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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. APA format is the official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out this gallery of examples, tips, and guidelines for writing papers in APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the page.
The title should be at the top half of the page and should be centered between margins. Methods? Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the cortes voyages, title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in length. Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of Methods, what the reader will find in the paper.
In many cases, your title will identify the major variables and the relationships between them. For example, #34;Effect of The Career of Sports Management, Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the paper is about. The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to Businesses Essay, your title. All sources cited in dudley your psychology paper should be included in the reference page.
The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of this page is to provide a list of for Operating, sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. One of the first rules you should observe on kolb cycle your reference page: If you cited the article in your paper, it must appear in the reference list. Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in your paper. Your references should begin on a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Methods? Your references should be alphabetized by cortes, the last names of the first author of each source. All references should be double-spaced. Essay? Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to be indented.
In article titles, only the first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in hernando cortes voyages the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. The title should not be placed in quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e. For Operating Essay? The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and kolb cycle journals should appear in italics. In the case where the same author is cited multiple times for different works, start by Methods for Operating Businesses, listing these references in chronological order with the kolb cycle, oldest reference appearing first and working your way up to the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear and easy to Methods for Operating Businesses, read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to saying, describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to for Operating Businesses, note that tables are not simply used to replicate data that has already been presented in The Career of Sports the text of the paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper.
The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in for Operating a way that is clear and easy to understand. Basic Rules for Tables in voyages APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and presented with each word capitalized (except and , in , of , with , etc.).
For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores. Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Each table should begin on a separate page. For Operating Businesses? Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. Dudley Randall Poems? According to the new sixth edition of the APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. Methods For Operating Businesses Essay? The key is to keep the cortes voyages, table readable and the spacing consistent. All tables should be referenced in the text of the Methods for Operating, paper. Tables should be last, after your reference list and erikson's stages appendixes.
You should use a font that is large enough to Businesses, read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Essay The Career Of Sports Management? Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the for Operating Businesses, need to discuss every element of your table in your text.
Instead, mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. The first letter of each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g. M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the The Career Management, entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level.
Is the table needed to present data or could the data simply be presented in Methods Businesses Essay the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is cortes voyages, about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the table? Does the body of the paper refer to the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in format and presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in for Operating Businesses Essay notes? American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in kolb cycle alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Businesses Essay? Consult the image below for examples of journal articles in APA format. Capitalize the first word in Essay Management the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. Italicize the name of the publication and the volume number. The basic format of a journal article reference involves listing authors by Methods Businesses, their last names followed by their initials. Footprints? Next, the Methods for Operating Essay, publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by kolb cycle, a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first word and Businesses any proper nouns capitalized. The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and the page numbers of the article should also be included. Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is available.
Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Erikson's? Electronic References Are Similar to Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is Businesses Essay, very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the The Career of Sports Management, date the reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. Methods Businesses? As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to note the partnering in construction, date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by for Operating, the publisher). Many publishers will include the kolb cycle, DOI on the first page of an electronic document.
If a DOI is for Operating Businesses, available, simply include it at the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.
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Lab Report about for Operating Businesses Essay, Simple Staining of Microbes Essay. This experiment was carried out to perform staining methods on microbes, explain the Essay The Career Management, mechanisms of staining, namely, simple staining, and learn how to use the microscope. The experiment setting was kept as sterile as possible when conducting the experiment. The microbes under the microscope were drawn out and labelled. In conclusion, different staining techniques are used to determine the Methods Essay, presence of certain exterior structures of the partnering, bacteria like the Businesses, cell envelope or just to identify the The Career Management, basic shape and Methods for Operating Essay size of the microbe. In this experiment, the of Sports Management, microbes E. For Operating Businesses Essay. coli, Bacillus sp and an unknown microbe from petri dish 1 were categorised as gram negative or gram positive and their shape was identified.
These staining techniques are the correct way to identify the shape and erikson's of development size of microbes. Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms. Microbes are very small organisms which can only be viewed with the aid of microscope. Several groups of organisms that fit into this category are bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and protists. Within this group there are several species interesting to humans because of their ability to cause disease or their use in the food industry and microorganisms can be classified to unicellular and multicellular.
These organisms are extremely diverse in cell type, size, colour, and reproductive energy. Microbes can be classified by their cell type. All cells can be categorized either prokaryotic or eukaryotic and Methods for Operating Essay the primary difference between these two cell types is the presence of partnering in construction, a membrane-bound nucleus. The experiment was carried out to use a bright field microscopy, prepare and observe bacterial slides and perform staining methods and Methods Businesses Essay explain the mechanism of the bacteria. In order to observe and investigate microbes we need to saying, use microscope and bacterial Staining Techniques. Microscope is the invaluable tool allows the viewing of objects or structures that otherwise would go unnoticed by Methods for Operating Businesses, human naked eyes. Saying. In addition, microscope can magnify objects up to 1000 times, revealing microscopic details. It has special techniques and optics thus it can reveal the structure and biochemistry of living cells.
Microscope consists of a combination of for Operating Essay, several optical lenses. In this experiment, we are using light microscope. Light is conducted through curve lenses in such a way that an kolb cycle, object may be viewed larger than its actual size. The light microscopes in this experiment have ocular lenses with magnification of 10X. Moreover, there are also four different objective lenses to choose from for Operating Businesses 10X, 40X, and 100X. For Bacterial Staining Method, there are two basics techniques. Hernando Cortes. One of Methods Businesses, them is using wet mount method but bacteria are too small and too transparent to be well described using light microscopy and a wet amount. Therefore, they are stained to make them more visible by erikson's stages, imparting contrast.
Simple stain, with only one layer of cell, is coloured with different colour and methylene blue dye are used for differentiating Bacillus sp. Negative stain is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement and it can be used to stain cells that are too delicate to for Operating Businesses, be heat-fixed. Poems. By using this technique, the solution used does not colour the cells and the bacteria will show up as clear spots against a dark background. The Gram Staining Method is used as a tool for differentiation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as a first step to Businesses, determine the identity of a particular bacterial sample. Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms are distinguished from each other by differences in their cell walls, including the way the cell takes up and retains stains. The E. coli, Bacillus sp and unknown microbes are categorised into those that retain iodine-crystal violet after an organic washing procedure and those that do not.
Gram Staining is the most consistent when done on bacteria that less than 24 hours, while the older cultures may not retain the primary stain and give inaccurate results. 2.0 Literature Review. Instrument that is used to see objects that are too small for the naked eyes is called microscope. Hernando Cortes. It can magnify objects up to 1,000 times, revealing microscopic details. With special techniques and Methods for Operating optics the structures and biochemistry of living cells can be revealed. There is various type of kolb cycle, microscope, the most common and Businesses first to of development chart, be invented is the optical microscope which uses light to for Operating Essay, image the sample. Although, Zaccharias Janssen discovered that object appeared greatly enlarged after experimenting with several lenses in a tube in erikson's of development, 1590 and in 1609, Galileo worked out the Methods Essay, principles of lenses, but Anton van Leeuwenhoek is footprints saying, a microscope designer who first to detect microorganisms using microscope.
Light microscope employs visible light to detect small objects. The biggest challenge when it comes to looking at living things are obtaining sufficient contrast, finding the Methods Businesses Essay, focal plane, obtaining good resolution and dudley randall recognizing the subjects when one sees it. The smallest bacteria can be observed and cell shape recognized at a mere 100x magnification and they are invisible in bright field microscope. Ocular lens is a cylinder containing two or more lenses. The function is to Methods for Operating Businesses, bring the image into footprints focus for the eye. Staining is a process in Methods for Operating Essay, which microbes are stained to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Stains or dyes are organic compound which are used to highlight microorganisms or biological tissues for viewing with the help of kolb cycle, microscope. Microbes are colourless and highly transparent structures because they have nearly same refractive index as water. Therefore, microbes cannot be seen with our naked eyes thus different types of staining methods are used to increased visibility and contrast, accentuate specific morphological features, to detect extracellular and intracellular components of microbes and preserve them for future use. The basic requirements for staining are clean grease-free slide, bacteria tobe stained, inoculating loops and Bunsen burner to sterilise inoculating loops before and Methods Essay after smear preparation. Two ways to fixing the slides are heat fixation and dudley randall poems chemical fixation. Heat fixation can be done by Essay, passing the slide over the flame while chemical fixation can be done using ethanol, methanol, picric acid, Potassium Permanganate or Formaldehyde vapour. The function of fixation is to kills bacteria rendering safe handling and dudley randall poems prevents autolysis by inactivating the autolytic enzymes. In addition, it increases the permeability of cells to stain, makes cell rigid and unfolds the globular proteins and Methods Businesses Essay exposing reactive groups and increasing affinity for stain.
Different stains have different affinities for different organisms and they are used to differentiate different types of organisms. Bacteria are slightly negatively charged at pH 7.0 and basic dye stains bacteria while acidic dye stains background. For simple staining, only one dye is used. Simple staining is easier to kolb cycle, perform but it has limitations. It was an easy method because only single staining agent used and either using basic or acid dyes. The features of the dyes are to give colouring of microorganisms and to bind specifically to various cell structures. For simple staining basic dyes which are positively charged are used.
These dyes will attach to negatively charged. cytoplasm of microbial organism. Figure 1 :Bascillus sp. Negative staining is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement. In addition, it can be used to stains cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. Acidic dyes like nigrosin dye (10% solution) and Methods Indian dye which is negatively charged are used. These dyes get repelled by the negatively charged cytoplasm of microbes. Therefore, the solution used does not colour the cells and give a contrast background. Footprints. It is commonly used for determining bacteria with capsules. Figure 2: E. coli.
Gram stain techniques identify bacteria as gram-positive which is the stain is retained or gram-negative which means the stain is Methods Businesses, washed. In 1884, Hans Christian Gram discovered that crystal violet irreversibly stains certain bacteria but can be washed from others. In Construction. Gram staining can be described as a staining technique used to for Operating Businesses Essay, classify bacteria which is bacteria that are stained with crystal violet followed by a brief treatment with Gram’s iodine and after being decolourised with alcohol and treated with safranin then washed with water. Those that retain the crystal violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative. The functions of iodine as a mordant to help the crystal violet bind more firmly. Gram positive bacteria have the multiple layers of peptidoglycan retain the crystal violet while it is quickly rinsed out of Gram-negative bacteria because their peptidoglycan is a single layer thick. The bacteria is counter stained with safranin which will not show up on the already purple Gram-positive but will stain the decolorized Gram-negative bacteria red. Figure 3: Cell wall difference. Figure 4: Gram-negative. Figure 5: Gram-positive.
A) Microscope handling. 1) Microscope is turned on, and then the light source is adjusted. 2) The objective lens was lowered till the cortes voyages, lower far without touching the slide. 3) By using the fastening clip the slide was fastened on the microscope stage. 4) While looking at the eyepiece, the illuminator and diaphragm were adjusted. 5) The coarse adjustment was slowly adjusted until the image of desire was focused. 6) The slide was moved around to the centre of the field to focus to Methods Businesses, desire image. 7) The slide is observed through the low power objective (x10), high dry objective (x40) and kolb cycle immersion oil objective (x100) for clearer view of culture. 8) The stage is Methods for Operating Businesses, lowered to its minimum position after finished using the microscope. The switch is kolb cycle, turned off and the microscope is covered back. Methods Essay. B) Bacterial staining techniques.
i) Simple staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide are run on the flame of Bunsen burner. One drop of water was dropped to the clean slide by using sterile loop. 2) The cultures of Bacillus sp. are spread onto cortes voyages, the water slide surface, again by using sterile loop. The loops were sterile again to kill excess microbe. 3) The slide contained by culture was passed quickly through the flame of Bunsen burner for two second for each two or three time. 4) The slide was flooded with methylene blue stain for a minute. 5) The slide is rinsed with water and blotted to dry using bibulous paper. 6) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 7) The morphology of the Methods for Operating Essay, microorganisms was drawn. 8) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli.
ii) Negative staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures are spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry without exposed to in construction, heat. Methods For Operating. 2) Two to cortes, three of Methods for Operating, Nitrogen dye solutions were dropped to the smear. 3) The Nitrogen dye solutions were spread by using the edge of another slide side became one thin film. 4) The prepared slide was let for air dry. 5) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 6) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 7) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. Of Sports. coli.
iii) Gram staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. Methods For Operating Businesses Essay. cultures were spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry and exposed to heat for few seconds. 2) The slide was added with crystal violet solution and let for one minute. 3) The slide was rinsed with water and flooded with iodine solution for partnering in construction, one minute. 4) The slide was washed with water and added with decolourizer till crystal violet colour disappeared. The slide the Essay, rinsed with water. 5) Safranin was added and The Career Management waits for a minute.
Then the prepared slide was washed with water for maximum 5 seconds. 6) The prepared slide was dried with bibulous paper and allowed to air dry. 7) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 8) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 9) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli. and sample E2. 4.0 Result and Discussion. The experiment environment is Methods Essay, kept as sterile as possible by conducting the kolb cycle, experiment within 10 centimetres of the flame from Methods for Operating Essay a Bunsen Burner. This is to avoid contamination of the sample by microbes in the air. Gloves are worn for the same purpose. The loops used to smear the microbes onto footprints saying, the slide are sterilised three times in a flame. For Operating Businesses. Meanwhile, the slid with sample on was to fix the bacteria onto the slide.
Now about the The Career of Sports Management, stains, methylene blue dye is used to make the cells and nuclei more visible6. Crystal violet is used to stain the Essay, cell walls of bacteria6, which consist of footprints, peptidoglycan. Nigrosin is dark in colour, hence it is used in negative staining to provide a dark background against which the white microbes can be seen. In Gram staining, cells are stained with crystal violet dye. Next, a Gram’s iodine solution (iodine and potassium iodide) is added to form a complex between the crystal violet and iodine. Businesses Essay. This complex is a larger molecule than the original crystal violet stain and hernando iodine and for Operating Essay is insoluble in water. Partnering In Construction. Alcohol is added to the sample as a decolouriser, which dehydrates the peptidoglycan layer, shrinking and tightening it. The large crystal violet-iodine complex is not able to penetrate this tightened peptidoglycan layer, and is thus trapped in the cell in Gram positive bacteria. Conversely, the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is degraded and the thinner peptidoglycan layer of Gram negative cells is Methods for Operating, unable to retain the crystal violet-iodine complex and the colour is lost. A counterstain, safranin, is added to voyages, the sample, staining it red. Since the safranin is lighter than crystal violet, it does not disrupt the purple coloration in Gram positive cells.
However, the decolorized Gram negative cells are stained red. Gram positive bacteria (with a thicker peptidoglycan layer) retain crystal violet stain during the decolourisation process, while Gram negative bacteria lose the crystal violet stain and are instead stained by the safranin in the final staining process.6 From our observation from simple staining of Methods Businesses, Bacillus sp ,it can be seen that the bacteria is rod-shaped. The bacteria was stained a dark blue, no internal structures could be seen. For negative staining, the negative stain uses the dye nigrosin, which is an acidic dye. By giving up a proton (as an acid) the chromophore of the dye becomes negatively charged. Because the cell wall is kolb cycle, also negatively charged only the Methods for Operating, background around the cells will become stained, leaving the cells unstained. Partnering In Construction. Hence, the Methods Businesses, cells are seen as white spots against a dark background E.coli is a rod shape as well. After gram staining for E.coli, E.coli shows up as pink, indicating it is a gram-negative bacteria while Bacillus sp shows up as purple, meaning that it is a gram-positive bacteria. Essay Of Sports Management. The unknown microbes from petri dish.
1turn out to for Operating, be a mixture of gram negative and gram positive bacteria because of the presence of light pink and purple regions. They are round in shape. 1) Morphology includes size, cell structure, presence of endospore and erikson's psychosocial chart flagella. For Operating Businesses Essay. From the report, in Figure 8, the unknown microbes from petri dish 1 give purple and pink colouration after gram staining, they’re round in shape. A more reliable method to identify cell morphology would be to use special stains to identify specific parts of a microbe like endospores, which is usually present in gram positive bacteria. The method use to stain endospores is hernando cortes, called the Schaeffer-Fulton1 method, where Malachite Green is used to stain the Essay, endospores while Safranin is a counterstain.
The end result would be pink bacteria with green dots within them. 2) Three methods to characterise a microorganism include: i) Starch hydrolysis test. This bio-chemical test is erikson's chart, used on gram-positive bacteria to Methods for Operating Essay, identify bacteria that can hydrolyze starch (amylose and amylopectin) using the enzymes a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Often used to differentiate species from the general Clostridium and Bacillus. Because of the large size of amylose and amylopectin molecules, these organisms cannot pass through the bacterial cell wall. In order to use these starches as a carbon source, bacteria must secrete a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase into the extracellular space. These enzymes break the starch molecules into smaller glucose subunits which can then enter directly into the glycolytic pathway.
In order to interpret the results of the starch hydrolysis test, iodine must be added to hernando cortes, the agar. The iodine reacts with the starch to form a dark brown colour. Thus, hydrolysis of the for Operating Essay, starch will create a clear zone around the bacterial growth. E.g. Bacillus subtilis is positive for starch hydrolysis.2 ii) Protein analysis (gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, establishment of Essay The Career of Sports Management, clonality) The size and for Operating Businesses other differences between proteins among different organisms can be determined by hernando, using protein separation methods, collectively known as gel electrophoresis.3 iii) Nucleotide sequencing, example, Southern blotting, where a specific DNA sequence is detected.4 3) Full standard procedure for Methods Businesses Essay, operating a microscope5: i. When moving a microscope, always carry it with both hands. Grasp the arm with one hand and place the in construction, other hand under the base for support. Essay. ii. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the lowest power objective lens is “clicked” into position. iii. The microscope slide should be prepared with a coverslip or cover glass over the specimen. This will help protect the objective lenses if they touch the slide.
Place the microscope slide on the stage and fasten it with the stage clips. iv. Look at the objective lens and the stage from the side and turn the coarse focus knob so that the objective lens moves downward (or the stage, if it moves, goes upward). Move it as far as it will go without touching the slide. v. Essay The Career Of Sports. Look through the eyepiece and adjust the Methods for Operating Essay, illuminator (or mirror) and diaphragm for the greatest amount of light. In Construction. vi. Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the objective lens goes up (away from the slide). Continue until the for Operating Essay, image comes into focus. Use the partnering in construction, fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing. If the microscope has a moving stage, then turn the coarse knob so the stage moves downward or away from the objective lens. vii. Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in the center of the field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image. viii. Then change to the next objective lens with only minimal use of the Businesses Essay, focusing adjustment. Use the fine adjustment, if available.
If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the higher power objective lens in place. ix. The proper way to use a monocular microscope is to look through the eyepiece with one eye and keep the other eye open (this helps avoid eye strain). Partnering. x. Do not touch the Methods Essay, glass part of the lenses with your fingers. Use only special lens paper to clean the lenses. Footprints. xi. When finished, lower the stage, click the low power lens into position and remove the slide. xii. Always keep your microscope covered when not in use. Dust is bad for the microscope. 4) Three accidents that can occur during the experiment are: i. A sleeve catching fire while passing the slide through the flame in wide sweeping motions ii. the slide dropping due to a weak grip on it.
The slide breaking due to over-exposure to fire and a strong grip. The staining techniques in this experiment are the correct way to for Operating, identify the shape and size of the bacteria. Bacillus sp is rod-shaped and gram positive while E.coli is rod-shaped and gram negative. The unknown microbes from petri dish 1 are a mixture of gram-positive and partnering gram-negative bacteria and are round. It is Methods for Operating Essay, suggested that a smaller amount of microbes are smeared on stages of development chart the glass slide to for Operating Businesses, prevent the sample from footprints looking so dense under the microscope, thus preventing us from seeing the Methods for Operating Essay, shape and size clearly. Next, increase the amount of the negative stain to ensure more visibility of the cells under the microscope. Lastly, clean the lens of the microscope before use to avoid confusing images in the eyepiece. 1) Endospores, retrieved from: http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 2) Rachel Watson M.S., retrieved from: http://www.uwyo.edu/molb2210_lab/info/biochemical_tests.htm#starch 3) Stephen T. Abedon, 6th July 1999, retrieved from: http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/ sabedon/biol3010.htm 4) McGraw-Hill, retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120078/bio_g.swf::Southern%20Blot 5) How to Use a Microscope, retrieved from: http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/how-to-use-a-microscope.htm 6) Monica Z. Bruckner,Microbial Life Edcucational resources , retrieved from kolb cycle : http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 7) Bio-imaging, 2004, retrieved from: http://web.path.ox.ac.uk/ bioimaging/bitm/instructions_and_information/EM/neg_stain.pdf 8) Staining, retrieved from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/staining.
9) Definition of staining, retrieved from: www.thefreedictionary.com/staining 10) Monica Z. Bruckner, Gram Staining, retrieved from: serc.caleton.edu/microbiolife/research_methods/microscopy/gramstain.html 11) View as multi-pages. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 May 2016.
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The 25 Worst Business Failures in for Operating Businesses History. It is said that up to 50% of businesses fail within five years of dudley, inception. Most of these business start and end in obscurity. A few of them, however, start up with the verve of a cannonball, only to Methods, crash with equal fanfare. Some of the companies listed below, like Enron and DeLorean, exemplify this cataclysmic appeal. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Of Development Chart! Others, like Pan Am and Woolworth’s, just tug at Methods for Operating, our heartstrings. Check out the saying, 25 worst business failures in for Operating history below: 25.
Fashion Cafe. Want some Newports with that iceberg lettuce? A restaurant that serves gargantuan burgers and Essay of Sports fried appetizers founded by a bunch of Essay, supermodels and fey fashionistas didn’t work? Hmm, I wonder why. “The $20 Salad Extraordinaire,” created exclusively for Naomi Campbell, reportedly consisted of a glass of champagne, a pack of Newports and two slices of tomato accompanied by an iceberg leaf. Famed restaurateur Tommaso Buti was the “brains” behind the operation.
He over-franchised the cafes, was accused of footprints saying, mismanagement, then followed Christy Turlington in selling his stake in Methods for Operating Businesses Essay the company. Buti, already accused of defrauding investors, was arrested in 2000 and charged with wire fraud, conspiracy, money laundering, and in construction transportation of stolen property. A legend turns into a men’s store. In 2006, after 33 years of offering up legends like the Talking Heads, Blondie, Misfits and the stalwart Ramones, CBGB, the most famous underground alt-rock/punk club in the world, closed its doors. Methods For Operating Businesses! It was shuttered to make way for a high-end men’s fashion store.
Patti Smith gave the historic club an emotional, if punk, goodbye by tearing the stage and room apart. Partnering In Construction! Ironically, the very same shrine that so many skinny-jean hipsters and adrenaline-fueled punks would come to Methods for Operating, mourn was originally started by Hilly Kristal as a venue for his favorite music: “Country, Blue Grass and Blues.” In 1958, Ford’s newest vehicle, launched on “E-Day,” flailed, flopped, and imploded. Ford kept the Edsel under wraps as a new kind of futuristic, experimental car. One fateful day in psychosocial stages of development chart 1958, the Edsel was revealed…and immediately faceplanted. This car of the future was blah by Businesses, anyone’s standards. By November 1959, when Ford finally mercy-killed the Edsel, it had lost an estimated $250 million–nearly $2 billion in today’s dollars. Edsel is now synonymous with a marketing business failure. The name says it all. Flooz.com blew through up to $50 million dollars trying to convince new Internet users that money online would work like frequent flier miles or gift cards. Saying! Part of that money went to a notoriously bad ad campaign featuring Whoopi Goldberg (before she was cool again).
And the for Operating, name? Flooz is derived from the Management, Arabic word for money. In August, 2001 the company folded their chairs and Methods for Operating Businesses Essay went home. Apparently, people could just use their credit cards. Whoops! 21. The Hit Factory. A New York classic goes condo. Deep in New York, in the heart of Hell’s Kitchen, The Hit Factory was one the erikson's psychosocial of development, world’s most recognized recording Studios. Started by Edward Germano in Methods Businesses 1975, it saw everyone from Tony Bennett to U2 record amazing tracks.
After Germano’s death in 2003, his wife Janice took over operations. Citing the “digital age,” she closed the doors and poems sold the building, moving the operations to an existing Hit Factory in Miami. Troy Germano, Edward’s son, later acknowledged publicly that his mother simply closed it out of greed. She wanted to move to Miami and thought she could make good money on the building’s sale. Businesses! It is now a luxury condominium complex, with prices starting at $1 million. I could give you facts, figures, and dates to kolb cycle, support why Betamax failed so miserably, but that would be a blog post unto itself. Suffice it to Methods, say: Betamax was bulky, complicated, ugly, expensive, publicly ridiculed, horribly marketed, disdained by the media, and only capable of limited recording and playback.
The capper? Most Hollywood movies that people rented were just a little bit over one hour. Too bad…and good riddance. The “Flying Bank” ends up buried. The former national airline of kolb cycle, Switzerland, Swissair, used to for Operating Businesses Essay, be so financially stable that it was known as the partnering, “Flying Bank.” Founded in 1931, Swissair epitomized international transportation until the late 1990s, when the airline’s board decided to follow an aggressive borrowing and acquisition policy called the Hunter strategy. Then, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 put a void in the company’s plans Swissair found itself hamstrung with debt. Unlike some other airlines, however, Swissair couldn’t handle the financial hit.
Mismanagement and bad ideas—trundling large sums of cash to Methods for Operating Businesses, purchase fuel at partnering in construction, foreign airports, for Businesses Essay example—left the airline gasping for partnering in construction oxygen. In 2002, Switzerland was embarrassed to lose its national icon for good. 18. Ponzi’s Security Exchange Company. Bernie Madoff’s famous forebear. It’s quite an Methods Businesses Essay achievement to have a breed of financial scam named after yourself. Charles Ponzi, an erikson's psychosocial stages of development chart Italian immigrant, ran a staggering 6-month pyramid scheme in 1920 by gaining investments (over $15 million) from an for Operating Businesses ever-growing pool of more than 40,000 investors.
Ponzi would use “profits” from new investors to pay “interest” to old ones. Using a trade system of international reply coupons for partnering in construction postage stamps and Methods for Operating Essay leveraging exchange rates, Ponzi made a lot of people money through the “Securities Exchange Company,” which claimed to leverage exchange rates through an kolb cycle international postage stamp reply coupon trading system (this mouthful of a phrase reminds me of Methods for Operating Businesses, how people described derivatives in 2008). But his scheme ruined lives–including Charles’ own. After jumping a few bails, he did prison time from poems 1926 through 1934. Years later, he died, penniless, in a Brazil charity hospital, half-blind and Businesses Essay partially paralyzed. The bad economy bullies Woolies towards its own demise. Brits, who held “Woolies” close to their hearts, were were crushed when this comfort food and houseware retailer closed its last 807 stores after nearly 100 years of service on High Street and beyond. At one time, Woolworths was the leading music retailer in chart the entire U.K. During the 1950s and 60s, the store was instrumental to the Beatles’ sales success Indeed, Woolies also played a role in breaking Madonna to the rest of the world.
Hey, she’s a Brit now. Maybe she’ll pony up the cash to save them? Not likely. 16. Premier Smokeless Cigarette. Taste-wise, charcoal just doesn’t cut it. A smokeless cigarette has been the holy grail of tobacco ever since Reagan lit up a Chesterfield on broadcast TV. For Operating Businesses! In an effort to reduce the harmful effects of inhaling cigarette smoke, RJ Reynolds launched the Premier cigarette, a “smokeless nicotine delivery mechanism that looks and feels like a premium cigarette,” in 1988. The product ended up a miserable flop. In Construction! Not only did this expensive cig taste like charcoal, it ended up being employed by for Operating Businesses, drug users as a handy “delivery mechanism” for substances other than tobacco.
The cost of the project? A cool $1 billion. 15. Bre-X Minerals. Fool’s gold strikes again. If someone tells you they’ve struck gold on the isle of Borneo, grab your money and saying run the for Operating, other way. In 1995, Bre-X Minerals was a tiny mining company based in Calgary with stock worth under $1 when they announced they had found extensive deposits of Gold in Busang, Indonesia. As a result, their stock shot to almost $300 CAD a share. A series of strange events, including a man fallen from a helicopter and Essay The Career eaten by tigers, roused enough suspicion to unravel the fraud.
By 199, an Methods for Operating outside analysis of the of Sports Management, sites samples revealed that Bre-X had faked their findings by “salting” samples with gold dust. Within weeks, the NASDAQ and TSX delisted the company, which at one point held a market cap of $4.4 billion. Methods Businesses! Investors slapped their foreheads, and Bre-X Minerals slunk into history as a major business failure. On July 11, 2008 the FDIC seized the assets of the largest Savings and Loan in kolb cycle Los Angeles and the 7th largest loan originator in the country. The seizure sparked rumors of bank runs. It also gave the public the first real, Main Street glimpse of the for Operating Businesses, Financial Crisis of 2008. Hernando Voyages! IndyMac was founded in 1995 as Countrywide Mortgage Investment.
Its purpose was to provide a means of collateralizing loans too high in value for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to Methods for Operating Essay, service. At the poems, time of its seizure, IndyMac held nearly $30 billion in Methods for Operating Businesses Essay assets, making it the fourth largest bank failure in history. 13. Edison Records. First isn’t always best. It’s always difficult being first.
Thomas Edison founded the first record company and invented the phonograph, the first device made for psychosocial stages recording and for Operating playback of The Career, sound, in 1877. This achievement led to all of the music industry as we now know it. Surprisingly, it was also the Methods for Operating Businesses, first dictaphone in history used by businesses. World War I shortened the supply of materials Edison could use for his highly secret wax recipe, used in manufacturing. The company’s market share fell. As other companies seized the opportunity the make “needle-cut” records (an Edison Labs invention) Edison Records lost customers and credibility. It closed its doors in 1929. 12. Tucker Automobiles.
There’s a reason only four of them ever died. The ambitious car company that Preston Tucker started was only in business one year (‘47-‘48). It produced a mere of psychosocial of development, 51 cars, but its story remains enshrined in museums, car clubs, film and even a video game where everyone drives a Tucker. The fatal flaw? Offering customers the Methods Businesses Essay, option to buy their accessories before their car was built. This program started a witch-hunt by of Sports, the SEC. Amid accusations of fraud and Methods for Operating Essay the “Big Three’s” influence over footprints saying government, Tucker Automobiles went belly-up.
I will spare you the argument of whether it was the best car ever made, but out of that original 51, 47 Tuckers still exist today. Let that be your clue. 11. Sharper Image. Buy, but do not inhale. Started in 1977 as a catalog selling jogging watches, the Sharper Image eventually grew into a high-end customer electronics store.
As iPods and other branded, high-tech items took over the store’s traditional market share, it launched into the infomercial business with the Oreck vacuum and Ionic Breeze. Unfortunately, the Ionic Breeze did not purify the air as it said it did. After losing a lawsuit against Consumer Reports for for Operating a negative review, the stages of development chart, testing company released findings that the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, Ionic breeze actually produced trace levels of ozone. In 2008, the store went bankrupt, forcing shoppers to buy their overpriced, Japanese made, brushed steel, throw-away executive gifts elsewhere. 10. Washington Mutual Bank. WaMu was America’s largest Savings and Loan association, the sixth largest bank in the U.S., and (drumroll please…) the largest bank failure in history.
Let that sink in for a minute. After a 10-day run on the bank in late September 2008, with total withdrawals in excess of $16 billion USD–almost 10% of the deposits–the FDIC seized WaMu’s assets. JPMorgan Chase bought WaMu subsidiaries the next day for what many suspect at pennies on the dollar. Saying! The holding company is currently in Chapter 11. They made the E crooked for a reason. Enron was an energy sector leader that started to dabble in e-commerce and Businesses Essay exotic investment areas, such as weather futures.
In 2001, Enron, once valued at $90 billion and the 7th largest company in the United States, went bankrupt. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Chart! It took jobs, investor savings, retiree futures and even some lives with it. In following years, it emerged that they shredded documents, started partnerships with their own shell companies, and engaged in massive inside trading. Enron is now synonymous with the business outcomes of galloping greed. Go digital or die. Shake it like a Polaroid picture! You know you’re good when your name is the for Operating Essay, product. (Hello, Kleenex). Poems! But while you and I were buying our first digital camera, printing pictures and later taking photos with our phones and PDA’s, the execs at Polaroid were snapping and shaking their pictures into Methods for Operating oblivion.
So loved was the brand that countless people took daily shots of and created art, diaries and literature using these magical snapshots taped to their walls or to the street. The leader of an amazing niche technology that so enriched anyone born before 1980, Polaroid went bankrupt in 2005. The name may emerge again, but the kolb cycle, brand and the impact will always be retro. 7. Atkins Nutritionals. Fadkins takes a bad fall. Apparently, bread won. Remember when all of your friends ordered their lunch without the bun and for Operating Businesses Essay no potatoes, but with lard-laden beef and cheese? Atkins engineered the “low-carb” craze, a fad diet claiming you could “lose fat by eating fat.” Dr. Robert Atkins released Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution in 1972. In 1992, revised version gained popularity; the fad really took off at the beginning of millennium.
Questions arose from the partnering in construction, medical community about the diet’s long-term effects. Countless others, from the Businesses, FDA to kolb cycle, top chefs, also lined up to take shots at it. In 2003, it was reported to Methods, a skeptical public that the good doctor slipped on an icy sidewalk and died. The company went bankrupt within two years amidst the suspicion that his diet killed him. Meanwhile, a fickle public ditched low-card for the next fad.
A year later, a leaked medical examinations report revealed that Dr. Atkins, 72, had a history of heart attack and congestive heart failure. He weighed 258 pounds at death. 6. Bethlehem Steel. When service kills steel.
Everything you know about historic America has Bethlehem Steel in it. Founded when James Buchanan was our nation’s president, Bethlehem Steel was the backbone of the first blasting furnace, railroads, skyscrapers, coal, nuclear reactors, warships, cargo vessels, large construction projects like arenas, and other major infrastructural accomplishments. However, the company never adjusted to the new service-based economy that gained ground in the 1990s. Cheap imports worsened the situation. Bethlehem Steel, a piece of American history, disappeared forever when it filed for bankruptcy in poems 2001. Pet’s can’t drive, and for Operating sock puppets make bad spokespeople, but Pets.com made the dot-com bubble their own in kolb cycle 2000.
They overexpanded by Businesses, opening a nationwide network of erikson's of development chart, warehouses nationwide too quickly (taking a hint from Starbucks). Unfortunately, profits never caught up with media buys for commercials. Businesses Essay! In marketing, nothing is worse than having everyone know who you are and no one interested in what you sell. Kolb Cycle! Widely recognized as the icon or poster child for dot-com failure, its stock went from over $11 in early 2000 to just $.19 on Election Day that same year, when the company closed its doors. 4. White Star Lines’ “Titanic” A disaster of titanic proportions. White Star Lines, which built the Methods for Operating Businesses, Titanic, has oddly disappeared from the lore surrounding the fated giant. The fated vessel was conceived of in 1907, when executives Bruce Ismay and Lord Pirrie drastically changed and expanded their shipping transportation business to compete with Cunard’s new luxury oceanliners. The result was a line of gargantuan luxury liners that moved more passengers and freight than anyone else on randall the market. Three ships came out of the venture: The Olympic, the Titanic, and the Brittanic. You know the rest of the story.
Cue the music! 3. Commodore Computers. You can’t kill the C64. Between 1983-1986, Apple, IBM, and Methods Atari computer were quaking in their boots. The reason? The Commodore 64 was selling 2 million units a year and dominated nearly 50% of the erikson's stages, total market. As the company tried to innovate by releasing the Commodore plus/4, a faster, smarter version with a color screen, they alienated their original customer base. The new model was incompatible with the for Operating Businesses, cherished C64.
Commodore tried to discontinue the old line in the US by 1990 and announced it would stop shipping them in 1995. The tactic didn’t work. Customers all over Europe continued to snap up the C64s until it became impossible for the company to manufacture them at a reasonable price without selling new, more expensive models. As they say, “you can’t kill the C64.” The company went bankrupt in the spring 1994. 2. DeLorean Motor Company. A man, his cocaine, and his car. As is often the case in the automobile industry, it’s hard to separate the man from the vehicle. John DeLorean was a hero amongst the very rich for creating the kind of car the future promised.
With a stainless steel-skinned body, sleek lines and doors that opened vertically (gull wings), his DMC-12 hit the streets in 1980. Kolb Cycle! Over the next three years, only for Operating Businesses Essay 8,900 cars would be made. The car played a feature role in partnering in construction “Back to the Future” and become a potent status symbol. Businesses! Then, in 1983, a sting revealed John on kolb cycle tape saying “this cocaine is as good as gold,” referring to a suitcase full of drugs valued at $24 million. Later acquitted on entrapment grounds and cleared of for Operating Businesses, defrauding his partners, he would never gain the investor’s trust again. The icon that didn’t pan out. It’s amazing how a country’s identity can be so closely tied to a business.
Such was the case with PanAm. Founded in 1927, the airline was a part of American culture for the better part of the 20th century. Footprints! It led the industry in international flights and luxury travel. It was also the first airline to make widespread use of jumbo jets, and the first to use an air staff of stewardesses as a PR focal point. Little girls grew up wanting to be PanAm stewardesses, and boys grew up wanting to for Operating Businesses Essay, pilot one of the fleet. Partnering! Heck, the Beatles arrived on one. Unfortunately, as an American icon, PanAm was also a target for terrorism. A few horrific incidents, coupled with the increased global competition that came with deregulation, caused the Methods for Operating Essay, airline—and its accompanying era—to collapse in cortes voyages 1991. Currently, I create and execute content- and PR strategies for clients, including thought leadership and Methods for Operating Businesses Essay messaging.
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Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia. This discussion explores the intersection of chaos and writing in the context of the Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and Methods for Operating Businesses Essay containing three narratives : the Creation of humankind, the building of kolb cycle cities, and a flood myth. Researchers analyze the extent to which conceptions of chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of Methods Essay written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for Essay The Career Management, these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. The question of whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of Businesses Essay chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about footprints saying chaos can provide insight into Methods for Operating Businesses the human condition, by giving expression to what it means for a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world. Esta discusion examina la interseccion del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creacion de la humanidad, la construccion de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundacion. Los investigadores consideran hasta que punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los cientificos estan de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrio aproximadamente 5500 AC. Las escrituras Sumerias son los mas antiguos textos historicos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultaneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Asi, el Genesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atencion critica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto historico.
La pregunta de si el diluvio del Mar Negro continua o no sosteniendo las ultimas nociones modernas del caos, permanece abierta. Sin embargo, esta lectura geo-cultural demuestra que el escribir sobre el caos puede aportarnos ideas sobre la condicion humana, dando expresion a lo que significa para una civilizacion el existir en un mundo imprevisible. An Introduction to Chaos and Writing: ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ 1 This discussion examines ‘writing and chaos’ in the context of ancient Mesopotamia. Of central interest is the Eridu Genesis , a text of voyages six columns written in for Operating Businesses Essay, Sumerian and kolb cycle containing three narratives; the Creation of the world (out of a chaotic sea), the founding of cities, and Methods Essay a great flood.The text was excavated in Nippur during the Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania (1893-1896)and has been dated back to around 1600 BC (Jacobsen, 1981: 513). 2 At first thought to be an incantation, the Eridu Genesis has significance in this discussion for two reasons.On the one hand, the Sumerians are credited as being the authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions” that reach as far back as the “third millennium BC” (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).This means that the Sumerians produced the world’s first administrative and private legal documents, scholarly and of Sports literary texts, the first to write about emotions and beliefs.However, not only does a discussion of the Eridu Genesis text provide us with insight into Methods for Operating Businesses the beginnings of writing, its constituent narratives mean that it contains first conjunction of writing and chaos in history.At the cornerstone of ancient literature, the Sumerians remain critically important when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. 3 It is in terms of ‘writing’ that the Eridu Genesis signals a ‘beginning’; a notion that Edward W. Said, in Beginnings: Intention and Method , differentiates from footprints ‘origin’.He observes that ‘origin’ has a ‘passive’ meaning whereas ‘beginning’ connotes a more ‘active’ one (1975: 6).The former stems from acknowledging a past or current event and the latter pertains to choice and activity (1975: 380).Said’s conception of “writing-as-action” aligns ‘writing’ with ‘beginning’ (1975: 24).Said’s distinction between ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ presents an opportunity to examine the conditions under which they intersect but, here, I have accounted for only one side of the union. 4 It should also be said that notions of chaos connotes notions of ‘origin,’ a view that is supported by a range of historical precedents.Consider how creation mythologies and flood legends (such as Nordic, Japanese, Mayan, Egyptian and Christian narratives) interpret the origin of the universe as an original chaos, a chaotic and Methods aquatic abyss.In the dudley poems, Western world, we understand the abyss as “[t]he great deep believed in Methods Businesses, the old cosmogony to lie beneath the earth; the primal chaos”(Brown, 1993b: 11).Where chaos denotes origin it connotes the kolb cycle, unfathomable cosmos, the abyssal, and the aquatic.As ancient attempts to Methods for Operating, “satisfy man’s craving for randall poems, the answers to Methods Businesses, the universe,” the Sumerian myths, and partnering in construction associated ancient Mesopotamian narratives, remain “proto-types” for for Operating, this chain of Essay signification whereby meaning is made of for Operating Businesses Essay a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183). 5 However, if “[t] he beginning… is the stages, first step in the intentional production of meaning ,” what is this activity of for Operating Businesses Essay writing about chaos an attempt to understand (Said, 1975: 5)?In other words, a beginning may well function to “restructure and animate knowledge” (Said, 1975: 380).Though, what does ‘chaos writing’ attempt to know, or draw the reader’s attention to?What kind of material reality will motivate writing about chaos?These questions are worth addressing, not least of psychosocial stages of development chart all because their answer will directly impact on how ‘chaos’ is understood in for Operating, the Eridu Genesis .Perhaps an answer lies in the striking resemblances that details of in construction creation and the flood, in the Eridu Genesis , have to for Operating Businesses, the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC.Earth-science supports the claim that the Black Sea deluge informed instances of Sumerian ‘chaos (abyss) writing’ nearly three millennia later. 6 While we might find a discussion of the Eridu Genesis drawing us towards the beginning of writing, it is a discussion of the Black Sea deluge that turns our attention to hernando cortes, the origin of chaos, and it on this point that this discussion shall commence.For only once a set of material circumstances have been established may adequate sense be made of the writing they inspired.Thus, it is not at the beginning that this discussion shall commence but at the origin; at the chaos of the Black Sea deluge.
The Black Sea Deluge: a geographical context. 7 The Black Sea is an inland sea located in South Eastern Europe, spanning an area of around 430,000 square kilometres. The Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas shows the Black Sea to be approximately 1150 kilometres across from for Operating Businesses Essay Georgia on the East to Bulgaria on the West and kolb cycle extending along the northern coast of Turkey (2006: 15).It is 580 kilometres across from North to South, from Odesa to Istanbul, although this distance reduces to around 250 kilometres between Sevastopol and Sinop due to its kidney-like shape (2006: 15).With a maximum depth of 2.2 kilometres, the Black Sea is “basically a freshwater sea that’s contaminated with ocean water, so it’s roughly half as salty as the sea” (Kruszelnicki, 1997). 8 Dubbed Pontus euxinos by Methods for Operating, the Greeks, with its image as a ‘hospitable sea’ stemming from its weak tides due to relative isolation, the history of the Black Sea is one of seafaring.Supported by the Bosporus Strait (which connects it to voyages, the Mediterranean Sea), the sea has been the site of trade between surrounding and distant countries for centuries, leading to the rise of cities such as Byzantium in the Middle Ages and “the Grand Comnenian Empire of Trezibond during the medieval period” (Ascherson, 1996: 8).Even today, Hiebert points out, there is an Businesses, “attempt to re-establish the Black Sea as one of the major trading zones in Eurasia” (in McCalla, 1999).In the meantime, the Black Sea’s temperatures and sunny climate make it a desirable holiday destination for locals and tourists. 9 However, through scratching beneath the surface of the water, scientists have found reason to kolb cycle, believe that the Black Sea has not always been a sea.In their book, Noah’s Flood: the New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History (1998), Columbia University Geologists Ryan and Pitman outline their discoveries regarding the preponderance of flood legends such as ‘Noah’s Ark’ in the Old Testament and the Epic of Gilgamesh .To the extent that mythologies attempt to “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to for Operating, the universe,” it is widely understood that these narratives are motivated by the conditions of kolb cycle a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183).Thus, over the last ten years or so, there has been debate building surrounding the Black Sea and the role that it may have had upon these kinds of texts.Ryan and Pitman theorise that a number of flood epics can be explained via a study of the history of the Black Sea and that, what is referred to Essay, as the Great Flood, could have been the Mediterranean Sea filling the Black Sea at erikson's psychosocial chart, this time.To the extent that earth-science frames the Black Sea as a prehistoric site of watery chaos, a catastrophic deluge, it is this research that provides some insight into the conjunction of chaos and for Operating Businesses writing in the Eridu Genesis . 10 It is dudley randall, understood that the end of the world’s last period of glaciation, a period that lasted for Methods Businesses, approximately 100,000 years, ended about 10,000 years ago, with the melting ice from the retreating sheet resulting in a rise of global sea levels (Laing, 2003).During this ice age the Black Sea region was a mostly dry region (the Euxine basin) and had, up until that time, been separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the Bosporus Strait.Not only footprints saying do scientists believe that the rises in Methods for Operating Essay, global sea levels caused the footprints, Bosporus Strait to breach, but that this breach resulted in a catastrophic flood.This interpretation is for Operating Businesses, supported by results that Ryan et al. have gained through the radiocarbon dating of chart shells from an underwater beach front, as well as the results of core samples taken from its base.In both cases, data has “pointed to an abrupt inundation of the entire Black Sea Basin… [that] occurred sometime around 5,550 BC” (Laing, 2003). 11 Some sense of the magnitude of the flood can be gained from Ryan et al. Methods. ’s observations of dozens of bedrock cross-sections.Flooding an area of 155,000 square kilometres, the randall, deluge would have filled the Black Sea region rapidly.As Ryan and Pitman explain, “[t]en cubic miles [42 km?] of water poured through each day, two hundred times what flows over Niagara Falls…The Bosporus flume roared and surged at full spate for at least three hundred days,” (p. Methods. 124, 1998).Occurring with a roar that could have been heard over one hundred kilometres away, this was certainly no ordinary flood.In fact, as Laing (2003) points out, “It has been estimated that the volume of water it took to fill the Black Sea Basin accounted for the lowering of the world's oceans by as much as one foot!” 12 Remembering that the deluge was caused by a rise in sea levels, this is quite an outcome.But, more importantly here, what this earth-science research constructs for us is a mental picture of the first days of the Black Sea—an evidence based snapshot of a prehistoric and watery chaos.However, while a material context for chaos has been established, writing is a human activity.What is the kolb cycle, cultural significance of the Black Sea deluge?In what way might the Black Sea deluge, as a cultural context, have led to the ‘play’ of chaos in ancient Mesopotamian writing? The Black Sea Deluge: a cultural context. Let us not forget that The Origin deals with the essence of truth…, and the abyss… which plays itself out Methods Businesses, there like the ‘veiled’ destiny [fatum] which transfixes being. (Derrida: 306) 13 If it only took a short period of time for the chaotic deluge to transform into Essay of Sports the Black Sea, it would have been a terrifying and amazing sight for anyone who witnessed it.
This is one of the reasons why archaeologists who are interested in theories about the Black Sea deluge have, for some time, also been interested in uncovering the Methods, human side, especially in relation to those who might have been directly impacted upon by the deluge.Of course, the noise that it created would have helped word of mouth carry news of it to prehistoric communities nearby.However, explorations of the bottom of the Black Sea have uncovered various artefacts, the nature of which leads scientists to believe that, around 5,000 BC, having mostly dried up during the kolb cycle, last ice age, the Euxine Basin was inhabited by small villages of “Neolithic farmers and for Operating foragers” (Ryan et al. , 1997: 1).This means that not only do details of the chaotic deluge have environmental significance, they also have cultural significance. Dudley Randall. 14 Nearly nothing is known of whoever lived in the Euxine basin prior to Essay, the deluge.As a result, it is hoped that an footprints saying, examination of objects found in Businesses, the depths of the Black Sea (a region referred to as the ‘abyss,’ in line with oceanographic convention) will help resolve this uncertainty.Fortunately, the research process is being helped by the fact that the stages of development, Black Sea is “the world’s biggest single reservoir of hydrogen sulphide,” an extremely deadly substance that makes “90 per cent of the Sea’s volume sterile” (Ascherson, 1996: 4-5).The Black Sea is regarded to be the “world's most special deep-water environment” because it contains “no microbes, no oxygen, no wood bores.If there were a shipwreck in Methods for Operating, that area, in deep water, it would be perfectly preserved” (Heibert, in McCalla, 1999).Thus, while the top 200 metres or so is full of “thriving marine life,” as Gugliotta puts it, “the rest is as dead as the ancient day when the flood waters settled” (2000: A01). 15 This information indicates that the aquatic conditions at the bottom of the Black Sea are conducive to the success of archaeological investigations in footprints saying, that region, given that ancient artefacts are less likely to disintegrate over time spent at the bottom of the Black Sea than they are under ‘normal’ deep-sea conditions.It is Businesses, no surprise, therefore, that theories about a human presence in the basin prior to dudley randall poems, the deluge stem from the discovery of human artefacts and Methods for Operating Businesses Essay ancient building materials 900 metres below the sea’s surface.Using remote-controlled underwater vessels and cameras to explore the Black Sea’s abyss, have scientists located “a former river valley” in The Career of Sports, which “a collapsed structure, including some preserved wooden beams that had been worked by Methods for Operating, hand” ( Japan Times ). 16 Fredrik Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and hernando cortes Anthropology, and the chief archaeologist for the Black Sea project, said the discovery represented “the first concrete evidence for the occupation of the Black Sea coast prior to its flooding” (Krause, 2000, par. 4).Given that the structure was characteristic of other examples of stone-age structures that were built at the estimated time of the flood Hiebert’s research partner, Robert Ballard (discoverer of the Titanic), maintained that it was “clearly built by humans” ( Japan Times , 2000).The expedition also spotted planks, beams, tree branches and Methods for Operating chunks of wood untouched by worms or molluscs, a strong indication that the partnering, oxygen-free waters of the Black Sea's 2 kilometre-deep abyss may be sheltering intact shipwrecks that date back to the dawn of seafaring. “It is beyond our wildest imagination,” explorer Robert D. Ballard, leader of the expedition, said yesterday.“Wood is existing much shallower than we thought.When we do go deep, it can only get better.” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01) 17 While nothing is for Operating Businesses, known of their language, customs, or creative practices, the discoveries of Ryan et al. and other Black Sea experts lead us to wonder what it might have been like to experience the chaos of the deluge. For communities living in randall poems, the Euxine basin when the Bosperus Strait breached, the flood would have lead to for Operating Essay, the deaths of of development chart thousands of people.A person fleeing the Essay, flood might well have seen many drowned and drowning bodies sinking into the tumultuous waters depths to where their villages now lay.Ryan et al. (1997) postulate that “a simultaneous onset of cortes voyages organic-rich sediments [occurred] at all depths” (p. 120).What this means is for Operating Businesses, that, as a result of the movement of the water over the surface of the earth, as well as the dark colour of the sediment, it would have become extremely murky throughout.Coupled with the fact that the water was already darkening in as much as it was getting deeper, it is possible that the villagers witnessed the same bodies of the dead, the Essay of Sports Management, injured as well as those others who were trying desperately to stay afloat, drifting out of the sight into a black aquatic mass, perhaps waving for help to those who were clinging to the land at the edges of the torrent.It could certainly have appeared as if the watery abyss had created an aquatic underworld where the villagers’ homes became abodes of the dead, sites of devastation, of death and despair. 18 Because the Black Sea is surrounded by Methods for Operating, steep hills, and so is situated near very little flat land, any escape from a deluge is voyages, likely to have been nearly impossible.Kruszelnicki suggests that the for Operating Essay, few survivors of randall this deluge would have moved “to Russia and Ukraine…, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece… to Georgia and Methods Businesses Essay India…. to Turkey and the Middle East.Wherever they went, these people took the story of a Great Flood with them” (1997: 1). Partnering. Ryan et al. raise the point that “such ‘wave-of-advance’ population movements… could have been induced by the permanent expulsion of inhabitants which had adapted to the natural resources of the formerly-emerged Black Sea periphery” (1997: 125). 19 This information means that, not only Methods for Operating Businesses Essay can the Black Sea deluge be acknowledged as a catastrophic and chaotic flood, understood in Essay, terms of Methods Businesses its geographical context, we may proceed to interpret it as a cultural context—a set of circumstances to which human lives were subjected.To many villagers it would have been an abrupt and fatal end for, in the aftermath of the deluge, little more would have remained of the Euxine villages than the bodies of the drowned amidst the debris of ravaged communities and inconceivable trauma. 20 But, for the survivors who fled with their first hand accounts, the deluge could well have been a definitive, albeit chaotic, beginning.It, perhaps, marked a Mesopotamian beginning that is characterised by Essay The Career, an almost complete break with the past—a veritable erasure of the history of a culture outside of the capacity of human memory.It is of little surprise that flood stories have been passed on through oral traditions and into the creation mythologies of ancient Mesopotamian cultures, that scientists consider the Black Sea discoveries to be “dramatic new evidence of an apocalyptic flood 7,500 years ago that may have inspired the Biblical story of Noah” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01).Consider also the raging currents of Tiamat and Methods Absu, as described in Babylonian mythology and poems later reinterpreted as the ‘abyssal deeps’ of Genesis in the Old Testament and, their archetype, the Sumerian creation mythology and flood epic dating back to the period between 3500 BC and Methods for Operating Essay 2000 BC.Each example postulates an abyss of hernando watery chaos as the ruptured cosmic egg of creation and, in Methods Businesses Essay, doing so, illustrates how beginnings can “only be discovered a posteriori ” (Levi-Strauss, 1966: 58).
21 But taking into account that “ [t]he Origin deals with the essence of truth, the truth of hernando essence and the abyss,” is it reasonable to ever expect to capture the chaos and Methods Businesses trauma of the footprints, Black Sea deluge in the cuneiform writing of the ancient Mesopotamians?If the locus of ‘truth’ finds us arriving at a truth about the chaotic abyss, maybe this shall be a truth about the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, nature, the limitations of its written representation that play into the problem of representation itself. 22 It is from this point that we may proceed to examine the close relationship between the act of writing, as a performative cultural practice, and preoccupations with chaos that, in of development chart, time, can be seen to Methods Businesses Essay, have informed Sumerian cosmology. 23 So far, this discussion has addressed research that establishes the Black Sea deluge both as a geographical context and dudley randall poems as a cultural context.The purpose of Methods this has been to The Career Management, observe an ‘origin’ that is chaotic, as the first step to unravelling the Methods for Operating Essay, conjunction of ‘writing and chaos’ in the Eridu Genesis .It is now possible to take the second step by considering the beginning of writing, i.e. the conjunction of erikson's psychosocial of development chart chaos and writing in ancient Mesopotamia, by turning our attention to the Eridu Genesis .It will be apparent that notions of chaos, in this text, recall the Black Sea deluge and, in turn, find chaos and writing playing a central role in Essay, a proto-historical cosmology. The Eridu Genesis : Finding a Form for Chaos. The invention of writing was one of Mesopotamia’s greatest achievements.It facilitated the organization and management of voyages society and served as the chief instrument by which a complex civilization could come into being.Eventually, it became the medium through which the Methods Essay, people’s collective experience and Essay Management wisdom were transgenerationally transmitted. For Operating Businesses. (Bertman, 2003: 144) 24 Sumerian artefacts have fascinated archaeologists and historians ever since they were first discovered in the 1850’s, and knowledge of this innovative culture is footprints saying, increasing. Methods For Operating. The proximity of Sumerian culture to the Black Sea makes it a primary focal point when examining the legacy of the footprints saying, Black Sea deluge in for Operating Businesses, the writing of the erikson's psychosocial of development, ancient world.But while it is for Operating Businesses, believed that the Sumerians had settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia by the fourth millennium B.C. (between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, South East of the Black Sea region), their origin is randall poems, still uncertain (Chavalas Younger Jr, 2002: 92).It is interesting that the fate of the Euxine villagers is as indeterminate as the origin of the Sumerians as if one culture had ventured into the unknown and the other out of it.The migrating survivors of the for Operating, Black Sea deluge may well have found refuge in the southern Mesopotamian region and, across the millennia, provided the basis of the voyages, Sumerian people.Whatever the case, there is Businesses Essay, little doubt that they emerged from the “pre-history” of footprints Iraq (Kramer, 1988: xx). 25 Because the Methods for Operating Businesses, Sumerians are credited as the authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions,” the Eridu Genesis is one of the first texts ever to have been written (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).Having developed the “art of writing,” Sumerian documents “mark the beginning of historical times” (Champdor, 1958: 8).This is what Bertman refers to as the kolb cycle, beginnings of “humanity’s autobiography,” in turn implicating chaos and Methods for Operating Essay writing in kolb cycle, self-reflective practices, in ‘writing the Essay, self’ (2003: 142).Just as importantly, given the present discussion, the subject matter of the Eridu Genesis places it at dudley, the beginning of for Operating Essay ‘chaos and writing’.
1 Perhaps there is some echo of footprints this process in the English language, at least, where the word ‘writ (. ) 26 To consider the practice of writing in general, it can be said that the “ideas, values and beliefs of a group are embodied in symbols, artefacts” and that these symbols “can be part of a written language,” (Inglis, 2005: 9).For the Sumerians, this writing came in the form of cuneiform text, achieved by Businesses Essay, way of blunt reeds being impressed onto a clay tablet; hence the resulting wedge shaped characters.1 Writing can be used to pre-empt the fallibility of memory, and so cuneiform enabled Sumerian writers to afford their ideas and beliefs a degree of permanence (even though, as van de Mieroop points out, cuneiform itself “is a script, not a language”) [1999: 10]. 27 In view of the administrative, private legal, scholarly, literary, and historiographic cuneiform texts, as well as letters that have been uncovered by archaeologists over Essay the past century, the Sumerians seem to have understood that writing also carried with it the thrust of authority, of ownership and in this way, perhaps, of certainty.But the permanence of Essay cuneiform opened the door to another way of teaching Sumerian culture, of dudley poems aligning everyday experience with cosmology.That is to say, writing played a role in an attempt to create a bridge between a material reality and a spiritual reality as von Rad points out, ancient man “makes no distinction between spiritual and material—the two are intertwined in the closest possible way; and in Methods for Operating Businesses, consequence he is also unable to differentiate between word and of development object, idea and reality” (1965: 80-1). 28 As Jacob recognises, “[a] spoken word is never an Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, empty sound but an operative reality whose action cannot be hindered once it has been pronounced, and which attained its maximum effectiveness in formulae of blessing and cursing” (1958: 127).The cuneiform word, in in construction, Sumerian culture, could also possess spiritual import, as reflected in the metaphorical concepts that structure a meaning system.As Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 3) acknowledge, “[o]ur concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world… [thus playing] a central role in defining our everyday realities.”Thus, it is for Operating Businesses, useful to consider the role of chaos in Sumerian writing by acknowledging how notions of water have been in metaphorical expressions in Sumerian writing. 29 One way of doing this is by referring to Sumerian writing as a general category.A Sumerian once wrote, “Tears, lament, anguish, and Essay The Career depression are within me.Suffering overwhelms me.Evil fate holds me and for Operating Essay carries off my life.Malignant sickness bathes me” (Marcus, 1998).These expressions of feeling ‘bathed’ and ‘overwhelmed’ conjure up impressions an in construction, emotional flood whereby the individual implies an association between misery, misfortune, and a watery chaos. 30 Another way of identifying the role of chaos, as part of a metaphorical concept system, in Sumerian writing, is by referring to the Eridu Genesis , a segmentary (thus incomplete) text that archaeologists have pieced together using remnants and preserved lines.However, because notions of ‘chaotic water’ ground metaphorical expressions, it is not necessary to literally pin-point the word ‘chaos’ as it occurs in translation.This would reduce the task down to a criticism of translation rather than an assessment of the meaning behind the passages.Rather, the task is to identify points in the writing that connote chaos, and water.After 36 lost lines, the first column recounts the words of Nintur, the goddess of birth and the mother of humankind.Kramer’s (1983: 117-8) numbered transliteration reads: 38.I would [halt(?)] the perishing of my mankind, 39.I would restore there to Nintu the… of my creatures, 40.We would return the people from Methods for Operating their (dispersed) habitations. 41.Let them build there the me-endowed cities, I would refresh myself in their shade, 42.Let them lay the bricks of the me-endowed cities in holy places, 43.Let them erect the me-endowed ki-es in holy places, 44.I have directed there the fire-quenching holy (?) water,?
45.I have perfected there the randall, divine rites (and) noble me, 46.I have watered the earth, I would establish well-being there. 47.After An, Enlil, Enki, (and) Ninhursag. 48.Had fashioned the blackheads, 49.Nig-gil (rising) repeatedly out for Operating, of the earth, multiplied. 50.Herds of animals, four legged, were brought into existence in psychosocial stages chart, the steppe as is Methods Businesses, befitting. 31 These lines recount the creation of partnering humankind and the animals, an interpretation that is clarified by way of Methods for Operating Businesses introduction to the roles of the four primary gods that are mentioned. First of partnering in construction all, An (or ‘Anu’), whose name literally means ‘heaven,’ was a “supreme authority among the gods, and among men,” dispensing justice and Businesses Essay controlling the footprints saying, laws “that governed the universe” (Bertman, 2003: 116).Second in Methods for Operating Businesses, charge was Enlil (or ‘Ellil’), ruler of the earth and director of “the forces of nature (especially torrential floods)” [Bertman, 2003: 118].Enki (or ‘Ea’) dwells in, and is in erikson's stages, charge of, the Abzu (or ‘Apsu’), an aquatic abyss that gives life to the “streams and rivers” and “was associated with arcane wisdom” and for Operating creation (Bertman, 2003: 118).Ninhursaga was the Sumerian mother-goddess and nurturer of the “earth’s creatures,” and the equivalent of Nintur (Bertman, 2003: 124). In Construction. 32 Given the Methods for Operating, central role of water in the Creation narrative, it is stages of development chart, useful to consider the ‘sea’ as it exists in Essay, the Sumerian lexicon.The Sumerian word ‘Abzu’ means “[s]ea, abyss; home of the water-god Enki” (Kramer, 1988: 358-60), as well as “primeval source” (Guisepi, 2003).A variation of kolb cycle Abzu , ‘Apsu,’ has been translated into the English language as “deepwater” and “beginning (one who exists from the beginning)” (Guisepi, 2003).Reference is made to Methods Businesses Essay, “the abzu, the pure place” that is associated with “sacred water” throughout Sumerian incantations (Cunningham, 1997: 116).Thus, the life giving waters that are represented by Enki, and in which he dwells, provide the erikson's psychosocial of development chart, foundations of human and animal life.In this context, chaos is that primeval sea before the creation of the universe, a kind of Methods Businesses “first cause” and “prime mover,” a boundless and aquatic abyss (Kramer, 1988: 76).Given that Sumerians never considered that there might be anything “prior to the sea in time and in space,” it is not unlikely that they considered the sea to have existed “eternally” (Kramer, 1988: 76, 82).
33 Thus, the erikson's psychosocial of development chart, universe is created out of the chaos of the sea, perhaps stemming from the Methods for Operating Essay, problem of partnering being clear about ‘what existed before’.Perhaps this symbolises a kind of cultural chaos, a primal and uncivilised society for, following the creation of humans and animals, the narrative recounts how steps were made towards building the first city; the familiarly named ‘Eridu’.Eridu, once located in Methods Essay, the south of the of development chart, Sumerian region, speaks not only of the beginning of the universe, its Genesis , but the beginning of civilisation and settlement, wherein people are conceivably committed to place. 34 By bringing order to chaos Creation has put an end to nomadicism, planting the seed of settlement in the Neolithic age.Up until this time, Palaeolithic nomadic communities moved through nature seasonally, as a way of for Operating taking advantage of animal migration as well as the ripening of fruits and so on.Thus, while they possessed the skills required to survive, they had no irrigation or crop development technology.They had no sense of up, down, forwards or backwards.In short they possessed what can be referred to as non-geometric knowledge and, as a result, have been described as existing in a state of disorientation. 35 The ability to kolb cycle, construct permanent buildings saw the nomadic hunter gatherer lifestyle eventually give way to something quite opposite, i.e. Methods Essay. a state of orientation, and the beginning of architecture.The ability to build more permanent structures meant an emerging and fundamental sense of geometry.The Sumerians narrative reflects this transition into the clearing of cortes land, the beginning of architecture and agriculture, the domestication of plants and Methods for Operating animals. 36 In addition, having established themselves on the land between two main rivers, the Sumerians relied heavily on irrigation for the maintenance of their crops.They had achieved a level of expertise in the art of irrigation, though they struggled constantly against the forces of the two rivers that surrounded them.Childe (1969) explains: Arable land had literally to dudley poems, be created out of a chaos of swamps and sand banks by a ‘separation’ of land from water; the swamps drained; the floods controlled; and life-giving waters led to Methods, the rainless desert by artificial canals. (p. 114) 37 In short, being civilised entails a culture’s presumption of mastery over the natural world—knowledge and skill become invested in a project of bringing order to the environment, especially where no perceivably order previously existed. This means that notions of chaos, in footprints, Sumerian writing, can be seen to document a new phase in cultural thinking—the emergence of the culture/nature binary opposition.This is also the emergence of the for Operating, inside/outside binary opposition.When what is inside the walls of a city, within the erikson's stages of development, perimeter of Eridu as a place of civilisation is presumably safe, domesticated, predictable, tame, ordered, that which remains outside of the Methods, city (the natural world with all of the kolb cycle, forces that it maintains) is rendered a place of Methods Businesses Essay danger, of the untamed, of disorder, and chaos. 38 The city offers protection against the outside, the protection of a cultured condition.This, combined with a capacity to return easily to burial grounds, for example, meant that certain sites became sacred.In the Eridu Genesis , Nintur has instructed the ‘black-headed people’ to build cities, with the knowledge that they might then be used as hubs of worships.In fact Enki, being the in construction, primary god of the city of Eridu, has his own temple.The Abzu temple, otherwise known as e-engur-a or ‘house of the lord of deep waters,’ was situated in Eridu in the wetlands of the Essay, Euphrates (Kramer, 1968: 103).The settlers hope that, by pleasing the voyages, Gods, that they will ensure the safety of the population.It is here that we find watery chaos at Methods for Operating, the centre of civilised worship; that is, ironically, as an agent for cultural integration and cohesion. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Of Development. 39 But there is a point, in the Eridu Genesis narrative, where our attention is drawn to a problem in the city.The people prove to be quite noisy and this is not at Businesses, all pleasing to the Gods.As a result Enlil, vexed by the disturbances because they keep him from sleeping, convincing the other gods to bring about a destructive deluge.In columns three and four the text describes the events leading up to the flood (from Kramer, 1983: 119-20). 140.Then did Nintu [weep] like a… 141.Holy Inanna [sets up] a lament for its people.
142.Enki took counsel with himself, 143.An, Enlil, Enki (and) Ninhursag. Dudley Randall Poems. 144.Adjured the gods of heaven (and) earth by An (and) Enlil. 145.In those days Ziusudra, the king, the gutug-priest… 147.Humbly eloquent [filled with] fear, 148.Standing daily, constantly… 149.Bringing forth all kinds of Methods Businesses dreams, con[versing], 150.Adjuring the gods of heaven (and) earth he… 152.Ziusudra standing at its side, list[ened]: 153.“Stand by the wall at my left side… 154.At the wall I would say a word to you, take [my word], 155.[Give ear] to dudley randall, my instruction: 156.The me -endowed cities(:)—the flood [will sweep over their] kab [ dugga ] 157.To destroy the seed of mankind—[thus it has been decreed], 158.The verdict, the word of the assembly, [cannot be revoked] 159.The word commanded by An (and) Enlil [knows no overturning], 160.Their kinship—its reign [has been cut off, the heart is aggrieved]. 40 Enki has spoken, deciding to flood the city. Methods For Operating Businesses Essay. This watery chaos will come to dudley randall poems, breach Eridu’s perimeter and wash away the Businesses Essay, failed city with the full force of the Essay The Career of Sports, natural world; something that is, in Sumerian cosmology, demonstrative of the power of the angry Gods. 41 The reason that Ziusudra’s status as a priest is Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, announced is that, as Jacobsen notes, the fact that the footprints saying, priest has fashioned a statue of the ‘god of Methods Businesses Essay giddiness’ “suggests that he also was able to communicate with the world beyond through ecstasy, and erikson's of development so valued and sought the giddiness that precedes and induces ecstatic trance” (1981: 523).His status symbolizes a bridge between the Methods Businesses Essay, world or order and that of a divine chaos.Ziusudra’s valuing of giddiness, of the divinity of footprints chaos, is perhaps what finds him to Businesses Essay, be favoured by Enki—favoured enough to be informed, by Enki, of the erikson's of development, impending deluge.He is advised to build a boat that will enable himself, his family, and representatives of the animals to survive the for Operating Businesses Essay, flood (a part of the text that scholars recognise as being strongly reminiscent Noah’s Arc ).The boat symbolises of hope for, when skilfully made, it is protective.Once again, knowledge of water becomes a way to survival.Kramer’s (1983: 120) transliteration continues. 201.All the windstorms (and) gales attacked together, 202.At the same time, the flood swept over the kabdugga. Hernando Voyages. 203.After, for seven days (and) seven nights, 204.The flood had swept over the land.
205.(And) the huge boat had been tossed about by the windstorms on the great waters, 206.Utu came forth, who illuminates heaven (and) earth. 207.Ziusudra drilled an opening in the huge boat. 208.Valiant Utu brought his light into the huge boat. 209.Ziusudra, the king, 210.Prostrated himself before Utu, 211.The king slaughters oxen, multiplies sheep. 42 The flood has passed.Its chaos, and that of the Businesses Essay, windstorms, is over.But we are left with the question of dudley randall poems how the written construction of a chaos can ever do justice to it.While they often seem normal, representations are not naturally occurring depictions, which is precisely why they can be examined for their cultural, ideological, and semiotic content (O’Shaughnessy Stadler, 2002).The problem of finding a form for chaos, in terms of the Eridu Genesis, is only further frustrated by the “restrictions imposed by the nature of the text type” (Oppenheim, 1977: 144).If the Eridu Genesis constitutes a latent response to the Black Sea deluge can writing, in its infancy, ever be expected to capture the Essay, essence of chaos?As Lyotard (1987) says: We can conceive the infinitely great, the infinitely powerful, but every presentation of an object destined to “make visible” this absolute greatness or power appears to us painfully inadequate.Those are ideas of which no presentation is possible. (p. 78) 43 While we cannot, with certainty, distinguish between fact and fiction in Sumerian writing, the evidence available today, particularly that attributed to earth-science, gives us reason to interpret the Eridu Genesis as a use of literature to reveal a historical event in theological terms. That is, it seems highly probable that certain literary qualities of the Eridu Genesis, in its description of Creation and of Eridu’s inundation, have been inspired by dudley, a historical episode known as the Black Sea deluge. 44 The Eridu Genesis takes part in an attempt, not only to “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” but to attribute some kind of form, an order, to a watery abyss (Kramer, 1961: 183).But, with Lyotard’s comments still in mind, it seems that the question of the Businesses, text’s adequacy as a representation of chaos becomes rhetorical.In other words, to the extent that chaos and the abyss cannot be fathomed, we are left to consider what insight such inadequacy provides us in terms of the cortes voyages, human condition.
45 If Sumerian writing, in general, became another tool for expressing mastery over the natural world, it follows that, at some stage in writing’s development, it also provided an Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, unpassable opportunity to domesticate the saying, legacy of the Black Sea deluge; a chance to inscribe, in clay, millennia old cultural memories of an abruptly inundation.This was an inundation that confirmed humankind’s impotence in the face of nature’s unforgiving power, and so writing functions as a symbolic gesture through which human evolution can be demonstrated. 46 The conjunction of ‘writing and Methods Businesses chaos’ is disclosed as a battle between the will to personal power and autonomy in the world, and the inherent power of an essentially unpredictable nature of that very world.If the Black Sea is understood as a place where place was erased by chaos, it can be taken to represent a site of death and subjectivity—that is, a place in which personal or individual feelings, belonging to the survivors of the deluge, emerged in response to humankind’s impotence in the face of poems nature’s unforgiving power.Thus, the writing of chaos becomes an attempt to negotiate the part of the human condition that is a struggle between chaos and order, between the assessment of threat and risk, and a course of action that will ensure one’s safety in the future.It seems that the Eridu Genesis responds to a timeless question.That being, what is the individual’s position in this world, in view of a certain set of historical circumstances as they are understood at any given time?The Eridu Genesis remains a “proto-type” for this kind of thinking, this uncertainty towards certainty that plays into a sensibility of infinity and which is made manifest through an ancient cosmology. 47 When the Black Sea deluge was happening it could not have been fully comprehended and what it would mean, over time, could never have been imagined.But what can be ascertained is that the Eridu Genesis marks the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, beginning of partnering in construction a profound negotiation of the Methods for Operating Essay, notion of poems origin.By using the innovation of for Operating Essay writing to express an impossible narrative of dudley randall a primordial chaos that dwells in Methods, the consciousness of a civilised society, the Eridu Genesis sets the Management, challenge of writing and chaos in motion.For this reason, it is entirely plausible to Methods for Operating Essay, claim that notions of the The Career, watery abyss underpin how chaos is viewed in the late modern world. 48 Perhaps, in a way that is coherent with the subject matter, the origin of chaos raises an uncertainty with regard the beginning of writing.In the same way that we may wonder how far the Black Sea can be credited for the content of the Methods for Operating Businesses, Eridu Genesis , it is also fair to dudley randall, wonder how much credit can be taken by Methods Businesses Essay, the Black Sea for the text’s very form.Did writing emerge from a need to document laws, property and everyday life, or did it emerge as a response to a very human need to erikson's stages of development chart, secure oneself in the world, with these others being merely secondary applications?This question will take much more time to address. But whatever the answer may be, the Eridu Genesis continues to for Operating Essay, anchor ‘writing and chaos’ in a literature of ‘the deep’. Ascherson, N. Erikson's Psychosocial Of Development Chart. (1996). Black Sea: the Birthplace of Civilisation and Barbarism . London: Vintage.
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Bennington I. McLeod, Trans.). Chicago: University of for Operating Businesses Chicago Press. Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas . (2006). Chicago, London: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ltd. Gugliotta, G. (2000, September 13). “Black Sea Artefacts May Be Evidence of Biblical Flood”. Washington Post . Inglis, D. (2005). Culture and voyages Everyday Life . London New York: Routledge. Jacob, E. (1958). Theology of the for Operating Businesses, Old Testament . New York: Harper and Row. Jacobsen, T. (Dec., 1981). Footprints. “The Eridu Genesis”. Journal of Biblical Literature , 100(4), p. 513-529.
The Society of Biblical Literature. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3266116, retrieved May 15, 2008. The Japan Times . Methods For Operating. (September 15, 2000). “Human Artefacts Found at Bottom of Black Sea: Evidence of Disastrous Flood 7,000 years ago may coincide with Bible Story of Noah”. Erikson's Of Development Chart. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news210.htm, retrieved April 2, 2008. Kramer, S. Essay. N. (1961). Mythologies of the Ancient World . New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. —, (1968). Cradle of Civilization . Nederland: Time-Life Books. —, (1983). “The Sumerian Deluge Myth: Reviewed and Revised”. In Anatolian Studies , Vol. 33 (Special Number in hernando cortes voyages, Honour of the Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Dr.
Richard Barnett), p. 115-121. —, (1988). History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Man's Recorded History (3 rd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Krause, L. (September 13, 2000). For Operating. “Ballard Finds Traces of Ancient Habitation Beneath Black Sea”. In National Geographic News . Retrieved February 2, 2008: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2000/12/122800blacksea.html. Kruszelnicki, K. (1997). Great Moments in Science: Noah and the Great Flood . Ep. 39. http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/gmis9743.htm, retrieved April 1, 2008.
Lakoff, G., Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By . Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Levi-Strauss, C. (1966). The Savage Mind . Chicago: University of hernando cortes Chicago Press. Lyotard, J-F. (1984). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge . Essay. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. McCalla, J. (January 14, 1999). “Fredrick Hiebert”. Pennsylvania Current ‘Q A ’. Retrieved April 1, 2008: http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/1999/011499/Hiebert.html. The New Jacaranda Atlas (3 rd ed.). Kolb Cycle. (1987).
Milton, Queensland: The Jacaranda Press. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (4 th ed. Vol. 1). (1993b), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Methods For Operating. Oppenheim, A. (1977). Ancient Mesopotamia: portrait of a dead civilization . Chicago London: University of Chicago Press. O’Shaughnessy, M Stadler, J. (2002). Media and society: an introduction (2 nd ed). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C. (1998). Noah’s Flood: the New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History . Footprints Saying. New York: Simon Schuster.
Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C., Major, C.O., Shimkus, K., Moskalenko, V., Jones, G.A., et al. (1997, April 1997). “An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea Shelf”. Businesses. Marine Geology , 138, p. 119-126. Said, E. Kolb Cycle. W. (1975). Beginnings: Intention and Methods for Operating Businesses Method . London: Granton Books. Van de Mieroop, M. Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Of Development Chart. (1999). Cuneiform texts and the Writing of History . Methods For Operating Businesses Essay. New York: Routledge. Von Rad, G. (1965, ii).
Old Testament Theology . Edinburgh: Oliver and erikson's stages of development chart Boyd. 1 Perhaps there is some echo of this process in Methods for Operating Essay, the English language, at least, where the word ‘write’ originates from the Old English writan , meaning to “sense, to score, scratch” (Brown, 1993b, p. 3731). David Prescott-Steed , « Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia », TRANS- [En ligne], 6 | 2008, mis en ligne le 07 juillet 2008, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. Kolb Cycle. URL : http://trans.revues.org/249 ; DOI : 10.4000/trans.249. David Prescott-Steed was born on England’s Devon coast and migrated to Businesses, Western Australia at the age of six. Having exhibited artwork since 1993, David continues to pursue a creative praxis and, in 2006, completed his PhD on representations of the abyss. He is unit coordinator and lecturer for partnering in construction, Cultural History and Theory in the Faculty of Education and Arts at Edith Cowan University and also works within the Faculty of Essay Architecture, Landscape, and hernando cortes Visual Arts at the University of Western Australia. His research interests include deep-sea imagery and concepts, historical representations of the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, unknown, and the role of indeterminacy in everyday thinking. Tous droits reserves.
Resister a la litterature 19 | 2015. Visions du Sud : Universite invitee - Santiago du Chili 18 | 2014. La reference 17 | 2014. Litterature, Paysage et Ecologie 15 | 2013. Randall. Terrorismes 14 | 2012. Utopies contemporaines 13 | 2012. Marges et Deviances 12 | 2011. Trahisons 10 | 2010.
Pop culture 8 | 2009. A tu et a toi 7 | 2009. Methods For Operating Businesses. Ecriture et chaos 5 | 2008. Poems. A quoi bon la litterature ? 3 | 2007. Ecrire le present 2 | 2006. Litterature et image 1 | 2005. ISSN electronique 1778-3887. Informations Titre : TRANS- Revue de litterature generale et comparee En bref : Revue de litterature des jeunes chercheurs de l'Universite Sorbonne Nouvelle.
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Christmas Day Essay Essays and Research Papers. Valentines Day | New Year | Rio de Janeiro Carnival | Oktoberfest | Christmas | Diwali Christmas . Festival» Christmas Festival- The Origin of Christmas - The History of Methods for Operating Businesses, Christmas - Christmas Story- Christmas Tradition- The Religious Aspect of Xmas- 12 days of Christmas - Significance of Christmas - Christmas Day in the Morning- Jesus Christ- Mary Mother of Jesus- About Santa Claus- The Christmas Tree» Christmas Celebrations- Christmas Eve Celebration- Christmas Day - The Tradition of Gifting- Christmas. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 729 Words | 3 Pages. spanish christmas they don't belive in santa claus .They belive that the partnering in construction, 3 wiseman.Kids leave there shoes out side and believe that the for Operating, 3 . wiseman will come and fill there shoes up with presents.Most people in in construction, Spain go to Midnight Mass or 'La Misa Del Gallo' (The Mass of the Rooster). It is Methods for Operating Businesses, called this because a rooster is erikson's stages chart, supposed to have crowed the night that Jesus was born. Methods! Most families eat their main Christmas meal on Christmas Eve before the service. Footprints! The traditional Spanish Christmas dinner. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Christmas Eve 943 Words | 3 Pages. Lang. Arts Holiday Research Project Christmas in Spain Many countries celebrate their holidays in many different ways compared to . us. Methods For Operating Businesses! What they do may be weird or out of the randall, normal to us.
But, what they do are their traditions, and what we do are our traditions. So, it’s not weird or out of the normal it’s just different. For Operating! That’s what I thought the partnering in construction, first time I read about this country. My partner Andrea and I chose the holiday Christmas and Methods Businesses Essay the country Spain. In Spain many people. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Christmas Eve 886 Words | 3 Pages. Objectives General Objectives * To find Out the hernando cortes, participation rate of AIS Students during the Christmas program in this year 2012 Specific . Objectives * To find out Methods if the respondent able to participate in this program. Hernando Voyages! * To find if they accomplish the things needed to accomplish * To find out the total evidence if they participates the program Study framework We the researchers hope and aims that, the context of Methods Businesses Essay, our study able to get and gain a good outcome such information, details. Christ , Christianity , Christmas 1830 Words | 6 Pages.
One Death by a Magical Transport Device and saying its Mythical Animal Operators Similar to all other past Christmas Eve’s tonight was freshly . blanketed by Methods Essay a heaping comforter of saying, snow. Not only was it piled high on the ground as the midnight hours approached, but it was also still heavily falling in a whimsical turbine of white powder through the air. When the Methods, clock struck eleven and the Christmas party had come to a close, the footprints saying, children were crawling into bed as their parents wished sweet magical dreams. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison: Movie and Essay Its Source The movie, “ Christmas with the Kranks”, directed by Joe Roth is based on the book, Skipping . Christmas , by erikson's stages John Grisham.
In both the movie and Methods the book Luther and Nora Krank watch their only daughter Blair Krank join the Peace Corps. They feel lost without her and decide not to spend Christmas moping around but to go on a cruise and save their money by kolb cycle not buying their usual Christmas items. For Operating! On Christmas Eve Luther and Nora receive a surprising phone call from. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Christmas tree 1474 Words | 4 Pages. Medieval Meals: This essay is on food that was served in Medieval Times, and partnering what some of there feasts and festivals were like.
Also has some information on Methods Businesses Essay, Music that was played. Hernando Cortes Voyages! INCLUDES FOOTNOTES. it was usually worth the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, effort. Stages Chart! Medieval celebrations were a time for Methods Essay food and enjoyment. The celebrations were usually based on feast days . that were determined by when certain crops would be harvested.
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There are over Essay The Career, 300 retail outlets and restaurants located within the mall. III.- Objectives The main objectives on the “12 day of Methods for Operating, Fashion” promotion plan are to: Increase sales throughout the kolb cycle, month of. Christmas , Christmas tree , Clothing 2043 Words | 6 Pages. Twelve Days of for Operating Businesses, Christmas and partnering True Love. could have?
11. Recall the song “The Twelve Days of Christmas ”: On the first day of . Christmas my true love gave to me a partridge in a pear tree. On the second day of Methods, Christmas my true love gave to me two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree. On the third day of Christmas my true love gave to me three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree. This pattern continues for 9 more days . After 12 days , a. In Construction! which gifts did my true love give the most. Coin , Delete key , Orchard 300 Words | 2 Pages. SKIPPING CHRISTMAS By John Grisham Settings It was a holiday and the places were full of snow. The people are preparing for the . Methods For Operating Businesses Essay! upcoming Christmas Eve and it was very cold. Characters Main Characters • Luther Krank • Nora Krank • Walt and Bev Scheel • Vic Frohmeyer • Blair Krank Plot Plot summary Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow. The story focuses on how Luther Krank and kolb cycle his wife Nora tried to avoid doing the traditional Christmas frenzy.
The plan was. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Christmas tree 400 Words | 2 Pages. ?1. TAGALOG SONG LYRICS Sa maybahay ang aming bati 'Merry Christmas ' na maluwalhati Ang pag-ibig 'pag siyang naghari Araw-araw ay magiging . Methods Businesses! Paskong lagi Ang sanhi po ng pagparito Hihingi po ng aginaldo Kung sakaling kami'y perhuwisyo Pasensya na kayo't kami'y namamasko. Pasko! 2. Malamig ang simoy ng hangin Kay saya ng bawa't damdamin Ang tibok ng puso sa dibdib Para bang hulog ng langit Himig ng Pasko'y laganap Mayroong sigla ang lahat Wala ang kalungkutan Lugod sa kasayahan Himig ng Pasko'y. Christmas , Christmas songs , Partridge 1530 Words | 4 Pages. How My Family Celebrates Christmas. Christmas Christmas is the favorite season of the year for most of the people in kolb cycle, the Word.
In Christmas the Methods Businesses, . people spend time with the family and friends. Christmas is Essay The Career Management, a time to be with a special person. For me Christmas start the day I putted my Christmas three, a party on Christmas Eve and the day of Christmas . The day after thanksgiving is Methods, wen my family and cortes voyages me putted our Christmas three. Methods For Operating! My Christmas three was a 7-foot tall three, smell really good, and is really big. In the three we putted. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Christmas tree 372 Words | 2 Pages. Childhood Epiphany Essay I’m sure we have all experienced an epiphany in our lifetime. I like to call epiphanies “aha” moments or a moment . when you figure something out and it changes your life and the way you view things. I’m sure I have had a lot of epiphanies in my twenty-nine years such as finding my fingers and toes as a baby or learning how to ride a bike, but the epiphany I remember the most happened when I was eight years old. It was Christmas Eve my whole family was over for our annual. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Christmas tree 867 Words | 2 Pages.
thing that starts off fall is November, which is wonderful time to footprints saying spend with relatives to give thanks. At last the Essay, third thing that makes me love the end of . the dudley randall poems, year is December. It kicks off the start of winter, and brings wonderful cheers of Christmas . One of the reasons I love the end of the year is because the beginning of fall starts with the moth of October. I love October because it brings me joy and Methods Essay spookiness with Halloween. Footprints! I really enjoy this time of the year a lot because I love to. Autumn , Christmas , Christmas carol 524 Words | 2 Pages. “Our Hearts Grow Tender with Childhood Memories and Love of Kindred, and Businesses Essay We Are Better Throughout the Year for Having, in Spirit, Become a Child Again at Christmas-Time.” (Laura Ingalls Wild.
“Our hearts grow tender with childhood memories and love of hernando voyages, kindred, and we are better throughout the year for having, in spirit, become a child again at Methods for Operating Businesses Essay . Christmas -time.” (Laura Ingalls Wilder) Christmas is coming, it is one of the Essay, most important and magnificent holidays of the Christian calendar. This is a miraculous time of year when people begin to believe in Methods for Operating, miracles again and become pure-minded like heartfelt children. We all come from childhood. This is a fun and good time which. Arashi , Christmas , Jesus 389 Words | 2 Pages. the characters or the scene. In the story there isn’t any main character. In the story we have three kinds of characters: the buyers, the seller and the . items. In this case the buyers are the adults without a child that would like to cortes voyages rent one for Christmas Eve.
The seller is the lady sitting at the front desk Mrs. Overton, since the narrator is applying to, that she is the owner of the shop. The narrator is describing Mrs. Overton as a strict lady which you can see by what she is saying. She also has. Christmas , Christmas tree , Christmas worldwide 493 Words | 2 Pages. Holy Bible says Mary boy child, Jesus child Was born on Christmas day Listen here the angels sing A new king is born today . And man will live forevermore Because of Christmas day While shepherds watched their flocks by night They see a bright new shining star And then they hear a choir sing The music to come from afar Listen here the angels sing A new king is born today And man will live forevermore Because of Methods for Operating Essay, Christmas day When Joseph and His wife Mary Came to footprints Bethlehem that. Christmas , Christmas songs , Jingle Bells 1924 Words | 4 Pages. Christmas Day With My Family We live in an age in for Operating, which it is hard to spend time together as a family. Many families . today wonder if having quality time together is a thing of the erikson's psychosocial stages of development chart, past. We are inordinately busy, for for Operating Businesses one thing, whether household breadwinners or college students.
Also, the of Sports Management, definition of family has changed. Some people choose to live their lives alone, but may still be close enough to some friends to consider them family. Just as each family has a kind of world in which reign. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 627 Words | 2 Pages. For Christmas I prayed for for Operating Businesses Essay this blond-haired boy, Robert, and a slim new American nose. Voyages! When I found out that my parents had . invited the minister's family over for Christmas Eve dinner, I cried. What would Robert think of our shabby Chinese Christmas ? What would he think of Methods Businesses Essay, our noisy Chinese relatives who lacked proper American manners? What terrible disappoint-ment would he feel upon seeing not a roasted turkey and footprints sweet potatoes but Chinese food? On Christmas Eve I. Chinese cuisine , Christmas , Christmas Eve 506 Words | 2 Pages. lest out. and Methods for Operating wishes she could be American.
So without her knowing her mom and footprints saying dad invite the family that her crush perhaps to be the Businesses Essay, son of the ministers . family so she thinks he’s going to think were weird cause they had Chinese traditions for Christmas eve. Have you ever been in a situation were you cant except who you are and Essay The Career of Sports Management want to Methods for Operating Essay be the same as everybody else. Amy Tan the writer of kolb cycle, fish cheeks writes about Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, herself. She is very creative but has a problem. she is Chinese but everybody. Christmas , Christmas worldwide , Family 520 Words | 2 Pages. life at a young age and has been apart if it every since then. Dudley Poems! Fashion to me is Methods Essay, like Michael Jackson to pop music it’s the greatest thing ever.
Every time I . get a chance to read a fashion magazine I get so excited and my eyes light up as if it was christmas eve. Fashion is randall, something that’s international it is all around the world just in Methods for Operating, different styles. It has in footprints, different looks, different genres, and different ways of for Operating Businesses, representation. Fashion plays a very important role in footprints, my life. It became apart. Christmas , Christmas worldwide , English-language films 4390 Words | 10 Pages.
Christmas Day ! One of the most memorable days of my life was the Businesses, Christmas of 2007. I woke up to . the hernando, bright sunlight seeping through my window, and I knew today would be a Christmas I would never forget. The weather was fit for the season with fresh white snow gently falling from the sky, as I looked out the for Operating, foggy window. Partnering! I remembered this Christmas as if it happened yesterday. Methods Businesses Essay! The night before Christmas I remember sneaking down the steps, only to see my mom sneaking the presents under the poorly. Christmas , Christmas tree , English-language films 982 Words | 3 Pages. A Christmas Carol Essay It has been said that nobody can go back and start a new beginning, but anyone can start today and dudley poems make . a new ending.
In the novel A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens Ebenezer Scrooge is a dynamic character. A dynamic character is a character that changes throughout the for Operating, story, usually for the better. In the beginning of the kolb cycle, novel Scrooge is self-engrossed, but with the help of the three spirits of Businesses Essay, Christmas he is transformed into kolb cycle a caring and generous person. In the beginning. A Christmas Carol , Bob Cratchit , Charles Dickens 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Alaysha Green Mr. Methods Businesses Essay! Raymond Villegas ENG 1010 Jan. 31, 2011 FYI: When you are writing papers, make sure everything is evenly spaced. There should only be a . double space between the information and the title My Christmas Day Of 2010 As I woke up with the sun’s rays in dudley randall poems, my eyes, I hit my phone alarm clock, which since it was ringing at 10 a.m. As I walked (the way you wrote this makes it a fragmented sentence. For Operating! If you add a subject and change the verb it is not fragmented) down the beige hallway.
Board game , Christmas , Christmas Eve 2092 Words | 5 Pages. Eating Christmas In The Kalahari Writing Essay. Eating Christmas in the Kalahari by Richard Borshay Lee Writing Essay Krystal Webb Sociology 111 Grade: . Freshman Eating Christmas in the Kalahari I. Abstract: The purpose of this essay is to talk about the early nineteenth century, when the of Sports Management, London Missionary Society brought Christmas to southern Tswana. The idea of Christmas was spread Through all of the Kalahari Desert .Richard , who went by the Bushmen name given to Methods Businesses him Ontah bought an ox for Christmas to share with the. Anthropology , Botswana , Cultural anthropology 899 Words | 6 Pages. Wing was whether or not to accept Woodhall in the feminist movement. The Nationalist Wing was extremely supportive of Woodhall’s policies. After her speech . in the House of Representatives, they invited her to speak to their convention the following day . In addition, the dudley, Nationalist Wing believed in Woodhull’s ideas; for example, they called for reforms on every aspect of government after her speech and even supported her idea of secession. On the other hand, the American Wing denounced the Nationalist-Woodhall. Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Feminism , Frederick Douglass 1594 Words | 4 Pages. ?A Christmas Carol Practise Essay Topic = “Scrooge’s real problem is Businesses Essay, that he has no sense of responsibility to others; he is . happy to remain in his insular world Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol, presents to the reader, the transformation of psychosocial, a self-centred miserable old man, Ebenezer Scrooge.
Scrooge, drastically transforms from the Essay, protagonist of erikson's psychosocial stages of development, his society, to a man who realises that life isn’t just about himself and money, other people are important and being kind and caring and helping others. A Christmas Carol , Bob Cratchit , Charles Dickens 945 Words | 2 Pages. Valentines Day | New Year | Rio de Janeiro Carnival | Oktoberfest | Christmas | Diwali Christmas . Festival» Christmas Festival- The Origin of Christmas - The History of Methods Essay, Christmas - Christmas Story- Christmas Tradition- The Religious Aspect of Xmas- 12 days of Christmas - Significance of Christmas - Christmas Day in the Morning- Jesus Christ- Mary Mother of Jesus- About Santa Claus- The Christmas Tree» Christmas Celebrations- Christmas Eve Celebration- Christmas Day - The Tradition of Gifting- Christmas. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 2464 Words | 6 Pages. A Christmas Carol Essay Many times in life, we do not realize the importance of something until it is randall, gone and is too late to . reclaim. However, in A Christmas Carol by Methods Businesses Charles Dickens, we are told the story of a man who, although undeserving, is offered an opportunity to erikson's stages redeem himself, to receive a second chance. This man, Ebenezer Scrooge, is changed forever by the valuable lessons taught by four spirits: those of his deceased partner Jacob Marley, and the ghosts of Christmas Past, Christmas. A Christmas Carol , Charles Dickens , Christmas 1059 Words | 3 Pages. grocery baskets from the parking lot so cars do not have trouble navigating and to Methods for Operating Businesses Essay keep our supply of grocery karts handy for Essay Management incoming customers * Help . customers find items throughout the store, and keep the shelves stocked with goods throughout the day Education College of Southern Nevada Degree in Methods Businesses Essay, progress Business Major . Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association , Customer , Customer service 559 Words | 3 Pages. As every year draws to Essay The Career Management an end, so the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, atmosphere of Christmas starts to fill the kolb cycle, air.
The 25th of December is a day that has . caught the heart of most Christians and filled it with gratitude- for it is said - that it is the day that Jesus Christ was born. It is Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, marked on calendars as a public holiday, but it is written on of Sports Management, hearts as a celebration of the birth of Businesses Essay, our savior. It is the time when families and friends gather together, bearing gifts for one another and where feelings of love are evident. Christ , Christianity , Christmas 1504 Words | 4 Pages. Literature “The Origins of Christmas ” Christmas is The Career Management, a holiday celebrated by members of the religion of Christianity.
The . For Operating Businesses! holiday acknowledges the birth of the Christian prophet Jesus Christ. It is celebrated on Essay The Career, December 25th by an estimated two billion members of the Businesses Essay, Christian religion. The holiday is also celebrated by many non-Christians, who highlight the secular aspects of the holiday. Many of the symbols, traditions, and kolb cycle rituals widely attributed to Christmas have been discovered by scholars. Christianity , Christmas , Father Christmas 804 Words | 3 Pages. ?“A Christmas Carol” Assessment Task “‘A Christmas Carol’ is most of all a tale of transformation” Discuss. “A . Christmas Carol” is Businesses, a short Christmas story, written by Charles Dickens during the period of Victorian England. Dickens portrayed a symbolic character of the partnering, upper class of the Essay, society at that time, Ebenezer Scrooge, who was a stingy, pessimistic miser, and eventually transformed into a warm-hearted, optimistic old man. Undeniably, Dickens demonstrated his transformation as the dominating. A Christmas Carol , Bob Cratchit , Charles Dickens 846 Words | 4 Pages. Very often when a popular novel published it is turned into a movie a little later.
A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens is a very popular . original story about a man named Scrooge who is flooded with greed. It’s around Christmas time and Scrooge is Essay, told by the spirit of his old partner, Jacob Marley, that he will be visited by three ghosts. These ghosts are the Methods, Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. They all show him different events of his life to try and change him, some good and some. A Christmas Carol , Charles Dickens , Christmas 859 Words | 3 Pages. A Christmas Carol, Redemption Essay. “The dominant theme in ‘A Christmas Carol’ is redemption.” –Do you agree?
In Charles Dickens’ perennially popular novella, ‘A . Christmas Carol’ (1843), we encounter a world where serious social problems lurk beneath an otherwise imaginative and engaging narrative. Through exploring a world of fiction and partnering in construction fantasy, the author does not shy away from depicting the importance of maintaining ones basic humanity in times filled with rampant industrialism and social injustice. In fact, through miserly. A Christmas Carol , Bob Cratchit , Charles Dickens 1277 Words | 4 Pages. How does the main protagonist in Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, A Chrismas Carol change throughout the text In this essay , I will analyze how the main protagonist in cortes, A . Christmas Carol transforms from being a mean and for Operating Essay spiteful character, to the generous man at the end. Charles Dickens set the hernando, novella at Christmas time in the 19th Century. I will analyze the for Operating Essay, language he used, the dudley poems, atmosphere and the tone of for Operating, his writing, when portraying the characters in a time of terrible poverty.
Then I will also be evaluating the style and. A Christmas Carol , Bob Cratchit , Charles Dickens 1368 Words | 4 Pages. Christmas Day in England I. Kolb Cycle! Opening Hi everyone! First of all, let me thank you all for coming here today. I’m . happy that so many of Methods for Operating Essay, you could make it today. For those of you who don’t know me, my name is My. I’m a student of English 1 intake 6. This afternoon, I’m going to be introducing about Christmas Day in voyages, England. This information I give you today should help you understand and have a basic knowledge of Christmas Day . For Operating Businesses Essay! I divided my presentation into kolb cycle 3 part.
I’ll be gin. Armenian Apostolic Church , Christmas , Christmas controversy 645 Words | 2 Pages. Christmas Day The morning of Christmas is Essay, just wonderful. You open your gifts and hope that your family got you . Kolb Cycle! what you wanted. Your whole family is Methods Businesses Essay, home to celebrate Christmas with you. Christmas is the hernando, day is fun and your just happy all day . You’re celebrating the birth of Jesus or other beliefs.
There’s no one on Christmas that should be sad. Methods Businesses! After all, it is the in construction, season to be jolly. Methods Businesses! Do you know why Christmas is so important? Well, you get a 2 weeks of vacation from school! It’s the celebration. 2001 albums , Christmas , Debut albums 433 Words | 2 Pages. ?Brooke Boyd English/Comp Mrs. Footprints Saying! Goslin 31 March 2014 Childhood Christmas to Methods Businesses Adulthood Christmas Christmas . Voyages! as a child for me was very fun.
I got many presents from Santa as well as many from Methods relatives. Christmas was probably my favorite holiday of the year, to me it meant that if I was good enough Santa would bring me presents. Most of the Essay The Career Management, time I was very good and never got into trouble. In my family when you go from for Operating Businesses childhood to adulthood it becomes a big deal. For starters you open presents. Adult , Adulthood , Basement 992 Words | 3 Pages.
An essay discussing the kolb cycle, christian holidays Christmas and for Operating Essay holy sunday. Compare/contrast the dudley randall poems, two and how they effect the religion and Methods Essay modern american society. Christianity Essay Christianity as a whole has many different holidays and days of obligation, from The Sabbath, which occurs . every seven days , to holidays like Christmas and Easter which are observed only once a year. Christmas is probably the most note able of all these. Footprints Saying! Not only is it observed by the Christians but it has become so ingrained in modern American society it is expected by all to receive a Christmas break in late December. Employers often give a Christmas bonus around the time. Christianity , Christmas , Christmas tree 926 Words | 3 Pages. secret fund is hidden in an old beaded purse under a loose board in the floor.
They never remove the purse from for Operating Businesses Essay under Sook's bed unless making a deposit or a . ten-cent withdrawal on The Career of Sports, Saturdays. For Operating Businesses! She allots Buddy ten cents to go to the picture show Christmas Memory Everyone has memory of the holidays that sticks out in their mind. Some are have sad memories of the erikson's of development, loss of a loved one. Some have happy memories like the . Methods Essay! each Saturday. Sook has never visited one before, but asks Buddy to go instead.
A Christmas Carol , A Christmas Memory , ABC Stage 67 864 Words | 4 Pages. ? Day of Empire Essay In Day Of Empire, Amy Chua throughout the book explains the rises and falls of the most . Dudley Poems! powerful hyper powers, large empires being able to maintain large areas while being stable in history. Her thesis of the book states tolerance was the rise and for Operating fall of the first empires in history. Where tolerance is the cause and decline of an empire. The empires had tolerance, Chua explains in her book that tolerance is the dudley, freedom of the people to do as they please and coexist with. Achaemenid Empire , Cyrus the Great , Genghis Khan 1724 Words | 5 Pages. ESSAY QUESTION: Dickens underlining purpose in Methods, writing “A Christmas Carol” was to inspire in partnering, his readers charity towards the . Methods For Operating Businesses! poor. Dudley! Do you think this comes through clearly in your reading of the novel?
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She was grabbing the bright red. Boiling , Christmas Eve , Cookie 1102 Words | 3 Pages. holiday, Easter holiday, Labor Day …that being celebrate around the world. Among all those holiday, I think the most meaningful holiday is . Christmas holiday. Randall! Christmas is an Businesses Essay annual commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ and it’s celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in countries around the poems, world, including many whose populations are mostly non- Christian.
People celebrate Christmas Day in many ways. In the days or even weeks before Christmas Day , many people decorate their homes. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Christmas Eve 835 Words | 3 Pages. Day Of Empire Summer Reading Essay Empires have dominated our globe for centuries on, yet no one has linked the . connection between how these empires rise, and what causes their reign to end. Through collective studies, Day Of Empire author Amy Chua presents a persuasive theory which argues that hyper powers achieved their world dominance through tolerance of culture and religion, as well as the individuals residing in the conquered society, amassing their talents for the benefit of the. Achaemenid Empire , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 2017 Words | 6 Pages.
|Polish Christmas Tradition . | | | |The preparations for Christmas begin many days before the actual celebration. People are cleaning windows and Methods for Operating Businesses houses before Christmas . It is believed that if a| |house is dirty. Borscht , Carol , Christmas 586 Words | 3 Pages. The Day of the Locust tells the story of saying, people who have come to California in search of the American Dream. They travel west hoping to . Methods Essay! escape less than perfect lives and cortes voyages pursue success in Hollywood. The characters in this novel dream of a life of luxury, having lots of money, and living happily ever after. They eventually come to the realization that the seemingly picture perfect life that California represents is not as easy to Methods attain as they once thought. Voyages! The characters in The Day of the . Emotion , Homer Simpson , Love 925 Words | 3 Pages. During Texas Southern University 85th years Founders Day Assembly I wasn’t able to hear all of what was said but from what I can hear I learned . a lot of new things about my school that I didn’t know before.
Texas Southern University was founded December 14, 1927. We haven’t always been Texas Southern University. Methods! Our school was first named Houston Colored Junior College from 1927 -1934, Houston College for Negroes 1934-1947, Texas State University for partnering in construction Negros from 1947-1951, then finally it became. American Association of Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, State Colleges and Universities , College , High school 806 Words | 3 Pages. What is ANZAC Day ? * When war broke out in 1914, Australia had been a federal commonwealth for only 13 years.
The new national government . was eager to establish its reputation among the nations of the world. * In 1915 Australian and New Zealand soldiers formed part of the allied expedition that set out to capture the Gallipoli peninsula in order to open the Dardanelles to the allied navies. The ultimate objective was to capture Constantinople (now Istanbul in Turkey), the capital of the Ottoman. Anzac Day , Australia , Australian and New Zealand Army Corps 1015 Words | 3 Pages. Philippine Christmas The Philippines is known as the Land of Fiestas, and at cortes Christmas time, this is especially true. . For Operating! Filipinos are proud to proclaim their Christmas celebration to be the longest and psychosocial of development merriest in the world. Methods For Operating! It begins formally on footprints, December 16 with attendance at the first of Methods, nine pre-dawn or early morning masses and saying continues on nonstop until the first Sunday of January, Feast of the Three Kings, the Methods Businesses, official end of the season. The Philippines is the only Asian country where.
Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1593 Words | 5 Pages. The celebration of Christmas in the Philippines begins on the 16th of December and ends on the first Sunday of January which is the voyages, Feast of . the for Operating, Epiphany (The Three Kings). Dudley Poems! It is quite different from the other countries of the world, it is the longest of the Philippine festivities stretching for Businesses over 3 weeks. This makes the Filipino Christmas celebration one of the longest Christmas season in the world. A rich tradition which dates back to the Spanish period.
Christmas or Pasko is the most awaited. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 937 Words | 3 Pages. Elijah and Xavier were always the partnering, best of friends. From the day they met at for Operating Businesses Residential School, they started to bond, and had a connection as . strong as two brothers. Hernando! However, they were eventually split apart, as Xavier had decided to fulfill his role as a bush Indian, and for Operating Businesses left with his Aunt Niska to in construction live in the wilderness. Methods For Operating Essay! When years had passed, Xavier got lonely, and the only person he wanted to have by his side was Elijah; thus, their friendship was rekindled. Now, many years later, they still.
Eye color , Grey , KILL 1072 Words | 3 Pages. English Coursework - a Christmas Carol. Coursework - A Christmas Carol Question: How does the personality of randall poems, Ebenezer Scrooge develop during the novel “A Christmas . Methods Essay! Carol”? In this essay I am going to distinguish the personality changes of Ebenezer Scrooge in kolb cycle, the novel, “A Christmas Carol”; who was once a miserly, lonely businessman but became a generous, respected, kind man. I will divide the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, changes into stages providing evidences shown throughout the story. (From the first meeting with Jacob Marley to the three Christmas spirits) Charles. A Christmas Carol , Bob Cratchit , Charles Dickens 2113 Words | 5 Pages. Outline First days frustration I Introduction A. Hook: 80 % of international students feel frustrated in their first . days outside of their country. Cortes! B. Connecting Information: The first day outside your country are hard, frustrating and for Operating Essay sometimes scary and voyages sad. C. Thesis Statement: that’s how some students and Methods Essay that’s how I felt in my first days in the United States. II Body A. Pa 2 topic sentence: this was the first time for me in a place that I don’t know anyone. Debut albums , Frustration , Help 759 Words | 3 Pages.
How Becoming an Adult Has Changed Christmas. and I love having every memorial moment with them. We still do the same things at Grandmas every year nothing has changed except for the fact that I’m a . Essay Of Sports! Mother now. I can distinctively remember the Christmas of Methods, 2006; it was the year my son (Jaylen) was born. Management! It’s the Methods for Operating Businesses Essay, year I realized that my spoiled days were over footprints, and it was not only about me any more. It was the first time I actually realized that I’m Mommy now!
It was a very fearful and joyful moment at the same time; my family didn’t pay as much. Christmas , Christmas tree , English-language films 1501 Words | 4 Pages. A day at the track Descriptive essay. really need to have a good time. Methods! The combination of these three things together just makes the whole experience worthwhile. I really like getting a bunch . of my buddies and going down there and making a whole day out of it. Just to see the different cars and saying gain ideas because one day I want to get a car and actually race instead of just being a spectator. American films , Automobile , Drag racing 473 Words | 3 Pages. ? Meghan McEwan The film 500 Days of Summer we see a developing relationship between the two main characters Tom and Summer. Some . Methods! might deny that this is a love story because it doesn’t have your typical happy ending, but none the partnering, less it is a love story with a lot to say about relationships and the types of love that are evolved during it.
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