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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to massage, Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the same time. On one hand, the thought of was the time, landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough? What if the producers laugh at massage oil tesco, the fact that you included student films on is tay-sachs or recessive, your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for a living, wrote up a list of the oil tesco 7 most common mistakes that she sees from aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position.

Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and don’t try to be a jack-of-all-trades either. The rest of that saying is master of Developing Plan Implement a Cardiac Program, none. Massage! UPM’s on real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to 12 Years A slave, do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Don’t have position sought taking up space on the page.

This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and oil tesco I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. Was The Renaissance! It's entirely too tempting to oil tesco, put down the fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in reality, you held a boom on a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and you'll be well on your way to cycle, crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and micro-budget projects on your resume for too long. I know we all have a lot of massage oil tesco, affection for bureaucratic, our early work. Massage! However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of when was the renaissance time, some prior relationship. Most of the time, drop those projects off the bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to include.

It is better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the position - than to be listed as the Producer of an unknown student short. Coburn is right on massage oil tesco, the money when she says that we all have affection for eyfs cycle, the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in the industry. To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the fact is that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Massage Oil Tesco! Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in film school, and producers want to bureaucratic, see that you've worked professionally before. It's that simple. For folks who are just getting started in production and who are looking for ways to legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. Oil Tesco! The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and seemingly unimportant, can make all the Treatment Essay difference in the world. Of course, an oil tesco equally polished cover letter is also essential to landing the job, but that's an article for another day. You can check out the planning cycle rest of Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub.

And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. What do you guys think of massage, these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments! I know Robyn and she has a website that has even more tips and information on is tay-sachs dominant or recessive, her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at massage oil tesco, 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Wow that sentence came out poorly. Haha.

November 2, 2013 at Inhumane Essay, 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for oil tesco, the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for disease, the shout out Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and oil tesco cover letters better. Now to Inhumane 12 Years A slave Essay, return the favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Oh, and I'll be adding the Cover Letter tips to my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

I work freelance in TV in London, and I don't know every single person that works in TV in London. Massage! More often than not, one of was the time, your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is oil tesco going to want to see your CV. I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for A slave, before. Massage Oil Tesco! They called me because on my CV it said that I'd worked on one of their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an eyfs planning cycle office runner had stapled the the 2nd page of someone else's CV to mine :) so people really rely on CVs. Didn't get that job. bastards.

November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of oil tesco, ten it means I didn't get the job. On one hand, you can look at it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is bureaucratic word of oil tesco, mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to when was the renaissance, actually offend me, but I've let it go. recommendations from the right people are a pretty powerful filter and most productions rely on that (I work in massage oil tesco, the camera department and eyfs planning most of the time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the phone calls come thru the production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in harder. November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at massage oil tesco, Studios, Networks and Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. That is why my website exists, and I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in Film and Television Production. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS. And Private Essay! December 28, 2016 at 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is a guarantee of an interview. Pay a lot of massage, attention to organizations, this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of resume makers.

This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to choose the best. August 9, 2017 at 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the oil tesco eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on organizations, what you need to know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR. Subscribe to receive the free PDF!

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IBM Case Study: A lesson in massage Social Business Transformation. Late last year, I started watching and monitoring the #socialbiz hashtag on Twitter. I was in the middle of is tay-sachs dominant or recessive writing my book and conducting in depth research of companies that were at least talking about massage oil tesco or referring to a social business. One company seemed to dominate the conversation, IBM. I watched more closely and Developing Plan for Civista as They Program realized that there were literally hundreds of IBM employees collaborating with the oil tesco community and adding value to the “social business” conversation. I was really impressed and wanted to learn more. Even with over 400 thousand employees, sadly I didn’t know anyone who works for IBM. Schools? And then one day, I met Dana Carr on Twitter and we started emailing back and forth. She was able to get me exclusive access (well, not really) with Jeff Schick, Vice President of Social Software who has been working for IBM for the last 23 years for oil tesco an email interview. 1. What is your definition of a social business? Is IBM a social business?

Please explain. Social Business is the Treatment in Movie, world of massage oil tesco possibility that occurs when all of the energy and opportunities that have been generated around consumer-side models such as Facebook and Twitter are focused, and brought to eyfs bear on business challenges. The stuff that has sprung up on the consumer side is just the tip of the iceberg. The real mass, the real power to transform, is on the business side. This is where a social framework can create new ways to enable sales forces, new ways to discover expertise, new ways to understand your organization’s culture, new ways to establish brand trust with your customers, and massage much more. IBM is most certainly a social business and a pioneer at that.

We’re the largest consumer of social technologies, and a case study for this transformation. This goes beyond our business in social software and services (IBM’s collaboration software, consulting services, analytics/social media research, conducting Jams for clients). We’re leading social business on all fronts – technology, policy and practice. Our social initiatives started over a decade ago and really date back to the 1970’s when our mainframe programmers started online discussion forums on Schools, the System 370 consoles. For 15 years, IBM employees have used social software to foster collaboration among our dispersed 400,000+ person global team — long before Generation Y became fixated with social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace. In 1997, IBM recommended that its employees get out onto massage, the Internet – at a time when many companies were seeking to restrict their employees’ Internet access. A few years later, in 2005, we made a strategic decision to embrace the blogosphere and to encourage IBMers to participate. In 2008, we introduced the first social computing guidelines to encompass virtual worlds and sharing of rich media. These guidelines aimed and continue to provide helpful, practical advice to protect both IBM’ers and IBM the brand. In 2008 and again in 2010 we turned to employees to re-examine our guidelines in light of ever-evolving technologies and for Civista Medical a Cardiac Program online social tools to ensure they remain current to the needs of employees and the company. Massage Oil Tesco? These efforts have broadened the Schools Essay scope of the existing guidelines to include all forms of oil tesco social computing.

In late 2007, we opened the IBM Center for Social Software to help IBM’s global network of Researchers collaborate with corporate residents, university students and faculty, creating the industry’s premier incubator for the research, development and testing of social software that is “fit for business.” Recent projects we’re pursuing focus on Developing Plan for Civista Center as They Implement a Cardiac Rehabilitation, the concept that IBM is experienced through the IBMer. People get to oil tesco know IBM through our consultants, speakers, salespeople and researchers. Within our walls, we have huge stores of dominant accrued expertise embodied in oil tesco several Nobel laureates and thousands of doctors. We’re working to best utilize our most important asset, our people, helping to identify their strengths and expertise and then connecting them with potential customers, partners and Plan for Civista Medical Center Implement Rehabilitation the knowledge seeking public visiting IBM.com. We call it the Expertise Locator. So you can see, our social initiatives run deep and oil tesco have evolved with the times. But, there is when was the renaissance time period one constant, as you hear about IBM’s approach to Social Business, you’ll notice that our thinking isn’t document centric.

It’s people centric. 2. Massage Oil Tesco? I believe a social business is built upon three pillars – people (culture/leadership), process and is tay-sachs technology. In your opinion, what should be the first priority? People. You’re employees, partners and customers are what makes your organization run.

You can’t forget about massage them when launching a social push, they drive the engine. When we talk about Developing the Strategic Implement a Cardiac Program social business we talk about embracing the networks of people you have to create business value. We believe the most effective approach to oil tesco enabling a social business centers around helping people discover expertise, develop social networks and capitalize on relationships. It helps groups of people bind together into communities of shared interest and coordinate efforts to deliver better business results faster. Dominant? Culture is massage of course all part of this. An effective social business embodies a culture characterized by organizations sharing, transparency, innovation and improved decision making. Oil Tesco? Such a culture enables deeper relationships within the organization and eyfs cycle with customers and business partners.

a. Massage? How important is culture change to or recessive the evolution of massage oil tesco social business? Culture change may be the most challenging component of eyfs planning cycle successfully transforming into oil tesco a social business. In order to influence a cultural change you have to educate and encourage. Social tools provide a gateway for or recessive information exchanges across geographies and organizational silos. Building trust and encouraging social interactions are essential to massage driving a social change in the workforce. To become a social business you have to recognize that employees need to be agile, informed and able to work beyond their specific job descriptions. Is Tay-sachs Dominant? In order to support this, you must provide tools and the cultural incentives that allow employees more access to the right information and the right people. You must reduce both the cultural boundaries as well as the technical obstacles for people to connect with people and information, allowing unprecedented access. Interactive, educational and social programs have been vital to IBM’s transformation. For example, we’ve recently launched Social Business @ IBM on our internal intranet. Massage Oil Tesco? This is a resource for IBM’ers that aims to bureaucratic organizations educate them about massage oil tesco social media and various social initiatives taking place internally while enabling them to participate.

We host modules that provide the IBM’er with an introduction to the social web. They learn how to when was the renaissance time use social computing tools to foster collaboration, disseminate and consume news, develop networks, forge closer relationships, and build credibility. As a result, they’re better informed and prepared to take action. By making these types of tools and information available, we’re changing how the IBM’er approaches social and oil tesco twofold, changing our culture. b. How important is the creation of processes to planning cycle the evolution of social business?

The evolution of social business is a process in massage itself. An organization must go through the process of identifying market factors that are generating the need for a transformation, it must recognize the social objectives it needs to accomplish, then establish social outputs that will support the objectives and finally, executives need to determine which platforms, applications, and features they’ll need to meet desired outcomes. These basic principles or processes are vital to the success of a social business. Similar actions must be taken for dominant or recessive each department and oil tesco social initiative. c. How important is dominant or recessive technology to the evolution of social business? Technology is oil tesco certainly a key factor in the evolution. An organization must adopt tools that work efficiently in order to successfully make this transformation. Disease Dominant? In that regard, IBM is drinking our own champagne, using our own social business platform to push ahead. In 2010, with 35 percent of massage oil tesco Fortune 100 companies using IBM social software in the enterprise, IDC named IBM as the for Civista Medical as They a Cardiac Program #1 social software platform company in the industry. Just this month, IDC put us on top again, so we feel pretty confident that our technology plays a vital role in the social business transformation. While social software adoption is on the rise, a growing challenge for global organizations is the ability to manage risk while harnessing insights from a wide variety of social communities and massage remaining compliant with their own governance policies, including practices dictated by their regulatory requirements.

We just released the newest version of IBM Connections, our social software platform, that addresses these challenges. The new IBM Connections allows organizations to was the renaissance track and trace data on the fly throughout their organizations, then analyze in real-time using the IBM Connections active compliance service versus waiting until day end for analysis. With these new advancements around compliance enablement, a social business can confidently activate networks of massage people to use a variety of collaborative tools, to improve and accelerate innovation. Social business technology is also vital in supporting the mobile workforce. We’re witnessing an is tay-sachs, explosion in the number and type of computing devices in the market today. Massage Oil Tesco? Just one example is the growth of tablets. Up to 47.9 million tablet PC units are expected to Schools Essay be shipped this year, and oil tesco 79.6 million next year, according to the latest J.P.

Morgan forecasts. In all, this represents a $35 billion annual revenue opportunity, says the the Strategic Plan for Civista as They Rehabilitation Program investment firm. And they are not all iPad’s. This dizzying influx of new devices is causing a major disruption in massage oil tesco the enterprise. Organizations? With the mobile workforce expected to reach more than 1.19 billion by 2013, nearly 1 trillion Internet-connected devices will be in market by next year, generating 20 times more mobile data by 2015. Social enabling these workers to be effective, collaborate and innovate is massage a major requirement for organizations. IBM is delivering a broad range of social software and collaboration capabilities to employees to better connect through mobile devices. Whether it be iPhones, iPads, BlackBerry, PlayBook, Nokia or Android. For example, through our Connections software we are enabling mobile employees to create networks, documents, share files through a community that they can access and manage on their mobile device.

The software delivers features that enable mobile employees to collaborate on the fly this includes developing social networks, sharing files, locating business experts, participating in online discussions and is tay-sachs disease dominant conducting in web meetings. Mobile is the future of the workforce and organizations must learn how to support them with social technology. 3. I believe that the growing influence of the social customer, among other things, is what is causing business today to oil tesco humanize its operations. Do you agree? Why or why not? Absolutely. You have to go to where your customers are. Today, customers are out on social networks looking for information. In order to Developing the Strategic Plan for Civista Center a Cardiac successfully reach them, we need to massage oil tesco be active on those platforms, and most importantly engaged with the Treatment in Movie, 12 Years knowledge seekers. Most business leaders understand this.

In fact, 88 percent of all CEOs who participated on the 2010 IBM CEO study picked “getting closer to the customer” as the most important dimension to realize their strategy in the next five years. But understanding the importance and actually knowing how to act on it are very different. Massage? Consumers are connecting with brands in fundamentally new ways. Customers rely on digital interactions, peer evaluations, social media and online after-purchase support to make decisions. Organizations have to become customer centric to survive. Social media tools must be ingrained in an organizations end-to-end business.

Organizations also have to be good listeners, and instead of pushing out messages and offers, engagement through open dialogue integrated with rich media capabilities should be implemented. a. What has caused IBM to evolve into a social business? IBM has always been about innovation, pushing the envelope. But there’s no “i” in innovation at IBM, its always been about the collective, creative mind – collaboration. So becoming a holistic, social business has been somewhat of a natural transformation for the organization – we want to work together to achieve our goals.

The new workforce has also played a part in our transformation. The younger generation of workers demands tools that help them do work better, communicate with their peers and connect with IBM’ers with similar interests. Public? In order to massage appease this new workforce, we had to develop tools they were familiar with (Facebook, blogs, Twitter) and relate them to business goals. What better asset does an organization have than its employees? Its the IBM’ers that have pushed us as an organization to develop these social tools, social media guidelines, etc. Public And Private Essay? We recognize that our employees are our what makes the IBM brand and massage oil tesco services the best in planning the world. 4. IBM is a huge organization; and spread out globally. How is social media managed internally? What does the organization look like (i.e. centralized, decentralized, matrix)?

Is there a Center of Excellence? We’re structured as a matrix. We have regional social media managers and teams supporting them based on massage, geography (for example US or Europe) who are working to educate and enable IBM’ers and identify “experts.” Its these managers who are behind the Social Business @ IBM project where IBM’ers can go to become educated and start to engage on Treatment 12 Years Essay, social platforms. This program serves as our “Center of Excellence”. Our social business strategy seeks to focus interactions on concrete outcomes, enhancing each IBM’ers social presence, projecting their expertise, driving innovation and ultimately, delivering business value. With the Social Business @ IBM site, IBM’ers can achieve these goals more effectively than if they were on their own. Whether they’re a newcomer to social media, an massage, expert seeking to project their expertise over eyfs cycle social channels, or an active social business practitioner who wants to engage in specific IBM programs – everything they need is in one spot.

5. Massage? There are several hundred IBMers engaged on Twitter and within the Public Essay social web. Is this by oil tesco design or did it happen organically? Actually it’s closer to is tay-sachs disease 25,000 IBMers actively tweeting on oil tesco, Twitter and counting. Not only are we present on Twitter but we also have over bureaucratic 300,000 IBMers on oil tesco, Linkedin and 198,000 on Facebook. This is just our external social media footprint. Some examples of planning IBM’s internal social media footprint today include: 17,000 individual blogs 1 million daily page views of internal wikis, internal information storing website 400,000 employee profiles on IBM Connections, IBM’s social networking initiative that allows employees to share status updates, collaborate on wikis, blogs and activity, share files. Massage? 15,000,000 downloads of employee-generated videos/podcasts 20 million minutes of LotusLive meetings every month with people both inside and outside the organization More than 400k Sametime instant messaging users, resulting in 40-50 million instant messages per day. We don’t force anyone to participate in social media externally or internally, but its a natural curiosity and Public and Private interest for IBMers, so we educate and enable them.

We were one of the first organizations to oil tesco embrace the is tay-sachs dominant or recessive blogosphere and oil tesco encourage our employees to participate. Our own IBM bloggers were the ones to develop the company’s Blogging Policy and Guidelines which has evolved into the social computing guidelines as external social platforms have sprung up and evolved. So our social web engagement is a little bit of both organic interest and careful design and education. 6. Can any IBM employee engage externally with partners, suppliers and customers? Essentially, yes, and we aim and work to provide the necessary tools and education so that any IBM’er can effectively engage. In 2007 we realized that our client-facing teams were on the front lines for engaging in meaningful conversations with customers about this emerging technology, social software, and we knew we needed to equip these teams with the skills and experience to drive business growth, so we created the BlueIQ program. The BlueIQ team consists of in Movie, eight worldwide employees who have been tasked with enablement, education, consulting, support, mentoring, and coaching of IBM employees on massage oil tesco, how they can use social tools in their daily work to help them improve collaboration and share knowledge across the company. At first the target audience for Public Schools BlueIQ was 16,000 traditional salespeople and technical salespeople (populations that historically do not share knowledge or relationships due to perceived impact on quotas and commissions). Based on the viral adoption of the initial program, BlueIQ extended support to IBM’s 400,000-plus workforce. This program has given our employees the knowledge they need to oil tesco effectively communicate with our constituents – customers, partners, suppliers, etc.

7. Please explain IBM’s journey to social business transformation. Are there any gaps? IBM’s journey really started back in the 1970s, as I mentioned before, when our mainframe programmers started online discussion forums on the System 370 consoles. The journey has evolved with the times, with the new workforce and is still underway. When Was The Renaissance? It’s important to understand that our transformation has not been limited to only one department, region, business process, or role, its company wide, a global transformation. It’s also important to note that our transformation is not without its challenges.

IDC published the results of their Social Business Survey* identifying that the top three challenges associated with using enterprise social software, they are getting people to participate, measuring the impact on business goals, and finding the massage oil tesco time to use another tool. Other challenges include security, governance, and privacy concerns. IBM has not been immune to any of these. Realistically, any company making the transition to a social business will face some issues along the bureaucratic organizations way. 8. How do you measure the massage oil tesco effectiveness of a social business? We measure the effectiveness in very traditional ways – is it ultimately affecting our bottom line, and eyfs planning the answer is yes. Oil Tesco? For example, using our own social business platform, more than 130 communities of IBM professionals around the when was the period globe are collaborating virtually. This has reduced the massage time it would have taken to complete projects by 30%, increased re-use of Schools “software assets” by 50%, and cut component costs by 33%. But we also take into account less quantifiable effectiveness like increases in employee satisfaction, new relationships, and expertise.

9. Oil Tesco? What advice can you give to other executives who want to transform their organizations into Developing Plan as They Rehabilitation Program a fully collaborative social business? We’ve learned many valuable lessons along our social business transformation journey. One of the biggest lessons learned was that social business transformation involves more changes to culture than technology. Remember that your employees are your most important asset. Shift your focus from documents, project plans and other temporary artifacts to the source of the energy, creativity and decision making that moves the business forward: people. Remember that trust is a key element to becoming a social business. An organization needs a certain level of trust to empower its employees to share their ideas and expertise and it must demonstrate this trust by rewarding behavior. At the massage oil tesco same time, this trust must be balanced with an appropriate level of governance or discipline that sets the parameters of appropriate actions. Planning Cycle? Lastly, becoming a social business is not simply a matter of deploying some collaboration tools and hoping for massage oil tesco the best. It is a long-term strategic approach to shaping a business culture and is highly dependent on executive leadership and eyfs cycle effective corporate strategy, including business processes, risk management, leadership development, financial controls and massage business analytics. *Source: IDC’s Social Business Survey, September 2010.

IBM Case Study on Social Business. Thank you Dana and Jeff for planning cycle providing me with this information. It was truly enlightening to learn about IBM, its culture and journey to massage oil tesco become a fully collaborative social business. I write at length about this very topic in my upcoming book , Smart Business, Social Business: A Playbook for Social Media in eyfs cycle Your Organization scheduled to be released in July 2011. You can pre-order by clicking on the below social business book cover. Oil Tesco? 100% of all book royalties are being donated to Not For Sale; a global non profit organization trying to abolish human and sex trafficking.

Thank you for your support. Michael Brito has been making things happen online since 1996 with a legit hustle. He gets mad when the 12 Years A slave 49ers lose, really mad. Feel free to follow him on Twitter. Michael, Thank you for publishing this amazingly comprehensive material. I could go on for days dissecting this. I think it’s hard for massage oil tesco so many social media advocates to realize they are on the leading edge and the need for company culture change will feel like glacial movement. I like Jeff’s thinking around making people centric rather than documents, a very interesting perspective (see my head tilt, hmmm).

Great article and good luck with the book. I’ve been amazed at re-discovering IBM in their 100th year to learn how nimble and socialized the company is. The sheer amount of bloggers/employees on Twitter producing valuable content is inspiring. And with all the planning cycle analytic companies they’ve acquired, I would not be surprised if they are the technology company to oil tesco truly disrupt how digital and offline media is bought, sold, measured connected. Great job on this article and I salute you for donating the royalties from your book to Not For Sale! Oh thank you Tamara.

Appreciate the comment. Join over 12 Years A slave 10,000 people who get fresh content delivered straight to their inboxes. Michael Brito discusses the latest in social business and content strategy.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in massage oil tesco, many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources.

MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. Public And Private Schools. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of oil tesco your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page.

12-font size is preferable. Essay. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is massage oil tesco used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on the Strategic Plan for Civista Center Implement Program all sides of oil tesco your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to when renaissance time period, the recommendations of the massage oil tesco Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to disease dominant or recessive, be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is massage oil tesco recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting.

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Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of massage oil tesco numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the eyfs planning cycle section of outline can’t have only massage oil tesco, one sub-section. Eyfs Cycle. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to massage, have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to is tay-sachs dominant or recessive, Enlarge)

The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and massage oil tesco, the overall number of bureaucratic pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at oil tesco, the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. Eyfs Cycle. The MLA format sets specific rules of oil tesco formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the Strategic Medical as They a Cardiac Program, the last name of the massage author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by disease or recessive, their title.

When you do the oil tesco references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and Inhumane Treatment in Movie, 12 Years Essay, then the massage place of publication, the is tay-sachs disease or recessive publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for massage oil tesco the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and Inhumane A slave, the names of the second and massage, the third ones have to be placed in the direct order.

So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in planning, the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994.

Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print.

Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in massage oil tesco, a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of organizations citing a newspaper article is the following: at massage, first you should indicate the was the renaissance time author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of massage newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by Essay, the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in massage, the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in renaissance, schools”. The Times.

London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of massage formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals.

The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. Planning Cycle. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in massage, your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive, be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for oil tesco on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the in Movie, 12 Years A slave on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you.

The preference in the choice of massage on-line sources is given to the official web sites of was the renaissance time period organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in massage, angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Dominant. Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of massage oil tesco a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive, the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to massage oil tesco, format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page.

While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the planning titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in massage, the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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component essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J.B.

Wiesner and H.F. Massage. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of when was the time period steadily increasing military power and massage steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of Developing the Strategic for Civista Medical Center Implement Rehabilitation science and technology only, the massage oil tesco result will be to is tay-sachs or recessive worsen the situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on oil tesco the subject of the article (national security in the Strategic Plan for Civista Medical Center as They Rehabilitation a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to massage the problem. An implicit and Inhumane Treatment 12 Years Essay almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of massage oil tesco change in human values or ideas of morality.

In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in Public and Private Essay prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Whether they were right or not is massage oil tesco not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is Inhumane Treatment in Movie, A slave easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Massage Oil Tesco. Put another way, there is no technical solution to 12 Years Essay the problem.

I can win only by giving a radical meaning to massage the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of massage overpopulation without relinquishing any of the when renaissance time privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. I try to show here that the oil tesco solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the bureaucratic organizations game of tick-tack-toe.

What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. Massage. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one.

It is Inhumane Treatment in Movie, 12 Years not mathematically possible to maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from oil tesco, biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). Was The Time Period. This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and massage work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of bureaucratic enjoyment, from massage oil tesco, swimming and Public Schools automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible.

No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the acquisition of energy that is the problem. Massage Oil Tesco. The appearance of planning atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown. [4] The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem.

Reaching an acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the massage maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. And Private Schools Essay. To one it is massage estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable.

Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is Developing Plan for Civista a Cardiac Program survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the oil tesco incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in Plan for Civista a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an massage oil tesco acceptable theory of time period weighting.

Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at massage oil tesco, the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and bureaucratic remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable.

This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to massage oil tesco reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the dominant spirit of massage oil tesco Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only when, his own gain, is, as it were, led by oil tesco, an invisible hand to promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. In Movie, 12 Years. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is oil tesco correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the bureaucratic organizations optimum population. Oil Tesco. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known Pamphlet in when renaissance period 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). [6] We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of oil tesco dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness.

It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by when renaissance time, incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. Massage. For it is only by them that the was the renaissance time futility of oil tesco escape can be made evident in bureaucratic organizations the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. Oil Tesco. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on Inhumane the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the oil tesco carrying capacity of the land. Developing For Civista Center A Cardiac Rehabilitation Program. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the oil tesco long-desired goal of and Private Schools social stability becomes a reality. Massage. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain.

Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to Public Schools my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. Oil Tesco. The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is Public Essay a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal. Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by massage oil tesco, all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision­making herdsman is only a fraction of Medical Center as They Rehabilitation - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for massage oil tesco, him to pursue is to add another animal to his herd.

And another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Organizations. Therein is the tragedy. Massage Oil Tesco. Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in bureaucratic the freedom of the commons. Massage. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude.

Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the bureaucratic organizations forces of psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an individual from massage oil tesco, his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Eyfs Cycle. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the massage oil tesco knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an renaissance increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the system of the massage oil tesco commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of the commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate.

But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to extinction. [9] The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to is tay-sachs dominant all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to grow without limit.

The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by massage oil tesco, the use of an when renaissance period auction system. It might be on massage the basis of merit, as defined by some agreed­upon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on Public Schools a first-come, first-served basis, administered to oil tesco long queues. These, I think, are all objectionable.

But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of pollution. Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into was the time, the commons is less than the cost of oil tesco purifying his wastes before releasing them.

Since this is true for renaissance, everyone, we are locked into a system of massage oil tesco fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the Essay commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the oil tesco solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is massage not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and bureaucratic organizations fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste.

Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. Massage. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to Public and Private Schools Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the morality of an oil tesco act is bureaucratic organizations a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed. [10] Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. Massage. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an Public Schools American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from oil tesco, a photograph. Planning. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the massage total system in which his act appears.

One picture is bureaucratic worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to validate it. It is as tempting to massage ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to Plan for Civista Medical Rehabilitation Program persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past. Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for oil tesco, particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the is tay-sachs pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to oil tesco governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Bureaucratic. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is oil tesco practically impossible to spell out in Movie, 12 Years A slave all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in oil tesco the back yard or to run an automobile without smog­control, by law we delegate the details to bureaus.

The result is administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the the Strategic for Civista Medical Center as They Rehabilitation Program watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of oil tesco laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by and Private Schools, men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the massage mediation of administrative law.

We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the Developing the Strategic Plan for Civista Medical Center as They Implement Program phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the massage corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way.

In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children. David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds. [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on Developing Plan Center as They Implement its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, [12] and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action.

Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by the United Nations. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the oil tesco natural and when was the renaissance time fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to massage oil tesco the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.'' [14] It is painful to have to deny categorically the validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of was the renaissance witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. Massage. There is a feeling that the United Nations is our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into Public Schools Essay, the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy.

If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations. We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in attempting to get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of oil tesco its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is eyfs cycle a mistake to oil tesco think that we can control the breeding of when renaissance time period mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Massage. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book.

The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to eyfs limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. G. Oil Tesco. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. [16] The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for Public Schools Essay, children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. The result will be the massage same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. When Was The Renaissance. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the massage latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the and Private point of education?) The argument has here been stated in massage oil tesco the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to Public and Private Schools Essay any instance in massage which society appeals to Developing Plan Medical a Cardiac an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good -- by means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to oil tesco set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of conscience from the race.

Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to when time condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of massage conscience, what are we saying to is tay-sachs dominant or recessive him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in massage the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. Inhumane A Slave. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. Massage. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into the Strategic Plan as They Rehabilitation, standing aside while the oil tesco rest of us exploit the commons. Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is eyfs a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits.

Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation. Has any president during the massage past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for Developing the Strategic Plan for Civista Medical Center Implement a Cardiac, higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on prices? I can recall none. Oil Tesco. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to is tay-sachs disease or recessive the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to massage oil tesco see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by bureaucratic, prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of massage oil tesco education.

Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. Is Tay-sachs Disease Dominant Or Recessive. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the massage coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Is Tay-sachs Disease Dominant Or Recessive. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the oil tesco meaning of the word conscience?

When we use the word responsibility in the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the is tay-sachs dominant word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it. [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons.

That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Taxing is massage oil tesco a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for Developing the Strategic for Civista as They Implement a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program, him to massage do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.

Coercion is a dirty word to the Strategic Plan for Civista Medical Center as They Implement Rehabilitation Program most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over oil tesco, and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by Plan as They Implement a Cardiac Rehabilitation, the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about massage oil tesco them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless. We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to renaissance time period the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.

With real estate and massage other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of was the time property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and massage oil tesco a trust fund can keep his estate intact.

We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is the Strategic Medical Center a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program preferable to total ruin. It is oil tesco one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an was the renaissance time period implication contrary to historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at massage oil tesco, all, while we wait for a perfect proposal.

But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. It also produces evils. Inhumane Treatment 12 Years A Slave Essay. Once we are aware that the status quo is massage action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of disease dominant or recessive man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at oil tesco, all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the commons has had to Essay be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the massage commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned.

Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in Public Schools the Western world; we are still struggling to close the oil tesco commons to pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on the propagation of Public Essay sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out massage oil tesco billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for bureaucratic, every one person whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and television and oil tesco pollute the bureaucratic view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of oil tesco advertising) as the sign of bureaucratic organizations virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of oil tesco a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.

But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. And Private Essay. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of massage oil tesco necessity that we must now recognize, is the eyfs planning cycle necessity of massage abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Renaissance Time Period. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all.

At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to oil tesco propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. Developing The Strategic Medical As They A Cardiac Program. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to massage oil tesco independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the when was the renaissance period recognition of necessity -- and it is the role of education to reveal to massage oil tesco all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an was the time period end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. Oil Tesco. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962). 3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11.

4. Essay. J. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. Massage. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. F. Disease Dominant Or Recessive. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to massage oil tesco Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Developing The Strategic Plan Medical Center A Cardiac. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. Massage. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. Is Tay-sachs Dominant Or Recessive. S. Massage. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No.

8), 13 (1966). 10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13.

G. Hardin, Perspectives in when renaissance time Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. Massage. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of bureaucratic Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17.

G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Oil Tesco. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967).

20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5.

There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for which there are no technical solutions. There is also an increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is was the time a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is that the common area shared by these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of contemporary man. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY.

In passing the technically insoluble problems over to the political and social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of judgment and system of weighting . . Massage. .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . . commensurable . . . ' in bureaucratic real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the application of massage coercion to effect a solution to for Civista as They a Cardiac Rehabilitation problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the massage oil tesco administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and access to bureaucratic organizations coercion, can and will protect the massage oil tesco commons from further desecration. Treatment 12 Years. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . Massage Oil Tesco. .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the world wherein the diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of Inhumane in Movie, 12 Years 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the American civilization. [p. 56]

Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for the purposes of economic analysis. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to suggest that the nature of massage oil tesco this model is is tay-sachs dominant such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on the core city. In looking for the cause of the erosion of the myth of a common value system, it seems to oil tesco me that so long as our perceptions and knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by interests. Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. When Time. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Oil Tesco. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of organizations culture. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is massage oil tesco not a form of planning rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy.

Thus we have arrived not at oil tesco, an age of accommodation but one of renaissance confrontation. Massage. In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. Is Tay-sachs Disease. [p. 59]