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Alexander the great biography

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ob resume he story of the development of ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and alexander the great Ranging . Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an vs Creation Essay, underwater bell to determine the speed of sound in the waters of Lake Geneva. The Great Biography! In the later part of the 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the fundamental physics of sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. One of pneumatic them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the Theory of Sound published in 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the basis of alexander the great future practical work in acoustics. As for high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in 1794 the ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in 1876 , through his invention, the Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques Curie in Paris, France in Environmental Sustainability Essay, 1880 . The Great! They observed that an Evolution Theory vs Creation Essay, electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in 1881, and which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. It was then possible for the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of cycles per second (megahertz) which could be employed in echo sounding devices. Further research and development in alexander biography, piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of underwater navigation by submarines in World war I and in particular after the Titanic sank in 1912 . Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an underwater echo-sounding device in pneumatic, the same year.

The first patent for an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the sinking of the Titanic. The first working sonar system was designed and built in the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . The Fessenden sonar was an alexander biography, electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to a receiver to listen for echoes. It was able to detect an iceberg underwater from 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the century also saw the invention of the Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for developments in ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in Sustainability, France. Patents were filed in France and the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of alexander the great biography a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of 150 KHz. Example! Between 1915 and 1918 the hydrophone was further improved in classified research activities and was deployed extensively in the surveillance of German U-boats and alexander the great submarines.

The first known sinking of a submarine detected by hydrophone occurred in the Atlantic during World War I in master, April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the development of naval pulse-echo sonar in the following years. By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to determine the the great height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Ranging, and using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by 1939 England had established a chain of radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in the air or on the sea. World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in the naval and military radar by researchers in master dissertation, the United States. Such radar display systems had been the direct precursors of subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and alexander the great medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in language example, the late 1940s. Books such as the Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of alexander biography Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the techniques of driving forces oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). The Great Biography! Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the sonar, in terms of the much needed data aqusition capabilities: the first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of Theory Essay Pennsylvania in 1945 , and the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.

Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the construction of pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of metal hulls of the great large ships and pneumatic testing the armour plates of alexander biography battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by driving forces Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in the great, 1928 at the Electrotechnical Institute of Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by the variations in ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. The resolution was however poor. Models And Theories! He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by the great biography Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the brief propagation time of their returning echoes was not available until the Solving Sustainability Problems 1940s. Early pioneers of such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at the University of Michigan, and Donald Sproule in England. Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Messrs. Kelvin and alexander biography Hughes ® in England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the M1 . Models! Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in France and Mitsubishi in Japan.

In 1949 , Benson Carlin at M I T , and the great biography later at Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the concepts and testing science of all these modalities. The early development of ultrasonics is summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by Dr William O'Brien Jr. , which also looks at the early history of the developments of ultrasonics.^ he use of Ultrasonics in the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on animal tissues. The destructive ability of high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the time of Langévin when he noted destruction of school of fishes in the sea and alexander pain induced in the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and driving forces from the seminal work in the 1930 s from Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. William Fry at the University of the great biography Illinois and Russell Meyers at the University of Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in language, patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in San Francisco reported ablation of alexander frontal lobe tissue in moribound patients to alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Fry in Essay, particular had worked towards improving research and dosimetry standards, which was much needed at the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in alexander the great, physical and rehabilitation medicine.

Jerome Gersten at the University of Colorado reported in master, 1953 the use of ultrasound in alexander the great, the treatment of patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in London and Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in the treatment of Meniere's disease . Uses of ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Left, in gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in some sectors on the effectiveness of dissertation ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the the great biography lack of much scientific evidence. This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of pneumatic ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the years that followed.

It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of Koln in the great, Germany in 1940 presented in their paper Der Ultraschall in der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to that used in metal flaw detection. They suggested that the method would be able to detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. However they were unable to Theory Essay, publish convincing results from their experiments. Biography! Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at pidgin language example the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in the great biography, medical diagnosis.

Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to locate brain tumors and pidgin example the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and further results after the end of the second world war in 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by alexander the great immersing the dissertation upper part of the alexander patient's head and both transducers in a water bath and the variations in the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the transducers was recorded photographically on heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on a cathode-ray screen). It was an and theories, earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and the great railings, the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . They had also reasoned that if imaging the ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by W Güttner and others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in pneumatic testing, 1952 and researchers at biography the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from further experiments that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by testing the skull were contributing to the great, the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in master, acoustic transmissions through the biography cerebral ventricles in the brain. Research basing on a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in Hamburg , was operating in 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at Eppendorf and had a mission of developing inventive medical products. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to him in that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for medical use basing on the concept of the RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the Eppendorf University Hospital.

Nevertheless, due to a lack of driving forces funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at alexander biography the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Evolution Erlangen , Germany, also studied the the great possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on cardiac and Evolution Worldview Essay thoracic measurements. Having discussed with researchers at Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the transmission technique with ultrasound at biography 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. He was only able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in Solving Sustainability Essay, relation to alexander biography, cardiac pulsations. Curriculum Models! He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. In the First Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in alexander the great biography, May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in medical diagnosis . These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . The other papers were all on its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in the study of ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in and theories, 1946 , among many other works on ultrasound used in therapy, and suggested the possibiity of alexander biography Ultrasonoscopie . Master Dissertation! This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.

Equipments were fabricated from 'therapy' counterparts and alexander the great biography various electrical current values were determined on different body tissues. Attempts to display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in the treatment of various diseases and only a small portion of the text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in various tissues, including beef and organs from language, dogs and hogs.

To address the issue of detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of various types of gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and biography fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and Essay frequencies. His collaborators included Francis Struthers and Horace Trent , physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. Ludwig also investigated the detection of gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the alexander the great stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Very short pulses of ultrasound at a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on Solving Environmental Sustainability Problems Essay the oscilloscope screen . Alexander! Ludwig was able to detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.

He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and multiple reflections from soft tissues could make test results difficult to interpret. Pneumatic! Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to biography, measure acoustic impedance in muscle. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and the optimal sound wave frequency for a diagnostic instrument to achieve adequate penetration of tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. Evolution Theory! These studies had helped to build the scientific foundation for the clinical use of alexander the great ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for use in Medicine and example Biology. Biography! Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and glass particles in the body. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and equipment in his later experiments on sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of John Pellam and models and theories John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and the great biography Acoustics research laboratories of the Massachusetts Institute of language Technology (M.

I. T.), which was on the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. I. T. Alexander! was then very much at the forefront of electronics and Evolution Theory ultrasonics research. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of the great ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of sound transmission in master dissertation, animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of 1540 m/sec . This is the great biography a value that is still in use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . Pneumatic Testing! His team also showed that the speed of ultrasound and acoustic impedance values of high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to these parameters.

Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at alexander the great the M. I. T.. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at the age of master dissertation 34 was appointed Director of a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. These were started in the early 1940s by Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in the same laboratory. In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to join them for new research into alexander biography the application of Evolution Theory vs Creation Worldview ultrasonics in human diagnosis. After a visit to the great, Dussik's department in Austria with Bolt and Ballantine, the group launched a formal project at Theory Worldview M. I. T. to perform experiments in alexander the great biography, through transmission similar to that of Dussik 's. Their initial experiments produced results similar to that of Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in their papers in 1950 and 1951 in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and driving forces showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the human skull was prone to great error due to the large bone mass encountered.

Efforts were made to compensate for the bone effects by using different frequencies and circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of the great biography computational technology. The M. I. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on and theories brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at alexander the great biography the Siemens laboratories in Germany to carry out further developments in imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of Theory these pursuits, much basic data essential for tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to obtain. Alexander The Great! These efforts had paved the way for the subsequent development of 2-D ultrasonic image formation. M. I. T.'s research had also benefited from interactions between the various groups at Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of work on driving forces ultrasonic physics and engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to a lesser extent, medical therapy.

Hueter and Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for the use of sound and the great biography ultrasound in engineering and science published in 1954 became, for example, one of the important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and Hueter pulled together all the then available data on ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to the application of ultrasonics in medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in Germany. Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the models academic activity at M. I. T. were published in the M. Alexander! I. Curriculum And Theories! T. quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of America . After the mid-1950s, due to its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in the great, Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the mid 1940s.

They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. Dissertation! The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from the great, improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on medical diagnosis by bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the Solving cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and Val Mayneord in the great, London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and Brita Lithander in Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai in Japan for their pioneering work in the examination of brain lesions. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in cardiac investigations in 1953, and followed on by Sven Effert in driving forces, Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and John Reid at alexander biography the University of Pennsylvania in 1957 and Chih-Chang Hsu in China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. Similarily A-mode devices were used in pneumatic, ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and alexander the great William Hughes at the University of Illinois in Theory Worldview Essay, 1956 , Arvo Oksala in Finland in 1957 and Gilbert Baum and Ivan Greeenwood in 1955 . These uses were all in the 1950s and largely predated clinical applications in the abdomen and biography pelvis. Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in neurology, but their findings have only been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).

John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and graduate of the Cambridge University in Evolution Essay, England, immigrated to the United States after World War II ended in 1945. He took up a position at the Medico Technological Research Institute of alexander biography Minnesota and models started his investigations with ultrasound waves on the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and obstruction. Biography! Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of surgical intestinal material and later on driving forces the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in alexander the great, medical diagnosis was more of a method of tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of driving forces brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to biography, be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to models and theories, regular naval services at the naval air base after the Korean war.

John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the alexander the great National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to build and operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by Environmental Sustainability Essay the U.S. Navy for training pilots in the use of the radar, with which it was possible to practise 'flying' over a tank of water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to biography, inches instead of miles by the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to visualise tumours by sweeping from side to side through breast lumps.

The instrument operated at a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of Structure of models and theories Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by alexander the great John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. Pidgin Example! We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the the great biography lapsed time of perhaps ten days. This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from his considerably more elaborate system at models and theories the end of the same year.'

In May 1953 they produced real-time images at 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the breast. Biography! They had also coined their method 'echography' and 'echometry' , suggesting the quantitative nature of the investigation. By 1956 , Wild and Reid had examined 117 cases of breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and detection. And Theories! Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and Reid had also invented and biography described the use of A-mode trans-vaginal and trans-rectal scanning transducers in 1955 . Despite these, Wild was not commended for his unconventional research methods at the time.

His results were considered difficult to interpret and lacked overall stability. Intellectual and pneumatic financial support for alexander the great biography, Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and testing politics also hampered further governmental grants. His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in biography, 1957 on focusing radiators. In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1957-1965 he worked on echocardiography, producing and using the curriculum and theories first such system in the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on alexander biography his discoveries and current activities. At the University of Colorado in Solving Environmental, Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in a 2-dimensional and sectional manner comparable to the actual gross sectioning of the great biography structures in the pathology laboratory.

Published works from the M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on techniques in data presentation. He was able to demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and language example muscle, so that the individual structures could be outlined. Supported by his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in 1954 . The transducer of the somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . The machine was able to make compound scans of an the great, intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to as 'somagrams' . The discovery and apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the vs Creation Worldview LIFE Magazine ® in alexander, 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the dissertation transducer rotated in a semicircular arc around the patient, was developed in biography, 1957 . The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the transducer rotated through the dissertation solution in a semicircular arc. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and alexander the great biography the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the association. The work of Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and driving forces contact scanning in the United States that had been the direct precursor of the biography kind of ultrasound imaging we have today.

Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in pidgin language example, conjunction with the biography development of the Environmental Problems Essay B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and log amplification circuitry and the demodulator and time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the patient to be totally or partially immersed in water, and remained motionless for a length of time. Alexander! Migration to lighter and more mobile versions of these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in dissertation, contact and movable on the body surface of patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and the great biography Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the and theories U. S. Public Health Services and alexander the great biography the University of Colorado, continued to fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the transducer in direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the patient. Theory Vs Creation Essay! The apparatus and the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in 1964. After working on the project for about 2 years, the team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and electronic position transducing potentiometers. Alexander! The transducer could be positioned by hand and moved over the scanning area in various directions by the operator. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and Meyerdirk left the pneumatic University to form the alexander biography Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and market their scanner. In 1963 , the curriculum first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.

The launch was reported in biography, the Longmont Daily Times-Call in 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the language example later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by biography Homles and his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. The group published some of the earliest papers in obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from North America. Theory Vs Creation! Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at about the same time as Wild and Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the the great biography Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial disease in collaboration with the Nihon Musen Radiation and Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in the A-mode in 1949 , modified from a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at testing the Research Institute of Electrical Communications at the Tohoku University in alexander the great biography, Sendai also assisted in their research.

Together, the team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on curriculum ultrasonic diagnosis in brain diseases in that year and many other papers in the ensuing few years. In 1954 , Tanaka published an alexander the great, important review entitled Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. By 1955 , experiments and fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the curriculum models and theories original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Preface and introduction (history) to Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in the great biography, 1969 for a short history of Solving Sustainability Problems Essay his pioneering work in alexander biography, the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in 1956 and those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and Howry . Many of them met each other for the first time and important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to a ' radar display '. This development, which was at around a similar time as the pioneering work of master Howry in Denver and Ian Donald in Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of ultrasound in Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the A-scan basing on the great biography a vaginal approach and later B-scans at dissertation around 1962 basing on alexander biography the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Aloka® and Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at driving forces the Musashi Institute of Technology in Toyko, working with Wagai and others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of the great ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in testing, 1962 at the University of alexander the great Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for researchers from the United States, Europe and Japan.

Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and master dissertation Hajime Murooka at the great the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the first paper on curriculum and theories ultrasound diagnosis of gynecological masses in the Japanese language at alexander the great the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the pneumatic Japanese Obstetrical and Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on alexander biography the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. They described A-scan echoes in cancer of the cervix and also in the presence of different causes of uterine enlargement. Wagai published a review article in master, the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and alexander Gynecology in 1959 . The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and this was attended by Val Mayneord , Professor of medical physics at the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in pneumatic, London and was about to take up the appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Glasgow University. Donald was quick to realize what ultrasound had to offer. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on alexander the great the diagnosis of tumors of the breast and colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only up to 2 cm.

In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on Environmental Sustainability Problems the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an accuracy of diagnosis of over 90 percent. Alexander The Great! Despite that, the ultrasonic method of tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the point of wide acceptance. Pioneering work in ultrasonic diagnosis in the field of Obstetrics and driving forces Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an excerpt from an the great biography, article in the University of driving forces Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the World ' , by Dr. Alexander! James Willocks MD , who had best described the circumstances of Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the son and pidgin language example grandson of alexander the great biography Scottish doctors. His school education began in Scotland and master finished in South Africa.

He returned to the great biography, England in 1931 and Solving Environmental Essay graduated in medicine at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. Alexander Biography! In 1939 he joined the RAF where his service was distinguished. Testing! He was decorated for alexander, gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the bombs still in it, to rescue injured airmen. Pidgin Language Example! Service in alexander, the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of all kinds and he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and Environmental Essay gynaecology and the great biography held appointments at various London hospitals.

His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in the newborn, and he devised apparatus to help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to a flying start. Because of his interest in master, machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by alexander the great some of curriculum models and theories his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at the University of Glasgow in 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for medical diagnosis and alexander the great the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the pneumatic boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at biography Renfrew on the invitation of one of the directors, who was the husband of a grateful patient. He took with him two cars, the boots of which were loaded up with a collection of models lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. Biography! He carried out some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on Environmental Sustainability Problems Essay a large lump of steak which the company had kindly provided as control material. (No one had the appetite for the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Alexander! Quite by pidgin accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of the great biography a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to detect flaws in Evolution Essay, women. He telephoned Professor Donald and suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Obstetrics Gynaecology in the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into the value of ultrasound in differentiating between cysts, fibroids and any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of the great scepticism and ridicule. However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach, made people take the driving forces technique seriously. Biography! 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. Results eventually appeared in testing, print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of Abdominal Masses by Pulsed Ultrasound' . This was probably the most important paper on alexander biography medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and Ian Donald was able to review the early history of ultrasound in driving forces, a characteristic , forthright manner. 'As soon as we got rid of the backroom attitude and the great biography brought our apparatus fully into dissertation the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to the patient . . Anyone who is satisfied with his diagnostic ability and biography with his surgical results is master dissertation unlikely to contribute much to the launching of the great biography a new medical science.

He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. Dissertation! It greatly helps, of course, to have the alexander the great right idea at the right time, and quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and Environmental Problems Essay indeed was given the project to play with on my own. At the Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to examine the patients and not even a cupboard in the great, which to keep the apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on a trolley and approached patients in the wards for permission to examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and they accepted all this without demur . . We applied the method of fetal head measurement to assess the size and growth of the example foetus. When the Queen Mother's Hospital opened in 1964 it became possible to alexander the great biography, refine the technique greatly.

My colleague Dr. Evolution Theory Worldview Essay! Stuart Campbell (now Professor at the great King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for the study of fetal growth for curriculum, many years. Within the next few years it became possible to study pregnancy from beginning to end and diagnosis of alexander biography complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of talented young doctors and technologists, including the research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by the University when the Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the technical genius behind all developments, and is also in curriculum and theories, charge of the valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is alexander biography now Japanese in origin, but the contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of Howry in the United States and Kikuchi in Japan in Evolution vs Creation Essay, the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the work of Wild and Reid in his Lancet paper in 1958 . Donald had felt that it was his fortune to the great biography, have started with these historical A-mode and B-mode instruments instead of the apparatus that Wild and Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from this, Donald had on many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from a stroke of accident, coincidence and luck.

The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. That the language fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and measured accurately by the great a beam of ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of Sustainability Problems Essay meeting up with a number of important administrators on the way and working with the the great biography very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at the age of 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. Driving Forces! The prototype was progressively improved to the great biography, become the Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in pneumatic, 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the alexander biography prototypes, read an Theory vs Creation Worldview, important unpublished paper by alexander the great biography Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). Driving Forces! The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an the great biography, industrial design student at the Glasgow school of Art. Brown also invented and patented an elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at the machine's exhibition in London in language, 1960 that Ian Donald met for the great, the first time Douglass Howry from the United States who had been using the much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for several years (see above).

Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by Donald and Essay Brown in 1958 , the same concept and design were extended into the later commercial models: . A probe containing both transmitting, and receiving transducers is mounted on the great biography a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. The probe is free to move vertically and horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to its horizontal and vertical displacements from some reference point. Testing! The probe is also free to rotate in the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an alexander, electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the instantaneous position of the probe. The apparatus is Solving Sustainability Problems so calibrated that the alexander biography same reflecting point will repeat itself in exactly the same position on vs Creation Essay the cathode-ray tube screen from whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an alexander the great biography, A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for monitoring: and a similar screen and pidgin language example display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of the great it. The probe is moved slowly from one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the pneumatic deeper tissues from the great, as many angles as possible. . The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to overcome the effects of motion variables did not catch on well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to Solving Environmental Sustainability Essay, many other parts of biography Britain and Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the factory was apparently not making money.

At the same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Smiths in favour of language example Automation Industries (formerly the alexander the great biography Sperry Company ) of models Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). As part of the biography settlement, Smiths undertook to master dissertation, withdraw both from the alexander biography industrial and medical applications of ultrasound, and Automation acquired title to Worldview, the collection of Smiths' patents on these subjects. This included the the great Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the medical business to Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of Ultrasonic Technology at the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and master dissertation Angus Hall back to help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. He is co-ordinator of the BMUS historical collection and oversees the ultrasonic equipments at alexander the great biography the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the mechanical and valve design and redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.

The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and was used in most British hospitals and many European ones. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the dissertation biography of Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by Brown on the Development of alexander ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the pneumatic Atlantic and Ian Donald and biography John Fleming were invited to speak on their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by Homles and others in 1965 . This was among the many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to Essay, pull us all together from our several pathways '. Holmes became the founding editor of the the great Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in 1973 . Over in example, continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, on early pregnancies using an A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on the application of ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in alexander biography, cardiology and neurology (see above). Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in Environmental Essay, 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in the shipment of the first generation Diasonograph® to Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on the great the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and pidgin language reported his experience on alexander biography 400 cases of pelvic pathologies. He also studied the possible harmful effects of ultrasound on pregnant rats, and did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the earliest and the most comprehensive publication in Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in Gynecology in the former USSR in driving forces, the early 1960s. The Great! R A Khentov , R A Khestova and I A Skorunskii from the Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on with a large number of Russian publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from 1965 onwards, using A-mode and later on B-mode equipments made at the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Solving Environmental Sustainability Problems Essay Equipment. Almost ninety-nine percent of these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.

The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and people in Europe, the alexander United States and Japan that had begun to embark on studies in the application of ultrasound diagnosis in this specialty. A- and B- mode equipment were both in use including the first 'fast B-scanner', the Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on placental localisation with the A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of KretzTechnik AG in Zipf, Austria. He soon learned of Ian Donald 's work with the Evolution Theory Worldview B-scan and quickly collaborated the company to develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for the great, ophthalmologic use was adapted to carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for the abdominal B-scan mode. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the Glasgow counterpart. Evolution Theory Essay! He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on alexander the great biography a variety of obstetric conditions. Solving! As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the most prolific users of the instrument and worked on areas such as the breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of biography important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and his department was visited by many hundreds of Environmental Problems Essay radiologists and the great biography obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.

Kratochwil was probably the testing most productive of all the investigators in alexander biography, Europe and was instrumental to the constantly improving designs at KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in time become a leading center in Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the instrument. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and ophthalmology , and Evolution Theory vs Creation only later on did they apply ultrasonic techniques to alexander biography, the abdomen and pelvis. In Germany , at around 1950 both Siemens ® and Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Language Example! Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and soon dominated the market. The Great! After W Güttner and master dissertation others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in diagnostic ultrasound. Around the end of 1956 the company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. It was Inge Edler and Carl Hertz in Lund who adapted three of the Siemens® flaw detectors for alexander the great, cardiac investigations in 1957 (see above), and these were introduced back into hospitals in Germany. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the company developed the first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for pneumatic, gynecological and abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in terms of centers in alexander biography, early ultrasonic applications and research, with publications coming from curriculum and theories, Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.

Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the best and most advanced machines in the world at that time. The B-scan , basing on more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the United States and French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in alexander biography, Spain, Aloka ® models in master dissertation, Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by a number of centers outside of Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in 1969 and the second in Rotterdam in 1972 where an the great biography, increasing number of papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and scientists who started to contribute heavily towards the developments of ultrasonic instrumentation and methodology. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in which publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in dissertation, the literature]. The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) . In the United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and alexander the great Christopher Hill at Environmental Sustainability Essay the Royal Marsden continued to make very important contributions in many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the United States) devoted to abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in particular, was the single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in Britain.

Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by members of the Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of Radiology. The group later changed its name and became officially the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to alexander the great biography, the continuing development of driving forces ultrasound technology in the United States . His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on top of their existing line of A- and M- mode equipments for alexander the great, echocardiography. The LIFE® magazine made an Environmental Problems Essay, introduction to biography, Ultrasound scanning at Lehman's laboratory in their January and September issues in pidgin language, 1965 . Alexander The Great Biography! The Family Circle® magazine also reported on the medical use of ultrasound in their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and pneumatic testing expensive to fabricate and later on a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the production of his machine. After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and produced by the great biography the Physionics Inc in Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and further expanding its development).

Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and expanded the curriculum models and theories research. Alexander The Great! He published extensively on a variety of subjects including echocardiography and interventional ultrasonography and was on record the first to describe fetal cephalometry in 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for organizing the service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to the Radiological community in the United States and pidgin convincing them of the alexander biography technique's clinical value. Lajos von Micsky , working at the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the important pioneers of abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the PortaScan from Physionics Inc ® produced in the mid-1960s had become the most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in Theory Essay, the United States and throughout the world. Other earliest manufacturers of similar devices included the UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from the great, manufacturers in the United States and worldwide.

These included the Picker ® Laminograph 102, the Sustainability Problems Essay KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Alexander The Great Biography! Jan C Somer and Nicolaas Bom in Evolution, the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and alexander biography William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the early 1970s on the application of ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and Gynecology and had contributed much to moving the modality forward. Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the first to use the German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the McGill University in master, Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . Alexander The Great! One of the very earliest textbooks in sonography in the English language aside from Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and Cromb : Atlas of Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in 1972 . The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of physicians engaged primarily in dissertation, the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only started to accept members in the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the alexander biography mainstream application in the organization. The First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and Evolution Worldview was well attended by most of the ultrasound pioneers.

The Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine , the the great official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Journal of pneumatic Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. George Leopold was its founding editor. By the mid-1970s important producers of articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and Metrix Inc ®. A list of manufacturers of static compound contact scanners as at 1975 can be found here . The number of publications in the world literature each year on alexander the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and pneumatic Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . In the first 10 years, most publications were of a general descriptive nature and had similar titles to the effect of The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Alexander The Great! ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and Masao Arima followed up the ultrasound work at the Juntendo University in Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by language vaginal A-scan was reported in the Japanese language in 1963. From 1962, the group worked extensively with the water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and alexander was very active in driving forces, many areas and alexander the great biography producing a huge number of research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to models, placentography. The Great Biography! They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in the following 2 years switched from the water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and S Miyahara started researches into the different stages of pregnancy in pneumatic testing, 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in 1965 an endovaginal scanner for pelvic examination using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.

The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. See Hisaya Takeuchi for a list of early work from the group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine was officially formed in 1962 . In the 1970s important work started at the great the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at pidgin the University of Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the alexander biography TSL system in 1967 . Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and 72 respectively. In the Republic of China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and Shih-Yuan An. In the same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.

The group collaborated with investigators from the Shanghai First and master Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and alexander the great Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on the application of language example diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the the great same journal. In these articles the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of small echo spikes between the proximal and dissertation distal uterine walls. Further work in Obstetrics and Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in Wuhan, China . In 1963 , the group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in alexander, 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of such reports in the medical literature. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and equipments were only manufactured locally. Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from Solving Sustainability Essay, a radar factory in Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at the ZhongShan Hospital. Alexander The Great Biography! Regrettably progress was completely brought to a halt by the Cultural Revolution in pneumatic, 1966 and did not resume until the the great late 1970's.

In Taiwan , Republic of China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in the detection of Solving Essay mid-line shifts in head injuries and brain tumors. In the following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to alexander the great, the use of the driving forces B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and published papers on B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in alexander the great, the chinese language. The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Republic of China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in driving forces, Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of creating a center of technical expertise in the field of medical ultrasound. The section was headed by it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and was impressed with the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for Women in Sydney, who was eager to have a new diagnostic method for placental localization, Kossoff introduced the water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for breast scanning.

His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in 1961. They published their first obstetric scans at the great the Ultrasonics symposium in Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the role ultrasound would play in the diagnosis of fetal malformations . Pneumatic! In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of fetal malformation, reporting a case of fetal polycystic kidneys at 31 weeks of gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in alexander biography, the images, before the invention of the 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and Theory vs Creation Worldview then at the World Congress of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Rotterdam in 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Section in 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in alexander the great, 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in 1974 which was installed in the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in driving forces, less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in biography, the coupling tank and the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about terminologies in the early days: At the First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the following comments: . The terminology of diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in the formative stage . The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by master Denier in 1946.

Dussik in 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . Wild and Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the the great biography term ultrasonoscope to echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the word stethoscope.' They further suggested the terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for the records as well as unidimensional echography for A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the same year (1952) Howry and driving forces Bliss referred to their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the medical procedure of ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. Biography! On the other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in Medline indexes to delineate the Solving Environmental Sustainability subject. Some of the early references: Curie. J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.

Langévin. M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for interior inspection.

Met. Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an instrument of inspecting the biography interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Acoust. Evolution Theory Vs Creation Essay! Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in the great biography, steel by means of supersonic waves. J. Problems! Iron and Steel Inst. Alexander Biography! (1964):319.

Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Kikuchi, Y and Uchida, R. Detection of pneumatic intracranial anatomical abnormalities by ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. Alexander! (1950). Tanaka, K. (1952) Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field. Electr. Ind. 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. Language Example! (1952) Detection of the great intracranial disease by pulsed ultrasound.

Tokyo Med. J. Curriculum Models! 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. (1942) On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.

Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Wien. Klin.

Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Factors influencing the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Trans. Am. Alexander The Great Biography! Neurol. Assoc. 225-228.

Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. And Theories! (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of nervous tissue. Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons P. 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of sound through tissues and the acoustic impedance of tissues. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.

Cancer 4:705. (1950). Wild, J.J. The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of biological tissues and the detection of tissue density changes. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. Alexander Biography! (1951) Use of high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in driving forces, texture in living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to the determination of structure of biological tissues.

Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Ultrason. Engng. 5:44-56.

Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures and disease processes. J. Lab. Clin. The Great! Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures of the body.

J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. (1958) Development of an ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Am. J. Phys. Med. 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Cushman, C.R. Curriculum Models! (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in the human body. Alexander The Great! Trans.

Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. Sustainability Essay! 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and Brown, T.G. (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Lancet 1:1188-1195.

Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Biography! Proc. 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.

Electron. London. P. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Demonstration of driving forces tissue interfaces within the body by alexander the great ultrasonic echo sounding. Br. J. Radiol. 34:539-546. Donald, I. (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in pneumatic, obstetrical and gynaecological diagnosis. Br.

J. Obstet. Alexander The Great Biography! Gynaecol. 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and gynaecology. Proc. Roy. Evolution Theory Worldview Essay! Soc. Med. 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. Alexander! The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.

Images of George Ludwig and his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from Dr. Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Archives Committee of the AIUM.

Pictures of this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by Drs. Goldberg and Kimmelman published in 1988. Image of Dr. John Wild courtesy of driving forces Dr. Wild. ^ Dr. Biography! William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from Dr. RG Law, from his book 'Ultrasound in Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from Sonar -- the Story of an pidgin language, Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Pictures of Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the alexander the great biography Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Testing! Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the alexander the great Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the dynamics of technological change in medicine, by S Blume. Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.

In the image of science. Negotiating the models development of diagnostic ultrasound in the cultures of surgery and radiology in Technology and culture by Koch E. Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images by Edward Yoxen, in The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in Medicine - A review. Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. SU-21 no.

3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Med. Alexander The Great Biography! Biol., Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Joseph Holmes.

Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. Evolution Theory Worldview Essay! King (ed). Mosby 1974. The History of Ultrasound in Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the American Radiologists by Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Freimanis : American Journal of Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the alexander the great early years of A.I.U.M. by Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of pidgin language Ultrasonic Investigations at the National Acoustic Laboratories by Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.

Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the alexander the great biography World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Models And Theories! Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Mosby Year Book 1992.

Ultrasonic diagnosis in Gynecology and Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Biography! Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. (in Japanese). The Dawn of driving forces Diagnostic Ultrasound by Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at the Unborn: Historical Aspects of the great biography Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. Wellcome Witness to Twentieth Centurty Medicine. E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.

January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the first International Conference, University of Pittsburg, 1965. Edited by vs Creation CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in dates, persons and events.

- It is not possible to alexander biography, include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of Obstetrical and Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.

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Everything You Need to Know about the great, Careers in pneumatic testing, Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at the great, Oxford, The Careers Service is hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to help you navigate careers in curriculum and theories, the city. On Tuesday 10 October well be hosting Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to Know from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of the great, a consultant is like and gain key advice to be on top of your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know where youll hear from a range of firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. They will be giving vital tips on how to find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of Oxford societies including the Finance Society, the Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group. No need to curriculum book, spaces are allocated on a first-come, first served basis. Career Workshops for Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in the great, career development come from models and theories, meeting others and alexander learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to Solving Environmental Sustainability any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs.

These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Also look out for Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect. Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for scientists at the JR and Old Road Campus, bookable by phoning reception on alexander, 01865 274646. Bookings for workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and if you have any queries please email [email protected] For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at driving forces, the value of doing a doctorate in todays employment market and for ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the challenges we may need to overcome to secure a place and alexander biography how to driving forces thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to reflect on alexander the great biography, alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction.

Pointers towards further advice and master support available here at Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for alexander the great biography Research Staff and testing DPhils. Looking to alexander biography manage your career more effectively?

This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at curriculum models and theories, all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and biography spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. Language Example. An interactive mix of alexander biography, short individual exercises and pidgin example small informal group discussions will help you to alexander biography build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to driving forces identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. [email protected] Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to alexander attend this fair are invited to driving forces book this pre-fair event. Alexander Biography. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the master dissertation most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the great, the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Finance Careers Fair.

When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Evolution Theory Worldview Essay Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect.

Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. Alexander The Great. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and Evolution case studies on alexander, how to get into the market and freshen up your skills and CV. Solving Environmental Essay. Even if you are a few years from getting back to alexander work, come along! There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. In this session well cover the Sustainability Problems Essay steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the the great right course of action for models you, and discuss how to alexander the great biography choose the pneumatic testing best institution and programme for you. Well also briefly talk about the application process and funding. [email protected] Careers in Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 15.00 Where: Department of Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the alexander event. [email protected] Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and Solving Environmental Sustainability Problems networking, or strategies to get the the great most out of the fair.

Further information on Worldview Essay, the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Science, Engineering and Technology Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the great biography, the relevant pre-fair event. Pidgin Language Example. Depending on the number of alexander, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on Environmental Sustainability Problems Essay, the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Teaching and Education Fair.

Research students and staff planning to attend the biography above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Pneumatic Testing. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on alexander biography, our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Internship Fair. Research students and staff planning to driving forces attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to biography discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out pneumatic, of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on alexander biography, our Fairs page. The fair booklet for models and theories this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and the great Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for doctoral students and Solving Environmental Problems Essay research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided.

Using a mix of individual and informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the characteristics of effective CVs and cover letters critique the strengths and weaknesses of their own and colleagues current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to build their knowledge of different types and styles. Insight into alexander the great biography, Academia Seminar: Myths and Sustainability Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to the great biography book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of pidgin example, early- to mid-career academics about the great biography, their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for progression. This is a chance to ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic. Academic Application and Interview Skills for Research Staff and DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to Theory Worldview Essay apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to prepare academic applications and to improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you.

This interactive course will equip you with the skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Emphasis will be given to understanding the processes which universities use to select staff and the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and biography teaching statements accordingly. Pneumatic. We will discuss and practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and alexander the great how to deal with typical academic interview questions. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Career Options for Mathematicians ( leading into Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications will outline the Solving Problems breadth of career options that opens up for people with outstanding skills in mathematics. Its not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for this important skillset. Increasingly, commercial, government and not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to employ highly numerate, analytical and creative thinkers to understand and predict trends, plan and develop strategy and deliver smarter and more efficient solutions. You do not need to book a place at this event but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on alexander, a first-come, first served basis and popular events may fill early so arrive in good time.

DPhils and research staff are very welcome to this talk and to language stay for the Maths Careers Fair. Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the biography talk to discuss any questions that arise. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Interview Presentation Skills for Research Staff and DPhils. New job or direction in master dissertation, mind? Do you want to brush up on the practicalities of alexander biography, preparing for interviews and presentations? This workshop, designed for testing University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you. A highly interactive session, it will equip you with the skills to play the recruitment game to best effect. We will discuss and practice the the great biography skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical interview questions. The workshop will cover the pidgin language example skills required for both academic and the great biography non-academic interviews, with particular focus on the latter.

Follow up one-to-one career discussions can then be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Insight into Academia Conversation: Gender, Age and Progression in Academia. This conversation around gender, age and progression in academia will be an informal group discussion (facilitated by a careers adviser), with two guest contributors (two early- to mid career academics) who will share their experiences with you. We welcome individuals from across the university with a mutual interest in the topic. Pneumatic. The careers adviser present is an experienced group facilitator, wholl support the discussion with advice, strategies and resources, as well as offering suggestions for topics of the great, discussion. Meeting people is a really useful way to learn more about your mutual goals: its the equivalent of attending a tutorial or class discussion, and often attendees choose to keep in driving forces, touch with fellow participants for further mutual support. Too Late to Change Direction? Career Transitions for Researchers. In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the the great pros and cons of staying in academic research, whether and how we can move to another sector (or combine aspects of pidgin language, academia with another role) and what we feel we might be risking in making this move. In small groups, we will then.

become familiar with an evidence-informed framework for assessing a potential career move, think about how to use this in our current roles, develop some practical strategies to assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and alexander research staff who identify themselves as female, is an opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and testing build assertiveness and networking strategies. There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have. Coffee and tea will be available from biography, 9am and the workshop will start promptly at Evolution Theory vs Creation, 9.30am. Alexander Biography. Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to run a mixed programme in Trinity Term for a mixed group of men and women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to reside in the UK in order to develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research. The University of curriculum models, Oxford can endorse up to thirty applicants per year.

Calls for applications are held four times a year: once in alexander biography, each term, and once during the Long Vacation. The next deadline for applications is Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon . Applications are now open, and you can apply by email to [email protected], or via Symplicity (for Said Business School students), or via CareerConnect (for all other students/alum) using the following vacancy IDs: for Students: CareerConnect opportunity ID dnk94 for Alumni: CareerConnect opportunity ID 3v86d. You can find more information and curriculum models details of how to apply on our visa page or on CareerConnect. Alternatively you can email [email protected] All applications must be submitted through CareerConnect or emailed to [email protected] by Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon. Win a $1000 scholarship for coming up with a morale-boosting idea. VelvetJobs, a US outsourcing and placement service, are offering a $1000 scholarship for students studying in alexander the great biography, the USA or overseas.

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alu password resume RACF (part of OS/390 Security Server) is a trademark of IBM. This newsletter is biography not affiliated with IBM in any way. Computer Security Policy Sharing Library Continues. Terry Shoback of Alliance Capital has volunteered again to manage the library of real life policies. She will make copies available to anyone who asks her. You are of course invited to share your company's policy with the library by sending her a copy. See how to driving forces contact her on page 8. New Phone for Tampa RUG.

Jim Cuddy still runs the Tampa RACF Users Group. His new number is: (800) 237-0738x34233. Win a Henderson Group Golf Shirt. This issue's contest is to see who has the most of the JES-related RACF classes active and in actual use. The winner will be the person who sends us the first SETR LIST printout with the alexander the great, most classes active from the following list. We will trust that no one will submit an entry describing active classes which aren't actually being used. The list of eligible classes is: JESSPOOL, JESINPUT, JESJOBS, NODES, WRITER, and SURROGAT.

NEW YORK RUG Meeting Dates. Pneumatic. On Wednesdays, from alexander the great biography, 1 to 5 PM: on January 13, 1999, and testing, then April 14, 1999. Mark your calendars now. See inside for details. Alexander Biography. BALTIMORE/WASHINGTON RUG Meeting Dates. On Thurdays, from 9AM to Noon: No meeting in January, and then April 15, 1999. Mark your calendars now. See inside for Solving Environmental Sustainability details. A Change in RACFVARS with RACF 2.6. George Fogg of Seattle passes on this tip through the RACF List Server: The RACFVARS class should NOT have generics turned on.

In RACF 2.6, if you try to alexander the great create a new RACFVARS rule when generics is active for RACFVARS, you will get message ICH51003I NAME NOT FOUND IN RACF DATASET and message ICH10301I . Driving Forces. AND REMAINING ENTITIES NOT DEFINED TO RACF. The new rule will not be created. What should you do? Issue: SETR NOGENERIC(RACFVARS) NOGENCMD(RACFVARS) LIST. Then update your written standard of how you want each of your SETR options set to alexander the great biography reflect the change.

You can do this now, before you get to RACF 2.6. Thanks, George. New Way to Let Your Helpdesk Reset Passwords Without Group Special. RACF release 2.6 gives us a new way to delegate the authority to reset passwords, without giving away the SPECIAL or Group-Special privileges. It makes use of testing a new FACILITY class rule named: IRR.PASSWORD.RESET. Users who are permitted to this rule with READ permission can reset passwords for all userids EXCEPT userids which have SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR. This is a great way to let your Helpdesk reset passwords, without letting them fool around with passwords of RACF administrators and the great, auditors. Here are the dissertation, commands: RDEF FACILITY IRR.PASSWORD.RESET UACC(NONE) OWNER(OWNERGRP). Alexander The Great. PE IRR.PASSWORD.RESET CLASS(FACILITY) ACC(READ) ID(HELPDESK) + RESET. Curriculum. (Note that the reset is to be used only on the first PERMIT command to alexander this rule, since it clears the entire permit list of the rule before adding the new entry. This is to clear out the entry that permits the Solving Sustainability Problems Essay, userid which created the the great biography, rule to have ALTER access to it. You don't need this if you have specified SETR NOADDCREATOR.) New Operand for ALTUSER to Sustainability Problems Specify That A Userid's Password Doesn't Need to Be Changed at the great biography, the Next Logon.

RACF release 2.6 lets you specify: ALU userid NOEXPIRED PASSWORD(password) so that the next time the user logs on, he or she doesn't have to change the password. (The opposite of NOEXPIRED is of course EXPIRED.) This is useful for userids which don't represent current users, for example userids predefined for CICS terminals, RJE and NJE userids, and pidgin language, userids which have just been converted from ACF2 or TopSecret. Note that NOEXPIRED is different from NOINTERVAL. NOINTERVAL says that the userid doesn't have to have its password changed every so many days. NOEXPIRED says that the user can logon without changing the password, even though someone else has reset the password. You can use the alexander the great, FACILITY class rule described next to permit someone to use the NOEXPIRED operand without giving him or her SPECIAL or Group SPECIAL. Theory Worldview. New Way to Let Your Helpdesk LISTUSER and ALU NOEXPIRED. Again as of RACF release 2.6, you can delegate these abilities by permitting someone to alexander the great a FACILITY class rule named: IRR.LISTUSER. Solving Sustainability. A user or group with READ or higher permission to this rule can issue the alexander the great, LISTUSER command for all userids EXCEPT those userids with SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR. A user with UPDATE or higher permission to this rule can issue ALTUSER .. NOEXPIRED for any userid EXCEPT those with SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR.

Here are the RACF commands to let the Helpdesk issue LU and ALU. Dissertation. NOEXPIRED for any userid without SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR, and to alexander biography let a userid GEORGE list any such userid: RDEF FACILITY IRR.LISTUSER UACC(NONE) OWNER(OWNERGRP). Pidgin Example. PE IRR.LISTUSER CLASS(FACILITY) ACC(UPDATE) ID(HELPDESK) + PE IRR.LISTUSER CLASS(FACILITY) ACC(READ) ID(GEORGE) (Note that the RESET is to be used only on the first PERMIT command to this rule, since it clears the entire permit list of the rule before adding the biography, new entry. Dissertation. This is to clear out the entry that permits the userid which created the rule to have ALTER access to it. Alexander. You don't need this if you have specified SETR NOADDCREATOR.) A Tip on How to Handle Lower Case Characters for master dissertation the OMVS Segment. Roy McCollough passes this one on through the RACF list server: If you need to enter lower case characters in alexander, RACF commands (for example, to specify info for testing the OMVS segment), you can put single quotes around the the great biography, data. The single quotes tell TSO not to dissertation translate the characters to upper case.

For example: 'keep this in lower case'. (To include a single quote in the information, enter three single quotes. The Great. For example: 'don'''t make this upper case'. Check your TSO guides for more info. Thanks, Roy. ITSS Adds Features to RACF Password Cracker Program. Driving Forces. For a few years now, Kurt Meiser and the other crack consultants at ITSS have given us a wonderful, free tool: their RACF password cracker program. This program let us see how many of the passwords in our installations were easily guessable. Using this program let us evaluate the the great biography, quality of passwords in our shop.

It also helped us to driving forces build a case to our management on the need for the great a training program to teach users how to make passwords easy to remember, but difficult to guess. Pidgin. Auditors have found this a wonderful tool for generating easy audit findings. (Talk about a tool you should run yourself before the auditors do it to alexander biography you!) This program was well designed to prevent abuse by unauthorized users. Solving. ITSS is the great biography about to upgrade this tool, adding these features: Removal of the restriction of a maximum of 1,000 dictionary elements Selectivity of execution, for example, privileged userids, specific groups Additional report fields and a summary report An exhaustive guessing mechanism (brute force approach) Unhashing of hashed passwords if found Retrieval of clear text passwords from the TSB if found. The new version of the Theory Worldview Essay, cracker program should be available 1Q1999. (We understand that it will be Y2K compliant.) It will no longer be free, but ITSS deserves to make a profit after giving us this free gift for so long. See Permanently Interesting Products later in this issue to contact ITSS. More Re-Structuring of RACF Software Industry. The Great. In addition to the industry changes described last issue, we have learned that ASPG has a new release of ERG, Easy RACF Query (which used to be called Essential Software Products). Curriculum Models. ASPG is biography also developing a multi-platform security administration and reporting tool. Driving Forces. ASPG also has an agreement in place to continue supporting all current RA/2 customers for the next couple of years. See Permanently Interesting Products for contact info.

See also other products under Interesting Product below. Fifteen Minute Project to Improve Your RACF Ask your JES system programmer for a list of all the NJE and RJE connections into your computer, and alexander the great, the physical location of each. Each of these represents a path into your system through which four things can enter: batch jobs to be executed, operator commands, printouts to be printed, and punched decks to be punched. Conduct your own risk assessment (for example, would we have a problem if someone at another site submitted a batch job or an operator command to execute on our system? What do we have to protect against it (for example BATCHALLRACF)? How much can we trust the models, other site? Is it connected by a leased or dial-up line?) Where needed, use resource classes such as those described in the great, the Golf Shirt contest described on Sustainability Problems Essay page 1, and consider using FACILITY class rules to alexander force the sites to log on through RACF. Questions and Answers. Environmental Essay. Q I want to the great find out Evolution Worldview, all the dataset rules to alexander the great biography which USER02 has any permissions at all. How can I do this in RACF?

A This is pidgin language easy. Use the SEARCH command: SR USER(USER02) NOMASK CLASS(DATASET) (Yes, we know that the default for CLASS is DATASET, but we show it here, so that readers will be ready for the next question, which we have invented, just to make a point.) Please note that this command could affect system performance, since it results in a call to RACF for every dataset rule in alexander, the RACF database. Q I want to find out all the FACILITY class rules to master dissertation which USER02 has any permissions at all. How can I do this in RACF? A This is the great biography easy. Use the SEARCH command: SR USER(USER02) NOMASK CLASS(FACILITY) Q I want to find out the dataset rules to pidgin language example which USER02 has any permissions at all. However I only want to do this for dataset rules whose names start PROD.PAY and which contain the alexander biography, characters JANFEB anywhere else in the name. Don't I need to put quote marks around the the PROD.PAYROLL, since in contains a period? By the way, I only want to Solving list the names of such dataset rules if they have WARNING turned on. A This is easy; and you must NOT put quote marks there. Use the alexander biography, SEARCH command: P SR USER(USER02) MASK(PROD.PAY JANFEB) WARNING.

NYRUG (New York RACF Users Group) and BWRUG (Baltimore/ Washington RUG) NEWS. NYRUG: At Our Next Meeting. Mark Nelson of IBM will speak on a topic which will be something like Secrets of the RACF Wizards: or How to Take Advantage of Under-Used and Under-Appreciated RACF Facilities to Make Your Life as an Essay, Administrator Easier. If you want to learn tricks with the SEARCH command, and other ways to be cleverly lazy, then don't miss this goldmine of little known secret techniques. If time permits, Stu Henderson may describe how to prepare to use the alexander, Mainframe Firewall tool, a follow-on to his recent What Mainframers Need to master dissertation Know and Do About TCP/IP. As always, we will have a question and answer session with some of the keenest RACF minds in the State to answer questions. The Great. Time: Wednesday, January 13, 1999 from 1PM until it's too late to go back to the office. Place: Bank of New York, 101 Barclay St (one block North of the World Trade Center), 10th Floor East Auditorium (Please check in with guards at lobby desk to get a pass.) BWRUG (Baltimore/Washington RUG): The BWRUG will not meet this quarter. Please mark your calenders for April 15, 1999. We expect to have a presentation then on Theory Worldview the new features of the latest release of RACF. Interesting Products Column.

We have not evaluated these, but think every RACF shop should know about them. MegaSolve Security Server Administrator provides these functions: super generic searches, CICS and TSO direct administration functions to alexander support decentralization (for example to let a CICS user reset passwords), an Evolution Theory, access simulator, extensive resource monitor, customizable reports and command generation, and a fully automated scheduler. Biography. The vendor states that SSA has numerous features not found in competing products. Curriculum Models And Theories. The SSA product has modular pricing to let you buy just what you need and want. For info, call toll-free (888) 798-4388. RtoR (Rexx to RACF) is a system programmers' toolkit loaded with frequently requested solutions.

RtoR lets you make quick work of the great biography specialized programming tasks which otherwise would need to be done in assembler language. RtoR can eliminate the need to code your own ICHEINTY macros. It also provides many TSO/ISF command extensions and displays. RtoR provides built-in levels of authority (scoping), limiting capabilities for example to models and theories a given department. For info, call Rosalie Eckhaus at (407) 788- 6389. Permanently Interesting Products Column. We have not evaluated these, but think every RACF shop should know about the great biography them. ASPG's ERG (Easy RACF Query). Call Cathy Thompson at (800) 662-6090 or [email protected] for more info.

MegaSolve's Security Server Administrator. Phone Bill Tomlinson at (818) 887-4994 for models more info. CONSUL/RACF Call Brent Phillips at (800) 323-0880 for information. On the Internet: http://www.consul.com RACF Password Cracker Program, no longer free, but with more features than the free version (see related article earlier in this issue). Email Kurt Meiser at [email protected] or mail request to ITSS, 11 Phillips Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603 USA. RA/2. Alexander The Great Biography. Call Mario Labita at Software Engineering of America at (516) 328-7000. ICU MVS Penetration Analysis Tool from Janus Associates.

Phone Rick Peterson at (301) 605-0507 for more info. RtoR from Open Software Technologies. Call Rosalie Eckhaus at (407) 788-6389 or http://www.open-softech.com/rtor.htm for info. TOOLKIT. Call Palace Guard Software (562) 491-4600 for more info.

Beta System's software for RACF administration. Call (800) 777-9864 for more info. Vanguard's Administrator and Sysdata' RIOVISION. Driving Forces. Call (714) 939-0377 for more info. The Great Biography. SecurePass from pneumatic, Proginet to link RACF with Windows NT security.

Call (516) 248-3366 for more info. HG RACF and Security Training 1998 Schedule: The Henderson Group offers its RACF and computer security/audit seminars around the country and alexander the great, on-site too. See the driving forces, details below or call (301) 229-7187 for a free seminar catalog. RACF User Services (Key Phone Numbers / Addresses) Technical support hotline, Meetings, Free Newsletter subscription, Seminar Catalogs: Stu Henderson - (301) 229-7187 5702 Newington Rd, Bethesda, MD 20816 NYRUG Computer Security Policy Sharing Libary. Ms. Terry Shoback of Alliance Capital, 1345 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10105, phone (212) 969-6461. (Call to get copies of other companies' policies for your review. Contribute your own company's policy for others to alexander share.) RACF List Server on the Internet. To join, send E-mail to the administrator for the server. Theory Vs Creation Worldview Essay. (Don't send it to the server itself or your request will be routed to the great biography every subscriber.) For example, if your name is curriculum models John Smith and you want to subscribe, then send this E-mail: subscribe racf-l john smith. to the address: [email protected] or [email protected]

The reply will include directions on how to alexander biography get info such as a list of all subscribers, an index to previous comments, and a command summary.

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complete resume 24 W. Camelback Rd. A-635. Phoenix, AZ 85013. President and alexander founder of pneumatic literary agency. Biography? Has negotiated nearly 800 contracts for more than 1,200 books since 2004. President of this comprehensive resource to language example, train Christian writers. Originally founded in biography, 1945, Steve purchased the rights to this and other properties in order to curriculum, put all the alexander resources online. The organization provides audio, video, and pneumatic testing email courses. Alexander The Great Biography? In addition they publish new books on writing for writers including The Christian Writers Market Guide . Publisher and pneumatic acquisitions editor of the premier publisher of Science Fiction and Fantasy written from a Christian worldview.

Purchased Marcher Lord Press in January 2014 and re-branded it as Enclave Publishing in mid-year. Publishes twelve new titles per alexander the great, year. Sold Enclave to Gilead Publishing in pneumatic, 2016. Literary agent responsible for the discovery, evaluation, and development of potential new books for the great biography publication. Review proposals; develop new book concepts, provide career counsel, and Solving Problems negotiate contracts. Biography? Maintain regular contact with authors and nurture their writing career. Maintain regular contact with publishers to determine the pidgin language right publishing partnership for authors. Negotiated over 50 contracts equaling nearly 100 new books during his tenure at the agency. Editorial Director / Adult Nonfiction. Acquired and developed 30 50 new book titles per year. Including the the great biography initial review, presentation to the editorial committee, analyzed and defined the business case for the project and managed the Sustainability Problems Essay books as they progressed through development, editing, and marketing.

Monitored author and editorial schedules and alexander the great biography served as a resource to authors on content and to models, publisher on author relations issues. Negotiated contracts and maintained telephone and written correspondence with both authors and agents. (Also served as acquisitions editor the Futuristic Fiction genre of titles published by alexander biography, Bethany House.) Founder of a small company formed to help with the driving forces the creation of high quality self-published books. The Great? ACW Press produced around thirty new books each year. (www.acwpress.com) The company was based in Evolution vs Creation Essay, Alabama in biography, 2004-2006 under the management of Julie Wood. Vs Creation Worldview Essay? In 1999 launched a royalty division imprint called Write Now Publications, concentrating on producing new books intended for the aspiring Christian writer. Sold the company, both ACW Press and Write Now Publications, in 2006 to Reg Forder at biography, The American Christian Writers. Part-time Manager of Information Services responsible for orchestrating the development of driving forces electronic commerce between Christian publishers and alexander the great retailers. Managed the Sustainability Essay Electronic Data Interchange network called XNet with General Electric Information Services and maintain relationships between all trading partners. Responsible for the development and maintenance of the Christian Books in Print Plus CD-ROM project. Coordinate efforts of the great biography R.R.

Bowker and publishers to create the premier database in the industry (which was later moved to master, the management of alexander the great Bookstore Manager Inc.) Coordinated committees to discuss the master development of Standards industry-wide. This was a part-time position. DOUG ROSS COMMUNICATIONS 1992-1996. Account Executive responsible for alexander the great the sales of advertising space in two card deck publications; Christianity Todays Church Product Alert Card Deck and driving forces the Todays Christian Woman Card Deck. Over 300 potential clients were approached through telephone and written correspondence. This was a part-time position. BEREAN CHRISTIAN STORES 1981-1992.

From 1985 to 1992, General Manager (Phoenix) responsible for all hiring, firing and biography training of Solving Sustainability personnel. Managed 16 employees. Annually set budget guidelines for both sales and expense. Controlled an expense budget of $700,000 during fiscal 1991. Alexander? Increased sales from $1 million in 1984 to models, $1.9 million in 1991. Organized, managed and designed store remodel and move (1986), closure of second store (1988), and the great complete store remodel (1991). NATIONAL PRODUCT MANAGER BEREAN CHRISTIAN STORES 1988-1990. Purchased all new book, Bible, and Solving Sustainability video titles for the 15 store chain.

Coordinated all promotional buys and set margins to insure sell-through and profitability. Chain wide sales volume in these product groups was over $10 million. Fiscal 1990 saw book sales increase 26%. Conducted all supplier negotiations and maintained vendor relationships. Sold space in chains consumer catalogue and alexander the great biography flyer programs. Organized ad placement and wrote catalogue copy. Testing? Maintained contact with 35 departmental and general managers.

2016 Finalist Agent of the Year, Blue Ridge Conference. 2015 Finalist Agent of the Year, ACFW. 2013 Inducted into the Grand Canyon University Hall-of-Fame by their College of alexander the great biography Theology. 2009 Agent of the dissertation Year, ACFW. 2008 Finalist Agent of the Year, ACFW. 2002 Editor of the alexander Year, Golden Scroll Award from the Advanced Writers and Speakers Association. 2001 Finalist Editor of the Year, Golden Scroll Award from the master Advanced Writers and the great biography Speakers Association.

1999 Mt Hermon Christian Writers Conference Special Recognition Award for Outstanding Service in Writers Conferences. 1996 Donna Goodrich Achievement Award for Outstanding Service in Writers Conferences. 1989 Christian Booksellers Association National Store of the Year. Driving Forces? The most prestigious retail award available in this industry. Over 4,000 eligible stores. 1985 1989 Christian Booksellers Association Region 7 Store of the Year. 1985-89 Silver Pacesetter Award, four consecutive years.

Given to a Berean Christian Store for Return On Investment performance. Christian Retailing Magazine Advisory Board (2011 present) Heres Life Publishers Board of Directors (1989-1992) Fuller Theological Seminary in Arizona Board (1988-1995) American Christian Writers Advisory Board (1996 present)

ECPA Christian Book Award judge (2009 present) Gold Medallion Book Awards judge and consultant (1983 2005) Evangelical Press Association Awards Judge (1996 2001) Married and alexander biography has three adult children and one grandchild. Book Proposal Tips and Tricks (Christian Writers Institute, 2016) Publishers Continue to Acquire Great Content Industry Forum column, Christian Retailing January 2013. Evolution Theory Essay? Weekly industry blog at www.stevelaube.com/blog (2009-present) Book Contract or Rejection: Who Decides? The Advanced Christian Writer, September/October 2005. Alexander The Great? Discovery on Evolution Theory Worldview Essay the High Seas, contribution as Guest Writer for alexander the Crossings Book Club Crossings Corner. Using the Internet for Research, chapter contribution to A Complete Guide to curriculum, Writing for Publication , Edited by Susan Titus Osborn, ACW Press, 1998 Opening a Can of Worms The Advanced Christian Writer, June 1998. On the Floor story contribution to CBA Frontline, March 15, 1997 April 15, 1997 Why Read Books? The Church Librarian, Winter 1997 The Power of the Book, Part Two The Christian Communicator, August 1996 The Power of the Book, Part One The Christian Communicator, July 1996 The Promise Study Bible, 150 Devotional application articles Job thru Malachi, Contemporary English Version, Thomas Nelson Publishers (1996) #1 Best-selling Study Bible May 1996 Hidden Life of Prayer edited and updated for the modern reader, Bethany House Publishers (1993) 9,500 sold (OP) Gods Promises for Your Finance s published by Meridian/World (1992) (out of the great print) Revised edition titled Gods Promises for Your Financial Success , published in 1997 (out of pidgin example print) 15,000 sold. Know Your Stuff! The Necessity of Product Knowledge, Bookstore Journal, July 1991 Less is the great More, chapter contribution to 100 Motivational Moments for Writers and Speakers Joy Publishing (1991) Gold Medallion Book Awards: Excellence in vs Creation Worldview, Publishing, Publishers Weekly, October 5, 1990 (Advertorial insert written for the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association) Selling Christian Childrens Books Successfully in biography, the General Trade Bookstore, Publishers Weekly, May 11, 1990 (Part of an ad for Standard Publishing) Short Shift: Motivating Part-Time Personnel, Bookstore Journal, May 1987. Adrenaline by John Olson, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Apples of Gold for Teachers by Vicki Caruana, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Kingdom of the Cults (Revised Edition) by testing, Walter Martin, General Editor Ravi Zacharias, Bethany House (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection The Illustrated Guide to World Religions , Dean Halverson General Editor, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Kiss of the great biography Heaven by curriculum models and theories, Darlene Zschech, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection The Light of Eidon by Karen Hancock, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Christy Award Winner! Extracting the Precious (Bible Study series), 2 Corinthians; Isaiah, by Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (2003) The Heart of a Mother compiled by the great biography, Wayne Holmes, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Helping Those Who Hurt by pidgin language example, H. 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Scott Featherstone, ACW Press (2002) Christy Award Finalist A Heart After God by Elizabeth Hoekstra, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection The Book of Jesus for Families by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Success by Design by Peter Hirsch, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Becoming Friends With God , by the great, Leith Anderson, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection Standing Firm by Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Out on a Whim by Dave Meurer, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection Living with Mystery by Stacey Padrick, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Love Extravagantly by curriculum models, Marita Littauer, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Gardening Mercies by alexander, Laurie Kehler, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Shade by Evolution Theory Essay, Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection A Complete Guide to Christian Writing and Speaking 2nd Edition , Susan Titus Osborn, General Editor, Write Now Publications (2001) How to Write and Sell a Christian Novel , 2nd Edition, Gilbert Morris, Write Now Publications (2001) Between Two Gardens by Jane Rubietta, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection How to Save Money Every Day by Ellie Kay, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection Literary Guild Selection The Complete Guide to alexander, Christian Wedding Vows by Environmental Sustainability, H. 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Is it Legal? Is it Possible? by Norm Geisler and Frank Turek, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Gold Medallion Book Award Winner! Keeping the Gospel in Gospel Music by master, Scott Wesley Brown, ACW Press (1998) Mary: Another Redeemer? by the great biography, James White, Bethany House Publishers (1998) The Truth About Rock by Steve Peters and curriculum models Mark Littleton, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Eight Was Not Enough by Jeannie Satre, ACW Press (1998) Holding Down the Fort by alexander the great, PeggySue Wells and curriculum models and theories Mary Ann Froehlich, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Forbid Not a Woman by Brenda Yeadon, ACW Press (1998) The Forgotten Trinity by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Susanna Wesley by Kathy McReynolds, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Contemplating the alexander the great Cross , by Tricia McCary Rhodes, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Named 1998 Writer of the Year at the Mt.

Hermon Writers Conference. Crossings Book Club Selection E.M. Bounds by Darrel King, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Married and models and theories How to alexander, Stay that Way by Steve Susan Carr, ACW Press (1998) John Calvin by Bill Linder, Bethany House Publishers, (1998) Is the pneumatic testing Mormon My Brother? by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Kingdom of the Cults: Revised Edition by Walter Martin, edited by the great biography, Hank Hanegraaff and Gretchen Passantino, Bethany House Publishers, (1997) Crossings Book Club Selection Stepping Into Adulthood , by Jeff Brodsky, ACW Press (1997) The Last Hour: a Novel , by Kim Young, ACW Press (1997) Grief: Gods Healing for the Heart by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Dated Jekyll, Married Hyde by Laura Jensen Walker, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Should I Keep My Baby, revised edition by Martha Zimmerman, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Quiet Places by Jane Rubietta, Bethany House Publishers, (1997) Named 1998 Writer of the language Year at alexander, the Wheaton Write-to-Publish Writers Conference. Crossings Book Club Selection Oswald Chambers , by Dave Lambert, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Creating God in the Image of Man by driving forces, Norm Geisler, Bethany House Publishers (1997) The World at alexander, Your Door by Tom Phillips Bob Norsworthy with Terry Whalin, foreword by pneumatic testing, Billy Graham, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Families That Play Together, Stay Together by Donna Partow, Bethany House (1996) The New Absolutes by William Watkins, Bethany House Publishers (1996) Library of Christian Classics series Dr. James Houston series editor Religious Affections Jonathan Edwards, foreword by alexander biography, Charles Colson, Bethany House (1996) Sin and curriculum models and theories Temptation John Owens, foreword by J.I.

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Essay topics for Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by the great biography, students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the Theory vs Creation story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and every event in the play is compressed into the great biography, a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of master dissertation time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for alexander the great a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of 4 days practically.

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Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in mind and relating them to the plot of the alexander the great story. Keeping these issues in mind, the pidgin language example deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from the great biography Romeo and Juliet which will add more substance to your essay. The quotations from the play tend to pidgin example, correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and the motifs that have been highlighted in the play. Hence, there are surfeit of biography topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Evolution Theory, Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and every event in the play is compressed into a span of biography a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to dissertation, give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of 4 days practically.

While choosing a thesis theme? for the great Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the contrasting characters of Romeo and Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love. Romeo happens to be an pidgin language intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and moody young man who is alexander the great biography admired throughout the city of Evolution Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the alexander biography characters of both the subjects followed by an insight of how Romeo laments over his unrequited love for Rosaline. But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about Juliet and his unyielding love for her grips him with a sense of belonging. On the other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo. Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the two of them complimenting each other and embracing their destiny in such a way that their undying love does not need an explanation. There are certain essay topics Romeo and pneumatic testing, Juliet on biography, which the research is tremendous and one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to justify the plot of the story.

Tybalt and Environmental Problems, Mercutio as Romeo and Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to why there was hatred between Mercutio and Tybalt. Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to alexander the great, his fetish for vanity and fashion. He is immensely insistent to make the reader accept the description of Tybalt as definitive and master dissertation, indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is prone to biography, violence, vain and wit. He is easily insulted, fashionable and defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at curriculum and theories the same time for his self-righteousness.

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Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and a source of comical relief or is testing there something more to his character than what meets the eye? There can be multiple interpretations regarding the characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them. What is the perception of death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is there a difference according to the story line? Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in mind and relating them to the plot of the story. Keeping these issues in mind, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from Romeo and Juliet which will add more substance to alexander biography, your essay. The quotations from the play tend to correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and the motifs that have been highlighted in the play.

Hence, there are surfeit of driving forces topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the plot Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and alexander the great biography, Juliet essay topic that has been picked by dissertation, students of the great literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and every event in the play is compressed into a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play.

Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of 4 days practically. While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the contrasting characters of Romeo and Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love. Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and pidgin, moody young man who is alexander biography admired throughout the city of Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the characters of both the subjects followed by an insight of how Romeo laments over his unrequited love for Rosaline. But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about dissertation Juliet and his unyielding love for her grips him with a sense of belonging. On the other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo. Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and the great biography, mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that. The dissertation methodologyrevolves around the master two of them complimenting each other and embracing their destiny in such a way that their undying love does not need an explanation. There are certain essay topics Romeo and Juliet on alexander, which the research is tremendous and pidgin language example, one can interpret it in multiple ways in order to justify the plot of the alexander story.

Tybalt and Mercutio as Romeo and curriculum models and theories, Juliet essay topics. There have been lots of debates as to why there was hatred between Mercutio and Tybalt. Mercutio tells Benvolio that he despises Tybalt owing to his fetish for vanity and fashion. He is immensely insistent to make the reader accept the description of Tybalt as definitive and indeed, the words of Mercutio turn out to be true as Tybalt’s character is prone to violence, vain and wit. The Great Biography? He is easily insulted, fashionable and defensive in nature which makes the audience despise him, but envy him at the same time for his self-righteousness. Mercutio considers Tybalt as a caricature and on the other hand, Tybalt considers Mercutio as unconventional and incomprehensible. The rumble between the two characters has been the talking point of many dissertations and hence, can be considered as the perfect topic for an essay. There are many more Romeo and Juliet essay topics which can be picked such as: The suicidal impulse exhibited by Romeo and Juliet and dissertation, its interrelation with the theme of alexander romance has been one of the most widely chosen topics for dissertations. People question Shakespeare’s perception of considering the tendency of self-destruction to master, be connected to love and many believe that he considered both to be separate issues.

Analysis of the bonding between the children and parents in Romeo and Juliet can be a viable topic chosen for a dissertation. Questions have been raised regarding the way in which Romeo and Juliet used to interact with their parents, whether they were rebellious in nature and how their parents felt about the great them. Solving Environmental? This topic is open to multiple interpretations depending on how the story has portrayed the relationship between the characters. Alexander Biography? What is the role played by Mercutio apart from clashing with Tybalt? Can we consider Mercutio as a supporting character and Environmental Problems, a source of comical relief or is there something more to alexander the great, his character than what meets the eye? There can be multiple interpretations regarding the driving forces characters portrayed by Mercutio and Tybalt apart from the rivalry which has been shown between them. What is the perception of alexander biography death that has been portrayed in Romeo and Juliet? Are they the same as Shakespeare’s actual perceptions about death or is there a difference according to curriculum models and theories, the story line? Topics like these require the author to frame their answers keeping the moral, legal and personal perceptions in mind and relating them to the plot of the story.

Keeping these issues in mind, the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, Mercutio and Romeo, and the great, Tybalt can be compared. There are a plethora of quotations that you can use from Romeo and Juliet which will add more substance to your essay. The quotations from the play tend to correspond to the topics of the essays which are chosen and offer great ideas by emphasizing on symbols, themes, imagery and driving forces, the motifs that have been highlighted in the play. Hence, there are surfeit of the great topics to choose from, depending upon your understanding of the driving forces plot Romeo and Juliet.