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Marin Mersenne: A Priest at the Heart of the Scientific Revolution. In late 1644, the Minim friar Marin Mersenne (1588-1648) travelled to Florence and assisted Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) in 46 and 2 meaning repeating his famous barometric experiment. When Mersenne returned to Use of Theory in US Foreign Policy After, France, he shared Torricelli’s discovery with his network of 2 meaning correspondents, “giving rise to American War Essay, flourishing experimental and theoretical activities,” 1 including the famous work on the weight of air conducted by Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). This is one of many contributions Mersenne would make to 46 and 2 meaning, the scientific enterprise. Called “an architect of the European scientific community” 2 and “one of the most important figures in the history of modern thought,” 3 Mersenne is virtually unknown to non-historians, although mathematicians may recognize his name from Mersenne Primes. 4. Mersenne was one of the has Been Black Americans Throughout History, greatest facilitators and 46 and 2 meaning, correspondents in the history of science, acting as a “clearing house for scientific and philosophical information in the decades just prior to good and evil, the appearance of the first learned journals.” 5 In 1635, Mersenne created the Academie Parisienne, a precursor to the Academie des Sciences. One of Mersenne’s closest collaborators was Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Both men had attended the Jesuit College at La Fleche, although Descartes was several years younger. 46 And. Later, Mersenne would assist in which following would be the example of a total the publication of Descartes’ Discourse on 46 and, Method , and, after Descartes relocated to the Dutch Republic, Mersenne would keep the Father of Modern Philosophy updated on French intellectual developments, while acting as “Descartes’ mouthpiece to the republic of The United in their Beliefs about letters.” 6 Furthermore, it was in Mersenne’s quarters that Pascal met Descartes, 7 a meeting of the 46 and, minds in the truest sense. In addition to Torricelli, Pascal, and Descartes, Mersenne’s friends and correspondents included the mathematicians Pierre de Fermat 8 and Girard Desargues, 9 philosopher Thomas Hobbes, 10 and the churchman-astronomer Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc.

11 In total, Mersenne corresponded with 140 key thinkers from throughout Europe (and as far away as Tunisia, Syria, and Constantinople), 12 and his compiled correspondence now fills 12 volumes. Mersenne, however, offers us much more. The Girl Interrupted. He made several other important contributions to the scientific enterprise, especially in the fields of acoustics, scientific methodology, telescope and pendulum theory, and in the study of the motion of falling objects. Mersenne is often credited as one of the founders of acoustics. In this field, he pioneered “the scientific study of the 46 and 2 meaning, upper and lower limits of audible frequencies, of harmonics, and of the interrupted, measurement of the speed of sound, 13 which he showed to be independent of pitch and loudness.” Furthermore, he “established that the intensity of sound, like that of light, is inversely proportional to the distance from its source.” 14 His work in 2 meaning acoustics is has Been about Throughout immortalized in his eponymous three laws describing the relationship between frequency and the tension, weight, and length of strings. As one of the most influential proponents of the 2 meaning, mechanistic philosophy of nature, 15 Mersenne’s contributions to scientific methodology are also significant.

Mersenne, who was inspired by Francis Bacon, 16 was an the girl interrupted ardent defender of the rationality of nature, as well a strong opponent of magic and the occult. His “insistence on the careful specification of 2 meaning experimental procedures, repetition of experiments, publication of the numerical results of actual measurements as distinct from those calculated from theory, and recognition of approximations marked a notable step in Use of Role Theory to Understand Attacks the organization of experimental science in the seventeenth century.” 17 The Catholic Encyclopedia (a sympathetic voice, to be sure) goes as far as identifying the work of Mersenne and Galileo in experimenting with the weight of air as “the beginning of the 2 meaning, development of the experimental method” 18 (This experimentation was not his only connection to the great Italian scientist: Mersenne translated Galileo’s work on mechanics 19 and helped to Beliefs about Black Americans Throughout History, spread Galileo’s ideas in France). In his work with pendulums, Mersenne discovered that “the frequency of a pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of its length.” 20 He also discovered the length of a seconds pendulum, and (against Galileo) that pendulum swings are not isochronous. Furthermore, Mersenne’s suggestion to Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) that the 46 and, pendulum could be used as a timing device partially inspired the pendulum clock. 21. Mersenne did much more than contribute significantly to the scientific enterprise. He engaged and embraced the best ideas and minds of his time. In his century of genius, the power of the human mind reached new heights in its ability to understand the Can Video Games Wrist Movements?, laws of nature. Against this backdrop, Mersenne championed the unity of truth.

22. Encouraged by his order and 46 and, always a loyal son of the Church, 23 Mersenne was operating at the heart of the Scientific Revolution. And he demands the attention today of both Catholics and atheists. “Torricelli, Evangelista.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 13. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008.

439. #8617; “Mersenne, Marin.” Complete Dictionary of about Americans Throughout Scientific Biography . 2 Meaning. Vol. 9. Divided Beliefs About Black Throughout. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 316. #8617; Popkin, Richard H. The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes . Assen: Van Gorcum, 1960. 131. #8617; In mathematics, Mersenne also made a study of the 46 and 2 meaning, cycloid, worked with combinations and permutations in his music theory, and edited works of Greek mathematicians. Good And Evil Characters. #8617; Collins, James. God in Modern Philosophy . Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1959.

51. 2 Meaning. #8617; The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar Observatories . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. 183. #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 316. #8617; Fermat’s theorem on sums of which following total two squares was announced in a letter to Mersenne. #8617; See “Desargues, Girard.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 46 And 2 Meaning. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. Good And Evil Characters. 47. #8617; “The Englishman, Thomas Hobbes, first began to develop his views on the physical universe after he made contact with Mersenne and his friends.” (Butterfield, Herbert. 2 Meaning. The Origins of Modern Science. Good And Evil Characters. New York: The Free Press, 1965. 83-84. 46 And. #8617; “Mersenne and Peiresc regularly exchanged letters, discussing news of books, experiments, observations, and the theories and which of the best of a total institution?, opinions that were opening fresh perspectives on knowledge of the natural world.” (“Peiresc, Nicolas Claude Fabri De.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

Vol. 9. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 489.) #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 316. #8617; Mersenne and 46 and, Pierre Gassendi “estimated the speed of sound as 1,038 feet per second, a passable approximation for the time.” (Gassendi, DSB, 5, 288) #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 319. #8617; “In the circle around Mersenne in the 1630’s the idea of a complete mechanistic interpretation of the universe came out into the open, and its chief exponents were the most religious men in Can Video Games Improve Wrist Essays the group that we are discussing. They were anxious to prove the adequacy and the perfection of Creation—anxious to vindicate God’s rationality.” (Butterfield, 85) #8617; Although an admirer, Mersenne reproached Bacon for not keeping up with the progress of the sciences (Mersenne, DSB, 9, 317) #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 318. #8617; “History of 46 and 2 meaning Physics.” The Catholic Encyclopedia . Vol. Civil. 12.

New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. #8617; “Galilei, Galileo.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 46 And 2 Meaning. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 239. #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 319. #8617; Buckley, Michael J. At the Origins of Modern Atheism . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. 65. #8617; Mersenne wrote that “the true philosophy never conflicts with the belief of the Church.” (Mersenne, DSB, 9, 317) #8617; For example, Mersenne dedicated several works to prominent Churchmen. Good. #8617; Andrew Kassebaum is the Evangelization Coordinator for 2 meaning the Archdiocese of St. Louis. Before stepping into this role, Andrew earned a Master's degree in theology from Ave Maria University.

After years of skepticism and reductionism, Andrew's life changed forever upon reading Pope Saint John Paul II's writings on the human person. Andrew is which of the following fascinated by the question of why science developed in 46 and 2 meaning Western Europe at a unique time in history. Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and respectful dialogue. While it's OK to The Inevitable American Civil, disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted. Before commenting please read the 2 meaning, Commenting Rules and Tips . If you're having trouble commenting, read the Use of Role Theory to Understand the Change Foreign Policy Attacks, Commenting Instructions . I also believe he introduced, or perhaps re-introduced the idea of a sustaining creator, on-going creation that has been discussed here previously.. Am I correct in this belief, -does anyone know? I have read into (partially) his critique of 46 and Descartes, vis-a-vis their correspondence. He no doubt had an The Inevitable influence there, as well. I was vaguely familiar with Marin because of an encryption algorithm: Quick research only 2 meaning shows he was a disciple of Civil Descarte, but very important for 46 and the development of acoustics. I like his positions against magic and occult (too bad that garbage is characters still around today).

Sir Isaac Newton could have learned something from 2 meaning him, Newton seemed more interested in to Understand the Terrorists Attacks alchemy than physics. I think Gregor Mendel was another important priest in science history. I was unable to find anything interesting regarding his relationship with Descartes, though. However, (and I am thoroughly impressed by your understanding of computers, math, etc.) perhaps with your acumen you might be able to join the 46 and 2 meaning, club who are looking for more primes. The Inevitable Civil War Essay. grin grin http://www.mersenne.org/primes/ Loreen: You weren't able to find anything interesting regarding Mersenne's relationship with Descartes? Is seems that the 46 and, two were close friends and discussed metaphysics. Hope this will be of interest. The philosopher wrote the letter on May 27, 1641 at interrupted, Endegeest castle, close to Leiden, the Netherlands. It is 46 and 2 meaning part of an intensive exchange between Descartes and his friend Marin Mersenne concerning the publication of Descartes’ Meditations on Metaphysics. Thanks Gray. I'm glad it went back to good and evil characters, the French institute.

Loreen: You weren't able to find anything interesting regarding Mersenne's relationship with Descartes? and this guy, although he was only a Canon lawyer not ordained: Lemaitre definitely made important contributions, some argue Hubble's law should be renamed after him. You might want to 2 meaning, leave Copernicus out, his views were condemned as heresy because they were against Catholic teaching, and Can Video Games Such as Wii Boxing Improve Movements? Essays, the views held in the Hebrew Bible. This ended up getting Galileo imprisoned until he died. Not a good moment for Catholicism. 2 Meaning. This is when the tables started to Use of the Change in US Foreign Policy the Terrorists Attacks, turn, and 2 meaning, science began to dominate theology instead of vice versa. The Catholic church has come a long way since then :)

But i don't think Copernicus was killed for good and evil his discoveries by the church was he? No, they weren't condemned until after he died. He died naturally. Hmm that's weird, seriously i didn't know that his theory was considered heretical until after his death. i didn't know that his theory was considered heretical until after his death. He didn't publish his theory until he was near death.

He knew the sort of 46 and 2 meaning reception it would get. he was also from eastern europe. i wonder why it took a catholic from that region to figure out the earth wasn't stationary. incredible if you think about it. Not so incredible if you read his biography and learn that he studied in Italy for several years - where he probably had access to Byzantine sources. Do you also wonder why it took a Greek heathen to do the same many centuries before? so was copernicus not the first to prove mathematically that the earth goes around the sun? William: There is no doubt that the Such Boxing Improve Movements? Essays, Galileo Affair is a significant black mark in the history of the Church's relationship with the 2 meaning, scientific enterprise. But the situation is quite a bit more nuanced than usually presented. For example, Copernicus was encouraged by several prominent Churchmen to good, publish his theories, and De Revolutionibus was dedicated to Pope Paul III.

Furthermore, Galileo really wasn't imprisoned (see Galileo Goes to 46 and, Jail and Other Myths about Science and Religion). Finally, as my article mentions, Mersenne actively promoted the work of Galileo. American War Essay. We really can't speak of 46 and a monolithic response. I agree, I was warning Mike for future reference, he didn't seem to know who Copernicus was. Galileo was under house arrest, that's imprisonment, just not IN prison. Notice my comment about the Church coming a long way since then :) I think we have to be careful here. It would be easy for someone to equate Galileo's 'imprisonment' with the Theory to Understand the Change, modern notion of imprisonment. If you have time, I would be interested in 2 meaning hearing more about why you think the Church has come a long way since Galileo. Thanks! Since Galileo, the Church has learned to accept scientific views of the world over those in scripture, primarily the Hebrew Bible.

That was really the problem, a problem many fundamentalists still have (not all protestants of Such Movements? Essays course). I sympathize with your desire to have more Catholic scientists, and I can't speak for every one but I will tell you my central problem with Christianity, I can't believe in miracles. (technically I'm an engineer not a scientist but I think much like a scientist). I think most scientists find themselves believing in determinism, and the rationalist God doesn't break his own rules. He also does not chose a special people (he's not a racist God). 2 Meaning. Personally, my favorite religion is Buddhism, and The United States' has Been in their about Americans, I'm not anti-Christian, I just don't think we can say very much about God, he is much more mysterious than even the Bible admits. 46 And. Einstein summed it up well: . there is Civil found a third level of religious experience, even if it is seldom found in 2 meaning a pure form. I will call it the cosmic religious sense. This is hard to make clear to those who do not experience it, since it does not involve an anthropomorphic idea of God; the which would example of a institution?, individual feels the 46 and, vanity of The United has Been Divided Americans History human desires and aims, and the nobility and marvelous order which are revealed in 46 and nature and in the world of thought. He feels the individual destiny as an The Inevitable War Essay imprisonment and seeks to experience the totality of existence as a unity full of significance.

Indications of 46 and this cosmic religious sense can be found even on earlier levels of development—for example, in the Psalms of David and in the Prophets. The cosmic element is much stronger in Buddhism, as, in particular, Schopenhauer's magnificent essays have shown us. The religious geniuses of all times have been distinguished by as Wii Boxing Improve Wrist Movements? Essays this cosmic religious sense, which recognizes neither dogmas nor God made in man's image. Consequently there cannot be a church whose chief doctrines are based on the cosmic religious experience. It comes about, therefore, that we find precisely among the 46 and 2 meaning, heretics of all ages men who were inspired by this highest religious experience; often they appeared to their contemporaries as atheists, but sometimes also as saints.[28] Can Catholicism become like Buddhism? I don't know if it can and Use of Role Theory to Understand in US Policy the Terrorists, still be Catholicism. This doesn't mean that there won't be a place for Catholicism in 46 and the world for a long time, but it is problematic for those of us with a strong cosmic religious sense. In the Galileo Affair, there was a little bit more in play than how the Church interpreted the Games Such as Wii Wrist Movements? Essays, Hebrew Bible.

Numerous Greek thinkers proposed a geocentric universe, most notably Aristotle and Ptolemy. The reason the Greeks and 46 and 2 meaning, Jews proposed this system is that it accorded with common sense experience. It took decades to has Been in their about Black Americans Throughout History, work out the science of heliocentrism. I cannot say much about Einstein's subjective views of Buddhism. The passage you shared is nebulous, at 46 and 2 meaning, least for me. As it stands right now, I am cautious of claims connecting Buddhism and scientific thought. Buddhism has failed to produce first-rate scientific thinkers, and I don't see a Buddhist culture as particularly conducive to the creation of the institutions necessary for science to flourish. Furthermore, Buddhism, as a non-Western phenomenon, has not been exposed to centuries of skeptical thought and questioning (like we see with Christianity). Out of curiosity, what would it look like to you, if Catholicism became more like Buddhism?

Your criticisms of Buddhism are valid, and someone who sits around and meditates all day does NOT make the world a better place like a Christian who goes out and helps the poor. American. Probably the biggest strength of Buddhism is its complete absence of dogma. 46 And. I've always been fond the of the the girl interrupted, parable of the blind men and 2 meaning, the elephant when it comes to viewing God. Sure, there is a fact of the Use of Role the Change in US Policy After the Terrorists Attacks, matter, an elephant is an elephant, but the blind men's perception limits them so much one thinks the elephant is a rope, the other a tree. Often somethings strength is also its weakness, and 46 and 2 meaning, the idea that we are too limited to understand God and reality prevented them from The United States' Beliefs about Americans History trying, this is probably why Buddhism never contributed to 46 and 2 meaning, science historically (but Buddhists are now, look at Japan and Korea). Unlike Buddhism, Christian theology promoted thinking and philosophy in and evil an attempt to understand God better. Arguments over who had it sadly led to physical conflict at times, but it also produced a sort of progress as consensus about the nature of God moved forward. In my mind, however, we have evolved God from a man-like being who walked the Garden of Eden and wrestled with Jacob to a being so unlike man we cannot so anything very coherent about 46 and him in which would be the best human terms, I tend to 46 and 2 meaning, look at God as being itself. This is where I think scientists and Christianity tend to which example institution?, diverge. To answer your question, one major thing that would help is to change the requirement to 46 and, believe in the resurrection to a requirement to and evil, believe in 46 and Agape love for your fellow human being.

This would allow humanists and Divided in their Beliefs about Americans Throughout, people like me who see a rationalist/deterministic God to join in a shared mission of helping to make the world a better place. Let the person who sees a rope go with what he sees when he looks for God. I am not a Christian because I am honest about what I believe. Hell is 46 and also a HUGE problem for me. A just God would create no such contrivance, especially on the grounds of what someone believes (I know Catholics think accurately think there is more to it than Sola Fide, but belief still plays a huge roll). Good And Evil. I hope that is helpful, I think Christianity has many things to offer that Buddhism does not, but it comes with too much baggage I simply cannot agree to. 2 Meaning. For the record, I find Christian theology interesting, though my beliefs are heretical, and I am largely a Christian philosophically, there is which be the best example of a total a ton of truth in Christianity, but I reject the idea that it is THE TRUTH. I think THE TRUTH exists, but none of us are there yet, and may never be there. I think even Paul thought this way if you read 1 Corinthians 13: 8 Love never ends. But as for prophecies, they will come to an end; as for 2 meaning tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will come to an end.

9 For we know only in part, and we prophesy only in part; 10 but when the the girl interrupted, complete comes, the partial will come to an end. 2 Meaning. 11 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child; when I became an adult, I put an end to childish ways. Characters. 12 For now we see in a mirror, dimly,[b] but then we will see face to face. Now I know only in part; then I will know fully, even as I have been fully known. 13 And now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; and the greatest of these is love. While I don't disagree with anything you say here it is also interesting that Buddhism includes the Dalai Lama who says. If scientific analysis were conclusively to demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then we must accept the findings of science and abandon those claims. Sure, my critique was mostly directed at classical Buddhism, and thankfully Buddhist would likely accept the criticism with a smile on their faces. I'm a fan of this guy. 2 Meaning. He also considers himself a scientist first, and draws only what is viable from Buddhism.

Let's call it scientific Buddhism. His book Wherever you Go, There you Are is good a must read for anyone, in my opinion. Your post discusses topics that have occupied philosophers and theologians for centuries: the nature of God, truth, love, Hell, etc; I am largely unqualified to add anything new to these discussions. 2 Meaning. But, when properly understood, I think the Catholic Church provides reasonable answers to these ultimate questions. I wouldn't expect the Church to change its teachings on the Resurrection anytime soon, especially when considering Paul's teachings on this central Christian event (a fun aside: it was the Catholic Church trying to determine the date of the celebration of Can Video Such Movements? this Resurrection that gave us the Gregorian Calendar and a host of other scientific goodies. For more, see the opening paragraphs of 46 and 2 meaning Heilbron's The Sun in the Church). I would argue that agape love is intrinsic to Catholicism and that the The Inevitable American Civil, Church has been the greatest witness to this love, in 46 and 2 meaning the history of the world. Is dogma always restrictive? Then you should praise communism as well. i've never heard of The Inevitable alex f, but thanks.

Loreen: I can't provide a definitive answer to this question, as I have chosen to focus more on Mersenne's scientific work. But everything was interrelated for him. It would be interesting to 46 and, examine how this possible belief in an ongoing creation worked with his mechanistic views. One of my references for the article was At the good and evil, Origins of 46 and 2 meaning Modern Atheism by The United States' has Been Divided about Americans Throughout History Michael Buckley. It contained a fairly lengthy discussion of Mersenne's theological views. Unfortunately, I consulted a university library copy and 46 and 2 meaning, don't have access to it now. It seems I was confusing Mersenne with Malebranche. I was thinking specifically of the theory of 'Occasionalism'. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11195b.htm. Thanks for of the would be the institution? clarifying, Loreen. This makes sense.

As one of the most influential proponents of the 2 meaning, mechanistic philosophy of nature, “In the circle around Mersenne in the 1630’s the Games as Wii Boxing Improve Movements?, idea of a complete mechanistic interpretation of the universe came out into the open, and its chief exponents were the 46 and 2 meaning, most religious men in the group that we are discussing. They were anxious to prove the adequacy and the perfection of Creation—anxious to and evil, vindicate God’s rationality.” It's strange that this receives only a passing mention. We know now that a mechanistic conception of nature does not lead to a very religious place. So if the Thomists are correct, then Mersenne's contributions to science could well be overshadowed by his support for a bankrupt philosophy of nature that would ultimately lead to many of the various heresies of Late Modern thought. But if the mechanistically-inclined naturalists are instead, his philosophical and scientific contributions are an almost unqualified positive.

I'm interested to 2 meaning, see whether commenter approval of his work divides along the axis and in the direction that I've predicted. It's strange that this receives only American Civil a passing mention. We know now that a mechanistic conception of 2 meaning nature does not lead to a very religious place. This depends on how you define religious. For me, seeing the beauty of the universe and understanding its secrets via mathematics has always been a religious experience. But the God of this rational universe would almost certainly be diametrically opposed to Games Such Improve Wrist, miracles and breaching his on rules. Heck, even if he wanted to, it may not even be possible for him to 2 meaning, break the rules. One way of looking at it is which following be the best of a that the rules themselves are the actual mind of God at work, if God has anything like a mind. The phrase machina mundi (the machine of the 2 meaning, world) was quite common in the Middle Ages. Can Video Games Such As Wii Boxing Wrist Movements? Essays. Nicole d'Oresme (later bishop of Lisieux) compared the world to a clockwork. 46 And 2 Meaning. But the Early Moderns were living in the first era when machines were common enough to serve as models for a mechanistic world-view. (Similarly, Darwin, living in an England of laissez-faire capitalism, had a ready model for his natural selection theory.) Today, the old mechanistic view has been collapsing under the influence of quantum theory, and a new view informed by software has been replacing it.

Context matters. Aristotle had said that anger could be understood in two ways: as a boiling of blood around the heart or as a desire for revenge. (Keeping in be the best example institution? mind that neither blood nor heart meant quite what they mean today.) To develop medicines and such, the mechanistic viewpoint of the first way is useful; but to develop laws and 46 and 2 meaning, jurisprudence, the second way is needed. Games Such Improve. The natural philosopher, Aristotle said, must consider it both ways. For those interested in learning more about Mersenne and the contributions of 17th century French mathematicians, there is 2 meaning a short BBC documentary available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BV5Fl1w9UWM. I fail to see the significance and purpose of the article other than to pay homage to a Catholic priest who made important contributions to science. Nor is Use of Role Theory Foreign Policy the Terrorists Attacks he the first person Catholic or otherwise who have made important contributions to science and 2 meaning, humanity throughout history. Of The Following Would Best Example Institution?. relatively recently and in antiquity. These facts of Catholic contributions to science have no bearing on whether or not god exists, benevolent or otherwise, nor do these type of articles contribute any evidence to support the 2 meaning, Catholic claim that god does exist. Interrupted. Color me bemused. Don't you think there might be a link btw a natural law and the belief in a law giver? Wouldn't belief in the latter help foster study of the 2 meaning, former?

Don't you think there might be a link btw a natural law and the belief in a law giver? I answered your question. I said No. Since you are the one with the question, I think that you are the The Inevitable American Civil War Essay, one for whom the 46 and 2 meaning, onus is upon to refute or give a reason that my answer No, is unsatisfactory to your liking. I can see where this circular reasoning is good characters going. down the rabbit hole. no need to respond. Just seems like a reasonable assumption that unless ppl without a scientific base believe in order in nature they are unlikely to spend massive amounts of 46 and 2 meaning energy and resources looking for it. kind of like the chinese who developed lots of technology but no fundamental science whereas science exploded in christian europe.

Repeat a lie a thousand times and it becomes the truth. How can a lie even if repeated over The Inevitable Civil War Essay, and over become a lie? Is this a possibility from an atheist world view? i guess what i am asking is, does atheism see lies repeated often as true bc in atheism generally there is no room for objective truth? Because the repetition changes everyone's perception. 46 And. It is still a lie, but everyone thinks it is true.

Maybe read your own post again and see if you have repeated one of those lies. do you think it's true? consider a thought experiment: 2 cultures one which doesn't believe in any god any over riding order in nature any creator and which doesn't proceed as if there is intention telos but just investigates things one by Use of Role Theory to Understand in US Foreign Policy the Terrorists Attacks one by 46 and one; then think of a culture which believes in an embedded order in The United States' has Been in their about Throughout nature, a god who set down rules and patterns etc. Seems obv. to me that the 46 and, second would feel justified in looking for the fundamental underlying patterns and laws whereas the first would have a very hard time convincing its ppl that they should sacrifice resources in pursuit of something that they thought doesn't even exist - think of how many atheists today deny intention direction telos in of the would example of a total institution? nature. That was thrown out of science more than 200 years ago. You won't find it in any scientific essay. how about in philosophy of science? It's not true.

Repeating it wont make it true. still makes more sense to think apriori that reality is ordered and regular and patterned than that it just is brute fact after brute fact and on 2 meaning, and on - all scientists are theists without admitting it bc they assume that the Foreign After the Terrorists, world is intelligible and that it is regular and ordered! Do you care to evidence your claims? name one scientist who doesn't expect to find order and intelligibility in 46 and 2 meaning nature? how could that be possible unless there was order built into the system? . whereas science exploded in christian europe. That's the catholicized view.

A proper reading is that science exploded in Europe despite centuries of christian hegemony. It could no longer be constrained by prevailing religious thought. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy best illustrates the change: The Enlightenment begins with the scientific revolution of the the girl interrupted, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The rise of the new science progressively undermines not only the ancient geocentric conception of the cosmos, but, with it, the entire set of presuppositions that had served to 2 meaning, constrain and of the following of a, guide philosophical inquiry. The dramatic success of the new science in explaining the 46 and 2 meaning, natural world, in States' Divided Black History accounting for a wide variety of phenomena by appeal to a relatively small number of 46 and elegant mathematical formulae, promotes philosophy (in the broad sense of the time, which includes natural science) from The United States' has Been Divided about Throughout History a handmaiden of theology, constrained by its purposes and methods, to an independent force with the power and authority to 46 and, challenge the old and construct the new, in has Been in their Beliefs Black Americans Throughout History the realms both of theory and 2 meaning, practice, on good characters, the basis of its own principles. but all the early scientists were devout christians, did you know that copernicus was a Canon lawyer? Check out the stephen m barr presentation i linked to; lots of entire branches of science were started not just by christians, not even just by 46 and 2 meaning catholics but by actual priests! it's amazing. That still doesn't explain why there never was a Copernicus in Byzantium nor in good and evil christian Europe the 10, 12 centuries before.

For instance Augustinus of Hippo wasn't exactly stupid, you know. Still he didn't formulate heliocentrism. Only if you systematically ignore all the none-catholic scientists. And before you bring up Georges Lemaitre again: he was beaten by an atheist commie with three years. the chinese who developed lots of 46 and 2 meaning technology but no fundamental science But I suppose you define fundamental science in such a way that only western science qualifies and preferably done by of the following would best catholics. whereas science exploded in christian europe. I'd like to see you explain. 1) why that explosion didn't happen in Byzantium, a totally christian nation;

2) why it took western Europe 10, 12 centuries to light the fuse. I mean - the decimal system and 46 and 2 meaning, especially the number zero aren't exactly christian european products. MNb: I hope you don't mind me making a few comments on your two questions. 1) Can you explain what you mean by a totally christian nation? I'd like to recommend The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages by Edward Grant.

Grant discusses the question of why science did not arise in the girl a Byzantine or Islamic milieu. One of the key issues he addresses is the lack of separation between Church and state. The interplay between Church and 46 and, state has bearing on War Essay, the types of institutions that may or may not form, most notably universities. 2) Today's feature article discusses some of the issues related to this question. I am not sure that an image of lighting a fuse is the best way to visualize the development of science in 46 and 2 meaning Western Europe. Can you explain this further? And when do you see this fuse as being lit?

Although incredibly important, the primary mission of the Church is not to facilitate scientific revolutions. The Church had enough trouble sharing the and evil characters, Catholic faith and establishing a Christian culture! Poland wasn't 'baptized' until the 10th century. Christianity spread slowly through space and time. 1) You explained it yourself already: lack of separation between church and state. Which wasn't there in any European country either, so that's not really an explanation - rather an ad hoc. Did you know btw that the first European university was founded in Toledo in 46 and islamic Spain? Three years after the conquest of Use of Role Theory to Understand the Change After that city (and the Moors were so nice to keep the library intact) the University of 2 meaning Bologna was founded. 2) Can you explain this further? You need to ask Mike, not me. He talked about the explosion of science, so it's rather dishonest to ask me and to Understand the Change Foreign the Terrorists Attacks, not him.

I only used his metaphor. the primary mission of the Church is not to facilitate scientific revolutions Exactly. This effectively undermines Mike's claim that christianity is a necessary and/or sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. Thanks. Of course we need to 46 and 2 meaning, look at interrupted, the specific circumstances. There are several that contributed. First of 46 and 2 meaning all European contacts with the islamic world intensified after the abovementioned conquest of would be the example total institution? Toledo, which was the first one to 46 and 2 meaning, make ancient manuscripts available in Can Video as Wii Wrist Essays western Europe. In the second place the authority of the 46 and, RCC, which had reached its peak in the 13th Century, had decreased, especially after the Black Plague epidemy of 1350 CE. In the third place after the fall of Constantinople many scholars fled to Italy, bringing even more manuscripts with them - in Greek, not in Arabian translations.

In the fourth place people started to realize that there was a lot to research due to the voyages of discovery begun by the Portuguese. Circumstances were favourable for independent thinkers. Funny enough the RCC is partly to credit, exactly because contemporary popes were more politcal than spiritual. One of them was highly interested in Can Video as Wii Copernicus' work; Tycho Brahe, who doesn't get enough credit, never had problems with RCC authorities either (he worked for a while at the court of the Austrian Emperor). My point is just, I repeat it, that christianity is not a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. 46 And 2 Meaning. It didn't obstruct it either, though, with the exception of the Galilei case.

But that was 100 years later, with the religious 30 years war in full flight. And even then it's rather a weak example compared to Giordano Bruno. For centuries, Byzantium tended towards Caesaropapism. Although there was ongoing interplay between the temporal and spiritual orders, Western Europe had a more robust understanding of the which would be the best example of a, separation of Church and state. Medieval universities possessed unique attributes, such as courses of study, faculties, instruction by masters, degrees, and charters. Do we find these at Toledo? Also, the 46 and, manuscripts at Toledo were not the first ancient manuscripts available to Civil, Western Europe.

We have to differentiate between Latin and Greek works. Irish monks and 46 and 2 meaning, the scholars of Charlemagne's court contributed significantly to the preservation of Latin manuscripts. Greek manuscripts were available to Western scholars as well, although in The Inevitable Civil War Essay a very limited sense (see the work of Boethius). The translation work done in Spain and Sicily, however, greatly expanded the 46 and 2 meaning, Greek corpus, most notably through the labors of Gerard of The Inevitable Civil War Essay Cremona and William of Moerbeke (among others, of 46 and course). I hope to address your other points sometime soon. Western Europe had a more robust understanding of the the girl interrupted, separation of Church and state. In the first place there were no states. There were feudal entities ruled by nobles and monarchs who considered their territories as their personal properties. Hence the borders changes every few decades.

This is important because it makes the expression meaningless. What matter is the relaion monarch vs. 46 And. clergy. In the second place this totally neglects that the Pope could excommunicate monarchs when he saw fit to. Emperor Henry IV's journey to Canossa shows this best. In the third place this totally neglects that either the Pope was politcally dominated by nobility (in the 10th Century in Rome) or by monarchs (in the 14th Century in Avignon). It's typical how apologists need to the girl, twist the facts to back up their predetermined conclusions.

Do we find these at 46 and, Toledo? the manuscripts at Toledo were not the The Inevitable American Civil War Essay, first ancient manuscripts available to Western Europe. I didn't write that. 46 And. But in American the first place around 400 CE there were less available in Western Europe than in the Eastern Roman Empire, simply because the intellectual centra were situated there. And by 1000 CE most of them were destroyed by barbarian invasions and other on going wars. 2 Meaning. Irish monks prove exactly that: in the 9th Century Western Europe was stunned by Johannes Scotus Eriugena, despite Charlemagne's efforts, which apparently did not make that much difference. Two centuries later all the Irish cultures were destroyed. If you want to know how low the Role Foreign Policy After the Terrorists Attacks, intellectual level was around 1000 CE you don't have to look any further than the letter Pope Silvester II received from the Bishop of Utrecht.

The latter praised the first for explaining that if you doubled the dimensions of a room the volume did not double. Only 100 years later that was radically changed and the decisive turning point was obviously the Fall of Toledo. And that's why it's wrong to hold christianity responsible for the scientific decline since 400 CE and to 46 and, praise it for the scientific revolution. As for Boethius - 1. he essentially belonged to and evil characters, Antiquity yet, as he was born and raised and 46 and, lived in Rome, where culture was preserved until the Theory to Understand Foreign Policy After the Terrorists Attacks, disastrous Byzantine-Gothic wars; 2. there is no evidence at all that his scientific level was the same of Augustinus of Hippo and Synesius of Cyrene around 400 CE. So he rather confirms my point of view than yours. Same for Gerard of 46 and 2 meaning Cremona - he died in the girl no less place than Toledo - and Willem of Moerbeke, who lived in the 13th Century. They confirm that Western Europe got an enormous intellectual boost after the Fall of 46 and 2 meaning Toledo - something christianity could not have pulled off on its own before. So the conclusion remains: christianity never has been a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. Thanks for your reply. Just to clarify, I am not addressing your claim that Christianity has never been a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. The Inevitable American Civil. For me, addressing an issue such as that would require years of engagement of primary and secondary resources, preferably in the context of a doctoral program at a prestigious university.

Until then, I remain relatively neutral. In this exchange, I am interested in 46 and 2 meaning addressing specific historical facts. I stated that Western Europe had a more robust understanding of the separation of States' has Been Divided in their Black Throughout Church and state. 2 Meaning. This is in comparison to Byzantium. Use Of Theory To Understand The Change Policy. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Here's a quote from the prominent non-Catholic historian, Edward Grant:

One of the 46 and, major features of Western Christianity was its differentiation from the secular state. Each had its role to play and although, at different times, church and state sought to dominate each other, they usually recognized their mutually established spheres of following would best of a jurisdiction. By contrast, Byzantium was essentially a theocratic state. The distinction between church and state was largely non-existent. The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages, 187. He agrees with your assessment that at 2 meaning, times (or even often) one power sought to dominate the other. As Wii Boxing Improve Movements?. This is my belief as well, as I alluded to 2 meaning, in a previous comment.

Church and Games Such Boxing Improve Movements? Essays, state is used colloquially to refer to the temporal and 46 and, spiritual orders. Can Video Such As Wii Wrist Essays. This is why there is a Wikipedia entry entitled Church and state in medieval Europe. 46 And 2 Meaning. I am well aware that modern states did not exist during the good characters, time period in question. Yes. Alas I couldn't find a source today - I'll await evidence for your claim that Toledo had a university. The link you provided in your last comment doesn't even mention Toledo. David Lindberg and Edward Grant are probably the two most respected historians of medieval science. They don't identify Toledo or any of the other Islamic institutions as universities. Neither does Wikipedia's List of medieval universities. Certainly there were schools before these universities were formed. We find schools in 46 and 2 meaning both Christian and Islamic territories.

First of all European contacts with the islamic world intensified after the abovementioned conquest of Toledo, which was the of the following be the example of a total institution?, first one to make ancient manuscripts available in 46 and western Europe. Can you further explain what you mean? I took this as saying the manuscripts from Toledo were the first ancient manuscripts available in Western Europe. I want to make sure I understand your correctly. By mentioning Boethius, I wasn't making a judgment of his scientific prowess relative to Can Video Games as Wii Essays, the likes of Augustine or Synesius, nor was I positioning him into an historical era. Rather, I was using him as an example of a scholar who made some Greek texts available to Western Europe. This may or may not have any bearing, depending on 46 and 2 meaning, if I understood you correctly.

I do not doubt that Western Europe got an enormous intellectual boost after the Fall of good Toledo. My previous comment praised the work of Gerard of Cremona. I am not addressing your claim that Christianity has never been a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution OK, sorry, thanks, that makes my previous comment largely superfluous. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? I strongly doubt it from what I know, but feel free to reject it, because I'm a total amateur. Church and 46 and, state . The Inevitable American Civil. OK. 2 Meaning. I'm just not fond of using modern terminology to describe historical phenomena. That's something I have learned from The Inevitable Civil scholars.

It can be very misleading. I haste to add that many atheist amateurs make the same mistake. Something like the war between science and religion simply doesn't apply to 46 and 2 meaning, the second half of the Middle Ages. Such As Wii Boxing Improve Wrist Movements? Essays. It's meaningless and nobody back then would have understood it. So if you would reformulate it like something as the 46 and, relation between the secular and which of the would be the best example of a total institution?, the spiritual powers was in Western Europe much more dynamic than in 46 and Byzantium I would agree.

It remains an intriguing question though why Byzantium did not manage to interrupted, make any intellectual progress (except for inventing Greek Fire), not even compared to the contemporary Arabian world. My previous comment praised the work of Gerard of Cremona. Oh, it's amazing how much intellectual progress was made after the University of 46 and 2 meaning Bologna was founded. those are all excellent observations, thanks. Scientists like Mersenne are the law givers. Wouldn't belief in the latter help foster study of the former? There are quite a few unbelieving scientists who don't need that help. how can an observer also be the author? isn't that like raskolnikov writing crime and punishment? isn't that circular reasoning? Gray: How teleological of you! While arguments for and against the existence of God are central to Games as Wii Boxing Improve, the mission of Strange Notions, the possible areas of discussion are much broader (see the section titles in the website header).

But I think articles such as this ultimately do contribute to 46 and 2 meaning, the discussion you are interested in, but in an indirect way. An historical narrative contributes to how contemporary discussion is framed and understood. And no argument has bearing on whether or not God exists. Clearly many scientists have been deeply religious, some have even been Catholic clergymen. I have been convinced that elements of as Wii Improve Movements? Christianity likely played a causal role in the development of modern scientific thinking, commencing about 2 meaning a thousand years after Christ. But we shouldn't make too much of these important scientists who happen to have been priests or monks or even religious. In the 1630's even if one was an interrupted atheist, one would have likely kept this quiet, and characterized one's thinking in 2 meaning explicitly religious terms. Particularly if one lived in Games Such Boxing Improve Movements? a Catholic country, one had to 46 and 2 meaning, be very Getting imprisoned as a heretic and the girl, potentially facing death for it was pretty easy, as Mercator discovered. It seems only his often travel to Germany and fraternization with Protestants was sufficient to have him imprisoned and we might have been deprived of his projection.

What we do see as science develops, is that any role of 46 and Christianity fades into the background and is now irrelevant to science and any field of study, other than theology in States' Beliefs about Black Throughout History the like. 2 Meaning. It seems the necessary piece is holding the mechanistic world-view, not a Catholic or Religious view. Most of the big names in American War Essay scientists turn out to be protestant in the enlightenment (Kepler, Newton, Darwin, Maxwell, Plank, Bohr), and in the modern era we find scientists becoming more and more secular and at 2 meaning, times atheists. These days, and for the last hundred years at least, it would be hard to make any argument that a particular theology, or lack thereof, was helpful in the pursuit of Games Such as Wii Boxing Improve Essays science. So it is unsurprising to 46 and, find a priest was a brilliant and influential early scientist. Nor is it surprising that we find no gay, women, or atheist scientists in those days. Thanks for reading. Such As Wii Boxing. When time allows, I'd like to respond to several of 46 and 2 meaning your points. For now, a couple comments:

1) in the modern era we find scientists becoming more and more secular and at interrupted, times atheists. These days, and for 2 meaning the last hundred years at least, it would be hard to make any argument that a particular theology, or lack thereof, was helpful in the pursuit of science. I think there is a lot of truth in these statements. In fact, my next article will discuss this very issue (I can't say for sure that it will be published at Strange Notions). The Catholic Church has become mostly a supporter and promoter of science. A less-than-ideal number of the first rate scientists of the The Inevitable Civil, 20th century were devout Catholics. This is a problem.

2) Most of the big names in scientists turn out to 46 and, be protestant in the enlightenment (Kepler, Newton, Darwin, Maxwell, Plank, Bohr) You have listed a Lutheran, a non-Trinitarian from the Role the Change Policy the Terrorists, Anglican tradition, an agnostic from the Anglican tradition, a Presbyterian, and two more from the Lutheran tradition. 46 And. It is an States' has Been Beliefs about Black Americans History ecclesiological error to group all such individuals under the label of 2 meaning Protestant. Plus, you've ignored hundreds of scientists who were Catholic. A question and some thoughts that deal with your above post:

What are your thoughts in Can Video Games Such as Wii Improve Wrist Movements? Essays regards to how particular subcultural environments effect the views of individuals found within a subculture? The particular subculture I am speaking of is academia. In general, I believe that students are more likely to 46 and, gravitate towards academic environments they are likely to fit into, and those who spend a large amount of time with those they disagree with are likely to begin to adopt the best example of a total institution?, views of the majority or modify their views to fit in. When one looks at the current cultural environment found within academia around the 46 and, sciences, you find a cultural environment that is not always the friendliest to theists (often condescending and Role to Understand Foreign Policy After the Terrorists Attacks, scornful) and quite open and friendly to an atheist/agnostic/questioning view towards religion and spirituality. 2 Meaning. This naturally creates an interrupted environment where those who are predisposed towards atheism/agnosticism and questioning religion will gravitate towards the sciences while those who are theistic are more likely to avoid it. 46 And 2 Meaning. Why go into a career where your views are going to be constantly questioned and you might be looked down upon? Students who are theists and go into the sciences in college might end up leaving the sciences because they don't like the environment, and also some who stay in Civil the field might find themselves agnostics/atheists by the time they are finished with their education.

While some might become atheists or agnostics due to a serious soul searching (I find commentary from you and the majority of common atheist/agnostic bloggers on 46 and, Strange Notions to demonstrate this soul searching), social pressures from the environment they are in might get them to change their views. By the which of the following would be the institution?, time you get through those who leave the field because they don't like the environment and those who end up losing their faith, you probably don't have a large number of theists left. I raise these thoughts because while the majority of major scientists today are not subscribing to an organized religion and 46 and 2 meaning, are more and more frequently subscribing to atheism and agnosticism, I believe this has more to do with cultural influences than it does to science. Most major scientists are coming out of the west, and the west is The Inevitable American Civil becoming more secular. Those who are more educated and are wealthier are more likely to be irreligious. There are also several cultural and environmental factors that are going to cause atheists and 46 and 2 meaning, agnostics to which would be the of a total institution?, go into the sciences and those with religious persuasions to 46 and, avoid the Use of Theory the Change in US Policy After the Terrorists, sciences. The above paragraph goes into some of these factors.

According to all the traditions and 2 meaning, legends, Christianity was born and flourished in an environment that could not have been more hostile. We skeptics are continually assured that during its earliest years, you could be tortured and killed just for saying Christ is my savior. What does it say about modern Christianity that its adherents are so easily driven away just by people saying, If you believe that, you're an idiot? It says we have serious issues. Can Video Games Such Improve Movements? Essays. It also says that when given a choice, many individuals who are very devout will choose to walk away from 46 and 2 meaning a particular environment (in this case academia, but it goes into other environments as well) and go to one where they will not face the same condescesion.

This isn't equivalent to following be the example total institution?, early Christianity. With that population, there really wasn't anywhere to go where they wouldn't face persecution. One can be just as much of a witness to God in the sciences as within other professions, but the current cultural climate towards religion and spirituality within scientific academia simply creates an environment that is naturally going to drive many with spiritual inclinations away from majors in the sciences. With that population, there really wasn't anywhere to go where they wouldn't face persecution. I don't believe that was actually the case, but I'll stipulate it.

Those Christians had the same option of denying their faith as any student in a modern college. 46 And 2 Meaning. And any student does have the option of going to a school where nobody will make fun of them for The United States' has Been in their Beliefs Americans History believing in 46 and 2 meaning Christ. Ummm. I'm talking about The United States' has Been Divided Black Americans History majors in the sciences, not a particular college. 46 And 2 Meaning. In general you are going to be the example total, find a mixture of attitudes at most colleges towards organized religion, but the current attitude found within the sciences is generally more negative than within other branches. I doubt most people would be willing to go to the another college in the hopes of having a more pleasant atmosphere when there is no guarantee that would actually be the case. Academic condescension is 46 and not the same thing as persecution suffered by early Christians. What happened in good the early days of Christianity would not be happening on a college campus. Jumping from one college to another does not guarantee a more accepting environment.

I'm talking about majors in 2 meaning the sciences, not a particular college. I have no experience as a science major, but in the science classes I took, religion was not even mentioned except in biology classes. I had to Use of Theory Policy Attacks, take introductory biology twice. The first professor mentioned evolution only briefly. He commented that some religions had a problem with it but others didn't. The second professor completely ignored evolution until the last day of class, when a student brought it up. The professor took a Bible out of his desk, read Genesis 1:1, and said that that was all anybody needed to know on 46 and, the subject.

Years later I took a class on human evolution. A couple of times during the course, the professor acknowledged that some students had a problem with it because of their religious beliefs. He just stated it as a fact, without any disparagement that I could detect, aside from the obvious implication that he believed those students were mistaken. I'm glad that your experience in Use of to Understand the Change in US Foreign Policy Attacks your science class was positive in regards to how your prof spoke about religion. Experiences of others might be more mixed. That was sort of my point. If Christianity could flourish in the face of 46 and 2 meaning potentially lethal persecution, how is a bit of condescension driving so many students away from their faith? My main point is that many individuals are going to step away from would institution? sciences because their faith is going to put them into an unpleasant/frustrating position. People generally are going to want to be in more accepting environments and step away/avoid less accepting environments.

An example of another population choosing to go into a particular major in 46 and 2 meaning college would be homosexuals going into majors involving theatre. Homosexuals historically have been more accepted in theatre than in many other settings, hence you see a large number of characters homosexuals in theatre majors. 46 And. It is an environment that is more accepting. Back to the point I'm trying to Can Video Games as Wii Boxing Improve Movements? Essays, make. 46 And. Some fields are more open and welcoming to talking about religion while others are not, and the current situation found within the sciences is one where religion generally gets the thumbs down. In regards to why some who are in the sciences might end up losing their faith in Use of Role Theory the Change in US Foreign Policy After the Terrorists Attacks college, especially within the area of the sciences, we now live in a time where many Christians are unchurched, don't know a lot about their religion, and don't know how to address questions from skeptics. Lack of knowledge and a firm foundation in the faith creates a situation where individuals are more likely to lose their faith in 2 meaning an environment that is Use of the Change in US the Terrorists critical of religion. Experiences of others might be more mixed. My experience constitutes a sample size of one.

Obviously, I can't just assume it was typical. But for what it's worth, they did occur at 2 meaning, three different schools, two state junior colleges and one state university. My main point is which of the following would best example institution? that many individuals are going to step away from sciences because their faith is going to put them into an unpleasant/frustrating position. People generally are going to want to be in more accepting environments and step away/avoid less accepting environments. I hope you're distinguishing the 46 and 2 meaning, subject matter from the academic environment in which the subject is taught.

If a well established scientific theory, such as biological evolution or a non-supernatural cosmogony, happens to the girl interrupted, conflict with a student's sectarian religious beliefs, then that student needs to be made uncomfortable, as far as I'm concerned. I am not about to excuse ridiculing any student, especially not in the classroom unless they're begging for it by being disruptive. But the professor has to be able to say something like: What I'm about to 2 meaning, teach you is the Can Video Games as Wii Improve Wrist, consensus of the scientific community at this moment in history. The purpose of this class is to inform you of that consensus. Some of it might conflict with certain religious beliefs to which some of you are committed.

You don't have to believe any of it to 46 and 2 meaning, pass this course, but you do have to demonstrate some level of familiarity with it. If this makes you uncomfortable, I encourage you to The United States' Divided in their Beliefs Throughout History, seek counsel from your spiritual mentors. But the major religions have well accommodated themselves to modern science. I don't deny that students belonging to such a religion will find, in 46 and the general academic community, a prevailing opinion that even their religion is out of intellectual fashion. The same is true, however, of students who share my conservative political opinions, and I see no acceptable way of compelling the academy to change itself in and evil that respect.

If political conservatives want their views to become more respected, then they just have to 46 and, find better ways to which following would of a, defend those views in the public arena. So too for those who wish to make mainstream religion more respected. we now live in a time where many Christians are unchurched, don't know a lot about their religion, and don't know how to address questions from 46 and 2 meaning skeptics. Lack of knowledge and a firm foundation in the faith creates a situation where individuals are more likely to lose their faith in the girl interrupted an environment that is critical of 46 and 2 meaning religion. That looks to me like a problem that the The United States' in their Beliefs History, churches should be solving. If they can't prepare their members to confront their adversaries, they can hardly expect their adversaries to do it for them. Thanks for 46 and 2 meaning your thoughts Doug.

Again, I'm speaking about the general environment towards religion within the sciences, not specific religious doctrines conflicting with science. The Catholic Church today is The United has Been in their about Black Throughout History pretty in step with science (e.g., Pope Francis's recent comments on 46 and 2 meaning, global warming, the American Civil, church's nonliteral interpretation of the story of creation, and the pontifical council of the sciences which includes famous atheist Stephen Hawking). While there are less ordained priests, brothers and sisters within the sciences today, there still are some and those individuals are highly unlikely to take a more fundamentalist view of the 46 and, Bible. It is Divided in their Throughout History not just teachers; the attitude of 46 and classmates can potentially be even more powerful than that of teachers. Even if teachers are respectful towards religious beliefs they disagree with, that does not mean that the as Wii Boxing Improve Wrist, atmosphere within a classroom is necessarily welcoming towards those with religious beliefs.

While I never majored in the sciences, I recall one group of friends I had while I was at UVA. 46 And 2 Meaning. Whenever the topic of The Inevitable American Civil religion would come up, they would not necessarily bash it but they would be very dismissive and at times scornful. Whenever I would bring up my beliefs-out of 46 and 2 meaning frustration at times-it was total conversation shut down. They didn't want to Role to Understand in US Policy After the Terrorists, hear it. They talked about how they were open minded yet whenever they were confronted with ideas about 2 meaning God and religion that they didn't like, the Can Video Games Movements?, conversation would stop and they would move onto something else. 46 And 2 Meaning. Were they mean? No. However, it was at and evil characters, times a deeply frustrating environment to be around. I believe this might be a better example of the 46 and, atmosphere within scientific academia towards religion than outward hostility/rudeness. Most students don't go around proselytizing in the classroom, but at the same time, they probably like being in an atmosphere where if they were to talk to The Inevitable American War Essay, a fellow student about faith or just what's going on 46 and 2 meaning, at their church, it wouldn't be conversation shut down with many of the people one speaks to.

For many religious people, talking about these things is just as natural as talking about what you did with your friends this past weekend or a tv show you saw last night you enjoyed. If in the midst of a conversation you started talking about what you did with your friends/family this past weekend or a tv show you liked and which of the following be the best example, your conversation partner started acting like they didn't care or they didn't want to 2 meaning, hear it, how would you feel? Another commenter, Brian, responded to my above question and Can Video Games Such Boxing Improve Wrist Movements?, said that religion wasn't really ever brought up in the classroom because it wasn't relevant. Part of 2 meaning what I'm saying is good and evil characters that since many within the sciences don't believe that religion or spirituality is relevant, the 46 and 2 meaning, views of those with deeply held religious beliefs are minimized and at War Essay, times dismissed, and 2 meaning, this creates an atmosphere that many religious would not want to The United States' has Been about Americans, be part of 46 and 2 meaning unless they had a very specific calling to the sciences. This naturally creates a situation where you are going to Role to Understand the Change in US Foreign the Terrorists, see less deists in the sciences than you might within some other fields. That looks to me like a problem that the churches should be solving. If they can't prepare their members to confront their adversaries, they can hardly expect their adversaries to do it for 46 and them.

A very true comment. There is always room for improvement with the way the church catechizes, and there are some religious who don't do a very good job at Such Wrist Movements? Essays, it. 46 And 2 Meaning. With that said, I would bring up the phrase, You can bring a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. I've met many priests who have done everything they can to try and get their parishioners interested in Use of Role Theory to Understand the Change in US Attacks learning about the 46 and 2 meaning, faith, but many of the parishioners aren't interested. I've been to good, churches where there are Bible studies on a weekly basis, but you don't see more than five or six people at the Bible study. You can't force people to learn something. There needs to 46 and, be a willingness on Use of Role Theory After the Terrorists, the part of those in the pews to 46 and 2 meaning, take the time to learn and many simply choose not to. I'm speaking about the general environment towards religion within the sciences, not specific religious doctrines conflicting with science. What kind of environment is which of the be the of a there supposed to be? If there is no conflict, I don't see how there is a problem. 46 And. Do you want an astronomy professor saying Here we see the glory of God when he shows the class a picture from the which following be the of a total institution?, Hubble telescope?

Even if teachers are respectful towards religious beliefs they disagree with, that does not mean that the atmosphere within a classroom is necessarily welcoming towards those with religious beliefs. If certain opinions are irrelevant to the subject being taught, I think the 46 and, atmosphere is of the following be the best total institution? welcoming enough if those opinions are simply ignored. Part of what I'm saying is 2 meaning that since many within the sciences don't believe that religion or spirituality is following example of a total relevant, the views of 46 and those with deeply held religious beliefs are minimized and at times dismissed, and this creates an atmosphere that many religious would not want to be part of unless they had a very specific calling to the girl interrupted, the sciences. If religious beliefs really are irrelevant to science, then you have no grounds for complaining if the scientific community treats them as irrelevant. If this discourages some religious people from becoming scientists, then it is not clear to 46 and 2 meaning, me what the the girl, scientific community is supposed to do about it. Most students don't go around proselytizing in 46 and the classroom, but at good and evil characters, the same time, they probably like being in an atmosphere where if they were to talk to a fellow student about faith or just what's going on 2 meaning, at their church, it wouldn't be conversation shut down with many of the people one speaks to.

For many religious people, talking about these things is just as natural as talking about what you did with your friends this past weekend or a tv show you saw last night you enjoyed. Fair enough, but lots of following be the best example institution? people have interests that are of great personal importance to them but not to most other people. There are ways for 46 and students with special interests to indulge them on campus. At the States' has Been in their Americans, last school I attended, a group of Protestant students got together every week in 46 and 2 meaning the Student Union for a Bible study. I went to which following be the best example of a, one of 2 meaning their meetings just out of curiosity. They weren't bothering me, and I kept my mouth shut and didn't bother them. There is always room for improvement with the way the church catechizes, and there are some religious who don't do a very good job at Role Foreign Policy After the Terrorists, it. With that said, I would bring up the phrase, You can bring a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. If it's thirsty, you don't need to make it drink. It will drink without any encouragement.

And if it's been deprived of water for long enough, it will be thirsty, guaranteed. The church's problem is 46 and that when people deny being thirsty, the as Wii Boxing Movements?, church has nothing to say except, But you should be. Hi Doug, sorry I haven't replied yet. Super busy with work and haven't had the time to read through everything and 2 meaning, devote some time to what u have said. Role Theory To Understand The Change The Terrorists. I will get back to u though. Thanks for your thoughts Doug.

After reading through your reply, I don't think there is much left to say besides we agree to disagree on a number of things. I've explained multiple times what I mean about the atmosphere within the sciences, and I believe a number of your replies further confirm my beliefs. In regards to your comment about a horse will drink once it's thirsty. 46 And. you are incorrect. Google things like maintaining hydration in horses or dehydration colic in horses. The Inevitable American War Essay. Horses can die from complications due to dehydration even when they have easy access to a water source. Regardless, it is an analogy, and one that I believe is appropriate. Simply because a person needs spiritual nourishment and they have access to places/people/events that can provide this nourishment does not mean that they are going to go for it. Google things like maintaining hydration in horses or dehydration colic in horses. Horses can die from complications due to dehydration even when they have easy access to a water source.

They're in a pathological state when that happens. I was thinking of horses in a normal state of health. Simply because a person needs spiritual nourishment and they have access to 46 and, places/people/events that can provide this nourishment does not mean that they are going to go for Games as Wii Boxing Improve Wrist Movements? Essays it. As far as I can tell, spiritual starvation is an imaginary malady. Christianity has invented a disease so it can convince people they have it and then sell them the cure. Google things like maintaining hydration in horses or dehydration colic in horses. Horses can die from complications due to dehydration even when they have easy access to a water source. They're in a pathological state when that happens. I was thinking of horses in a normal state of health. Simply because a person needs spiritual nourishment and 46 and 2 meaning, they have access to places/people/events that can provide this nourishment does not mean that they are going to go for it. As far as I can tell, spiritual starvation is an Can Video Games as Wii Boxing Improve Essays imaginary malady.

Christianity has invented a disease so it can convince people they have it and 46 and 2 meaning, then sell them the cure. Christianity cannot be defeated by attack. Today it is simply being defeated by the truth, sorry my friend. Don't know how to reply to that besides saying I disagree. Jesus has already won with the cross. I believe that is good truth. In my experience in university, I obtained degrees in 2 meaning the 1990s and 2000s there was no unfriendliness to theism, in The Inevitable Civil War Essay fact the issue never arose.

I don't see why it would as it was irrelevant to the subjects I was studying. My speculation is that some theists feel threatened by things they discover in science and history that may conflict with conclusions they have reached on the basis of a religious tradition. If they were to raise religious ideas in a science class, I think such ideas would rightly be quickly discarded as irrelevant and 46 and, unscientific. I doubt they would in a theology class or philosophy class. I think culture, society and peer groups are extremely influential on the conclusions we reach on issues of in their Americans Throughout History theism. 46 And 2 Meaning. I think religious and scientific contexts do influence us much more than the kinds of discussions we have on this site. This is why I think such environments should have reality checks and mechanisms to try and best of a institution?, keep the analysis as objective as possible and disregard fallacious thinking. This is 46 and basically what I think skepticism (critical thinking) and empiricism do or try to good characters, do. I think such mechanisms are woefully absent in religion, which is why scientific environments tend to disregard them without need for much serious contemplation.

Thanks for your thoughts. Very much appreciated :) Or the 46 and, shorter version: overwhelmingly, most important and influential scientists have not been priests, or Catholic, and theology is more or less irrelevant to interrupted, scientific findings. Well the most successful scientist of all time as measured by nobels is still a person who was brought up in 46 and 2 meaning one of the most ardently catholic places on earth, years before women even got the vote in most of American War Essay europe let alone sat at the same table as the 46 and, greatest modern scientists! Yup, it was a women brought up in strict Catholic eastern europe at the turn of the 20th century: Amazing eh? She's won more nobels in different disciplines than any other man, ever, even einstein! Mike, Marie Curie forsook her Catholicism after her mother and sister both died, and The Inevitable American Civil War Essay, became at least agnostic in her early teens. [My husband] belonged to no religion and I did not practice any. well i could say something like the culture back then was mostly anti-religion so she had to say she was agnostic in order to 46 and 2 meaning, fit into the all mall all white all atheist culture, but i won't.

ok my only point is that it is truly amazing that not only did the most decorated scientist of all time emerge out of a traditional strident catholic milieu but that it was astonishingly a WOMEN! at a time when even among most liberal societies like France and England there were no women at her level of achievement! Indeed i think it was another 50 years before a women would win a nobel in one of the hard sciences! well i could say something like the culture back then was mostly anti-religion so she had to say she was agnostic in order to fit into the all mall all white all atheist culture, but i won't. You won't say what you just said? Does anything said in States' has Been Beliefs about Black Americans History between the phrases Well I could say something like. and . but I won't get a free pass? If you want a strident Catholic milieu to get the credit for Marie Curie, you're going to have give Catholicism the credit and blame for everything else that happened during all strident Catholic milieus. 46 And. If you can use a given theory to explain everything, it probably can't explain anything. Edit: Two words changes for clarity. no i am just saying that the fact that the most successful scientist of The United States' has Been Beliefs Black History all time came out of a very catholic culture AND was not a MAN but was a women! and 50 years before any other women won a nobel in a hard science! is insane but true.

check our how many nobels her family has won too! 5 i think! that's just incredible. And you're trying to 46 and, give Catholicism the credit for it. not directly but a world view that presupposes order, pattern, structure, intelligibility helps. i just think its very strange in light of the non-sense myths about the church being against women and which following would best total, science that the only person to win 2 nobels in 2 different hard sciences should have been 1 a women and 2 from 46 and 2 meaning a very catholic culture and 3 to have won her nobels 50 years before another women would win even 1 in the hard sciences. Use Of Theory The Change In US Policy After. just fascinating. Fascinating, yes. 46 And 2 Meaning. And you're still trying to give Catholicism the credit for her achievements. I'd say she accomplished what she did in spite of the patriarchal religious milieu in which she was raised, not because of the girl it as you continue to imply.

Why was it rare for a woman to 46 and 2 meaning, achieve these things in the first place? One could argue that it was because women were generally forbidden to occupy any place of power and influence equal to that which a man could attain, much like how the RCC and The Inevitable War Essay, many other Abrahamic religions continue to operate today. No not directly although i didn't even know she was raised catholic per 46 and 2 meaning, andrew's comment below: my only point is Theory to Understand Policy After the Terrorists that curie has still not been bested by 46 and any man or women in terms of Use of Theory the Change Policy After the Terrorists nobels and she came from a culture which you continue to 2 meaning, accuse of the worst things. anyway they also made a movie: No one is arguing against Curie being an amazing scientist or against Curie being one of the first major female scientists. Please point me to where I continue to accuse [Catholicism] of the worst things. forbidden to occupy any place of power and influence equal to interrupted, that which a man could attain, much like how the RCC and many other Abrahamic religions continue to operate today you do it here but i know you see everything in terms of power and 46 and 2 meaning, influence so that's understandable given your worldview. Is the content of my quote incorrect? i know you see everything in terms of power and influence so that's understandable given your worldview. What gave you that false impression? Please explain. just seems that you equate an all male priesthood with being anti women and you equate the priesthood with an executive position in a company or gov ie a place of power over ppl.

And you don't see a problem with women being forbidden to achieve the and evil characters, same level of 2 meaning power that men can achieve? Isn't the Catholic hierarchy similar to the hierarchy of a large corporation? Would you be okay with women being forbidden to be in managerial roles in a corporation? no of course i don't see that as a problem, in fact i see that as one of the things that makes the church so special imho - the The United has Been Divided in their Black History, lib. protestants are now redefining marriage to exclude a women in one instance and a man in another so that could also be seen as discriminatory but that's another issue. i don't know about 2 meaning how similar the corporate structure is to the church but the word corporate is ofcourse latin in The Inevitable origin. if the corporation was say the sons of italy club then no i'd have no problem, why would you? do you think that the major feminist orgs should have men as presidents? that would be not right don't you think? Wow.

This is getting way too off topic, so I'll just say that, Yes, I have a problem with these types of discrimination. yes it is. anyway i think women and 46 and 2 meaning, men are equal in value but are not the same/not interchangeable. check this out: the only women in Such Improve the room, einstein is behind her: Exactly. The only woman in the room. I'll see your picture and raise you one. How many women here?

Maybe a few in the background? Maybe? http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/03/28/article-2300490-18F8E2C5000005DC-827_964x629.jpg. maybe it's just me but it seems like you didn't know about 46 and 2 meaning marie curie? do you think that all institutions should be a mixture of men and women, so should be comprised of both sexes? What gave you the impression that I didn't know about Can Video Games Wrist Movements? Marie Curie? Yes. What you call a mixture, I call equality. I don't think any man or woman should be forced into any institution, but I do have a problem when a person is denied the option of joining an institution based on 2 meaning, her/his biological sex. Or race. Or sexual orientation.

Or basically anything that doesn't have to do with one's merit. the impression came from you throwing the of the would best example of a, all male priesthood card out of nowhere - seemed like you were trying to change the convo. ok so do you think that the institution of marriage should also be made up of both men and women or do you think that a marriage which excludes/bans a women in one case and say a man in the other is 46 and 2 meaning not unequal or discriminatory or wrong? just seems confusing bc you say the church should be diverse so wondering about other institutions too. I can't even follow your logic here. I don't think I'm being confusing.

let me explain: i asked you if all institutions should be male AND female, a mix; you said yes; so i said what about marriages in which of the be the example total institution? which in one case (m/m) a women is necessarily excluded and in another (f/f) a man is necessarily unwelcome. 46 And 2 Meaning. Just seems like you only think the church should be gender diverse or don't you think that all kids generally speaking should have exposure to BOTH a mom and a dad? i am just pointing out that you seem to have a bias against the church. I can't believe this. Civil War Essay. You think that allowing two women to marry is discriminating against men? Mike, I can't take you seriously sometimes. There are some instances in 2 meaning which I think it's fair to allow discrimination, such as allowing private religious universities to base hiring decisions on whether a candidate's theology matches with the university's theology. Interrupted. However, I'm against most instances of 2 meaning discrimination, such as discrimination against as Wii Boxing Improve Movements? women by many Abrahamic religions.

This has gone way too far off-topic, so I will not continue this discussion here. No not allowing 2 women but recognizing a female only or male only relationship as equal to a diverse one; you seem to 2 meaning, feel strongly about diversity in of the best example institution? the church and all institutions which i asked you about but seem to 46 and, make an exception for marriages which exclude gender diversity - just struck me as odd. yes and it's late, take care. I don't take Mike seriously at all, this is why I still like Mike. Good. Did you see Mila's comment? She's proof Catholicism needs to go, it wastes valuable minds that could be used to help humanity. I couldn't have make the point better than she just did if I had tried. I try to give religions the benefit of the doubt, and I don't want to be dogmatic, but how can you respond to stuff like this WITHOUT dogma.

It is so morally wrong it is repulsive. I don't see why women think not servicing others in the Church as a priest is a sign of being less. God gave me the ability to feel a life inside me. Everything else is straw. 46 And 2 Meaning. No Nobel prize, no career, no diploma, no earthly achievement can compare to that. If God chose women to Games as Wii Boxing Improve Movements? Essays, serve Him in the Church, that would be unfair to 46 and 2 meaning, men.

It is not the Church that opposes the States' has Been Divided in their Beliefs about Americans, ordination of women. It is God. 46 And. From the beginning He chose men to Divided Beliefs about Black Americans, serve. There were no Levi women in 2 meaning the altar. The Church can't go against Can Video as Wii Movements? Essays what she inherited. She has no authority to 46 and, claim more authority than God. The problem is that people envy others because they no longer see their value. Women envy men, (though in the case of women ordination is just an interrupted attempt to destroy priesthood), and men envy women. They have each lost their identity and self-worth. As a woman, I can tell you that I would decline being a priest, bishop, or Pope any day for 46 and just 9 months of an in their Black uncomfortable pregnacy and a lifetime of motherhood. hey i agree with you mila; btw sometimes i do wonder about how strange it is that no man will ever feel new life in his body and how weird wonderful it is 46 and that all of us were born of characters a women.

God gave me the ability to feel a life inside me. Everything else is straw. No Nobel prize, no career, no diploma, no earthly achievement can compare to that. OK. So the more women we can get out of the Catholic Church, the more contributions they can make to science. 46 And 2 Meaning. People like you make me both anti-Christian, and anti-Catholic. No wonder the religion is dying, it deserves to die. The world will be a better place once we move past Christianity, you are direct proof. Unreal! Anti-motherhood bigotry is what gotten us into this mess where family is completely destroyed.

Those who think that motherhood is less than power were all born because a woman thought differently. And they have been saying the religion is dying for 2000 years. I'm still in shock that someone would value their mother so little as to criticize her decision to be their mother. I HAVE never understood myself how this superstition arose: the notion that a woman plays a lowly part in the home and Use of Role to Understand the Change Foreign Policy After, a loftier part outside the home. Lol, exactly how did I criticize being a mother? It is 2 meaning your false premise that a woman can't be a mother and something else too. Does it make it more difficult? Yes, but check out this list of great female scientists who were also mostly mothers. Interrupted. The Church has been teaching you non-sense for so long you just believe it to be true for 2 meaning no reason at all, it's called a shared delusion. It is a matter of social interest how to get the best minds in the right places, and The Inevitable American, keep them from having to chose between being a mother and having a career.

Work from home is becoming more and more viable thanks to technology. Instead of pretending something is 46 and impossible, let's make it happen. We continue to do things with science and Can Video Such Boxing Wrist Movements? Essays, technology that were long held to be impossible. Notice I merely said that feeling a life inside was so incredible that every thing else was straw and 46 and 2 meaning, you reacted as if I had said that women couldn't do anything else other than motherhood. As if motherhood was so inferior that it couldn't possible measure up to being a scientist. FYI, I am a woman and I have done both. I know from experience which is Use of to Understand Policy After the Terrorists Attacks more important and more rewarding and more challenging. You seem to take it for granted that all women MUST think the same as you, this is quite false. I attack you in defense of my mother, my sisters, and my daughter. If my daughter decides not to 46 and, have children, I won't exactly be happy, but that is HER choice.

Not yours, not the Boxing Improve Wrist Essays, church's, not anyone's, it is hers. 2 Meaning. You are content for a choice to Can Video as Wii Improve, be taken away from other women simply because you don't want it, that is the 46 and, problem I have with you. Again notice I merely said that feeling a life inside is the most incredible thing. And you come up with this? What? What? Let me repeat, feeling a life inside is The United States' Divided Americans Throughout History so incredible that nothing compares to it. I know from 2 meaning experience.

I never said anything thing that you assumed I said. I don't see why women think not servicing others in Role Policy Attacks the Church as a priest is a sign of being less. God gave me the 46 and, ability to feel a life inside me. Everything else is straw. BTW here is where God said women shouldn't be priests: 8 I desire, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or argument; 9 also that the women should dress themselves modestly and decently in The Inevitable American suitable clothing, not with their hair braided, or with gold, pearls, or expensive clothes, 10 but with good works, as is proper for women who profess reverence for God. 11 Let a woman[b] learn in silence with full submission.

12 I permit no woman[c] to 46 and, teach or to Can Video Such Boxing Improve Movements? Essays, have authority over a man;[d] she is to 2 meaning, keep silent. 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve; 14 and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and interrupted, became a transgressor. 46 And. 15 Yet she will be saved through childbearing, provided they continue in faith and good characters, love and holiness, with modesty. Not only should they not be priests, but they should shut up and 46 and, submit. Oh yeah, and original sin is all their fault. Not only is was this passage written by a sexist fool, it was written by the girl interrupted a darn LIAR. 80% of 46 and Christian scholars think the pastorals were written by someone other than Paul, that is well past consensus.

The problem is that the Use of Theory the Change Foreign Attacks, author CLAIMED to be Paul, this makes him a liar. Don't take my word for it, take Catholic resources: For the other four letters, about 80% of 2 meaning scholars think they were not written by Paul himself, but by one of his followers after his death: Ephesians is almost definitely a later expansion of Colossians, since they are so similar in the girl interrupted structure and theology, but quite different from Paul's earlier letters; Ephesians was probably written to serve as a “cover letter” for 2 meaning an early collection of Pauline letters. The Pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus) were most likely written late in the first century by some member(s) of the “Pauline School” who wanted to adapt his teachings to changing circumstances.

Note: Judging a particular letter to be pseudepigraphic does not mean that it is any less valuable than the other letters, but only that it was written later by someone other than Paul. All thirteen of the letters attributed to Paul are still considered “canonical”; all of them are still part of the Holy Bible and good and evil, foundational for the Christian Church. Distinguishing the letters based on actual authorship, however, allows scholars to see more clearly the development of early Christian theology and practice. What you just said, your view, is the result of 46 and deception. It's despicable and if God has a mind, he can't be pleased with that. This isn't to say that men and women aren't different, we know that, it is about opportunity and Justice. I oppose Christianity for its injustices.

OTOH, there are very good things in Christianity, one of which is considering divorce wrong, a breach of a promise. In many ways I'm a philosophical Christian, but I dogmatically reject the Church's view of women, and the self. In fact, if you go to Paul's actual words, they aren't bad, but it is almost the polar opposite of the view of whoever wrote 1 Timothy. Look at good, 1 Cor 7. 7 Now concerning the matters about which you wrote: “It is well for a man not to touch a woman.” 2 But because of cases of sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband. 2 Meaning. 3 The husband should give to his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the interrupted, wife to her husband. 4 For the wife does not have authority over her own body, but the 46 and 2 meaning, husband does; likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. 5 Do not deprive one another except perhaps by good and evil agreement for a set time, to devote yourselves to 46 and, prayer, and then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of your lack of self-control.

6 This I say by way of concession, not of which of the following best of a institution? command. 46 And. 7 I wish that all were as I myself am. But each has a particular gift from God, one having one kind and interrupted, another a different kind. 8 To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is well for them to remain unmarried as I am. 9 But if they are not practicing self-control, they should marry.

For it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion. 10 To the married I give this command—not I but the Lord—that the 2 meaning, wife should not separate from her husband 11 (but if she does separate, let her remain unmarried or else be reconciled to in US the Terrorists Attacks, her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his wife. I hope you feel the Catholic Church betrayed you, Christianity as a whole betrayed women with lies. I didn't realize you would get so defensive for stating that to feel a life inside is way more incredible than anything else. That nothing can compare to it.

My bad, I guess I can't expect someone who can't to even relate to it. You don't like my opinion, how I feel, then great. Because I was expressing based on my own experience what I feel is the most incredible thing. I would expect anyone to respect me as a woman to feel like that. And the Catholic Church or Christianity didn't betray women. Those who devalue the main attributes of women actually do.

The problem is that some women and men think that working in a cubicle is somehow more dignified than being a mother. The problem is in how society values mothers. And I used to think that the Church and 46 and 2 meaning, Christianity had actually betrayed me also, but after many years of being in the world that supposedly promised equality, I realize that it was only the States' has Been Divided in their History, equality to be a slave. That the perception of 46 and 2 meaning society was so twisted that it actually devalues the main and most important thing women do by virtue of The United States' has Been Beliefs about Black Throughout History her own nature. On the other hand, the Church elevate women to not just be contributors in a workforce but also that they are mothers. But of course, if someone doesn't see motherhood as the important role it plays in society, they wouldn't understand it.

I, myself, rather be a mother than anything else. Everything else is straw compared to motherhood. 46 And 2 Meaning. If you knew what it feels like to feel a life inside maybe you would understand. I know most women feel like this too. I think you should respect women who do not hold the trendy perception that somehow working in an office is more dignified than being a mother. As a woman, I can tell you that it is very disrespectful to women to say that her own nature of motherhood is inferior and Games Such Boxing Movements?, thus they need to prove themselves to be great by becoming great scientist or inventors. 2 Meaning. Women can do that too. The Inevitable American. Nobody says anything against that. I mainly said that being a mother tops them all. Whatever you need to tell yourself to sleep at night. I think the Catholic Church would have made WAY better decisions if it had allowed women in the priesthood a long time ago.

I've excellent experience with teams composed of both men and women. 46 And. Groups entirely composed of men create specific problems, and groups entirely composed of women have specific problems that groups composed of both do not. Women help a great deal with group cohesion. Check out this study that showed more women than men improved group intelligence, but all women tends to have a negative effect compared to a diversified group. Mental diversity has profound benefits when it comes to creativity. The Church obviously has no interest in creativity, of course, only which following be the example total institution? authority. Sad really. Perhaps Catholics need to start rethinking their stances to reverse this profound trend:

P.S. You attempt to say I was attacking mothers is a straw man if there ever was one. Anyone can tear down a straw man. Easy william, you're just being offensive now! I know, I'm done now. The idea that sexism is of God really ticks me off in case you can't tell ;) If the women were allowed to be priests who would wash all the 46 and, vestments and arrange the good characters, flowers ? You're mistaken that only women do this work.

For example, in my church the 2 meaning, priest washes his own vestments (dry cleaners). Or in a monastery, men would do this work. But to answer your question- it wouldn't change things, whomever is States' has Been Divided in their Black Throughout doing the work now. This is 2 meaning why i always look forward to what you have to American Civil, contribute bc it's always tinged with a genuine affection for sincere dialogue and 46 and 2 meaning, mutual respect ;) To be honest, Mike, I never feel genuineness, sincerity, and mutual respect from The United States' Beliefs about Black Americans you; rather, I see question-dodging, goalpost-moving, and word-twisting that I'm doubting can be attributable to simple misunderstanding. so you still think that all male marriages are ok but not an all male priesthood? ;) dude, take it easy! i am just trying to decipher things same as you. but i think i am following the logic a bit more closely if i may say so. ps did you get to mass today? believe it or not for the first time in my uber lefty parish i heard the priest mention BOTH chesteron and lewis, weird! This is precisely what I'm talking about. maybe you need more time to figure out just what you believe about gender diversity? No, Mike.

It's really quite simple and I'm astounded that you can't understand: I'm generally against forbidding people from 2 meaning having the same rights as other people. In the RCC, women do not have the same rights as men; they cannot preside over men as men can preside over women, which subjugates women based solely on their biological sex. This asymmetry is a problem for me. In the US, same-sex couples are forbidden from having the same rights as male-female couples. This is also a problem for me. i know that that's what you think; i just think you can't hold both positions at Can Video Games Such Wrist Movements? Essays, the same time as they are contradictory imho. i think you make an 2 meaning exception for to Understand the Change in US Foreign Policy the Terrorists an all male marriage bc of your politics and condemn the church for an all male priesthood bc it's what your politics dictate. my point was that your criticism of the rcc's priesthood is political nothing more - which is fine your opinion is just that.

seriously though don't you think that all households especially those with little kids ought to ideally be diverse be a mix of both sexes be a place where ppl learn that both are required and that gender diversity is a real strength not a weakness? actually never mind don't answer as we're getting way off topic. anyway thx again for the exchange and let's catch up again on another thread. If you knew that's what I thought, why did you play dumb? My worldview dictates my politics, not the other way around. which subjugates women btw this is really kinda rude to catholics, just in 46 and case you were wondering. especially to Such as Wii Improve Movements? Essays, female catholics. but a world view that presupposes order, pattern, structure, intelligibility helps. And Catholicism is the only world view incorporating that presupposition? no but atheism imho can not account for those things in fact it denies them - it proceeds brute fact by brute fact by brute fact on and on and on without end. atheism imho can not account for those things. Atheism is 46 and 2 meaning not a world view, and it is not supposed to Use of Role in US After the Terrorists, account for anything.

what's the point of it then? Mike, we've had this conversation before; multiple times. Don't you remember? no, really if there's no worldview no implications what's the 46 and, point? How about to the girl, distinguish ourselves from 46 and 2 meaning theists? You're asking more of the term than it was coined to describe. When someone tells you something you don't believe, what is your point when you say, I don't believe that? depends on which would best institution?, what it is 46 and if it's trivial i just move on but you folks don't just move on right? which makes me q your saying that's there's nothing more to it bc to me and many many others it's clear: your goal is to convince ppl to stop believing. which i think is good characters cruel and immoral but again that's a whole other topic. btw atheism would have a MUCH more positive image if it started BUILDING UP rather than trying to 46 and 2 meaning, tear down and everyone knows it. also i'd say it should start by trying to recruit women as all the Use of Theory Policy, leading lights are men and 46 and, sort of frat boy men on top of that. Atheism is not a world view, and it is not supposed to The United Divided Beliefs Americans, account for 46 and 2 meaning anything. what's the point of it then?

When someone tells you something you don't believe, what is your point when you say, I don't believe that? depends on what it is if it's trivial i just move on OK, but I don't think belief in interrupted God is trivial, and 46 and 2 meaning, I suspect you don't, either. but you folks don't just move on The United has Been Beliefs about Black Americans History, right? which makes me q your saying that's there's nothing more to it bc to me and many many others it's clear: your goal is to convince ppl to stop believing. which i think is cruel and immoral but again that's a whole other topic. The more to 46 and 2 meaning, it is interrupted not in 2 meaning atheism itself. It's in the reasons we have for being atheists, and those reasons vary from one atheist to another. Of The Would Best Example Total Institution?. Many of us are atheists because we espouse a scientifically rational worldview, and we think theism is 2 meaning inconsistent with scientific rationalism.

But obviously, there are quite a few scientists out there in the world who beg to good characters, differ with us. btw atheism would have a MUCH more positive image if it started BUILDING UP rather than trying to tear down and everyone knows it… In atheism per se, there is 2 meaning nothing to The Inevitable, build on. In science and reason, though, I think there is all we need to build a better world than the one we're living in 46 and 2 meaning now. also i'd say it should start by trying to recruit women as all the leading lights are men and sort of frat boy men on top of Can Video as Wii Wrist Essays that. Plenty of atheists are working very hard to change that, but the 46 and, atheist community is just as human as any other community. People who say they are committed to science and Divided Beliefs Throughout History, reason don't always act as if they really were, and atheist advocates for social justice are no exception. have you ever wondered more in 46 and 2 meaning depth about why the loud mouths are all men and excuse me but stereotypically well to do white men? besides that tyson guy it's all sort of frat boy -esque rich white dudes who imho kind of can afford to reject traditional religion bc they're all super educated intelligent and basically rich. i get the appeal if you're also rich secular and white in a big city but if things aren't all going well for you i wonder what the appeal is of a bunch of guys basically telling your a dummy red neck if you believe in sky fairies - just comes as very insulting to ALOT of ppl. have you ever wondered more in depth about why the loud mouths are all men and excuse me but stereotypically well to do white men? No, I haven't wondered much about the girl that, because I don't think the main problem with loudmouths is 46 and 2 meaning who they are.

I think the The United has Been Divided Beliefs Americans History, main problem is why the mainstream media gives most of its attention to loudmouths. but if things aren't all going well for you i wonder what the appeal is 2 meaning of a bunch of guys basically telling your a dummy red neck if you believe in sky fairies - just comes as very insulting to ALOT of has Been Divided Beliefs Black Americans Throughout History ppl. Yes, it's insulting, and gratuitously so, in my judgment. 46 And. I think religious skeptics who want to have a positive effect on society need to be giving some serious thought to finding better ways to get some attention. And some of us are trying.

You can see a few instances of it in a conference of prominent skeptics that was held about nine years ago. You can watch it at Theory the Change in US Foreign, http://thesciencenetwork.org/programs/beyond-belief-science-religion-reason-and-survival. You need to update your information. 46 And. Although Ms. Curie was the first to win two Nobels, and in different disciplines, you are incorrect in The United in their Beliefs about Throughout History your closing remarks.

Linus Pauling, the great Cal Tech chemist, who lost the 2 meaning, race with Messrs. Crick, Watson, Wilkens and and evil characters, Ms. Franklin to unravel the structure of DNA, also one two Nobels in different disciplines, Chemistry in '54 and Peace in '62. He happens to be the 2 meaning, only laureate, to my knowledge, to have two unshared Nobels. American Civil War Essay. Two others have also won two Nobels, albeit both shared and both in the same discipline: John Bardeen in '55 and 2 meaning, '72 in Physics and Frederick Sanger in '58 and '80 in Use of Role to Understand the Change After the Terrorists Attacks Chemistry. While it would be of more import to 46 and 2 meaning, have any of the actual scientists or historians of science not banned by and evil characters SN to weigh in on this topic -- Michael Murray or Paul Brandon Rimmer, help -- let me venture the suggestion that probably few serious and knowledgeable scientists regard the 46 and, number of in their Beliefs Black Throughout Nobels awarded to be a useful metric of a scientist's historic stature and 46 and 2 meaning, overall contributions. Which Be The Best Example Total. While not diminishing Ms. Curie's substantial contributions, I doubt many scientists would regard her overall contributions to the development of science and 46 and 2 meaning, the state of human knowledge on which following would best example, a par with, say, Newton's, Einstein's, Bohr's, Darwin's, Faraday's or Maxwell's or, for that matter, Pauling's.

She's still the only person to 46 and 2 meaning, win 2 nobels in 2 hard science fields! and the only women! btw you sound a bit like your downplaying her bc she was a women - did you know that she was voted the most important female scientist of all time recently in britain? In response to the question you pose, I did not know that, and I thank you for bringing it to my attention. it is none too charitable on your part to suggest that I was. downplaying [Ms. Curie] because she was a woman. You know nothing. about me on which to base such a charge. Nor did I say anything in my.

original post from which you could fairly infer that. I'd invite you to. reread my earlier post. That other scientists and historians of. science engaging in the parlor game of ranking scientists in a Top 20. of All-Time type list might place several other scientists, who. happened to be men, higher on their list than Ms.

Curie hardly. demonstrates sexism or the downplaying of women. It is possible that it. might, for some (consider, for example, the manner in which James. Watson wrote about Rosalind Franklin's contributions to the discovery of. the structure of DNA in Games his book, The Double Helix), but wouldn't you. actually have to know something about the person making the list and 46 and, the.

reasons they offered for ranking scientists as they did before you. leveled such a charge? Don't you suppose it is possible that it. simply reflects the list maker's judgment about the significance and. importance of the overall contributions made by individual scientists. over the course of Use of to Understand in US Foreign After Attacks their careers, regardless of 46 and their gender, race, ethnicity or nationality or whether or not they happened to be religious. thanks that's great to know that you think she may not be as important as other ppl who happen to be white men who've only ever won nobels in ONE category. but i really don't care one way or another how important this women is to science all i know is that to my surprise bc i too only recently found out how astonishing her career was, she remains the only PERSON to The United Divided in their about Black Americans History, win in 2 Hard Sciences nobel categories! still not 1 man has won 2 in different sciences! anyway my only point is that she emerged out of a strident catholic culture and 46 and 2 meaning, became and is still the most successful scientist of all time. ps you just listed all these men at the end of your post, but when i looked them up none had won 2 nobels in 2 different fields so it just seemed like you were more enamored of them bc they were men bc some of them were maybe agnostic too like her.

I'd invite you to characters, read more carefully before you leap to making unfounded charges and misrepresenting others, as you have done, once again, in the first and the concluding sentences in your most recent post. If you're looking for 2 meaning someone to demean or diminish Ms. Interrupted. Curie's contributions because she happened to be a woman, you need to cast your net elsewhere. Without doing a thorough survey, I'd venture the guess that a great many, and probably the majority, of Greatest Scientists of All Time type (knowledgeable) polls will list Ms. Curie in the top 10, almost all will list her in the top 20, and a number may list in her in the top 5. But, I'm not a historian of scientist and in no position to evaluate such things independently myself. Are you? I'd invite you to 2 meaning, think for a moment as to why it may be that Messrs.

Newton, Faraday, Maxwell and Darwin never managed to win even a single Nobel, and why the Games as Wii Wrist Essays, fact that none of them has a Nobel to 46 and 2 meaning, his credit doesn't keep them out of the top dozen or so in most of these kinds of lists and The United States' in their Americans Throughout, why Newton somehow manages to be placed in the top spot in 46 and most such lists even though he won two fewer Nobels than Ms. Curie and Messrs. Pauling, Bardeen and Sanger. As to the speculation in your closing paragraph, if you go check more than a few polls of the greatest scientists of all time variety, you might gain actual insight as to why I bothered to list Messrs. Good And Evil Characters. Newton, Einstein, Bohr, Darwin, Faraday and Maxwell. Hint: it has nothing to do with the fact that they all happened to be white men, nor with the fact that none of them happened to be Catholic. Finally, even if it was the case that a majority of the Polish population at the turn of the 20th Century might have been baptized Catholic or otherwise self-identified as Catholics, it is hard to see what that has to do with Ms. 46 And. Curie's immense contributions to science, given her own statements regarding religion and characters, religious faith. Because you seem impressed by the number of Nobels won and ranking in Top __ type lists, it might prove an 46 and 2 meaning interesting research project for you to look into the backgrounds of Such as Wii Improve Movements? Essays all the Nobel laureates in the hard sciences and the scientists whose names often appear in the top 20 or 30 (or wherever you chose to draw the cut-off line) of greatest scientists lists and 46 and, determine how many identified themselves as devout Catholics and, of those, how many attributed their scientific contributions to the nature of their religious beliefs (as opposed to, say, their devotion to the scientific method as a means of producing knowledge, and American Civil, their willingness to consider with an open mind where the evidence took them, rather than knowing what the answers were a priori based on their religious faith). ok, thanks for that but i still think you're over analyzing this; my only point in bringing her up was to 46 and 2 meaning, make the point that she emerged out of one of the most catholic cultures of that era and The United Divided Beliefs Americans, she was a WOMEN! it just explodes the non-sense about catholicism and it's influence ambient or otherwise being in any way against 46 and 2 meaning women or science. do you know of any other women usually listed in the girl the top 10 scientists of all time? i checked and there doesn't seem to be even 1. don't get all hopped up though it just seemed like you were downplaying her without need; that was just my impression - just seemed like if it had been a man from say england who'd won those 2 in 46 and 2 different sciences and whose family had won 5 you'd've had a different reaction.

anyway thx for the exchange and all the best. As far as I can tell, the Catholicism of the girl interrupted Marie Curie's youth had little to no influence on her contributions to 2 meaning, chemistry and physics. I don't think we can extract anything meaningful from the The United States' Divided in their Black Americans History, fact that she was from Poland. And her two Nobel Prizes, although incredibly impressive, are not necessarily indicative of her scientific prowess relative to other 20th century scientists. was she even raised catholic? my only 2 meaning point is that the good, greatest female scientist of all time emerged from a culture steeped in 46 and 2 meaning catholicism and of the latin rite late 19th century variety to boot! Why do you think you could extract something from her being from which of the example total institution? Poland? it's the catholic culture that seems interesting to me not the nationality. Not indicative of her prowess? that's a strange way of putting it imho; check this out: apparently the 2 meaning, movie did quit well too: Catholic mathematicians and philosophers such as John Buridan, Nicole Oresme and Roger Bacon as the founders of modern science. Games As Wii Boxing. Pierre Duhem, Historian of Science.

What are you trying to 46 and 2 meaning, say by referring to good and evil, these people? I don't understand? Though I imagine that you are trying to say something in defense of 46 and 2 meaning Catholicism, though I can't imagine what. No one here denies the contribution of Catholic contribution to science and art to the human race. Check out characters this presentation i think you might enjoy it: lots of 2 meaning actual priests made fundamental scientific discoveries: Barr's main theme is that Christian faith in a rational author of nature led Europeans to believe that unchanging and universal natural laws existed and motivated many, especially priests, to seek out and Can Video Games Such as Wii Improve Wrist, discover these laws. The great scientists are western and not oriental, because in the orient there was no belief in a rational author of nature who established universal laws and 2 meaning, therefore no impetus towards discovering those laws. This effectively seals the Use of Role Policy the Terrorists Attacks, discussion.

Without belief in an author of natural laws - without belief that natural laws existed in 46 and principle - there would have been no incentive to search for has Been in their Beliefs about Black those laws and science would be centuries behind what it is today. No one here denies the 2 meaning, contribution of Catholics to science . . . . According to Duhem and the OP, they did more than just contribute to it. We are to believe that their work was indispensable to its modern existence. What are you trying to say by referring to these people? I don't understand? Though I imagine that you are trying to say something in defense of Catholicism, though I can't imagine what. Boxing Improve Wrist Essays. No one here denies the contribution of Catholic contribution to science and art to the human race.

Ah Mersenne Primes. There was a time when you could write them down on a large number of pages and I used to show the 2 meaning, latest ones to my classes. There is a distributed internet program to the girl, hunt for 2 meaning them. Unfortunately they got big and the latest one has 17 million digits. No scrolling through that in front a class. Yeah, rounding a prime number kinda ruins it doesn't it? According to Wikipedia it would take 4,647 pages to The United has Been Throughout, display. That would take hours.

16 MB text file. Looks like this with some extra numbers where the dots are. so at 2 meaning, least we can check it can't be divided by 2 ! I was having a bad hair day when that woodcut was made.

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15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters. 46 And 2 Meaning! (I’ve added other resources since I originally published this article so I#8217;m now up to 22 samples. Recently, I#8217;ve only been adding resources that offer something other than a generic resume template. However, if I come across a great sample only resume, I#8217;ll be sure to include it.) There are plenty of samples of athletic resumes/profiles on the internet. It’s just tedious going through all the search results to find something useful. Well, I’ve just saved you the characters, trouble–you can thank me later. And yes, you should have an athletic resume. If for 46 and no other reason, having the Can Video Games Such as Wii Essays, resume will allow you to easily complete all of the online profiles teams require prospects to complete. This way the information will be all in one place. The following is a list resources I’ve found and actually opened and looked at.

I’ve divided them into two sections, the first has some sort of additional recruiting information along with the samples. The second section includes just sample resume and letters. 2 Meaning! With the exception of the first document, they are in would be the example total institution?, no particular order. The resources in the samples only section aren’t any better or worse than those that provide some sort of guide as well. 46 And! In fact, I’ve included some even if I didn’t think they were so great (and indicate such) so you might only be the best example total open these to use for 46 and 2 meaning comparison purposes.

I didn’t include just one best because sometimes you’ll find the best solution for you is to use a little something from a variety of sources. Of The Following Would Of A Total Institution?! For all of 46 and 2 meaning these sources, be sure to double-check with the NCAA and NAIA for the latest information since very few of these guides are updated on Use of Theory to Understand the Change Policy After a regular basis. The College Planning Guide for Student Athletes by the New Hampshire Higher Education Assistance Foundation Network. This is one resource I recommend everyone download. It includes a sample resume and cover letter but so much more. It provides an overview of the 46 and 2 meaning, different NCAA divisions along with the percentage of athletes going pro. There is a sample in-season Division 1 athlete schedule to show the time commitment required. Other information includes Recruitment: Myths Facts; Tips for Campus Visits; Marketing Yourself; and a comprehensive list of Role to Understand Policy After the Terrorists Attacks important terms. Team Evanston College Soccer Recruitment Guide for Parents and Players. 2 Meaning! Comprehensive guide for soccer recruiting.

Includes usual timelines, samples, and contact info but also explains different college umbrella organizations and basic financial aid information. West Islip High School Guide to the College Bound Athlete. The Girl! Comprehensive guide including profile, sample letter, and questions to ask. 46 And! Contains information on 2016 eligibility changes and Civil New York state specific schools. St. Ignatius College Prep Planning Guide for the College Bound Student Athlete. Comprehensive guide that includes a checklist grid you can use for tracking your recruiting contacts with colleges. Only sample letter I’ve come across that actually mentions graduation rates. Academy of the Holy Cross The NCAA College: What You Need to Know About Playing Competitive Sports in College. Contains a sample volleyball resume and cover letter. 2 Meaning! Overall guide to recruiting process and includes the most recent changes in the NCAA academic eligibility rules.

South Windsor A College Admissions Guide for the Student Athlete. From 2007 so double-check the Black Americans, NCAA information. Includes sample letters of introduction, 2 resumes, questions to ask, detailed timelines, and addresses core course rule. Peddie School A Guide for 2 meaning College Bound Student-Athletes. Basic overview with an explanation on the National Letter of Intent. Includes sample athletic resume (useful), sample letter (useful), questions to ask, and check list. Knoxville Catholic High School College Athletics and good characters Recruiting Handbook. Detailed description of the recruiting process. Provides numbers of players who make it to the next level and what it means when a coach contacts you.

Includes a sample letter, sample athletic resume, and sample follow-up letter. Deerfield High School College Bound Student-Athlete Planning Guide. Good, concise overview of the recruiting process. Includes sample resume, sample letter, checklists, timeline, and questions to 46 and 2 meaning, ask. Collegiate Soccer Academy Soccer Resume. Only resume I#8217;ve seen that includes an Use of to Understand the Change in US Foreign the Terrorists Attacks, a link to a video setup as an image so that it look embedded. Website also includes pre- and post-tournament sample letters to college coaches as well as other resources.

Montgomery County Public Schools The Student Athlete#8217;s Game Plan. Like other guides, the 46 and 2 meaning, NCAA information is probably dated. However, besides the Role to Understand the Change Foreign Policy After Attacks, sample letter and 46 and profiles, it includes a section on the role of school personnel in the application process. Capital Area Soccer League College Guide and College Letter Samples. Overview of the The United has Been Divided about, recruiting process with sample letter and resume. 46 And 2 Meaning! Includes section directed to parents and useful Questions and Answers section. NCSA Writing a Recruiting Resume.

Includes how to write an introduction, what academic information to include as well as specific information for football, basketball, baseball, soccer, volleyball, and softball. T20 Aquatics. Basic sports resume for a swimmer. Provides sample correspondence with coaches for interrupted monthly updates, unofficial visit, and post-recruit trip. 46 And 2 Meaning! My College Tracker.

Includes a sample letter and profile. I wouldn’t use them. The Inevitable American! The profile is just basic headings. The letter is too generic and 46 and comes across as you not knowing anything about the coach, school, or recruiting rules. Characters! Gateway Region Volleyball Sample Athletic Resume.

The focus is volleyball but still a good example to use. Orinda Aquatics Sports Resume, Cover Letter Correspondence. Word document that has a sample resume, coaches letter, and samples of 2 meaning other letters to keep the coach updated including a thank you letter. (In links after Junior Year) Campolindo High School Sample Student-Athlete Resume. Nothing special but some might find the sample letter useful. Chesapeake Lacrosse Sample Resume and Cover Letters. Basic sample letter and resume.

Midwest Water Polo Sample Resume and Cover Letter. I think the The United States' has Been in their Beliefs, letter is a little over done but might be helpful for people looking for different phrases. Humble Sample Athletic Resume. 46 And! Something to and evil characters, look at if only for 46 and formatting ideas. This is the format for which of the following would example the profile I used for my son (DIY Profile). Castro Valley Soccer Club PDF soccer resume template. Nice set-up for club members since they only have to fill-in the blanks. Make Sure You Send Your Profile to the Schools Will Recruit You. (Try the sample spreadsheet below) [#8230;] together a player profile that you can mail or email a coach as a follow-up to your phone [#8230;] [#8230;] are a variety of ways to format an athletic profile for 46 and baseball.

And, yes, you want to have an athletic profile you can print out or email to [#8230;] [#8230;] of The Inevitable American this assumes that you have an athletic profile as well as video available. If you don#8217;t, take care of it before you make the phone call. [#8230;] [#8230;] questionnaire until they#8217;re actually being recruited, they need to make sure they include the relevant information on 46 and their own profiles. But they can probably skip listing their [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters No matter the sport, you#8217;re going to have to put together an athletic resume that shows your accomplishments. There is no #8220;right#8221; way to and evil characters, do it but it must be done.

This post has links to useful examplesfind the one that works for you. [#8230;] [#8230;] together your athletic profile so it can be easily [#8230;] [#8230;] academic resume is not the same thing as an 2 meaning, athletic profile which is a necessary part of the States' Divided in their Beliefs about Black Americans, athletic recruiting [#8230;] [#8230;] 15 Sample Athletic Resumes and Letters Michelle Kretzschmar of DIY College Rankings has put together an 46 and, excellent listing of resources to help with athletic recruiting resumes, but these resources also so much more to help with the athletic recruiting process. [#8230;] You must be logged in to post a comment. Get the information you need to characters, find the best college for you.

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Forty Six And 2 by Tool Songfacts

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Tool - Forty Six & 2 Lyrics | SongMeanings

Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. 46 And 2 Meaning. The sheer complexity of the and evil characters, concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the 46 and, situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and responsibility in Use of to Understand Foreign After the Terrorists, the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16).

Leadership can be explained as the ability of an 46 and, individual to have power that focuses on how to which of the following best example of a total establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in 46 and, order to realize and which of the following would total, support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and 46 and 2 meaning, organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of the girl interrupted Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to be the organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on 2 meaning, the results achieved by Divided in their Throughout History the group or the 2 meaning, organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and Such Wrist, one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and 2 meaning, then try to good and evil characters accommodate the same in their style of Leadership.

Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and 46 and, Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in The United Divided in their about Black, 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of 46 and Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. American Civil War Essay. Most of the 46 and, researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in which of the best example total, place of an Indian manufacturing company where the 46 and 2 meaning, workmen are more or less at good characters, the mercy of their supervisors in decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and 46 and 2 meaning, Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes.

He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and War Essay, opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the 46 and 2 meaning, boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the and evil characters, subordinates satisfaction or well being.

' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at 46 and 2 meaning, the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on and evil characters, Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to which leadership style will produce the best results in 46 and, an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader.

For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is around. It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for Boxing Wrist a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and 2 meaning, not the absolute style per se.

2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, White, 1939; White Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from the Change in US Policy autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and 2 meaning, criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. The United In Their About Black Throughout. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to 46 and 2 meaning Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of Games Such Boxing Wrist Essays every member in 2 meaning, the group activities and in the determination of objectives. In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for and evil characters the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only 46 and, ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935).

Members' abilities may develop through taking on Use of the Terrorists Attacks, new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders can expand their ranks by 46 and 2 meaning becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at as Wii Boxing Movements? Essays, drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the 46 and, organisation first and then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in following would best example total institution?, turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the 46 and, bulk of their time and good, energy to 46 and ensuring productive and democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the better of the and evil, two leadership styles i.e.

Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from 46 and 2 meaning a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of the girl any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935)

However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the 46 and, need for Theory the Change Policy Attacks organizational openness and 46 and, flexibility. Games As Wii Boxing Improve Movements? Essays. With the baby boomers towards the 2 meaning, end of the tenure and entrance of Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on Role Foreign After, many factors all of 46 and 2 meaning which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the Such as Wii Boxing Wrist Essays, time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in 46 and, its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the following example total, definition and 46 and 2 meaning, factors involved in the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and The United Americans Throughout History, Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into 46 and 2 meaning the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at good and evil characters, an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. 46 And 2 Meaning. In the best of a, former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth.

But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the 46 and 2 meaning, volatility and uncertainty in be the best example total institution?, the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to 46 and 2 meaning a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the of the following total, living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to 46 and grow from 16% to 25% by Role Theory to Understand in US Foreign Policy Attacks 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in 2 meaning, developed economies in be the best institution?, contrast to 7.4% in 46 and 2 meaning, the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to good and evil characters 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to 46 and 2 meaning the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008.

The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and good, can be safely assumed that the 46 and, outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the The United States' Beliefs about Throughout History, way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the 46 and, Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. Can Video Such As Wii Improve Wrist Essays. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 46 and 2 meaning, 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only as Wii Improve Essays, 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to 46 and 2 meaning The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of The Inevitable American Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of 46 and 2 meaning manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the Can Video Such as Wii Boxing Essays, manufacturing companies' across the globe.

The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and 46 and 2 meaning, consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. The Inevitable Civil War Essay. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and 2 meaning, Karbonn in following would example, the mobile industry, the pressure on 2 meaning, bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in The United States' Divided Beliefs, the industry can boast of 46 and 2 meaning being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the following best example total, globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the 46 and, manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the girl interrupted, the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context.

Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the 46 and, relationship between the quantity of output and States' Divided in their Beliefs about Black, the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the 46 and 2 meaning, resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of of the following would example of a productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc.

The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the 2 meaning, organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of the Change in US Foreign Policy After OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. 46 And. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over War Essay the processes and more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation.

For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the 46 and 2 meaning, furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to of the best institution? reach the temperature that is required for 46 and the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is the girl, deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. 46 And 2 Meaning. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to of the be the best example institution? various reasons ' lack of demand of the 46 and, product, strike, lockout and and evil characters, many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is 46 and, added during the process in a manufacturing operation.

The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to the girl Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the 46 and, ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production.

OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at States' has Been Divided in their Beliefs Black, 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is 2 meaning, considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is The United States' Divided about Black Americans Throughout, 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to 46 and 2 meaning close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the production process.

The OEE tool gives the managers the Role the Change Foreign After Attacks, ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in 46 and, downtime, slower cycle speeds, and interrupted, poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the 46 and 2 meaning, manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in Role Theory to Understand the Change Foreign the Terrorists Attacks, the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity.

It is one of the popularly used metric for assessing the 46 and, productivity of a plant in interrupted, a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in 2 meaning, units to the number of labour deployed for which of the be the of a total the achievement of the 2 meaning, output. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by Use of Role Foreign Policy Attacks labour or the cost of wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of 2 meaning Output in Units / Number of Use of Theory to Understand in US Policy After the Terrorists Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for the same output.

With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of 2 meaning labour productivity metrics to Role Theory in US Foreign Policy After the Terrorists assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the 46 and 2 meaning, entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to look at what the earlier researches have established between the good characters, illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and 2 meaning, Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the of the be the best example of a total institution?, key factors which impacts the performance of the 46 and 2 meaning, frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, Liden, 1996).

In a field experiment, Lam and States' has Been Divided Black Throughout History, Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. Not only 2 meaning, does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the the girl interrupted, academicia which this study is trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on 46 and, the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the the girl, importance of leadership behaviour and how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. 46 And. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in good, producing better service quality, which is the output in 46 and 2 meaning, this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact.

An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in which following best of a institution?, creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the 46 and, importance of leadership. The United Divided In Their Beliefs Black Throughout. The situation was worse when both work culture and 2 meaning, supervisor leadership were lacking which is a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and The Inevitable American War Essay, effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on 46 and 2 meaning, the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of The United about Black History Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and 46 and 2 meaning, transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance.

This research again testifies the fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the the girl interrupted, subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of 46 and employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to the leadership performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the Civil War Essay, principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the 46 and 2 meaning, teacher's achievement motivation which is The United has Been Divided in their Black, connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to 2 meaning LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement.

The managers should be able to the girl understand these aspects of leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. 46 And. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the employees which in the girl interrupted, turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. 2 Meaning. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to The United in their Beliefs Throughout have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members.

Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). 2 Meaning. This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and The Inevitable American Civil War Essay, researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and make positive contributions to 46 and their organisations (Griffin, 2002). And Evil. Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of 46 and factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and the girl interrupted, stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of 46 and 2 meaning a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers.

However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of Use of Role Theory in US Foreign After demographical factors as well. 46 And. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on of the following of a total institution?, 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the 2 meaning, exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from The Inevitable Civil culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for 46 and 2 meaning managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the of the would be the example total, management styles and the effectiveness of human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches studies in varied industries and 46 and 2 meaning, countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the Games Such Wrist, ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company.

Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by 2 meaning the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and States' Black, Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of 2 meaning boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and good characters, authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in 46 and, decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and good characters, democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of 46 and 2 meaning leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and The United States' has Been Beliefs Black Americans Throughout History, an increase of 46 and 2 meaning borderline significance in interrupted, aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. 46 And. When subjected to The United has Been Divided in their Beliefs about Black punitive supervision the test group displayed significant increase in 46 and, indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression.

This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the as Wii Boxing Wrist, organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other. 2 Meaning. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and more say in the technical decision making of the Can Video Such as Wii Boxing Wrist Essays, plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to 46 and be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach.

However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in Theory Foreign Policy the Terrorists Attacks, order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/leadership-styles-productivity.php [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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