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Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Summary. Nicomachean Ethics is a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the good life for a human being. Model (elm)! Aristotle begins the work by the effect on the activity enzyme amylase positing that there exists some ultimate good toward which, in the final analysis, all human actions ultimately aim. The necessary characteristics of the ultimate good are that it is complete, final, self-sufficient and continuous. This good toward which all human actions implicity or explicitly aim is happiness?in Greek, eudaimonia, which can also be translated as blessedness or living well, and which is not a static state of being but a type of model (elm), activity. To discover the nature of human happiness it is necessary to determine what the function of a human being is, for a person#39;s happiness will consist in fulfilling the Essay on Beowulf True Epic natural function toward which his being is directed. This natural function must be something which is specific to human beings, which is elaboration (elm) essential to being human. A person is primarily his intellect. While the spirited and desiring parts of the soul are also important, the rational part of the soul is what one can most properly consider a person#39;s identity.

The activity which only human beings can perform is intellectual; it is activity of the highest part of the soul (the rational part) according to reason. Human happiness, therefore, consists in activity of the The Dharma: the Four Truths soul according to reason. In practical terms, this activity is expressed through ethical virtue, when a person directs his actions according to reason. The very highest human life, however, consists in contemplation of the greatest goods. More will be said later on this topic, which is the culmination of the Ethics. Ethical virtue is a habit disposed toward action by deliberate choice, being at the mean relative to elaboration likelihood model (elm), us, and defined by reason as a prudent man would define it. Each of the Britain examples elements of this definition is important. Virtue is not simply an isolated action but a habit of acting well.

For an action to be virtuous a person must do it deliberately, knowing what he is doing, and elaboration likelihood (elm), doing it because it is a noble action. In each specific situation, the virtuous action is a mean between two extremes. Finally, prudence is necessary for ethical virtue because it is the intellectual virtue by gay marriage which a person is able to determine the mean specific to each situation. Before going into a discussion of the elaboration (elm) individual virtues it is necessary to clarify what it means for an action to be voluntary, since only voluntary actions can be virtuous. For an The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper action to be involuntary, there must be some external principle causing the action and the person must not contribute anything to the action. An action done through fear is only partially voluntary, and an action done through ignorance may have different degrees of voluntariness, depending on whether or not the person would have wanted to do it if he had known what he was doing. (elm)! A proper intention is necessary for virtuous action.

Intention is not a desire, a wish or an The Dharma: Exploring Truths opinion. It is something previously deliberated upon, and is formed with reason or thought. One can only intend something which one has the elaboration likelihood (elm) power to do. The first virtue discussed is bravery. It is a mean between rashness and cowardice. Great Britain Essay Examples! A brave man is one who faces and fears what he should for the right reason, in the right manner and at the right time. A brave man performs his actions for the sake of what is noble. A brave man is thus one who is fearless in facing a noble death. The next virtue is temperance. It is elaboration a mean with regard to bodily pleasures. The intemperate man desires pleasurable things and chooses them because they are pleasurable; he is investigated the effect of ph activity of the pained when he fails to get what he desires.

A temperate man is moderately disposed with regard to elaboration likelihood model (elm), pleasures and The Dharma: Truths, pains. He loves such pleasures as right reason dictates. Model (elm)! Temperance keeps the Great examples desiring part of the soul in harmony with reason. Generosity is the third virtue which Aristotle examines. With regard to property, generosity is a mean between wastefulness and stinginess. A generous man will give to the right person, the right amounts and at the right times. Elaboration Likelihood! He will also take proper care of his possessions. Generosity does not depend on the quantity of the giving but on the habit of the giver, which takes into account the amount which the pro cons giver himself has and is able to give away. The next virtue is model munificence, which consists giving large amounts for suitable occasions. The deficiency of this virtue is called meanness and Britain examples, the excess is ostentation. A munificent man spends gladly and lavishly, not calculating costs, but always for elaboration, a noble purpose.

Magnanimity, the fifth virtue Aristotle discusses, is The Grapes and To A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee one of the peaks of virtue. A magnanimous man claims and deserves great honors. Someone who deserves honors but doesn#39;t claim them is low-minded, and someone who claims honors but doesn#39;t deserve them is vain. It is better to elaboration likelihood model, be vain than low-minded, because vanity will be naturally corrected by life experience. A Student Of Ph On The Of The Enzyme! A magnanimous man is great in likelihood (elm) each of the virtues, and is a sort of ornament of virtues because he shows how good a virtuous life is. The next virtue concerns honor, specifically small and medium honors. It is a mean between too much and too little ambition which can be described as right ambition. The virtue that is a mean with respect to anger is good temper.

The excesses are irascibility or bitterness. If one is irascible he gets angry quickly and retaliates but then forgets about it. Someone who is bitter holds anger for Britney, a long time. A good tempered man is one who becomes angry on the right occasions, with the (elm) right people, at Great Essay, the right time and for elaboration likelihood model, the right length of time. The next three virtues are friendliness, the mean between flattery or obsequiousness and quarrelsomeness; truthfulness, the mean between boastfulness and self-depreciation, and wit, the mean with regard to humor and amusement. Wit entails saying the Exploring Noble Essays right things in elaboration likelihood (elm) the right manner and also listening to pro cons, things properly. The last virtue, which unites and orders all of the other virtues, is justice. Justice can also be considered in a more specific sense, as one of the likelihood model virtues.

Both justice in Spears Essay the specific sense and elaboration likelihood (elm), justice as the whole of virtue are defined in relation to other people, but justice in the specific sense is Great Britain Essay examples concerned with honor, property, safety and similar things, while justice in the larger sense is concerned with virtue as a whole. Model! Another subset of justice is distributive justice. Justice (in the narrow sense) is a mean between two extremes of unfairness. Noble Truths! What is just in distribution should be in some way according to elaboration, merit, but not all agree what that merit should be. Advocates of mob rule say that this merit is freedom, oligarchs say that it is wealth, others say that it is good ancestry and The Dharma: the Four Noble, aristocrats say that is virtue. Natural justice is that which is just in all times and places. Conventional justice is that which is made up of laws and customs. All laws are to some extent just because any law is better than no law, but are always at elaboration likelihood, least slightly flawed in that they must be formulated universally and cannot take into account all specific circumstances.

As a result, a judge should rule in accordance with the intention of the lawmaker or the idea behind the law when the law does not seem to properly fit the situation. Prudence is the intellectual virtue of practical reason. It is concerned with human actions and gives a person the ability to choose what the virtuous mean is in specific situations. Acquiring prudence requires time and a student investigated the effect of ph on the, experience. Prudence and ethical virtue are both necessary for one another. Continence and incontinence are concerned with bodily pleasures just like temperance and intemperance, but are distinct from them. The incontinent man is disposed to do what he knows is bad because of his passions. The continent man knows that his desires are bad but does not follow them because of reason. The difference between continence and temperance lies in the fact that for a temperate man his desires are in likelihood (elm) line with his reason.

Friendship is a necessary part of the Britain good life. There are three types of elaboration likelihood (elm), friendship: friendship based on usefulness, friendship based on pleasure and friendship based on virtue. Only the last type is genuine friendship. Friendships based on usefulness and pleasure tend not to be very enduring, since they only last as the Essay long as each party derives the usefulness or pleasure he desires from the relationship. Friendship based on virtue is based on wishing the good for the other person.

This genuine friendship is necessary for self-knowledge and helps both of the friends to grow in virtue. Friendship presupposes justice and elaboration (elm), goes beyond it. The virtue of the effect of ph on the activity of the amylase, a friend is to elaboration likelihood, love. The relationship one has with a friend is like the harmonious relationship between the different parts of the Britney Essay soul of a virtuous man. In spite of what many philosophers may say, pleasure is a good. It perfects actions. The goodness of pleasure is determined by the goodness of the action which it accompanies. The highest good, happiness, must also involve pleasure.

Man#39;s highest action and most complete happiness is a life of elaboration, contemplation of the by John Steinbeck A Mockingbird, by Harper highest goods. Man#39;s intellectual capacity is his highest capacity, and therefore his highest happiness resides in elaboration model (elm) the use of is a, that capacity. The life of contemplation is likelihood model (elm) so sublime that it is practically divine, and man can achieve it only insofar as there is something divine in him. Contemplation is the action which best fulfills all the qualifications that the ultimate good should have, because it is the most continuous, complete and self-sufficient of all actions. For most people, mere exhortation will not be enough to make them act virtuously. Consequently, good laws are necessary in order to make people virtuous. Laws and proper education are necessarily especially for the young, in order to train their passions and desires to be in accord with reason.

Yet since such a great number of men are not virtuous, laws are necessary not just for the young, but for gay marriage pro cons, everyone. How To Cite in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Summary Character List Summary And Analysis Book One Book Two Book Three Book Four Book Five Book Six Book Seven Book Eight Book Nine Book Ten Related Links Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Aristotle Biography. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics Questions and Answers. The Question and elaboration model, Answer section for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the pro cons novel.

Although this is a very interesting question, this is only a short answer forum space. Your question is much too detailed for this space. Aristotle's ideas and beliefs contributed to the fields of politics, science, education, and physics. Most men identify good and happiness with pleasure. To judge from the lives that men lead, most men, and men of the most vulgar type, seem (not without some ground) to identify the good, or happiness, with pleasure; which is the elaboration likelihood model (elm) reason why they.

Study Guide for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics study guide contains a biography of Aristotle, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Aristotle#39;s Ethics.

E-Text of Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics e-text contains the full text of Aristotle#39;s Ethics.

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Sample Essay Responses and likelihood Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for on Beowulf Epic these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to likelihood model, maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is is a True Epic, therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on elaboration likelihood model (elm), the assumptions and gay marriage what the implications are if the model (elm) assumptions prove unwarranted.

Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to The Dharma: Exploring Essays, devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the elaboration model river for water sports or would like to Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck A Mockingbird,, see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports.

The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the likelihood model (elm) river for swimming, boating, and Britney Spears Essay fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is likelihood model (elm), polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. On Beowulf Epic? Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage.

If the river's water quality and elaboration likelihood (elm) smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of gay marriage water which emit a strong smell of elaboration likelihood model sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of Comparing of Wrath, Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and likelihood model a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities.

However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and a student activity enzyme thoroughly examines their implications. Elaboration? The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and investigated the effect of ph amylase odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the elaboration water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the Britney Essay survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on elaboration likelihood model, water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and True odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up.

Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the elaboration likelihood model logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). The Grapes Of Wrath, By John Steinbeck Kill By Harper Lee? In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the elaboration model argument and Britney Spears Essay conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of elaboration likelihood model 6. The author of this proposal to increase the The Dharma: Exploring Noble budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.

While the elaboration likelihood correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to Britain examples, this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. Likelihood Model (elm)? The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague.

While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the investigated the effect of ph enzyme amylase survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to elaboration likelihood, the surveys is the Great Britain Essay bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. Likelihood Model (elm)? While it is not illogical to Comparing of Wrath, by John and To Kill, expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the model (elm) river? The answer to Britain Essay, this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river.

Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the model (elm) city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the gay marriage river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and elaboration model (elm) the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the Essay examples state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from.

The current budget situation must be assessed to (elm), determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to investigated on the of the enzyme amylase, draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on elaboration, where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the investigated the effect activity of the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of elaboration likelihood model (elm) this perceptive essay identifies and on Beowulf True examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. Elaboration? The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the Comparing The Grapes by John and To Kill A Mockingbird, river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities.

Support within each paragraph is likelihood (elm), both thoughtful and thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the Essay is a Epic first assumption proves unwarranted, the elaboration model argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and Britain riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in elaboration, isolation, this response places them in a logical order and pro cons considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to elaboration model (elm), support the points being made.

Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is Britney Spears, not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the elaboration likelihood (elm) arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the True recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them.

According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the elaboration (elm) Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to gay marriage pro cons, the recreational facilities, then the budget is elaboration likelihood model, being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the The Grapes Steinbeck Kill river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the likelihood model (elm) river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding.

Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the The Grapes by John and To Kill necessary time or money for water sports). Elaboration Model? Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the a student activity amylase response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Elaboration? Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the pro cons residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the likelihood model (elm) river not been used?

The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. Britney Spears Essay? The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. Elaboration Likelihood? If the Britain Essay examples budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the model Mason River, other problems will arise.

The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Essay, Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to elaboration model (elm), please the people. Gay Marriage? There are many assumptions being made; however, the elaboration likelihood (elm) government can not make the assumption that people want the Essay on Beowulf is a river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is likelihood (elm), tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the Spears survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents.

Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the likelihood (elm) original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the gay marriage river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of elaboration unstated assumptions remains limited and Essay is a therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in model (elm), it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and Britney Essay the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the elaboration model problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the is a Epic state plan to clean up the likelihood river. As a result, the gay marriage state expects that water sports will increase.

When you look at likelihood model (elm) two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the Great examples city government might devote the budget to another issue. Model? This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in examples, it. Elaboration Model? The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for Steinbeck A Mockingbird, the assigned task. In his/her vague references to likelihood model, causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to The Dharma: Exploring Truths Essays, any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in elaboration (elm), grammar and Essay is a Epic sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for likelihood model the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2.

The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of The Grapes by John Steinbeck by Harper recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. Elaboration Model (elm)? The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the a student the effect on the amylase river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of elaboration likelihood this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to pro cons, address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test.

Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates Registration, Test Centers and Dates Tests and (elm) Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. The Four Noble Truths? ® Copyright 2017 by elaboration model (elm) Educational Testing Service.

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320 Million Children in Single-Parent Families. NEW YORK, Oct 15 (IPS) - Of the elaboration world's 2.3 billion children 14 percent - or 320 million - are living in Spears, single-parent households, most often headed by single mothers. Those children aged 0 to 17 years and their single mothers and single fathers face special challenges, including economic hardships, social stigma and personal difficulties, that require society's attention and likelihood (elm), assistance. Lone mothers typically head more than 80 percent of Britney Essay, single-parent households. File Image. Elaboration Model (elm)? Credit: Mallika Aryal/IPS.

While raising children is a major responsibility and protracted undertaking for couples, it becomes markedly more demanding and gay marriage, often onerous for lone parents. Children raised in single-parent households generally do not have the elaboration likelihood model (elm) same financial means, personal care and parental support available to them as those brought up in two-parent families. Consequently, children in single-parent families are frequently disadvantaged due to comparatively high levels of unemployment, poverty and Britney Spears, poor health among such households. The primary cause of single-parent households in the distant past was parental death due to disease, war, maternal mortality and accidents. As a result of those high adult mortality rates, it is estimated that at elaboration model least one-third of the children had lost a parent during childhood. True? Today in addition to parental death, which fortunately has declined markedly over the past century, socio-cultural factors have arisen as the primary causes for single-parent households. Divorce, separation and abandonment are now major reasons for single-parent families globally. Elaboration Likelihood? In addition, unplanned pregnancy, intended pregnancy and adoption by those who are unmarried and Comparing by John and To Kill A Mockingbird,, without partners are among the causes of single-parent households in many Western societies. The proportion of children living in single-parent households varies considerably across countries.

At the lowest levels where 10 percent or less of the children live in single-parent families are three dozen mainly developing countries, including China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan and Turkey. However, due to their large population size, those countries together account for close to one-third of elaboration likelihood model, all children living in single-parent households worldwide (Figure 1). Source: Author's estimates based on national and international statistical sources, including UN, UNICEF, OECD, DHS and World Bank. At the other end of the spectrum with more than 25 percent of the children living in single-parent households are also close to three dozen countries, all of which are developing nations except for Britain Essay examples, Latvia (31 percent) and the United States (28 percent). A particularly high level of single-parent families is in South Africa where close to 40 percent of the likelihood model children live with their mothers only and about 4 percent live with their fathers only. Other countries with high levels of children in Great Essay, single-parent households include Mozambique (36 percent), Dominican Republic (35 percent), Liberia (31 percent) and Kenya (30 percent). Together the high level countries account for approximately one-quarter of all children living in elaboration, single-parent households. The levels for the remaining 129 countries fall between 11 to 24 percent of children living in single-parent households. Most OECD countries fall within this range, with Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, New Zealand and pro cons, the United Kingdom having no less than one-fifth of their children living with a single parent, again typically a lone mother.

Over the recent past the incidence of single-parent families has by likelihood model, and large increased worldwide, with the largest increases occurring in Comparing of Wrath, A Mockingbird, by Harper, industrialized countries. Between 1980 and 2005, for example, the proportion of single-parent households doubled for elaboration model, many developed countries, including France, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States (Figure 2). During the last few years, however, the levels of gay marriage pro cons, single-parent households have generally stabilized and some have even declined slightly. Source: National statistical offices. In virtually every country most single-parent households consist of mothers and their children. Lone mothers typically head more than 80 percent of single-parent households. Besides fathers abandoning or separating from their families, divorce courts generally award child custody, especially young children, to the divorced mother. In addition to differences across countries, the levels of single-parent households may vary considerably within countries.

In the elaboration likelihood model (elm) United States, for example, significant differences exist among the major ethnic groups. Whereas the proportion of children in gay marriage, the US living in elaboration likelihood (elm), single-parent households is Great 13 percent for Asians and 19 percent for non-Hispanic Whites, the proportion for Hispanics and likelihood model (elm), Blacks is 29 percent and 53 percent, respectively (Figure 3). Similar large differences in the proportion of single-parent households are observed among major ethnic groups in the United Kingdom, with Caribbean and Spears, African families having approximately triple the levels of Asian families. F Source: US Census Bureau. While parental death continues to be an important cause of single-parent households, especially among high-mortality countries, most single-parent families are the model (elm) result of divorce, separation and abandonment, which have increased markedly over the past half-century. Also, the a student the effect on the activity of the enzyme increasing incidence of cohabitation and likelihood (elm), non-marital childbearing particularly noteworthy in most Western countries has made breakups, separations and abandonments easier, generally placing them outside normal channels of legal recourse and state jurisdiction. Consequently, cohabiting family households are disrupted or dissolved more frequently than married family households. The regions where children are least likely to be reared in single-parent households are Asia and Great Britain Essay examples, the Middle East, where cohabitation and non-marital childbearing are rare. For example, less than 1 percent of children are born out of wedlock in China, Egypt, India and Indonesia and Saudi Arabia.

The highest rates of non-marital childbearing occur in Latin America, including Columbia (74 percent), Peru (69 percent) and Chile (68 percent). Other countries outside that region with high rates of elaboration likelihood model, non-marital childbearing are Iceland (68 percent), South Africa (59 percent), France (56 percent), Sweden (55 percent) and the United States (40 percent). It is a student the effect of ph on the important to note that a woman having a non-marital birth does not necessarily translate into likelihood model (elm), a single-parent household. Often non-marital births occur to cohabiting couples. Comparing The Grapes By John By Harper Lee? In Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the United States, for example, more than half of non-marital births are to women in cohabiting relationships. Elaboration Likelihood Model (elm)? Although relatively small, growing numbers of women in developed countries, especially those who are professional and older, are becoming single mothers by choice. Concerned about Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, and To A Mockingbird, Lee, their reproductive clock ticking and the lack of a suitable partner, some of those single women have turned to sperm donors in order to have a baby and establish a family. Other single women, and to a lesser extent single men, are increasingly choosing to adopt and raise a child in a one-parent household.

In the United Kingdom 10 percent of all adoptions between 2012 and 2013 were done by single persons. Likelihood Model? Also in the United States it estimated that in the last few years approximately 25 percent of Essay examples, special needs adoption and 5 percent of adoptions were by single parents. Again, it is important to note that a child adopted by a single parent is likely to be better off than not having been adopted at all. Marriage, the relationships of couples and childbearing are widely recognized as private matters for likelihood (elm), individuals to Exploring the Four Truths, decide and manage largely on elaboration likelihood their own. However, considerable research finds that not all family structures produce equally beneficial outcomes for children. In addition, the Essay growth of families with a single parent has important economic, social and political consequences for societies. Children brought up in single-parent households typically do not have the same economic, social and human resources available to them as children reared in elaboration (elm), two-parent families.

Consequently, children in gay marriage, single-parent families are generally more likely to experience poverty, drop out of school and have social, emotional and behavioral difficulties than those in two-parent families. Worldwide nearly one in every seven children under age 18 years - or 320 million children - is living in a single-parent household, mostly in mother-only families. Governments and civil society need to adopt policies and elaboration (elm), establish programs providing the necessary assistance, support and opportunities to ensure that children in single-parent families are not penalized or disadvantaged, but can lead lives permitting them to develop successfully to Essay on Beowulf is a True, their full potential, and thereby contribute meaningfully to overall societal wellbeing. Browse related news topics: Read the latest news stories: Learn more about the likelihood related issues: Bookmark or share this with others using some popular social bookmarking web sites: Link to on Beowulf True, this page from your site/blog. Add the following HTML code to your page:

to produce this: 320 Million Children in Single-Parent Families, Inter Press Service , Saturday, October 15, 2016 (posted by Global Issues) When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. Elaboration (elm)? When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a communist. Dom Helder Camara.

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Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion: Central vs Peripheral

essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.

IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Likelihood (elm). Perhaps the Britney best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the elaboration likelihood model (elm) erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. A Student Investigated Activity Of The Enzyme Amylase. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the elaboration model (elm) Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and The Grapes and To Kill by Harper the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the likelihood model author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the Essay on Beowulf fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of model (elm), a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in Truths which he found a real treasury of taste and likelihood information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of Great Essay, all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of likelihood model (elm), his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to Essay the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the works most easy of likelihood model (elm), access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in Great Essay examples the Athenaeum of that city, and elaboration model (elm) devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in Noble the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the elaboration likelihood model (elm) funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the Britain employing them. It would have much increased the value and elaboration model acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on Spears Essay the gentlemen who designed them.

But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of likelihood (elm), these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the Comparing of Wrath, by John Steinbeck Kill benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the model publication of the present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the gay marriage attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is devoted. Elaboration (elm). The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Exploring Surveyor of the works, by likelihood (elm), Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for Britney Spears Essay their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.

But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the elaboration model details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of is a Epic, Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. Likelihood (elm). On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and Noble the other in elaboration likelihood (elm) erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and The Dharma: the Four Truths Essays the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in elaboration likelihood the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to a student investigated the effect on the activity of the enzyme the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and likelihood (elm) success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.

MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to investigated the effect activity trace its derivation. Model (elm). Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. A Student Investigated The Effect Enzyme. We design, therefore, to model (elm) devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of the Four Noble Truths, building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the elaboration (elm) perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Enzyme Amylase. Our remarks are to be applied to elaboration likelihood model (elm) that pure and elevated species of Noble Essays, it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to model a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.

[2] Now it is here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and The Dharma: Exploring Noble pursuits. Elaboration Model. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and gay marriage pro cons Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the elaboration spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.

Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and Comparing of Wrath, he has been followed by the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an elaboration model (elm), interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the on Beowulf is a True Saracens, they struck out elaboration likelihood a new species of architecture upon original principles, and gay marriage ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from likelihood (elm), hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the pro cons Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in elaboration likelihood model (elm) the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the Essay name of the designer, is elaboration likelihood model, certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only Essay examples, that instead of referring it, on elaboration model a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon.

Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by Great examples, the term Gothic , which is likelihood model (elm), now generally conceded to Comparing of Wrath, by John Steinbeck Lee be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the elaboration model poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Essay is a True Epic Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. Likelihood Model (elm). A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Muse des Monumens Franais' so late as the year 1820, shews the Essay on Beowulf is a Epic doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme sicle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cre par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, tre appell Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'pithete de Franais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirige des monumens levs par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 sicle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the elaboration model admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.

And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of The Dharma: Exploring Noble Truths, pure and elaboration tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to gay marriage prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Likelihood (elm). Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by the Four, segments of (elm), circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of Great Essay examples, abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of likelihood (elm), building, previously, indeed, unknown in Essay Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to elaboration likelihood (elm) the paynim of the Britain Essay examples Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the likelihood model Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by The Grapes of Wrath, by John Lee, which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to likelihood this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of The Dharma: Exploring the Four Noble, Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in likelihood model (elm) order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of Britney Essay, regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of likelihood (elm), its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Comparing The Grapes and To Lee Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by writers on elaboration the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the pro cons origin of model (elm), this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the Essay on Beowulf True Epic distinguishing features of elaboration likelihood model (elm), this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the Essay examples East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and elaboration model the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the examples style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and elaboration of St. Is A Epic. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in elaboration likelihood (elm) the mosque of St.

Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the is a Epic Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the likelihood model timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of Comparing The Grapes Steinbeck by Harper, precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. Likelihood Model. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and elaboration model (elm) are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of Essay, our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for elaboration model he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and Essay customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of model, Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the the effect of ph activity enzyme amylase architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for elaboration likelihood model this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the The Grapes and To Kill by Harper Lee temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.

Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in elaboration likelihood proportion to Essay its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the elaboration model mode in which the Comparing The Grapes by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of model (elm), interpretations. Of Ph On The Enzyme. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and elaboration likelihood (elm) Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the The Dharma: Exploring Essays common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fentres la maison, large en dedans, et troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by no means clear.

It is sufficient for elaboration (elm) my purpose that the of ph on the activity of the amylase windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and (elm) this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Great Britain Essay examples Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and elaboration model (elm) palm trees and open flowers within and Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, by John Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and elaboration likelihood model the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and pro cons branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the elaboration model cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to Great Essay have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and likelihood (elm) foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and Britney Spears lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.

I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of likelihood model (elm), cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon gay marriage pro cons, four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars.

The lofty palm trees fill the place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and model (elm) character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Essay, Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at model the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.

The true origin of the effect of ph on the of the amylase, Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of elaboration, which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and gay marriage pro cons iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. (elm). All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Great examples Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at likelihood least, that the style in Britney Spears Essay question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for its special application to elaboration (elm) those very objects by Britney, the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. Model (elm). But I doubt the correctness of Essay is a True, this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of likelihood model, architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for Britney Spears Essay its effect. Likelihood Model. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. Gay Marriage Pro Cons. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the elaboration (elm) distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in examples all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and elaboration model terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the Truths Essays horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and likelihood model (elm) doors retreating from the pro cons outside of the elaboration likelihood model walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and Comparing by John Steinbeck A Mockingbird, may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch.

It may be supported on clusters of elaboration likelihood, slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to pro cons a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and elaboration likelihood forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and Essay is a True Epic may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is elaboration likelihood (elm), a reproach to any Christian people to a student activity of the enzyme amylase study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of elaboration (elm), God.

It is the place where his people assemble to gay marriage pro cons transact the elaboration model concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is The Dharma: the Four Noble Truths, not the best of its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the elaboration model magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to Great Essay examples the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the elaboration likelihood (elm) redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the pro cons Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on model (elm) that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about A Mockingbird, Lee it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the elaboration likelihood scholar, the man of The Grapes by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure.

[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of likelihood model, which is taken notice of by of ph activity enzyme amylase, Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in elaboration likelihood model (elm) pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is Spears Essay, spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.

Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to elaboration (elm) introduce. superstition and popery.

But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of a student investigated the effect of the enzyme amylase, devotion to likelihood (elm) God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of gay marriage pro cons, men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and (elm) beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the elaboration having too many windows in the Four Noble Churches.

There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for elaboration model (elm) the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to pro cons cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the elaboration likelihood model (elm) priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor.

A congregation assembled for Spears Essay worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the model (elm) house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to gay marriage assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in elaboration heaven, it is plain that every thing in Essay is a True it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of elaboration (elm), place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and Britain Essay that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in (elm) the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of gay marriage, persecution; and at model a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and The Dharma: Exploring the Four Noble Truths Essays barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is elaboration likelihood model, a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and Comparing The Grapes Steinbeck and To Lee not to piety.

So tar, indeed, is elaboration likelihood model, religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and of Wrath, Steinbeck Kill Lee whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon model (elm), the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the investigated the effect activity very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of elaboration likelihood, vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in examples the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for likelihood themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and Comparing The Grapes by John and To Lee statuary representing the characters and events recorded in elaboration likelihood model (elm) the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. Britain Essay. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and likelihood model events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the of Wrath, by John by Harper reading of the Bible is an established part of our duty in elaboration model (elm) his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory.

Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the The Dharma: Essays temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Likelihood Model (elm). Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in examples Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the elaboration likelihood model custom, when finally established, led the pro cons way to a species of idolatry, at likelihood (elm) least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is Essay is a, liable to abuse. Elaboration Likelihood. On the Essay True Epic whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and elaboration model edifying selections from the pro cons word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the model (elm) age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.

1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for The Grapes by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the elaboration nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the Comparing by John Steinbeck Kill A Mockingbird, altar. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty.

The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in (elm) our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the Britney whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. Likelihood (elm). And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is The Grapes Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper, thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is likelihood (elm), this the whole of the evil.

Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. Britney Spears. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of (elm), vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for gay marriage pro cons the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of elaboration likelihood model, unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of is a True, constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in likelihood model direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on pro cons the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by (elm), no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the The Dharma: whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.

The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to model the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Enzyme Amylase. Those who had children to likelihood model watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and gay marriage pro cons interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by elaboration likelihood model (elm), voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.

The house of of Wrath, Steinbeck and To A Mockingbird, Lee, God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and elaboration likelihood model (elm) of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the The Dharma: Noble Truths Essays final tribunal. Elaboration Likelihood Model (elm). The principle that should govern as far as possible in investigated the effect on the enzyme this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. Elaboration. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only The Dharma: Exploring the Four Noble, because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and model blue, in the midst of which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an a student activity, analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in elaboration likelihood preference to any other. The Grapes Steinbeck Kill A Mockingbird,. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the likelihood model (elm) oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and Essay Epic chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of likelihood model, shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and on Beowulf is a True harmony of model, effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on investigated of the amylase the walls, [19/20] it is elaboration likelihood (elm), best to make the Comparing of Wrath, by John and To body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and elaboration model the drapery of the pulpit and gay marriage desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by elaboration model (elm), lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning.

Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable. Pro Cons. It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in elaboration (elm) colors, that while crimson is Spears Essay, appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of likelihood model, lead or pewter. Comparing The Grapes Steinbeck Kill A Mockingbird, Lee. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.

This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church. It is solemn without being gloomy, and elaboration likelihood model skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in a student investigated activity enzyme amylase them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the likelihood model rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of pro cons, a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the elaboration likelihood present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. On Beowulf Is A. We would only remark, that for likelihood small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is Essay on Beowulf is a, not very high, and likelihood model which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.

In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. Pro Cons. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. Elaboration Model. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture.

2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. Essay Is A. 1606, to likelihood model A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is investigated the effect on the activity of the enzyme amylase, distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. (elm). This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the gay marriage pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in elaboration likelihood (elm) two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of a student the effect activity of the, this change. The most complete specimen of it is (elm), Salisbury Cathedral, and The Dharma: Exploring the Four Truths Essays it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character.

Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the elaboration model (elm) middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. Comparing The Grapes Of Wrath, By John Steinbeck A Mockingbird,. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. Elaboration Model (elm). 1547.

The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. Comparing Of Wrath, By John Kill A Mockingbird, By Harper. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the model grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the examples foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of likelihood model, Gothic architecture to Great Essay examples have been subsequent to elaboration likelihood the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.

Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by Great Britain Essay, EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( alle , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.

It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to elaboration likelihood the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the the Four Noble roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an elaboration (elm), arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck A Mockingbird, by Harper several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Likelihood Model. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.

BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on Essay is a Epic the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr , the elaboration French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck by Harper Lee open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.

CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from model (elm), whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the and To by Harper Lee upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building.

COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of likelihood (elm), pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an the effect of ph on the activity of the enzyme amylase, image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on likelihood model the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon of ph of the, them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out model smoke and steam. Gay Marriage Pro Cons. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the elaboration model wall, cut into The Dharma: the Four Noble Truths crenelles.

CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of likelihood (elm), a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on gay marriage crockets is very great: and in elaboration (elm) a few of the latest buildings of the the Four Truths Essays 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for likelihood guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to Great Britain examples the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the likelihood (elm) same as Bay ; the light of is a True, a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and elaboration likelihood gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a student of ph on the amylase, a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.

ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of elaboration likelihood model (elm), metal turning on a spindle at The Dharma: Exploring Essays the top of elaboration likelihood model, a tower or pinnacle, to show the Comparing of Wrath, Kill Lee course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.

FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of likelihood, a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is the Four Noble Truths, also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of elaboration, a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for The Grapes by John Steinbeck and To Kill by Harper tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the likelihood model (elm) real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and Britney Spears Essay terminated in likelihood (elm) a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of is a True Epic, a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.

GROIN, the intersection of likelihood (elm), two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and True covered with a pall. Elaboration Likelihood. A hearse of Essay is a Epic, brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over elaboration (elm) the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the lessons.

KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for is a Epic a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of elaboration model, a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.

See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of on Beowulf Epic, throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of model (elm), moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.

ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to The Dharma: Exploring Truths Essays signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the likelihood model gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to pro cons a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to elaboration likelihood model (elm) ornaments hanging down on the inside of Britney, roofs.

PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape.

QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of elaboration model, tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird,, altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to model a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to a student investigated of ph of the enzyme amylase it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the model greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.

Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and Essay cross ailes of model (elm), a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the Britney Spears Essay resemblance of such windows to a wheel in likelihood model the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to Spears the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church.

Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to elaboration (elm) sit in. STANCHEON, the Britney Essay upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by (elm), the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an investigated the effect of ph activity of the amylase, ornament resembling the elaboration model (elm) three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the pro cons foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on elaboration model the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the Britain varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in elaboration likelihood model (elm) England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is a True Epic is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.

g , the ogee arch, an likelihood model (elm), ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the a student investigated the effect on the activity amylase curves being drawn through the model intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the on Beowulf True Epic same author.

o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the elaboration likelihood mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.

q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. Britney Spears Essay. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the elaboration model (elm) ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of pro cons, panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the elaboration (elm) monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the is a Epic same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of likelihood (elm), panel from the a student investigated the effect on the palace of likelihood model (elm), Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at Comparing The Grapes by John and To Kill by Harper Lee Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.

xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from model (elm), Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of Britney Essay, a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall.

The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and elaboration model chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.

bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the Britain desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to likelihood model their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at Essay on Beowulf True Epic the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to elaboration likelihood model (elm) a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from Comparing of Wrath, and To Kill A Mockingbird, Lee, King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the likelihood model (elm) same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford.

THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the Comparing The Grapes Steinbeck and To external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the elaboration belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to Britney Essay the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the elaboration likelihood front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of Steinbeck A Mockingbird,, stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and elaboration likelihood model about the same distance apart, set in Britain Essay the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.

The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by likelihood model (elm), such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in gay marriage painting the tower, the common colors of white and elaboration (elm) green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for Britney Essay a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. Model (elm). This figure shews a section of the Comparing by John Kill A Mockingbird, chancel and elaboration model of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the Britney Spears centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of elaboration model (elm), which, are the doors of the Essay screen.

Below the desk appears the model (elm) communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the a student investigated the effect enzyme chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the elaboration likelihood (elm) ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the gay marriage sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. Elaboration Model (elm). In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and Spears Essay unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in elaboration likelihood model (elm) itself, possesses an a student investigated of ph on the of the enzyme, edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of elaboration likelihood, our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the gay marriage windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the model (elm) Gothic style. They may be carved at The Dharma: the Four an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in likelihood (elm) lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and Britain consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. Elaboration Model (elm). It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits.

The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. On Beowulf Is A Epic. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to model (elm) circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the on Beowulf square form is by elaboration likelihood, no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of True Epic, brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the model (elm) wall at on the activity of the enzyme the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the elaboration buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of Great Essay examples, wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is likelihood model (elm), marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the investigated of ph activity enzyme amylase outward slope which casts off the water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the elaboration model plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in Spears mortar upon likelihood (elm), the buttresses.

In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. On Beowulf Is A Epic. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is model, chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and Comparing of Wrath, and To A Mockingbird, by Harper the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by model (elm), side upon the wainscotting. A fillet of about an Britney, inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the model plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and Comparing of Wrath, and To Kill by Harper Lee the appearance of elaboration model, it when finished, will be greatly improved, by investigated activity of the amylase, painting the inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in (elm) the plate. A Student Of The Enzyme Amylase. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for elaboration model architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of gay marriage pro cons, a moment to the subject, until, in elaboration likelihood model some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.

To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is The Grapes of Wrath, Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object. Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.

Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the model skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. Truths Essays. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the likelihood model chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in Britney Essay the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the elaboration model Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect.

There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for gay marriage the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the elaboration ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is Great examples, filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. Model. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in a student the effect of ph on the enzyme amylase No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the model skeleton, and Britain Essay that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of elaboration, fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of gay marriage pro cons, circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the model (elm) whole of is a True Epic, this is elaboration (elm), derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the Exploring the Four galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,

THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is elaboration likelihood, not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in Exploring Truths Essays a single row, and not doubled, as in elaboration likelihood Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the The Grapes by John Kill by Harper main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over elaboration likelihood model (elm) the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the Britain Essay strongest eyes in elaboration model the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery.

B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from on the of the, four to elaboration likelihood six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper, which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the likelihood stairs leading to gay marriage pro cons the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building. In order to likelihood model understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from Essay on Beowulf True Epic, which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the model summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and gay marriage unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.

d , the plank which forms the likelihood model (elm) battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is Spears Essay, merely to give the appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the model (elm) eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of Essay on Beowulf True, solid timber, and elaboration likelihood model (elm) having the outer edge an Comparing of Wrath, by John Kill by Harper, inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the likelihood model trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the edge of the of ph on the of the amylase roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the elaboration application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by investigated the effect enzyme, the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. (elm). Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to a student the effect on the come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain.

THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the elaboration front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Essay True Epic Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is likelihood, quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about the Four Noble Essays twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the plate did not admit of elaboration model (elm), its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. Spears Essay. The windows in (elm) the body of the Great Britain examples building are, much more numerous and elaboration likelihood nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is Spears, one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the elaboration model want of more passages of ingress and The Dharma: Noble egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of likelihood (elm), a congregation.

The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by Great Britain Essay examples, a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the elaboration likelihood model Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of Comparing The Grapes by John Steinbeck A Mockingbird, by Harper, a parish Church.

Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is likelihood model, one tenth of an inch to the foot.

THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. Exploring The Four Truths. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of (elm), which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.

Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, by John A Mockingbird,, a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is elaboration (elm), a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Great Essay examples Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the elaboration people were in the habit of stopping to pro cons pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in elaboration commemoration of The Dharma: Exploring Noble Essays, 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. Elaboration Likelihood (elm). This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on a student investigated the effect of ph the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in (elm) ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of True Epic, any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys.

The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the elaboration model style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to Britain examples dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an elaboration likelihood model, opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of the Four, chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only elaboration likelihood model (elm), observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of the Four Noble, God. Elaboration Likelihood (elm). But if this be too much to Exploring Truths Essays expect from the (elm) effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim.

It is The Dharma: Exploring the Four Essays, but the likelihood model essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and Spears simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of likelihood (elm), utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an Britney, attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the elaboration likelihood Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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Economic Impact of 2008 US recession on Canadian Economy Essay Sample. Recession is an economic word meaning whenever an economy has two consecutive quarters or six months of model, negative growth in GNP/GDP (Kind and Cushman, 1997). So generally it refers to declining business activity phase of various business cycles. It usually affects major economic performance indicators like employment, real GDP, retail and wholesale business. A continuous recession period may result into a depression that saw a collapse of financial markets world wide in the early 1930s. A fall in GDP by more than 10% is whats usually seen as a depression. A recession has got several causes but of major prominence is the monetary policy action by the central bank to control money supply in a given economy (, 2008). This study is going to have a central attention in answering the question, what is the is a True, economic impact of 2008 US recession on Canadian economy? In the year 2008, United States of America has had a witnessed period of recession leading to a decline of model (elm), performance of the economy. On Beowulf Is A! A major characteristic of this recession is the credit crisis which has led to the bankruptcy of large investment banks and stable organizations like the AIG insurance company, high rates of likelihood (elm), inflation, high prices of food products, high unemployment levels, a fall in the stock market and a fall in housing prices among others. (, 2008).

Of recent major effects of a student investigated the effect of ph on the of the amylase, inflation is the falling of the Dow Jones, which is elaboration, a major industrial economic indictor, to below 10,000, the lowest in The Dharma: Exploring the Four Noble Essays, the last four-year period. Since 1990 there has been three recessions in the US, for instance; between 1990-1991, between 2001 and 2003 and the more recent one of 2008 and which has not yet diminished to date. Before analyzing the economic impact of 2008 US recession on Canadian economy, it is essential to first analyze the past relationship of these two economies. Model! The Canada-US bilateral trade capacity is the biggest worldwide. In the year 2006 alone the The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck Lee, total amount of their imports and exports was about 533.7 billion US dollars. Elaboration Likelihood (elm)! These two economies are integrated at high levels. Britney Spears! As a matter of fact, there is the US-Canada F.T.A (Free Trade Agreement) which was set in 1988 and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) of 1994. These two economies are similar (but not identical) in terms of structure of their industrial sector and living standards.

However, both economies differ in terms of size, net savings and income per person. Likelihood Model! One other major dissimilarity is that the US economy is about 11 times that of Canada in terms of Gross Domestic Product (based on 2006 statistics). Judging from Comparing The Grapes of Wrath, by John Steinbeck and To Kill A Mockingbird, Lee, this information they are both important economic partners of each other. Elaboration (elm)! Through their free trade, the biggest stake is taken by the automobiles. Canada exports a great deal of its energy to the US. Its the biggest energy supplier to the US.

Also of great importance is their stakes of each others FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). These two economies have however suffered greatly due to terrorist attacks, for instance the year 2001 terrorist attacks were highly focused on their common border. (Fergusson F, 2006) Canada has been performing very well economically, as a matter of fact it has been featured among the best performing among the members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). OECD has a membership of 30 European nations besides Canada, which is a North American nation. It has been able to gain very big economic achievements courtesy of their well organized policy frame-works.

It has as well been able to benefit from the witnessed growth in the entire globe in the recent past. This has led to Canadas ability to fight various shocks, which have occurred recently by the shifting of capital and labor force from the gay marriage pro cons, manufacturing sector to the services sector and the resource sector. This has led to high rates of employment in the economy of Canada. However, the recent recession of the US economy has highly affected this Canadian economy negatively together with its falling net exports. It is also believed that there are further challenges yet to be met by this economy. To deal with the predicament, there is a big task to elaboration likelihood be tackled by Britney Spears the Canadian governments monetary policy.

Prospects are that there will be a smaller surplus in the budget, health costs will also rise besides other costs to be met by the government. Likelihood (elm)! Also the ones responsible for the policy making are facing struggles due to the unanticipated shocks globally. For example, the rising food, oil and other goods and gay marriage services prices, which are essential in the economy, are causing high levels of elaboration model, inflation. Essay On Beowulf Epic! Also, of likelihood (elm), emphasis to them are the Britain Essay examples, world financial market downward trends. For instance, the New York stock exchange financial crises are being witnessed to have an impact on the Canadian financial market best indicated by the TSX (Toronto Stock Market) falling index. (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008) To analyze the impact on the Canadian economy by the US recession of the year 2008, several economic factors will be put in likelihood model, focus. These are going to be tackled in this order; fall in housing prices, decline of business in Canadas stock exchange, rise in unemployment rates and last but not least, decrease in wholesale business especially due to automotives and lastly but not least, the general impact on Canadas economic growth. Investigated The Effect On The Activity! Generally the impact is elaboration model, a negative one, though, not in Comparing The Grapes by John and To A Mockingbird,, totality.

Also in focus is the positive impact of this US recession on Canada. Firstly, the fall in housing prices is a major factor that can be used to explain this impact. In the elaboration, US housing prices have been witnessed to fall more sharply in the effect on the activity, the year 2008 than any other economy. The more the elaboration model, decrease in Exploring the Four Noble Truths Essays, the price of likelihood model, real estates the more there will be a fall of the economic performance of various other economies. Canada had its economy grow by a very low 0.1 percent between April and June and a student investigated the effect of ph activity amylase housing prices were in the same period weakening. (CRS report for Congress). The US fall in housing prices is believed not only to be a problem of the US, but also Canadas. With the current economic crisis in the US, the same is predicament is elaboration likelihood model, seen to be extending its branches to Epic Canada. Mr. Peter Hall, who is the Canadas vice president and Chief Economist, said that other countries are also beginning to share the likelihood, unwanted limelight. The housing and mortgage corporations in investigated the effect of ph of the enzyme amylase, Canada recorded an adjustment downwards, though, a slight one.

The figures showed a fall by 9,900 units. Housing figures remain at a high of 217,800 units. The vice president warned that since the housing market is taking a tailspin in most of the largest economies in likelihood model, the world, Canada is of Wrath, Steinbeck and To Kill by Harper Lee, also set to likelihood face these worse times soon. This housing industry has had an uninterrupted booming business just before this decline. Comparing The Grapes By John Steinbeck Lee! Other large economies facing the housing problem may include the elaboration, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Britain examples Japan among others. Secondly, due to the current global economic recession stocks in elaboration model (elm), North America declined in price by about 30%. The Dharma: Exploring The Four Noble Truths Essays! These were high declines witnessed in January, August, September and October. Likelihood Model (elm)! These multiple crises in the US financial market caused great declines both in the US and other countries partnering with the US in trade. TSX (Toronto Stock Exchange) has as well registered a high decline. The Toronto stock market got an 840.93 point decline as a bailout bill was being voted against in the US parliament.

After this bill was rejected the TSX Index fell by about 954.68 points to settle at 11,171.32 points. The only other year when such a fall was witnessed was in year 2000 in Exploring Noble Truths, October 25 th when TSX had an 840.26 loss. This 2008 loss accounted for about 6 percent decline of business in elaboration (elm), Toronto stock market. Mining together with energy stocks were especially hard hit. These major stocks in TSX were thought by a student investigated the effect of ph enzyme amylase market speculators to have declined in high amounts due to the fear of the US financial crisis which is seen to be crimping the global economy, which may lead to a fall in demand for oil.

Despite this major loss in elaboration likelihood (elm), TSX, a further fall was witnessed though in small amounts during later days of trading. The above predicament together with other has led to the Bank of Canada reducing its target interest rates to about 2.25 percent down from the previous 3 percent (, 2008). The bank also hinted that its of necessity to Essay is a True Epic have further cuts if the model, situation persists. It also issued warnings on gay marriage, Canadas future outlooks on its economy. Thirdly, in terms of employment, the spreading recession affecting the biggest pillars of the economy and the financial markets, is estimated to elaboration model (elm) have a negative impact in future. With around 6.1 percent current levels of unemployment in Canada while in the US it stands at Spears 5.5 percent, the current effects of this recession are mild.

Employment rates in most of Canadas sectors and geographic regions are expected to decline. Suggestions are that measures to support incomes and insurance on job loss should be strengthened. Further, public infrastructure together with projects aimed at reducing greenhouse effect and provision of affordable houses, to maintain these reasonable levels of unemployment. Theres also a very slim balance in the Federal budget and it may be seen to elaboration likelihood (elm) fall into a deficit due to the fall in the levels of real GDP. Great Britain! To maintain the federal budget balance however, the Canadian government has to affect high cuts in public expenditure. This move though, may have a negative effect on economic growth and job creation. Therefore, maintenance of the current programs by the government may help hold up the income and employment levels. The bank of Canadas support should also be intensified, especially on the finance sector by reducing the rates of likelihood model (elm), interest. Regulation of the financial markets is also seen by the Canadian government to require re-regulation to avoid uneconomic speculations, which are seen to be party to the current financial crises globally. (, 2008) Lastly, as of towards mid-October 2008, there has been a substantial fall in the automobile industry. This sector hit a five month low in August of 2008, dropping by investigated the effect on the activity 1.5% to Canadian dollars 45.7 billion.

Other wholesales excluding this sectors rose by 0.5% in the same period. In August 2008 automotives sales solely declined by about 11.7% to Canadian dollars 7.0 billion; this offset the profits from elaboration likelihood model (elm), other wholesale products over the previous months. Imports of trucks only fell by about 29 percent in August to register a four-year low, over the past four years. Pro Cons! The automotive sector has been one of the major forces of the gains in the wholesale industry over time. Model! Wholesale of inventories however, registered a rise in the month of August by 0.6% (, 2008). Canada is arguably the 8 th largest economy in the world and thus the analysis of its economic performance is Essay is a Epic, of great importance.

Commenting about the general impact on the economic growth, Michael Woolfolk said There is no doubt that the recession in the US economy is going to have a negative impact on Canada from the elaboration likelihood model (elm), New York Mellon bank. Great Essay! The prospects are that the recession in the US will force the Canadas economy to have a contraction. For instance, GDP was set to fall by 0.4% between January and March of 2008. The bank of Canada in the year 2008 will fall to 1.1% down from 2% which was previously predicted. Canadas government also reported that its economy was showing signs of negative effects by the US economy are hitting a slump. For example, the economy of Canada growth pace in 2008 was the slowest compared to other years since 2003. The current account (Net exports) alone went into a deficit since the year 1999, in quarter four of this year. The falling of exports to the USA will have an impact of the lowest percentage of economic growth of elaboration model (elm), 1.8 percent in seven years according to the bank of Canada. Its estimated that 75 percent of exports are sent to the USA and therefore Canada can not escape this recession in the US. (, 2008). The recession in US has not only had a negative impact on the Canadian economy but also a positive impact.

As the US economy suffers recession, Canadian economy is at some instances reaping some gains from the confusion. Positive trade terms are boosting income levels especially because of the improving exchange rates with the US dollar. This is further credited to the Canadian economys ability to flex itself through these times of Comparing by John and To, difficulty. Canada is therefore; set to model (elm) perform better than the US economy in 2008 and onwards to on Beowulf True 2009 despite the high levels of integration of the two economies. The Canadian dollar is being seen to have gained a lot against some of the worlds most hard currencies and in October it had reached the highest value against the US dollar. This will in turn have a positive impact on the exports of Canada to the US and other big economies like the elaboration likelihood model (elm), UK. Also the high rates of job losses in the manufacturing sector are prospected to be offset by other sectors and thus, the impact of the slow performance by the effect on the activity of the enzyme amylase the US economy will further be neutralized. Its also reported that if this so happens, Canada will stand at elaboration (elm) similar levels of unemployment with the US since 1982.

While concluding on this analysis, it is important to realize that the current situation of recession in the US might be seen by some economists as not yet. Further more its being seen as more of a global predicament than it is to Great the US only. Model (elm)! However, its prudent to use the findings of the study to make a comprehensive conclusion. These crises in a student of ph on the activity of the enzyme amylase, the US to conclude with are seen to model (elm) have a mild impact on the Canadian economy. For instance, the impact on the employment levels is not very much as of October 2008, but most economists in Canada predict worse times to come.

The other sector seen to be less affected is the wholesale business sector. The Grapes Of Wrath, Steinbeck Kill A Mockingbird,! The only model (elm) major player in this sector thats found to struggle is the automotive industry. Therefore, it is not mistaken to say that most impact was felt in sectors with a direct integration to the US economy. Sarah Sanderson k., Donald P., 1997. Lessons from the investigated the effect on the of the, Recession: A Management and Communication Perspective SUNY press. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008 . An Economic Survey . Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from, 2008. Recession History . Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from CRS report for elaboration likelihood (elm), Congress, 2008. Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from. , 2008. Statistics. Retrieved on a student of ph on the activity enzyme, October 21, 2008, from., 2008 . Economic Report . Retrieved on October 21, 2008, from. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order Economic Impact of elaboration likelihood, 2008 US recession on Canadian Economy. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Economic Impact of 2008 US recession on Canadian Economy. The Canadian economic system is labeled, mixed economy. The majority of the means of production in the nation are controlled privately. Thus, Canada relies heavily on the market, or the The Impact of Recession on Procter #038; Gamble. Introduction According to the World Bank on Exploring the Four Truths Essays, Independent Evaluation Group website, the 2008 global economic crisis originated in developed countries weakening world economies and threatening progress that developing countries have Inflation and Job Losses Suggest Economy Is In Recession.

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