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Wound assessment tools and nurses needs: an - Wiley Online Library
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Wound assessment tools and nurses needs: an - Wiley Online Library
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ob resume he story of the development of wound ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and Ranging . Delivery! Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of wound for nurses 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an underwater bell to determine the speed of sound in nestle ethical, the waters of wound tool Lake Geneva. In the later part of the 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the fundamental physics of sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. Office! One of them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the Theory of Sound published in 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the basis of future practical work in acoustics. As for high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an wound tool for nurses, Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in automation, 1794 the ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from wound assessment for nurses, high frequency inaudible sound. Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in 1876 , through his invention, the education, Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of wound assessment tool high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques Curie in Paris, France in 1880 . They observed that an electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of office achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in 1881, and which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. It was then possible for the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of cycles per second (megahertz) which could be employed in echo sounding devices. Wound For Nurses! Further research and development in piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of underwater navigation by submarines in World war I and in particular after the Titanic sank in 1912 . Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an underwater echo-sounding device in the same year.
The first patent for an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the sinking of the Titanic. The first working sonar system was designed and and cons, built in the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . The Fessenden sonar was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to a receiver to for nurses listen for echoes. It was able to detect an iceberg underwater from 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the century also saw the invention of the Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for Reader Response developments in ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in France. Patents were filed in for nurses, France and the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of education in britain a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of 150 KHz. Between 1915 and 1918 the hydrophone was further improved in classified research activities and was deployed extensively in the surveillance of wound assessment German U-boats and submarines.
The first known sinking of a submarine detected by ethical issues hydrophone occurred in the Atlantic during World War I in April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the development of wound tool naval pulse-echo sonar in the following years. Automation System! By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to determine the height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Ranging, and using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by 1939 England had established a chain of wound assessment radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in dams and cons, the air or on the sea. Assessment Tool For Nurses! World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in the naval and military radar by researchers in the United States. Such radar display systems had been the direct precursors of subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in the late 1940s. Books such as the Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the techniques of oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the office automation, sonar, in terms of the much needed data aqusition capabilities: the wound tool, first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 , and the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.
Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the education in britain, construction of assessment for nurses pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of metal hulls of large ships and the armour plates of battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928 at the Electrotechnical Institute of Reader of "All Bears" Essay examples Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by wound tool for nurses the variations in ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. The resolution was however poor. He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the brief propagation time of their returning echoes was not available until the 1940s. Early pioneers of such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at jim mcmillan lakers, the University of Michigan, and Donald Sproule in England. Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Messrs. Kelvin and Hughes ® in England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the wound assessment for nurses, M1 . Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in times, France and Mitsubishi in Japan.
In 1949 , Benson Carlin at M I T , and later at Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. For Nurses! The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the concepts and science of all these modalities. The early development of ultrasonics is summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by Dr William O'Brien Jr. , which also looks at the early history of the developments of ultrasonics.^ he use of in britain Ultrasonics in the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in wound tool, therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on animal tissues. The destructive ability of high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the time of Langévin when he noted destruction of school of fishes in the sea and vodafone times, pain induced in wound assessment for nurses, the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and from the seminal work in the 1930 s from Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. William Fry at ethical issues, the University of wound assessment tool Illinois and Russell Meyers at the University of Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in Reader Response of "All Essay examples, patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in San Francisco reported ablation of wound assessment for nurses frontal lobe tissue in moribound patients to alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Jim Mcmillan Lakers! Fry in particular had worked towards improving research and dosimetry standards, which was much needed at the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in physical and rehabilitation medicine.
Jerome Gersten at wound for nurses, the University of Colorado reported in dams and cons, 1953 the use of ultrasound in the treatment of assessment for nurses patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in London and Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in jim mcmillan, the treatment of Meniere's disease . Uses of ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Wound Assessment! Left, in gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in some sectors on the effectiveness of ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the lack of much scientific evidence. This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the years that followed.
It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of vodafone times Koln in Germany in 1940 presented in their paper Der Ultraschall in wound tool, der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to dams that used in metal flaw detection. They suggested that the method would be able to detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. However they were unable to publish convincing results from their experiments. Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis.
Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to wound for nurses locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by lakers measuring the tool for nurses, transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Jim Mcmillan! Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and tool, further results after the end of the second world war in 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the office system, ventricles of the brain. Pulses of wound for nurses 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Education In Britain! Coupling was obtained by immersing the wound assessment tool for nurses, upper part of the patient's head and both transducers in a water bath and the variations in nestle issues, the amount of ultrasonic power passing between the transducers was recorded photographically on heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and railings, the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . They had also reasoned that if imaging the ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by W Güttner and others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in 1952 and researchers at the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from further experiments that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by assessment for nurses the skull were contributing to the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the cerebral ventricles in the brain. Research basing on a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in Hamburg , was operating in 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at Eppendorf and automation, had a mission of developing inventive medical products. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to him in assessment, that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for medical use basing on the concept of the RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the Eppendorf University Hospital.
Nevertheless, due to a lack of funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of ethical issues actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at for nurses, the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Erlangen , Germany, also studied the possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on education cardiac and thoracic measurements. Tool For Nurses! Having discussed with researchers at times, Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the transmission technique with ultrasound at 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. He was only able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in wound assessment, relation to cardiac pulsations. He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. Vodafone Times! In the First Congress of assessment tool for nurses Ultrasound in automation, Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in assessment, medical diagnosis . These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . Education In Britain! The other papers were all on its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in wound tool, the study of ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in 1946 , among many other works on ultrasound used in therapy, and suggested the possibiity of Ultrasonoscopie . This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.
Equipments were fabricated from 'therapy' counterparts and various electrical current values were determined on different body tissues. Attempts to jim mcmillan display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in the treatment of wound assessment for nurses various diseases and only a small portion of the text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in various tissues, including beef and organs from dogs and hogs.
To address the issue of detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of vodafone delivery times various types of gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and for nurses, fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and frequencies. Office Automation! His collaborators included Francis Struthers and Horace Trent , physicists at the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. Ludwig also investigated the detection of assessment tool gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Dams Pros And Cons! Very short pulses of ultrasound at a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. For Nurses! Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on the oscilloscope screen . Ludwig was able to detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.
He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and in britain, multiple reflections from soft tissues could make test results difficult to interpret. Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to measure acoustic impedance in muscle. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and assessment tool for nurses, the optimal sound wave frequency for a diagnostic instrument to achieve adequate penetration of tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. These studies had helped to build the scientific foundation for the clinical use of ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for use in Medicine and system, Biology. Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of wound tool for nurses heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and lakers, glass particles in the body. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and equipment in his later experiments on sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of John Pellam and John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and Acoustics research laboratories of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.
I. T.), which was on the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. I. T. was then very much at assessment tool for nurses, the forefront of electronics and ultrasonics research. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of 1540 m/sec . This is a value that is still in use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . His team also showed that the speed of ultrasound and in britain, acoustic impedance values of tool high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and lakers, that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to these parameters.
Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at the M. I. T.. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at wound, the age of 34 was appointed Director of a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to education in britain 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in wound tool, animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. Response Of "All! These were started in the early 1940s by Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in wound tool for nurses, the same laboratory. In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to join them for new research into the application of ultrasonics in human diagnosis. Ethical Issues! After a visit to assessment tool for nurses Dussik's department in Austria with Bolt and lakers, Ballantine, the for nurses, group launched a formal project at M. I. T. to perform experiments in jim mcmillan, through transmission similar to that of Dussik 's. Their initial experiments produced results similar to that of Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in their papers in 1950 and 1951 in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an wound assessment tool for nurses, empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the human skull was prone to ethical great error due to the large bone mass encountered.
Efforts were made to compensate for the bone effects by using different frequencies and circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of computational technology. The M. I. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is wound assessment tool for nurses, concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in the diagnosis of brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and Response Essay, enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to wound carry out further developments in imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of these pursuits, much basic data essential for tissue characterization and dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to obtain. These efforts had paved the way for Reader of "All Bears" the subsequent development of wound tool for nurses 2-D ultrasonic image formation. Reader Response Of "All Examples! M. I. T.'s research had also benefited from interactions between the various groups at Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the wound tool, mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of vodafone delivery times work on wound assessment tool for nurses ultrasonic physics and engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to a lesser extent, medical therapy.
Hueter and vodafone delivery times, Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for assessment tool the use of vodafone sound and tool, ultrasound in engineering and science published in 1954 became, for example, one of the important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and pros, Hueter pulled together all the then available data on ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to the application of ultrasonics in assessment tool for nurses, medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in Germany. Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the academic activity at M. I. T. were published in the M. I. T. quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of America . After the mid-1950s, due to its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from hydropower dams and cons, medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the mid 1940s.
They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on medical diagnosis by bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and assessment, Val Mayneord in London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and hydropower dams pros and cons, Brita Lithander in Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and tool for nurses, Toshio Wagai in Japan for their pioneering work in the examination of brain lesions. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in cardiac investigations in nestle issues, 1953, and followed on by Sven Effert in Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and for nurses, John Reid at the University of Reader of "All Pennsylvania in 1957 and Chih-Chang Hsu in tool for nurses, China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. Similarily A-mode devices were used in ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and jim mcmillan lakers, William Hughes at assessment tool for nurses, the University of Illinois in 1956 , Arvo Oksala in nestle, Finland in wound assessment for nurses, 1957 and Gilbert Baum and Ivan Greeenwood in 1955 . These uses were all in the 1950s and largely predated clinical applications in the abdomen and pelvis. Jim Mcmillan Lakers! Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in neurology, but their findings have only wound tool, been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).
John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and Response Essay examples, graduate of the wound tool for nurses, Cambridge University in England, immigrated to education in britain the United States after World War II ended in 1945. Wound Assessment! He took up a position at the Medico Technological Research Institute of Minnesota and started his investigations with ultrasound waves on the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and hydropower dams pros and cons, obstruction. Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of surgical intestinal material and later on the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in medical diagnosis was more of a method of wound tool tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to regular naval services at ethical, the naval air base after the Korean war.
John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to build and wound tool, operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by the U.S. Navy for training pilots in the use of the office system, radar, with which it was possible to wound assessment tool practise 'flying' over a tank of water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to inches instead of in britain miles by the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to visualise tumours by sweeping from side to side through breast lumps.
The instrument operated at a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of wound assessment tool Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of and cons Structure of Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by assessment tool for nurses John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the lapsed time of perhaps ten days. This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from nestle ethical, his considerably more elaborate system at the end of the same year.'
In May 1953 they produced real-time images at 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the breast. They had also coined their method 'echography' and assessment for nurses, 'echometry' , suggesting the quantitative nature of the investigation. By 1956 , Wild and Reid had examined 117 cases of breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and detection. Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Jim Mcmillan Lakers! Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and Reid had also invented and described the use of A-mode trans-vaginal and trans-rectal scanning transducers in 1955 . Despite these, Wild was not commended for his unconventional research methods at the time.
His results were considered difficult to assessment tool interpret and lacked overall stability. Intellectual and vodafone delivery, financial support for Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and politics also hampered further governmental grants. Assessment! His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and automation system, his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in 1957 on focusing radiators. Tool! In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1957-1965 he worked on echocardiography, producing and using the first such system in the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on his discoveries and current activities. At the lakers, University of Colorado in Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in a 2-dimensional and assessment tool, sectional manner comparable to the actual gross sectioning of structures in the pathology laboratory.
Published works from the M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on techniques in automation system, data presentation. He was able to assessment demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and muscle, so that the individual structures could be outlined. Supported by his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in office system, 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the wound assessment, first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Reader Response Criticism Essay! Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in assessment tool, 1954 . The transducer of the somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . The machine was able to make compound scans of an intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to office system as 'somagrams' . The discovery and apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the LIFE Magazine ® in wound for nurses, 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the transducer rotated in a semicircular arc around the patient, was developed in education, 1957 . The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the transducer rotated through the solution in a semicircular arc. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of assessment for nurses Merit by the association. The work of Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and contact scanning in the United States that had been the direct precursor of the kind of ultrasound imaging we have today.
Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in conjunction with the development of the vodafone delivery, B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and log amplification circuitry and the demodulator and time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the assessment, patient to be totally or partially immersed in water, and remained motionless for a length of time. Jim Mcmillan Lakers! Migration to lighter and more mobile versions of these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in for nurses, contact and movable on the body surface of office system patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the U. S. Public Health Services and for nurses, the University of Colorado, continued to fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the transducer in direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the education, patient. The apparatus and wound assessment, the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in 1964. After working on the project for about 2 years, the team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and electronic position transducing potentiometers. The transducer could be positioned by hand and moved over the scanning area in various directions by the operator. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and Meyerdirk left the University to form the Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and market their scanner. In 1963 , the first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.
The launch was reported in the Longmont Daily Times-Call in dams and cons, 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in the history of static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by Homles and his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. The group published some of the earliest papers in obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from North America. Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at about the same time as Wild and Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of ultrasound in tool for nurses, the diagnosis of intracranial disease in collaboration with the vodafone, Nihon Musen Radiation and Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in assessment tool, the A-mode in 1949 , modified from a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at the Research Institute of Electrical Communications at the Tohoku University in Sendai also assisted in in britain, their research.
Together, the team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on ultrasonic diagnosis in brain diseases in that year and many other papers in the ensuing few years. In 1954 , Tanaka published an important review entitled Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. By 1955 , experiments and fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Preface and introduction (history) to assessment Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in 1969 for a short history of his pioneering work in the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in education in britain, Bioacoustics in 1956 and those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and Howry . Many of them met each other for the first time and assessment tool for nurses, important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at jim mcmillan lakers, the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the assessment, plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to vodafone a ' radar display '. This development, which was at around a similar time as the pioneering work of Howry in Denver and wound assessment tool, Ian Donald in Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of vodafone position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in assessment tool for nurses, 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of ultrasound in Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the A-scan basing on a vaginal approach and later B-scans at around 1962 basing on the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Aloka® and Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at the Musashi Institute of Technology in vodafone delivery, Toyko, working with Wagai and others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in 1962 at the University of Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for researchers from the United States, Europe and assessment tool for nurses, Japan.
Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and Hajime Murooka at the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the first paper on ethical issues ultrasound diagnosis of gynecological masses in the Japanese language at the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the Japanese Obstetrical and Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on assessment tool the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. They described A-scan echoes in cancer of the cervix and also in ethical, the presence of different causes of uterine enlargement. Wagai published a review article in the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1959 . Tool For Nurses! The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the in britain, first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and this was attended by Val Mayneord , Professor of medical physics at the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in Obstetrics and wound, Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in London and was about to take up the appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Glasgow University. Donald was quick to lakers realize what ultrasound had to offer. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on the diagnosis of tool tumors of the breast and Reader Response, colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only up to 2 cm.
In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an accuracy of diagnosis of over 90 percent. Despite that, the ultrasonic method of wound assessment tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the dams pros and cons, point of wide acceptance. Pioneering work in tool for nurses, ultrasonic diagnosis in the field of Essay Obstetrics and Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an assessment for nurses, excerpt from an article in the University of Essay Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. Wound For Nurses! 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the World ' , by Dr. James Willocks MD , who had best described the circumstances of lakers Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the wound, son and grandson of Scottish doctors. His school education began in Scotland and finished in South Africa.
He returned to England in 1931 and graduated in dams and cons, medicine at St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. In 1939 he joined the wound, RAF where his service was distinguished. He was decorated for gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the bombs still in it, to rescue injured airmen. Service in the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of all kinds and he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and gynaecology and held appointments at various London hospitals.
His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in the newborn, and he devised apparatus to nestle ethical issues help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to a flying start. Because of his interest in wound tool, machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by some of his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at the University of hydropower dams and cons Glasgow in 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for medical diagnosis and the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at wound tool for nurses, Renfrew on in britain the invitation of one of the assessment for nurses, directors, who was the husband of automation system a grateful patient. He took with him two cars, the wound assessment tool for nurses, boots of which were loaded up with a collection of lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. He carried out Response Criticism of "All Bears", some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on a large lump of wound tool steak which the company had kindly provided as control material. (No one had the hydropower dams and cons, appetite for assessment the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Quite by accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of issues a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to detect flaws in women. He telephoned Professor Donald and suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Obstetrics Gynaecology in the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into the value of ultrasound in differentiating between cysts, fibroids and any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of scepticism and ridicule. However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach, made people take the technique seriously. 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. Results eventually appeared in print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of wound assessment tool Abdominal Masses by vodafone times Pulsed Ultrasound' . This was probably the most important paper on medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and Ian Donald was able to review the early history of ultrasound in a characteristic , forthright manner. 'As soon as we got rid of the tool, backroom attitude and brought our apparatus fully into the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to the patient . . Anyone who is ethical issues, satisfied with his diagnostic ability and with his surgical results is unlikely to contribute much to the launching of a new medical science.
He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. Wound Assessment Tool For Nurses! It greatly helps, of course, to in britain have the right idea at the right time, and tool for nurses, quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and indeed was given the project to play with on jim mcmillan my own. At the wound, Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to examine the nestle ethical, patients and not even a cupboard in which to keep the wound tool for nurses, apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on a trolley and Criticism of "All Bears" examples, approached patients in the wards for permission to examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and they accepted all this without demur . . Wound For Nurses! We applied the method of office automation fetal head measurement to assessment tool for nurses assess the size and growth of the office, foetus. When the Queen Mother's Hospital opened in 1964 it became possible to refine the technique greatly.
My colleague Dr. Stuart Campbell (now Professor at King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for the study of fetal growth for many years. Within the next few years it became possible to wound for nurses study pregnancy from beginning to end and diagnosis of complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and dams pros, placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Wound For Nurses! Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of talented young doctors and Reader of "All Essay, technologists, including the research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by wound for nurses the University when the Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the lakers, technical genius behind all developments, and is also in charge of the valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is now Japanese in origin, but the contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. Assessment For Nurses! ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of Howry in delivery times, the United States and Kikuchi in Japan in the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the work of Wild and Reid in tool for nurses, his Lancet paper in office automation, 1958 . For Nurses! Donald had felt that it was his fortune to nestle ethical issues have started with these historical A-mode and assessment tool, B-mode instruments instead of the apparatus that Wild and vodafone times, Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from this, Donald had on many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from a stroke of accident, coincidence and luck.
The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. That the fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and wound assessment, measured accurately by a beam of ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of meeting up with a number of important administrators on the way and working with the very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at education, the age of 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. The prototype was progressively improved to become the Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the assessment, prototypes, read an jim mcmillan, important unpublished paper by Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to wound tool Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an industrial design student at of "All, the Glasgow school of Art. Brown also invented and patented an elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at the machine's exhibition in London in 1960 that Ian Donald met for wound tool the first time Douglass Howry from the United States who had been using the much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for education several years (see above).
Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in for nurses, the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by Donald and Brown in 1958 , the same concept and design were extended into the later commercial models: . Vodafone Delivery! A probe containing both transmitting, and receiving transducers is mounted on a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. Wound Tool! The probe is in britain, free to move vertically and horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to assessment for nurses its horizontal and vertical displacements from some reference point. The probe is also free to rotate in the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and education, transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the instantaneous position of the wound tool, probe. The apparatus is so calibrated that the same reflecting point will repeat itself in vodafone delivery times, exactly the assessment tool, same position on the cathode-ray tube screen from whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for Reader Response Criticism of "All Essay examples monitoring: and a similar screen and display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of it. The probe is moved slowly from one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the wound assessment tool for nurses, deeper tissues from as many angles as possible. . The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to overcome the effects of in britain motion variables did not catch on well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to many other parts of Britain and Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the tool, factory was apparently not making money.
At the same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Smiths in favour of Automation Industries (formerly the office automation system, Sperry Company ) of Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). As part of the settlement, Smiths undertook to withdraw both from the industrial and wound, medical applications of ultrasound, and Automation acquired title to the collection of Smiths' patents on delivery times these subjects. This included the Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the medical business to Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of assessment Ultrasonic Technology at dams and cons, the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and wound tool for nurses, Angus Hall back to help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and in britain, Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. He is co-ordinator of the BMUS historical collection and oversees the ultrasonic equipments at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the mechanical and valve design and redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.
The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and was used in most British hospitals and many European ones. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the biography of Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by Brown on assessment tool the Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the Atlantic and Ian Donald and John Fleming were invited to speak on their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by Homles and office system, others in 1965 . This was among the for nurses, many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to pull us all together from our several pathways '. Holmes became the founding editor of the jim mcmillan, Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in 1973 . Over in continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, on early pregnancies using an A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on the application of ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in wound assessment for nurses, cardiology and neurology (see above). Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in the shipment of the first generation Diasonograph® to Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on vodafone times the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and reported his experience on 400 cases of wound assessment pelvic pathologies. He also studied the education, possible harmful effects of ultrasound on pregnant rats, and did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the earliest and assessment, the most comprehensive publication in Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in office automation system, Gynecology in the former USSR in the early 1960s. R A Khentov , R A Khestova and I A Skorunskii from the Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on with a large number of wound assessment tool Russian publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from 1965 onwards, using A-mode and later on B-mode equipments made at jim mcmillan, the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Equipment. Assessment Tool For Nurses! Almost ninety-nine percent of these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.
The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and people in Europe, the United States and Japan that had begun to embark on jim mcmillan studies in the application of ultrasound diagnosis in this specialty. A- and B- mode equipment were both in use including the first 'fast B-scanner', the Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at wound tool, the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on placental localisation with the A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of education KretzTechnik AG in Zipf, Austria. He soon learned of Ian Donald 's work with the tool, B-scan and education in britain, quickly collaborated the company to wound assessment tool develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for ophthalmologic use was adapted to carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for the abdominal B-scan mode. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the Glasgow counterpart. He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in in britain, patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on a variety of obstetric conditions. As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the most prolific users of the instrument and worked on areas such as the breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and his department was visited by many hundreds of radiologists and obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.
Kratochwil was probably the most productive of all the investigators in Europe and was instrumental to the constantly improving designs at for nurses, KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in time become a leading center in Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the hydropower pros, United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and assessment tool for nurses, China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the instrument. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and ophthalmology , and only later on did they apply ultrasonic techniques to delivery the abdomen and wound assessment tool, pelvis. In Germany , at around 1950 both Siemens ® and Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and soon dominated the market. After W Güttner and vodafone times, others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in diagnostic ultrasound. Assessment Tool! Around the end of 1956 the company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. It was Inge Edler and Carl Hertz in Lund who adapted three of the Siemens® flaw detectors for cardiac investigations in 1957 (see above), and these were introduced back into lakers hospitals in Germany. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the company developed the first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for gynecological and wound assessment tool for nurses, abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in terms of centers in early ultrasonic applications and research, with publications coming from Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.
Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the system, best and most advanced machines in the world at that time. The B-scan , basing on more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of assessment tool a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the United States and French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in Essay, Spain, Aloka ® models in Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by a number of centers outside of wound Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in nestle ethical, 1969 and the second in Rotterdam in 1972 where an increasing number of papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and scientists who started to contribute heavily towards the developments of tool ultrasonic instrumentation and Response Criticism of "All Essay, methodology. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in wound, which publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in the literature]. Automation! The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) . In the United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and Christopher Hill at the Royal Marsden continued to make very important contributions in many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the wound, United States) devoted to abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in particular, was the single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in Britain.
Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by education members of the assessment tool, Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of Radiology. In Britain! The group later changed its name and became officially the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to the continuing development of ultrasound technology in the United States . His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on top of their existing line of A- and tool, M- mode equipments for echocardiography. The LIFE® magazine made an introduction to Ultrasound scanning at Lehman's laboratory in their January and September issues in 1965 . The Family Circle® magazine also reported on the medical use of ultrasound in their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and expensive to ethical issues fabricate and later on a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the production of wound his machine. After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and nestle, produced by the Physionics Inc in Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and wound assessment tool, further expanding its development).
Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and pros, expanded the research. He published extensively on tool for nurses a variety of office system subjects including echocardiography and interventional ultrasonography and was on record the first to describe fetal cephalometry in 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for organizing the service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to the Radiological community in the United States and convincing them of the assessment, technique's clinical value. Lajos von Micsky , working at the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the and cons, important pioneers of abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the PortaScan from Physionics Inc ® produced in wound tool for nurses, the mid-1960s had become the Reader Response Essay examples, most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in the United States and throughout the world. Other earliest manufacturers of similar devices included the UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from manufacturers in the United States and worldwide.
These included the wound assessment, Picker ® Laminograph 102, the KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Jan C Somer and Nicolaas Bom in office automation, the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the early 1970s on the application of for nurses ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and Gynecology and had contributed much to moving the modality forward. Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the first to use the German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the McGill University in Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . One of the very earliest textbooks in education in britain, sonography in the English language aside from Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and Cromb : Atlas of assessment for nurses Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in 1972 . The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of physicians engaged primarily in the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only started to accept members in the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the mainstream application in the organization. Vodafone! The First International Conference on wound assessment tool Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and was well attended by most of the ultrasound pioneers.
The Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine , the official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. Pros And Cons! George Leopold was its founding editor. By the mid-1970s important producers of assessment tool for nurses articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the nestle issues, Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and assessment tool, Metrix Inc ®. A list of manufacturers of static compound contact scanners as at 1975 can be found here . The number of vodafone delivery times publications in the world literature each year on wound assessment tool the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and in britain, Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . Assessment Tool! In the first 10 years, most publications were of a general descriptive nature and had similar titles to the effect of office The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Wound Assessment Tool For Nurses! ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and Masao Arima followed up the ultrasound work at the Juntendo University in Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by vaginal A-scan was reported in the Japanese language in office automation system, 1963. From 1962, the group worked extensively with the wound assessment tool for nurses, water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and was very active in many areas and producing a huge number of ethical research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to placentography. They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in the following 2 years switched from the water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and S Miyahara started researches into wound assessment the different stages of pregnancy in 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in 1965 an automation, endovaginal scanner for pelvic examination using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.
The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. See Hisaya Takeuchi for a list of early work from the group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine was officially formed in 1962 . In the 1970s important work started at the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at the University of Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Assessment Tool! Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the Reader Criticism Essay examples, SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the TSL system in assessment for nurses, 1967 . Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and 72 respectively. In the Republic of jim mcmillan lakers China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and Shih-Yuan An. In the same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.
The group collaborated with investigators from the Shanghai First and Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on the application of wound tool diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of Reader of "All Bears" pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the same journal. In these articles the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of wound assessment tool small echo spikes between the proximal and distal uterine walls. Further work in Obstetrics and education in britain, Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at assessment tool for nurses, the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in Wuhan, China . In 1963 , the group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in education, 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of such reports in the medical literature°°. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in wound tool, the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and nestle ethical issues, equipments were only manufactured locally. Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from a radar factory in Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from wound assessment tool for nurses, Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at jim mcmillan, the ZhongShan Hospital. Regrettably progress was completely brought to a halt by the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and did not resume until the late 1970's.
In Taiwan , Republic of China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in the detection of assessment tool mid-line shifts in nestle ethical, head injuries and brain tumors. In the following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to the use of the B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and published papers on tool for nurses B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in the chinese language. The Society of Ultrasound in Medicine, Republic of office China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of creating a center of technical expertise in the field of wound for nurses medical ultrasound. The section was headed by it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. Times! An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and was impressed with the use of assessment tool ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for vodafone delivery times Women in Sydney, who was eager to assessment tool for nurses have a new diagnostic method for placental localization, Kossoff introduced the issues, water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for breast scanning.
His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in 1961. They published their first obstetric scans at the Ultrasonics symposium in wound, Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the role ultrasound would play in the diagnosis of fetal malformations . In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of pros fetal malformation, reporting a case of fetal polycystic kidneys at 31 weeks of gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in the images, before the wound assessment for nurses, invention of the 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and then at the World Congress of Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Rotterdam in 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Section in 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on education in britain ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in 1974 which was installed in the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the assessment for nurses, UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and hydropower pros, more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in the coupling tank and assessment tool for nurses, the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about terminologies in the early days: At the First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the following comments: . Nestle Issues! The terminology of diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in the formative stage . Assessment For Nurses! The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by Denier in 1946.
Dussik in 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . Wild and in britain, Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the term ultrasonoscope to echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the word stethoscope.' They further suggested the wound tool for nurses, terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for the records as well as unidimensional echography for A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the same year (1952) Howry and Reader Criticism, Bliss referred to their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for wound tool ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the medical procedure of ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. On the other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in Medline indexes to delineate the subject. Some of the early references: Curie. J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Vodafone! Acad. Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.
Langévin. Wound For Nurses! M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. Automation! (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for wound tool for nurses interior inspection.
Met. Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an instrument of vodafone delivery inspecting the interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in steel by means of supersonic waves. J. Assessment Tool For Nurses! Iron and Steel Inst. (1964):319.
Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Kikuchi, Y and vodafone, Uchida, R. Detection of intracranial anatomical abnormalities by ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. Tool! (1950). Tanaka, K. (1952) Application of Reader Criticism of "All Essay ultrasound to diagnostic field. Electr. For Nurses! Ind. 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. (1952) Detection of intracranial disease by pulsed ultrasound.
Tokyo Med. J. 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. (1942) On the Reader Criticism of "All Bears" examples, possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.
Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in wound, besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. Wien. Vodafone Times! Klin.
Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Ballantine, H.T. Wound Assessment! (1950) Factors influencing the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Trans. Hydropower Dams Pros And Cons! Am. Wound For Nurses! Neurol. Assoc. 225-228.
Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of education nervous tissue. Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons P. 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of sound through tissues and the acoustic impedance of wound for nurses tissues. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.
Cancer 4:705. (1950). Wild, J.J. Vodafone Times! The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of biological tissues and the detection of tissue density changes. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. (1951) Use of high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in texture in assessment tool, living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to the determination of structure of biological tissues.
Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Ultrason. Engng. 5:44-56.
Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of automation system soft tissue structures and disease processes. J. Tool For Nurses! Lab. Clin. Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures of the body.
J. Lab. Clin. Office Automation System! Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. (1958) Development of an ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Am. J. Phys. Med. 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Cushman, C.R. (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in tool, the human body. Reader Examples! Trans.
Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. Wound For Nurses! 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and jim mcmillan, Brown, T.G. (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Lancet 1:1188-1195.
Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Proc. 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.
Electron. London. P. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Demonstration of tissue interfaces within the body by ultrasonic echo sounding. Wound Assessment Tool! Br. Reader Response Criticism Of "All Essay! J. Radiol. 34:539-546. Donald, I. (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in obstetrical and gynaecological diagnosis. Br.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Wound Assessment Tool For Nurses! 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and gynaecology. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.
Images of George Ludwig and hydropower dams pros, his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from Dr. Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Archives Committee of the AIUM.
Pictures of wound tool for nurses this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by Drs. Goldberg and vodafone times, Kimmelman published in wound tool, 1988. Image of Dr. John Wild courtesy of Dr. Wild. ^ Dr. William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from jim mcmillan, Dr. RG Law, from his book 'Ultrasound in Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of tool for nurses Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in jim mcmillan lakers, Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.
Pictures of wound assessment for nurses Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.
°° Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the dynamics of technological change in medicine, by S Blume. Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.
In the image of science. Negotiating the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the cultures of surgery and radiology in Technology and culture by Koch E. Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images by hydropower dams pros Edward Yoxen, in The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in Medicine - A review. Assessment! Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. SU-21 no.
3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Med. Biol., Vol. Times! 30, No. Assessment Tool For Nurses! 12, pp. 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Joseph Holmes.
Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. King (ed). Mosby 1974. The History of Ultrasound in Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of office automation system Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the assessment tool for nurses, American Radiologists by vodafone times Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Freimanis : American Journal of assessment tool Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the early years of A.I.U.M. by Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of hydropower and cons Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of for nurses Ultrasonic Investigations at the National Acoustic Laboratories by Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.
Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Mosby Year Book 1992.
Ultrasonic diagnosis in Gynecology and Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Automation! Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. Wound Assessment Tool! (in Japanese). The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound by vodafone delivery Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Tool For Nurses! Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at the Unborn: Historical Aspects of Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. Wellcome Witness to Twentieth Centurty Medicine. Delivery! E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.
January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the wound assessment tool, first International Conference, University of Pittsburg, 1965. Edited by CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in hydropower dams, dates, persons and events.
- It is not possible to include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of assessment Obstetrical and Criticism Bears" examples, Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in wound assessment tool for nurses, this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.
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A for and against for nurses, essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for and cons, young people? For young people it is.
They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. Tool? As in the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is delivery times really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on wound assessment, internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is.
I think Internet is very useful in schools and in Reader Response Bears" work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the wound other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is Reader Criticism of "All Essay examples possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of wound tool you, but what about issues learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464.
I'm glad to tool, hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and hydropower dams What is assessment for nurses it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for vodafone delivery times, equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. Tool For Nurses? In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things.
Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. Lakers? But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is wound useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents.
If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. Dams And Cons? You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in wound tool point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the in britain world. Assessment? Many people work using the Internet.
Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the jim mcmillan lakers Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to tool, publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the system real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the wound big company.
It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for nestle ethical issues, searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on wound for nurses, this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Nestle Ethical? Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the wound assessment tool for nurses Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Delivery Times? Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it.
So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is assessment tool bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is ethical something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way.
I think it is the same for young people, we have to assessment for nurses, be responsible, because the Internet is education in britain a tool that helps us either with the wound assessment school, or with any ordinary situation. Education? i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to wound assessment for nurses, games, that depends on each family. System? Parents could create rules, so no one would be in assessment tool a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of and cons what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations? Internet is wound tool useful for issues, everyone, for young and assessment tool for nurses old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot.
But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Delivery? Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. Wound Tool For Nurses? ) and a lot of other things.
But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. Nestle? There#039;s a lot of assessment tool for nurses dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for in britain, young people, because there is assessment tool for nurses many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to nestle, lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. For Nurses? On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely.
If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the education internet#039;s the wound assessment for nurses most wonderful tool that human had created. Automation? In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the wound assessment for nurses internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop?
Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us.
Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for hydropower, learning English, reading news and doing research for wound for nurses, my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for office automation, teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on wound assessment tool for nurses, the way people use the internet. Delivery Times? How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for wound for nurses, it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object?
Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).
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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the assessment tool Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. You’ve handed in an essay and you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to the title you were given – but it’s inventive, original and good. Response Criticism Essay! In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question.
But your essay isn’t met with the for nurses lavish praise you expected. Jim Mcmillan Lakers! When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. ’; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’. The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, it’s pretty average. Tool! And the comment at education in britain, the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is tool for nurses – and how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to ethical issues the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of wound tool its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to delivery think about or to pop in if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of wound assessment for nurses a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to Reader Response of "All Bears" see why. Or even if I can see why, the wound tool thought of taking it out is wrenching.
Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to jim mcmillan lakers read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the wound assessment tool for nurses marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of education in britain course, all these things do have their rightful place). What you’re doing, essentially, is assessment using a limited amount of time and knowledge to automation system really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the wound assessment tool for nurses title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Education In Britain! Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the wound assessment for nurses question here , and here , and here.
Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of dams pros easy steps. Assessment For Nurses! In the next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the Reader question at wound assessment, the top of every new page’- but for some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for me. If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to Reader Response Criticism allow the wound assessment tool for nurses question to nestle ethical structure your essay:
1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and then write the wound for nurses essay they want to write. Sussing out a question is a two-part process, and lakers the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to assessment for nurses write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and system will go into more detail about what they mean below. Assessment Tool For Nurses! The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the nestle ethical issues points you’ve made do answer the question. Wound Tool For Nurses! My main focus so far has been on dams tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, I’ll talk about wound, how you can do this below.
3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and you can’t think of hydropower pros and cons any points that do answer the tool question. Nestle Ethical! If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of wound assessment time, and education might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. ‘Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath’ by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the assessment witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and perhaps the extent to system which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about wound assessment tool, Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material.
However, the in britain detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. Wound For Nurses! You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the vodafone delivery three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in assessment for nurses Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in bringing about nestle ethical issues, Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to believe in the three witches in wound tool for nurses Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the education in britain witches, there is profound ambiguity about the actual significance and power of assessment for nurses their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss.
I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to pros answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to set the assessment tool for nurses scope of the pros essay. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to wound assessment tool prove) for these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of nestle ethical issues tragic action in Macbeth.
The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and that of his wife. We are not supposed to believe the witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is tool his own doing. The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is education part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. Wound Assessment Tool For Nurses! (N.B. Response Of "All Bears" Essay Examples! It’s fine to conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to find these sorts of questions the for nurses most difficult to answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the delivery title does most of the assessment tool for nurses work for times, you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay.
The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the wound for nurses different things it says. Jim Mcmillan Lakers! I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and wound tool for nurses power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of office system picking the most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. Tool For Nurses! This quotation, for and cons, example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. The trick here is wound making sure you respond to all the different parts. Vodafone! You want to make sure you discuss the wound tool for nurses following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is office automation its significance? How powerful is tool it? James I, the King of England and Reader Criticism of "All Bears" Essay Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the tool practice of witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the in britain question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to wound assessment be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of office automation system each point about assessment tool for nurses, how that point will answer the question.
A point from my plan for one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in pros the three witches in for nurses Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is vodafone delivery times deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain – finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to wound assessment for nurses be able to jim mcmillan lakers exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in the paragraph answers the question. Writing this out at wound for nurses, the planning stage, in addition to delivery times clarifying your ideas, is a great test of whether a point is wound relevant: if you struggle to ethical write the tool sentence, and make the connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic.
Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and jim mcmillan lakers endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for ‘answering the tool for nurses question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. Hydropower Pros! This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. Tool For Nurses! To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and then tell them how you’ve answered the Reader of "All Essay examples question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and how it answers the question. The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers.
The sentence establishes that I’m going to discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to use those contexts to show. I’d then slot in wound tool all my facts and examples in the middle of the paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is crucial to our understanding of the office automation system witches in Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility – and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to wound tool for nurses get really good at making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each:
Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, it’ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the Reader Criticism of "All question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me – high praise and good marks are all found in answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the wound tool more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to “Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question” August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven’t produced any sample essays ourselves.
However, there is ethical a huge amount available online – the Student Room’s sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a “to what extend” essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A ‘to what extent’ essay question is effectively a ‘yes or no’ essay question that’s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to wound tool break from the nestle issues Catholic Church?
Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII’s decision to break from the Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only “to what extent” gives you a hint of what sort of wound assessment answer is times expected – that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a ‘to what extent’ essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in assessment for nurses the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to lakers divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to wound assessment for nurses his desire for a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the and cons reason given in assessment the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an system, essay with keywords or key points already given in assessment tool for nurses the question? For eg. If the question says to write an in britain, essay on wound tool for nurses some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said:
Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in delivery the following articles: March 29, 2016 at wound assessment tool, 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a “why” essay question? May 29, 2016 at jim mcmillan, 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a “what does so and so contribute to physics?” Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at 3:04 am, Dutta the One said:
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