Universal Cause a character analogous with their own. The image of this invisible, mysterious Being is Truths Essays more or less excellent and perfectresembles more or less its originalin proportion to Shadow Essay, the perfection of the mind on which it is impressed. Thus, that nation which has arrived at the highest step in the scale of moral progression will believe most purely in that God, the knowledge of davidson case study, whose real attributes is considered as the firmest basis of the true religion.

The reason of the belief of Night's Shadow, each individual, also, will be so far regulated by case, his conceptions of what is good. Thus, the conceptions which any nation or individual entertains of the God of its popular worship may be inferred from their own actions and opinions, which are the Night's, subjects of their approbation among their fellow-men. Jesus Christ instructed his disciples to be perfect, as their Father in Heaven is perfect, declaring at the same time his belief that human perfection requires the refraining from True Nature of Organic, revenge and retribution in any of Shadow Essay, its various shapes. The perfection of the human and the divine character is thus asserted to be the same. Man, by resembling God, fulfils most accurately the i refute it thus, tendencies of his nature; and God comprehends within himself all that constitutes human perfection. Thus, God is a model through which the excellence of man is to be estimated, whilst the abstract perfection of the human character is the type of the actual perfection of the Shadow Essay, divine. It is not to be believed that a person of such comprehensive views as Jesus Christ could have fallen into so manifest a contradiction as to assert that men would be tortured after death by that Being whose character is held up as a model to davidson case, human kind, because he is incapable of malevolence and revenge.

All the arguments which have been brought forward to justify retribution fail, when retribution is Night's Shadow destined neither to operate as an example to other agents, nor to the offender himself. How feeble such reasoning is to on The Nature of Organic Foods, be considered, has been already shewn; but it is the character of an evil Demon to consign the beings whom he has endowed with sensation to unprofitable anguish. The peculiar circumstances attendant on the conception of Night's Shadow, God casting sinners to Exploring the Four Noble, burn in Hell for ever, combine to Night's Shadow, render that conception the most perfect specimen of the greatest imaginable crime. Jesus Christ represented God as the principle of all good, the source of all happiness, the wise and benevolent Creator and Preserver of all living things. But the interpreters of his doctrines have confounded the good and the evil principle. Essay True? They observed the emanations of their universal natures to be inextricably entangled in the world, and, trembling before the power of the cause of all things, addressed to it such flattery as is acceptable to the ministers of Night's Shadow Essay, human tyranny, attributing love and wisdom to those energies which they felt to be exerted indifferently for the purposes of benefit and calamity. Jesus Christ expressly asserts that distinction between the good and evil principle which it has been the practice of all theologians to confound. How far his doctrines, or their interpretation, may be true, it would scarcely have been worth while to inquire, if the one did not afford an example and an incentive to Exploring Truths Essays, the attainment of true virtue, whilst the other holds out a sanction and apology for every species of mean and cruel vice. It cannot be precisely ascertained in what degree Jesus Christ accommodated his doctrines to the opinions of his auditors; or in Night's Essay, what degree he really said all that he is related to have said. He has left no written record of himself, and we are compelled to judge from the imperfect and obscure information which his biographers (persons certainly of very undisciplined and undiscriminating minds) have transmitted to posterity. Mens? These writers (our only guides) impute sentiments to Jesus Christ which flatly contradict each other.

They represent him as narrow, superstitious, and exquisitely vindictive and malicious. They insert, in the midst of a strain of impassioned eloquence or sagest exhortation, a sentiment only remarkable for its naked and drivelling folly. But it is Night's Shadow not difficult to distinguish the inventions by which these historians have filled up the interstices of tradition, or corrupted the simplicity of truth, from the real character of i refute it thus, their rude amazement. They have left sufficiently clear indications of the Essay, genuine character of Jesus Christ to mens and actus reus, rescue it for ever from the imputations cast upon it by their ignorance and Night's Shadow Essay, fanaticism. We discover that he is the enemy of oppression and of falsehood; that he is the advocate of equal justice; that he is neither disposed to sanction bloodshed nor deceit, under whatsoever pretences their practice may be vindicated. We discover that he was a man of meek and majestic demeanour, calm in danger; of natural and simple thought and hofstede china, habits; beloved to adoration by his adherents; unmoved, solemn, and severe. It is utterly incredible that this man said, that if you hate your enemy you would find it to your account to return him good for Shadow Essay evil, since, by such a temporary oblivion of vengeance, you would heap coals of fire on his head.

Where such contradictions occur, a favourable construction is warranted by the general innocence of manners and comprehensiveness of views which he is represented to possess. The rule of criticism to be adopted in judging of the life, actions, and words of a man who has acted any conspicuous part in the revolutions of the world, should not be narrow. We ought to form a general image of his character and of his doctrines, and refer to this whole the distinct portions of action and speech by Essay on The Nature of Organic Foods, which they are diversified. It is not here asserted that no contradictions are to be admitted to have taken place in Shadow Essay, the system of Jesus Christ, between doctrines promulgated in different states of feeling or information, or even such as are implied in the enunciation of a scheme of thought, various and obscure through its immensity and depth. It is harley case not asserted that no degree of Shadow Essay, human indignation ever hurried him beyond the limits which his calmer mood had placed to disapprobation against it thus, vice and folly. Those deviations from the history of his life are alone to be vindicated which represent his own essential character in contradiction with itself. Every human mind has what Bacon calls its idola specuspeculiar images which reside in the inner cave of Shadow Essay, thought. These constitute the essential and distinctive character of every human being; to which every action and every word have intimate relation; and by which, in depicting a character, the genuineness and i refute it thus, meaning of these words and actions are to be determined.

Every fanatic or enemy of virtue is not at liberty to misrepresent the greatest geniuses and most heroic defenders of all that is valuable in this mortal world. Night's? History, to gain any credit, must contain some truth, and that truth shall thus be made a sufficient indication of prejudice and deceit. With respect to the miracles which these biographers have related, I have already declined to enter into any discussion on their nature or their existence. The supposition of davidson case, their falsehood or their truth would modify in no degree the hues of the picture which is attempted to be delineated. Night's Shadow Essay? To judge truly of the moral and philosophical character of Socrates, it is not necessary to determine the question of the familiar Spirit which [it] is supposed that he believed to attend on him. The power of the human mind, relatively to intercourse with or dominion over the invisible world, is doubtless an interesting theme of discussion; but the connexion of the instance of Jesus Christ with the established religion of the country in which I write, renders it dangerous to subject oneself to the imputation of introducing new Gods or abolishing old ones; nor is the duty of mutual forbearance sufficiently understood to render it certain that the metaphysician and the moralist, even though he carefully sacrifice a cock to harley case, ?sculapius, may not receive something analogous to the bowl of Night's Shadow, hemlock for the Four Noble the reward of his labours. Much, however, of what his biographers have asserted is not to be rejected merely because inferences inconsistent with the general spirit of his system are to be adduced from its admission. Jesus Christ did what every other reformer who has produced any considerable effect upon the world has done.

He accommodated his doctrines to the prepossessions of those whom he addressed. He used a language for this view sufficiently familiar to our comprehensions. He said,However new or strange my doctrines may appear to you, they are in fact only the restoration and re-establishment of those original institutions and Night's, ancient customs of your own law and religion. The constitutions of your faith and policy, although perfect in their origin, have become corrupt and altered, and have fallen into decay. I profess to restore them to their pristine authority and of Organic Foods, splendour. Think not that I am come to destroy the Law and the Prophets. I am come not to destroy, but to Shadow Essay, fulfil. Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled.

Thus, like a skilful orator (see Cicero, De Oratore ), he secures the it thus, prejudices of his auditors, and induces them, by his professions of sympathy with their feelings, to enter with a willing mind into the exposition of Night's, his own. The art of harley case study, persuasion differs from that of reasoning; and it is of no small moment, to the success even of a true cause, that the judges who are to determine on its merits should be free from those national and religious predilections which render the multitude both deaf and blind. Let not this practice be considered as an unworthy artifice. It were best for the cause of reason that mankind should acknowledge no authority but its own; but it is useful, to a certain extent, that they should not consider those institutions which they have been habituated to reverence as opposing an Essay, obstacle to its admission. And Actus? All reformers have been compelled to practise this misrepresentation of their own true feelings and opinions.

It is deeply to be lamented that a word should ever issue from human lips which contains the minutest alloy of dissimulation, or simulation, or hypocrisy, or exaggeration, or anything but the precise and rigid image which is present to the mind, and which ought to dictate the expression. But the practice of Night's Shadow, utter sincerity towards other men would avail to no good end, if they were incapable of Essay Foods, practising it towards their own minds. In fact, truth cannot be communicated until it is perceived. The interests, therefore, of truth require that an orator should, as far as possible, produce in his hearers that state of mind on Shadow, which alone his exhortations could fairly be contemplated and examined. Having produced this favourable disposition of mind, Jesus Christ proceeds to qualify, and finally to abrogate, the i refute, system of the Jewish law. He descants upon Night's Essay, its insufficiency as a code of moral conduct, which it professed to be, and absolutely selects the law of retaliation as an instance of the absurdity and immorality of on The True Nature Foods, its institutions. The conclusion of the Shadow Essay, speech is in a strain of the most daring and most impassioned speculation. He seems emboldened by the success of it thus, his exculpation to Shadow, the multitude, to declare in public the utmost singularity of who was alfred and what, his faith. He tramples upon all received opinions, on all the cherished luxuries and superstitions of mankind. He bids them cast aside the chains of custom and blind faith by which they have been encompassed from the very cradle of their being, and receive the imitator and minister of the Universal God.

EQUALITY OF MANKIND. The spirit of the Night's Essay, Lord is upon me, because he hath chosen me to preach the gospel to the poor: he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to study, the captives and Essay, recovering of sight to the blind, and to set at liberty them that are bruised. Exploring The Four Noble Truths? (Luke, Ch. IV. v. 18.) This is an enunciation of all that Plato and Diogenes have speculated upon the equality of Essay, mankind. They saw that the great majority of the human species were reduced to the situation of squalid ignorance and moral imbecility, for the purpose of purveying for the luxury of a few, and and actus reus, contributing to Night's Shadow, the satisfaction of their thirst for power. Too mean-spirited and too feeble in resolve to attempt the The Dharma: Essays, conquest of their own evil passions, and of the difficulties of the material world, men sought dominion over their fellow-men, as an easy method to gain that apparent majesty and power which the instinct of their nature requires. Plato wrote the scheme of Night's Shadow Essay, a republic, in which law should watch over the equal distribution of the external instruments of unequal powerhonours, property, c. Diogenes devised a nobler and a more worthy system of opposition to hofstede china, the system of the Night's, slave and harley davidson study, tyrant. He said: It is in the power of each individual to level the Shadow, inequality which is the topic of the complaint of mankind. Let him be aware of his own worth, and the station which he occupies in the scale of i refute it thus, moral beings. Diamonds and Shadow Essay, gold, palaces and sceptres, derive their value from the opinion of mankind.

The only and actus sumptuary law which can be imposed on Night's Essay, the use and fabrication of these instruments of who was and what did he, mischief and deceit, these symbols of successful injustice, is the law of opinion. Night's? Every man possesses the power, in this respect, to legislate for himself. Let him be well aware of his own worth and moral dignity. Let him yield in meek reverence to any wiser or worthier than he, so long as he accords no veneration to the splendour of his apparel, the luxury of his food, the multitude of his flatterers and slaves. It is because, mankind, ye value and seek the empty pageantry of wealth and Essay on The True of Organic Foods, social power, that ye are enslaved to its possessions. Decrease your physical wants; learn to live, so far as nourishment arid shelter are concerned, like the beast of the forest and the birds of the air; ye will need not to complain, that other individuals of your species are surrounded by the diseases of Night's, luxury and the vices of subserviency and oppression. With all those who are truly wise, there will be an entire community, not only of thoughts and feelings, but also of external possessions. Insomuch, therefore, as ye live [wisely], ye may enjoy the community of whatsoever benefits arise from the inventions of civilized life.They are of value only for purposes of mental power; they are of value only as they are capable of Essay of Organic Foods, being shared and applied to the common advantage of philosophy; and, if there be, no love among men, whatever institutions they may frame must be subservient to the same purposeto the continuance of Shadow Essay, inequality. If there be no love among men, it is best that he who sees through the harley davidson case study, hollowness of Shadow Essay, their professions should fly from their society, and suffice to his own soul.

In wisdom, be will thus lose nothing in power, he will gain everything. In proportion to mens reus, the love existing among men, so will be the Shadow, community of property and power. Among true and real friends, all is harley case common; and, were ignorance and envy and superstition banished from the world, all mankind would be friends. Shadow? The only perfect and genuine republic is that which comprehends every living being. Those distinctions which have been artificially set up, of nations, societies, families, and religions, are only general names, expressing the abhorrence and contempt with which men blindly consider their fellowmen. I love my country; I love the case study, city in which I was born, my parents, my wife, and the children of Night's Shadow, my care; and to this city, this woman, and this nation, it is incumbent on me to do all the benefit in my power. To what do these distinctions point, but to Essay on The True of Organic, an evident denial of the duty which humanity imposes on you, of doing every possible good to every individual, under whatever denomination he may be comprehended, to Night's Essay, whom you have the power of doing it? You ought to love all mankind; nay, every individual of mankind.

You ought not to love the The Dharma: Exploring the Four Truths, individuals of your domestic circles less, but to love those who exist beyond it more. Once make the feelings of confidence and of affection universal, and the distinctions of property and power will vanish; nor are they to be abolished without substituting something equivalent in mischief to them, until all mankind shall acknowledge an entire community of rights. But, as the shades of night are dispelled by the faintest glimmerings of dawn, so shall the minutest progress of the benevolent feelings disperse, in some degree, the gloom of tyranny, and [curb the] ministers of mutual suspicion and Night's Essay, abhorrence. Your physical wants are few, whilst those of Essay on The of Organic, your mind and Essay, heart cannot be numbered or described, from harley davidson study, their multitude and complication. To secure the gratification of the former, you have made yourselves the bond-slaves of each other. They have cultivated these meaner wants to so great an Night's Essay, excess as to judge nothing so valuable or desirable [as] what relates to their gratification. Hence has arisen a system of passions which loses sight of the end they were originally awakened to attain.

Fame, power, and gold, are loved for their own sakesare worshipped with a blind, habitual idolatry. The pageantry of empire, and the fame of irresistible might, are contemplated by the possessor with unmeaning complacency, without a retrospect to the properties which first made him consider them of value. It is from the cultivation of the most contemptible properties of human nature that discord and torpor and indifference, by which the moral universe is harley davidson disordered, essentially depend. So long as these are the ties by which human society is connected, let it not be admitted that they are fragile. Before man can be free, and equal, and truly wise, he must cast aside the chains of habit and superstition; he must strip sensuality of its pomp, and selfishness of its excuses, and contemplate actions and objects as they really are.

He will discover the Night's, wisdom of mens reas reus, universal love; he will feel the meanness and the injustice of sacrificing the reason and the liberty of his fellow-men to the indulgence of his physical appetites, and becoming a party to their degradation by the consummation of his own. Such, with those differences only incidental to the age and state of Essay, society in which they were promulgated, appear to have been the doctrines of Jesus Christ. It is not too much to assert that they have been the doctrines of every just and compassionate mind that ever speculated on the social nature of man. The dogma of the equality of mankind has been advocated with various success, in different ages of the world. It was imperfectly understood, but a kind of instinct in its favour influenced considerably the practice of ancient Greece and Rome. Attempts to establish usages founded on this dogma have been made in modern Europe, in several instances, since the revival of literature and i refute, the arts. Rousseau has vindicated this opinion with all the eloquence of sincere and earnest faith; and Night's, is, perhaps, the philosopher among the moderns who, in the structure of mens reas and actus reus, his feelings and understanding resembles most nearly the mysterious sage of Judea. It is impossible to read those passionate words in which Jesus Christ upbraids the pusillanimity and sensuality of mankind, without being strongly reminded of the more connected and systematic enthusiasm of Rousseau. No man, says Jesus Christ, can serve two masters. Take, therefore, no thought for to-morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself.

Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. If we would profit by the wisdom of a sublime and poetical mind, we must beware of the vulgar error of interpreting literally every expression it employs. Nothing can well be more remote from truth than the literal and strict construction of such expressions as Jesus Christ delivers, or than [to imagine that] it were best for man that he should abandon all his acquirements in physical and intellectual science, and depend on Shadow Essay, the spontaneous productions of nature for his subsistence. Nothing is more obviously false than that the remedy for the inequality among men consists in their return to the condition of savages and beasts. Philosophy will never be understood if we approach the study of its mysteries with so narrow and illiberal conceptions of its universality.

Rousseau certainly did not mean to persuade the on The of Organic Foods, immense population of his country to abandon all the arts of life, destroy their habitations and their temples, and become the inhabitants of the woods. He addressed the most enlightened of Essay, his compatriots, and endeavoured to persuade them to set the example of a pure and simple life, by placing in the strongest point of view his conceptions of the calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown as it is with the vices of sensuality and selfishness, is exhibited by civilized society. Nor can it be believed that Jesus Christ endeavoured to prevail on the inhabitants of davidson, Jerusalem neither to till their fields, nor to frame a shelter against the sky, nor to provide food for the morrow. Night's Shadow? He simply exposes, with the passionate rhetoric of enthusiastic love towards all human beings, the miseries and mischiefs of that system which makes all things subservient to the subsistence of the material frame of harley case study, man. He warns them that no man can serve two mastersGod and Mammon; that it is impossible at once to be highminded and just and wise, and to comply with the accustomed forms of human society, seek power, wealth, or empire, either from the idolatry of habit, or as the direct instruments of Night's Essay, sensual gratification. He instructs them that clothing and food and shelter are not, as they suppose, the true end of human life, but only certain means, to be valued in proportion to their subserviency to that end. These means it is the right of every human being to possess, and that in the same degree. In this respect, the fowls of the air and the lilies of the on The True Foods, field are examples for the imitation of mankind. They are clothed and fed by the Universal God.

Permit, therefore, the Spirit of this benignant Principle to visit your intellectual frame, or, in other words, become just and pure. Shadow? When you understand the degree of attention which the requisitions of your physical nature demand, you will perceive how little labour suffices for their satisfaction. Your Heavenly Father knoweth you have need of i refute, these things. Shadow Essay? The universal Harmony, or Reason, which makes your passive frame of thought its dwelling, in proportion to the purity and majesty of its nature will instruct you, if ye are willing to attain that exalted condition, in reas and actus, what manner to Night's Shadow Essay, possess all the objects necessary for your material subsistence. All men are [impelled] to become thus pure and happy. All men are called to participate in the community of Nature's gifts. The man who has fewest bodily wants approaches nearest to the Divine Nature. Satisfy these wants at the cheapest rate, and expend the The Dharma: Noble Truths, remaining energies of Night's Essay, your nature in the attainment of virtue and knowledge.

The mighty frame of the wonderful and lovely world is the food of your contemplation, and living beings who resemble your own nature, and are bound to you by Essay on The True of Organic, similarity of sensations, are destined to be the nutriment of Shadow, your affection; united, they are the hofstede china, consummation of the widest hopes your mind can contain. Ye can expend thus no labour on Shadow, mechanism consecrated to luxury and pride. I Refute It Thus? How abundant will not be your progress in all that truly ennobles and Night's Shadow, extends human nature! By rendering yourselves thus worthy, ye will be as free in your imaginations as the swift and many-coloured fowls of the air, and as beautiful in pure simplicity as the lilies of the field. In proportion as mankind becomes wiseyes, in i refute it thus, exact proportion to Night's Essay, that wisdomshould be the extinction of the unequal system under which they now subsist.

Government is, in fact, the mere badge of their depravity. Truths Essays? They are so little aware of the inestimable benefits of mutual love as to indulge, without thought, and almost without motive, in the worst excesses of selfishness and malice. Hence, without graduating human society into a scale of empire and subjection, its very existence has become impossible. It is necessary that universal benevolence should supersede the regulations of precedent and prescription, before these regulations can safely be abolished. Shadow? Meanwhile, their very subsistence depends on the system of injustice and violence, which they have been devised to palliate. They suppose men endowed with the power of deliberating and determining for their equals; whilst these men, as frail and as ignorant as the multitude whom they rule, possess, as a practical consequence of this power, the right which they of necessity exercise to prevent (together with their own) the physical and moral and intellectual nature, of all mankind. It is the hofstede china, object of wisdom to equalize the distinctions on which this power depends, by exhibiting in their proper worthlessness the objects, a contention concerning which renders its existence a necessary evil.

The evil, in fact, is virtually abolished wherever justice is practised; and it is abolished in Shadow Essay, precise proportion to the prevalence of true virtue. The whole frame of it thus, human things is infected by an insidious poison. Hence it is that man is blind in his understanding, corrupt in his moral sense, and diseased in Night's Essay, his physical functions. The wisest and most sublime of the ancient poets saw this truth, and embodied their conception of its value in retrospect to the earliest ages of mankind. They represented equality as the reign of Saturn, and taught that mankind had gradually degenerated from the virtue which enabled them to enjoy or maintain this happy state. Study? Their doctrine was philosophically false. Later and more correct observations have instructed us that uncivilized man is the most pernicious and miserable of beings, and that the violence and injustice, which are the genuine indications of real inequality, obtain in the society of Night's Shadow Essay, these beings without palliation. Their imaginations of a happier state of human society were referred, in truth, to the Saturnian period; they ministered, indeed, to thoughts of despondency and who was alfred wegener did he, sorrow. Night's Essay? But they were the children of airy hopethe prophets and parents of man's futurity.

Alan was once as a wild beast; he has become a moralist, a metaphysician, a poet, and an astronomer. Lueretius or Viril might have referred the comparison to themselves and, as a proof of the progress of the nature of man, challenged a comparison with the cannibals of Scythia. The experience of the ages which have intervened between the present period and that in which Jesus Christ taught, tends to prove his doctrine, and to illustrate theirs. There is more equality because there is more justice, and mens reas and actus, there is more justice because there is more universal knowledge. To the accomplishment of such mighty hopes were the views of Essay, Jesus Christ extended; such did he believe to be the hofstede china, tendency of his doctrinesthe abolition of artificial distinctions among mankind, so far as the Night's Shadow, love which it becomes all human beings to bear towards each other, and the knowledge of truth from which that love will never fail to be produced, avail to their destruction.

A young man came to Jesus Christ, struck by davidson case study, the miraculous dignity and simplicity of his character, and attracted by the words of power which he uttered. He demanded to be considered as one of the followers of his creed. Sell all that thou hast, replied the philosopher; give it to the poor, and follow me. Night's Essay? But the young man had large possessions, and he went away sorrowing. The system of equality was attempted, after Jesus Christ's death, to be carried into effect by his followers. They that believed had all things in hofstede china, common; they sold their possessions and goods, and Night's Shadow Essay, parted them to i refute it thus, all men, as every man had need; and they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart. ( Acts , Ch. II.) The practical application of the doctrines of Essay, strict justice to a state of society established in its contempt, was such as might have been expected.

After the transitory glow of enthusiasm had faded from the minds of men, precedent and habit resumed their empire; they broke like an universal deluge on one shrinking and solitary island. Men to whom birth had allotted ample possession looked with complacency on sumptuous apartments and luxurious food, and those ceremonials of hofstede china, delusive majesty which surround the throne of power and the court of wealth. Men, from whom these things were withheld by Night's Shadow, their condition, began again to gaze with stupid envy on and actus, pernicious splendour; and, by desiring the false greatness of another's state, to sacrifice the intrinsic dignity of Night's Essay, their own. The demagogues of the infant republic of the hofstede china, Christian sect, attaining through eloquence or artifice, to influence amongst its members, first violated (under the pretence of watching over their integrity) the institutions established for the common and equal benefit of Shadow, all. These demagogues artfully silenced the voice of the moral sense among them by engaging them to attend, not so much to the cultivation of a virtuous and happy life in this mortal scene, as to the attainment of who was and what theorized, a fortunate condition after death; not so much to the consideration of those means by which the Night's Essay, state of man is adorned and improved, as an inquiry into the secrets of the harley davidson study, connexion between God and the worldthings which, they well knew, were not to be explained, or even to Night's Shadow, be conceived.

The system of equality which they established necessarily fell to the ground, because it is a system that must result from, rather than precede, the moral improvement of human kind. The Dharma: Exploring The Four Essays? It was a circumstance of no moment that the first adherents of the system of Jesus Christ cast their property into a common stock. The same degree of real community of property could have subsisted without this formality, which served only to extend a temptation of dishonesty to the treasurers of so considerable a patrimony. Every man, in proportion to his virtue, considers himself, with respect to the great community of mankind, as the steward and Shadow, guardian of their interests in hofstede china, the property which he chances to possess. Every man, in Night's Shadow Essay, proportion to his wisdom, sees the manner in which it is his duty to The Dharma: the Four Truths, employ the resources which the consent of mankind has intrusted to his discretion. Such is the [annihilation] of the unjust inequality of powers and conditions. Shadow? existing in the world; and so gradually and inevitably is the progress of equality accommodated to the progress of wisdom and of virtue among mankind. Meanwhile, some benefit has not failed to flow from the imperfect attempts which have been made to erect a system of equal rights to property and power upon the basis of arbitrary institutions. They have undoubtedly, in every case, from the instability of their foundation, failed. Still, they constitute a record of i refute it thus, those epochs at which a trite sense of justice suggested itself to the understandings of men, so that they consented to forego all the cherished delights of luxury, all the habitual gratifications arising out of the Night's Shadow, possession or the expectation of power, all the superstitions with which the the Four, accumulated authority of ages had made them dear and venerable.

They are so many trophies erected in the enemy's land, to mark the limits of the victorious progress of truth and justice. No mistake is Shadow more to be deplored than the conception that a system of morals and religion should derive any portion of its authority either from the circumstance of its novelty or its antiquity, that it should be judged excellent, not because it is reasonable or true, but because no person has ever thought of it before, or because it has been thought of from the beginning of time. Essay Nature? The vulgar mind delights to [abstract?] from the Night's Essay, most useful maxims or institutions the trite reasons of their preferableness, and to accommodate to the loose inductions of their own indisciplinable minds. Thus mankind is governed by precedents for actions which were never, or are no longer, useful and deluded by the pretensions of any bold impostor. Such has been, most unfortunately, the process of the human mind relatively to the doctrines of Jesus Christ. Their original promulgation was authorized by an appeal to the antiquity of the institutions of Judaea; and in vindication of superstitious professing to be founded on them, it is asserted that nothing analogous to their tenor was ever before produced. The doctrines of Jesus Christ have scarcely the smallest resemblance to the Jewish law: nor have wisdom and benevolence and pity failed in harley case, whatsoever age of the world to generate such persuasions as those which are the basis of the moral system he announced. The most eminent philosophers of Greece had long been familiarized to the boldest and most sublime speculations on God, on the visible world, and on Essay, the moral and intellectual Nature of The Dharma: Exploring the Four Noble Truths Essays, Man. The universality and unity of God, the omnipotence of the mind of Shadow Essay, man, the equality of human beings and the duty of internal purity, is either asserted by and what did he, Pythagoras, Plato, Diogenes, Zeno, and their followers, or may be directly inferred from their assertions. Nothing would be gained by Night's Shadow Essay, the establishment of the harley davidson, originality of Jesus Christ's doctrines but the casting a suspicion upon its practicability. Let us beware therefore what we admit lest, as some have made a trade of its imagined mysteries, we lose the inestimable advantages of Night's Essay, its simplicity.

Let us beware, if we love liberty and truth, if we loathe tyranny and imposture, if, imperfect ourselves, we still aspire to the freedom of internal purity, and cherish the elevated hope that mankind may not be everlastingly condemned to the bondage of their own passions and the passions of davidson, their fellow beings, let us beware. An established religion turns to deathlike apathy the sublimest ebullitions of most exalted genius, and the spirit-stirring truths of a mind inflamed with the desire of benefiting mankind. It is the characteristic of a cold and Night's Shadow, tame spirit to imagine that such doctrines as Jesus Christ promulgated are destined to follow the fortunes and hofstede china, share the extinction of a popular religion. Forman's Editorial Preface: The Essay on Christianity was first given by Lady Shelley, in the Shelley Memorials (1859), where it is accompanied by the following note:The reader will observe some unfinished sentences in the course of this Essay; but it has been thought advisable to print it exactly as it was found, with the exception of a few conjectural words inserted between brackets. In this and other respects the text of the Memorials is here followed; but I have added from the St. James's Magazine for March, 1876, what appears to be a part of a recapitulation and conclusion. It is reasonable to think that this would have been further developed; but the final sentences are peculiarly weighty, and likely to be the conclusion of the whole matter. Mr. Rossetti assigns this Essay, not very confidently, to the year 1815: if that be not the date, I should incline to place it a little later rather than earlier.H.B.F. calculated: It seems likely that it was a part of the scheme of this Essay to examine and illustrate the Beatitudes seriatim . The passage now printed as the conclusion of the Shadow Essay, Essay occupies a page and a half of a sheet of foolscap paper: on the other leaf of the sheet, and not continuously with the who was alfred wegener and what did he, rest are written and cancelled the Night's Essay, following passages: I, the Redeemer of mankind; I who dare to.

Lament no more ye meek and gentle beings: bear on and actus reus, against the oppressions of the hard and unfeeling worldwith resolute and tranquil mind; for Shadow in the calmness of and actus reus, your own spirit shall be your reward, and the. him: See Note on this subject, Vol. III, p. 312. Scythia: Jesus Christ foresaw what the poets retrospectively imagined. [Shelley's Note.] Jesus Christ did not. It is at Essay this point that the Essay ends in the Shelley Memorials . The rest is from the St. James's Magazine . superstitions professing. Cancelled reading, a system professing to be founded on these doctrines . produced: Cancelled reading, Let us proceed to vindicate . law: There is another erasure here, The Philosophers of Greece, and the Four Noble Essays, their imitators, the Romans, bear. The: Cancelled reading, The doctrines were speculations of the most eminent, c.

Plato: In the MS., The Platonists and Stoics is here struck out. practicability: Cancelled passage, It promises , and again, would persuade man not to be tyrant of man . liberty and truth: In the MS., our fellow men is here struck out in favour of liberty and truth . It is the characteristic. Cancelled reading, It is a cold and palsying tame thought . follow the fortunes: In the MS. the words share the fate originally stood here.