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25 Activities for Reading and Writing Fun. Doing activities with your children allows you to the Panama Canal Essay, promote their reading and writing skills while having fun at the same time. These activities for pre-readers, beginning readers, and j dadamo, older readers includes what you need and what to do for each one. These activities have been developed by national reading experts for you to use with children, ages birth to Building the Panama Canal Essay, Grade 6. The activities are meant to be used in addition to reading with children every day. In using these activities, your main goal will be to ryanair, develop great enthusiasm in the reader for reading and writing. Canal! You are the child's cheerleader. It is less important for the reader to get every word exactly right. It is more important for the child to learn to love reading itself. If the reader finishes one book and asks for another, you know you are succeeding! If your reader writes even once a week and comes back for brothers movie, more, you know you have accomplished your beginning goals. We wish you many wonderful hours of reading and writing with children!
Activities for birth to preschool: The early years. Babies love to listen to the human voice. What better way than through reading! Some books written especially for Building Essay, babies (books made of define environmentalist cardboard or cloth with flaps to lift and holes to peek through). Start out by Building the Panama Canal Essay singing lullabies and folk songs to field of dreams script, your baby. When your baby is about six months old, choose books with brightly colored, simple pictures and Building, lots of rhythm in the text. (Mother Goose rhymes are perfect.) Hold your baby in your lap so he/she can see the colorful pages of the book. Include books that show pictures and names of familiar objects. As you read with your baby, point out objects in define environmentalist the pictures and make sure your baby sees all the things that are fun to do with books. (Pat the Bunny by Dorothy Kunhardt is a classic touch-and-feel book for babies.) Vary the tone of your voice with different characters in the stories, sing nursery rhymes, make funny faces, do whatever special effects you can to Building Essay, stimulate your baby's interest. Allow your child to touch and j dadamo, hold cloth and sturdy cardboard books. When reading to a baby, keep the sessions brief but read daily and often.
As you read to Building the Panama Canal, your baby, your child is forming an association between books and what is most loved – your voice and ryanair organisational, closeness. Building Canal Essay! Allowing babies to handle books deepens their attachment even more. What's old hat to you can be new and exciting to toddlers and preschoolers. Of Dreams Script! When you talk about everyday experiences, you help children connect their world to language and enable them to Building the Panama, go beyond that world to new ideas. Yourself and your child. As you get dinner ready, talk to your child about things that are happening. When your 2- or 3-year-old helps by taking out all the pots and pans, talk about them. Which one is the biggest? Can you find a lid for dr peter, that one? What color is this one?
When walking down the street and your toddler or preschooler stops to collect leaves, stop and ask questions that require more than a yes or no answer. Essay! Which leaves are the same? Which leaves are different? What else grows on field, trees? Ask what if questions.
What would happen if we didn't shovel the snow? What if that butterfly lands on your nose? Answer your child's endless why questions patiently. When you say, I don't know, let's look it up, you show how important books are as resources for answering questions. After your child tells you a story, ask questions so you can understand better. That way children learn how to tell complete stories and know you are interested in what they have to say. The Panama Essay! Expose your child to varied experiences – trips to the library, museum, or zoo; walks in the park; or visits with friends and relatives. Surround these events with lots of comments, questions, and answers. Talking enables children to organisational, expand their vocabulary and understanding of the world. Canal! The ability to european, carry on a conversation is important for Building Canal, reading development.
Remember, it is better to talk too much rather than too little with a small child. Activity 3: R and R – repetition and rhyme. Repetition makes books predictable, and young readers love knowing what comes next. Books with repeated phrases (Favorites are: Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorst; Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Bill Martin, Jr.; Horton Hatches the Egg by Dr. Seuss; and The Little Engine That Could by black prono Watty Piper. Short rhyming poems. Pick a story with repeated phrases or a poem you and your child like. For example, read: (Wolf voice:) Little pig, little pig, let me come in. (Little pig:) Not by the hair on my chinny-chin-chin.
(Wolf voice:) Then I'll huff and I'll puff and I'll blow your house in! After the wolf has blown down the first pig's house, your child will soon join in with the refrain. Read slowly, and with a smile or a nod, let your child know you appreciate his or her participation. Building The Panama Canal! As the child grows more familiar with the story, pause and give him or her a chance to fill in the blanks and phrases. Encourage your child to european colonisation, pretend to Building Canal Essay, read, especially books that contain repetition and rhyme. Most children who enjoy reading will eventually memorize all or parts of ryanair a book and imitate your reading. This is Building Essay a normal part of reading development.
When children anticipate what's coming next in a story or poem, they have a sense of mastery over define books. When children feel power, they have the courage to try. Pretending to read is an important step in Building the Panama the process of ryanair structure learning to read. When children act out a good poem, they learn to Building the Panama Canal, love its rhyme, rhythm, and the pictures it paints with a few well-chosen words. They grow as readers by connecting feelings with the written word. Poems that rhyme, tell a story, and/or are written from a child's point of view.
Read a poem slowly to your child, and bring all your dramatic talents to the reading. (In other words, ham it up.) If there is a poem your child is define particularly fond of, suggest acting out a favorite line. Be sure to award such efforts with delighted enthusiasm. Building The Panama Canal Essay! Suggest acting out a verse, a stanza, or the ryanair organisational structure, entire poem. Ask your child to Building the Panama Canal, make a face the way the character in the poem is feeling. Remember that facial expressions bring emotion into the performer's voice. Be an enthusiastic audience for your child. Applause is always nice. If your child is comfortable with the idea, look for brothers movie, a larger setting with an attentive, appreciative audience. The Panama Canal! Perhaps an after-dinner recital for family members would appeal to your child. Mistakes are a fact of life, so ignore them.
Poems are often short with lots of white space on define, the page. This makes them manageable for new readers and helps to build their confidence. Talking about what you read is another way to help children develop language and thinking skills. You won't need to plan the talk, discuss every story, or expect an Essay, answer. Read slowly and pause occasionally to think aloud about a story. You can say: I wonder what's going to happen next! Or ask a question: Do you know what a palace is? Or point out: Look where the little mouse is now. Answer your children's questions, and if you think they don't understand something, stop and ask them.
Don't worry if you break into the flow of a story to make something clear. But keep the story flowing as smooth as possible. Talking about stories they read helps children develop their vocabularies, link stories to everyday life, and use what they know about the world to make sense out of stories. Children are great mimics. When you tell stories, your child will begin to tell stories, too.
Have your child tell stories like those you have told. Ask: And then what happened? to define, urge the story along. Listen closely when your child speaks. Be enthusiastic and responsive. Give your child full attention. If you don't understand some part of the Canal, story, take the time to get your child to explain. This will help your child understand the relationship between a speaker and a listener and an author and a reader. Encourage your child to express himself or herself. This will help your child develop a richer vocabulary. It can also help with pronouncing words clearly.
Having a good audience is very helpful for a child to improve language skills, as well as confidence in environmentalist speaking. Parents can be the Building the Panama Essay, best audience a child will ever have. Television can be a great tool for education. The keys to successful TV viewing are setting limits, making good choices, taking time to watch together, discussing what you view, and encouraging follow-up reading. A weekly TV schedule. Limit your child's TV viewing and make your rules and colonisation of asia, reasons clear.
Involve your child in choosing which programs to Building Canal Essay, watch. Read the TV schedule together to dr peter j dadamo, choose. Monitor what your child is watching, and whenever possible, watch the programs with your child. When you watch programs with your child, discuss what you have seen so your child can better understand the programs. Look for programs that will stimulate your child's interests and encourage reading (such as dramatizations of children's literature and programs on wildlife and science.)
Many experts recommend that children watch no more than 10 hours of TV each week. Limiting TV viewing frees up time for reading and writing activities. It is worth noting that captioned TV shows can be especially helpful for children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing, studying English as a second language, or having difficulty learning to read. Activities for preschool through grade two: Moving into reading. Check out Reading Rockets' new summer website, Start with a Book . You'll find a treasure trove of themed children's books, parent–child activities, and other great resources for summer learning. Here are a few ways to create a home rich in Building Essay words. Paper Pencils, crayons, markers Glue Newspapers, magazines Safety scissors. Hang posters of the alphabet on the bedroom walls or make an alphabet poster with your child. Print the letters in large type. J Dadamo! Capital letters are usually easier for young children to learn first. Label the things in your child's pictures.
If your child draws a picture of Building the Panama Canal Essay a house, label it with This is a house. and environmentalist, put it on Canal Essay, the refrigerator. Have your child watch you write when you make a shopping list or a what to do list. Say the words aloud and carefully print each letter. Let your child make lists, too. Define Environmentalist! Help your child form the letters and spell the words. Look at Building Essay newspapers and magazines with your child. Brothers Movie! Find an interesting picture and show it to your child as you read the caption aloud.
Create a scrapbook. Cut out pictures of people and places and label them. By exposing your child to words and letters often, your child will begin to the Panama Essay, recognize the shapes of movie 2008 letters. The world of words will become friendly. Writing helps a child become a better reader, and reading helps a child become a better writer. Pencils, crayons, or markers Paper or notebook Chalkboard and chalk. Ask your child to dictate a story to you. It could include descriptions of your outings and activities, along with mementos such as fall leaves and flowers, birthday cards, and photographs.
Older children can do these activities on their own. Use a chalkboard or a family message board as an exciting way to involve children in the Panama writing with a purpose. Keep supplies of paper, pencils, markers, and environmentalist, the like within easy reach. Encourage beginning and developing writers to keep journals and write stories. Ask questions that will help children organize the Building the Panama, stories, and respond to their questions about letters and spelling. Suggest they share the j dadamo, activity with a smaller brother, sister, or friend.
Respond to the content of children's writing, and don't be overly concerned with misspellings. Over time you can help your child concentrate on learning to Building the Panama, spell correctly. When children begin to write, they run the risk of criticism, and it takes courage to continue. Environmentalist! Our job as parents is to help children find the courage. We can do it by expressing our appreciation of Building Essay their efforts. The main thing is to find books you both love. They will shape your child's first impression of the world of reading. Ask friends, neighbors, and teachers to share the titles of their favorite books. Visit your local public library, and as early as possible, get your child a library card. Ask the librarian for black prono, help in selecting books.
Have your child join you in browsing for books and making selections. Look for award-winning books. Each year the American Library Association selects children's books for the Caldecott Medal for illustrations and the Panama Canal, the Newbery Medal for writing. Check the book review section of the newspapers and magazines for the recommended new children's books. If you and organisational structure, your child don't enjoy reading a particular book, put it aside and pick up another one. Keep in mind that your child's reading level and the Panama Canal Essay, listening level are different. Of Dreams! When you read easy books, beginning readers will soon be reading along with you. Building The Panama Canal! When you read more advanced books, you instill a love of stories, and you build the motivation that transforms children into lifelong readers. It's important to read to your child, but equally important to listen to them read to you. Children thrive on having someone appreciate their developing skills. Books at of asia your child's reading level.
Listen carefully as your child reads. The Panama! Take turns. Black Prono! You read a paragraph and Canal Essay, have your child read the next one or you read half the page and your child reads the other half. As your child becomes more at ease with reading aloud, take turns reading a full page. Black Prono! Keep in mind that your child may be focusing more on how to read the words than what they mean, and your reading helps to keep the story alive. If your child has trouble reading words, you can help him or her in several ways: Ask the child to skip over Building Canal Essay the word, read the black prono, rest of the sentence, and then say what would make sense in the story for Essay, the missing word.
Guide the child to use what he or she knows about field script, letter sounds. Supply the correct word. Tell your child how proud you are of his or her efforts and skills. Listening to your child read aloud provides opportunities for you to express appreciation of his or her new skills and for them to practice their reading. The Panama! Most importantly, this is another way to enjoy reading together. Family stories enrich the relationship between parent and colonisation, child. Time set aside for talking with your child. Tell your child stories about your parents and grandparents. You might even put these stories in the Panama Canal a book and add old family photographs.
Have your child tell you stories about what happened on special days, such as holidays, birthdays, and family vacations. Reminisce about when you were little. Describe things that happened at school involving teachers and subjects you were studying. Talk about your brothers, sisters, or friends. Field Of Dreams! Write a trip journal with your child to create a new family story. Recording the day's events and pasting the photographs into the journal ties the family story to a written record. You can include everyday trips like going to the market or the park. Essay! It helps for children to know that stories come from define real people and are about real events. When children listen to stories, they hear the voice of the storyteller. This helps them hear the words when they learn to read aloud or read silently.
Something important happens when children receive and write letters. They realize that the printed word has a purpose. Send your child little notes (by putting them in a pocket or lunch box, for example). When your child shows you the note, read it aloud with expression. Some children will read the notes on their own. Essay! When your child expresses a feeling or a thought that relates to a person, have your child write a letter. Black Prono! Have your child dictate the words to you if your child doesn't write yet.
I like it when you make ice cream. Building The Panama Essay! It's better than the kind we buy at the store. Ask the define, people who receive these notes to the Panama Canal, respond. An oral response if fine – a written response is even better. Explain the writing process to your child: We think of define ideas and put them into Building the Panama words; we put the words on paper; people read the words; and people respond. Language is european colonisation of asia speaking listening, reading, and the Panama, writing. Each element supports and enriches the others. Sending letters will help children become better writers, and writing will make them better readers.
Activities for grades three through six: Encouraging the young reader. Activity 14: Good books make reading fun. Stories for young children should be of all kinds – folktales, funny tales, exciting tales, tales of the wondrous and stories that tell of everyday things. A variety of european interesting books. An essential step in Essay learning to read is good books read aloud. Parents who read aloud to their children are teaching literacy concepts simply by sharing books. Encourage your children to listen, ponder, make comments, and ask questions. Be flexible enough to quickly abandon a book that does not appeal after a reasonable try at reading it. No one is meant to ryanair, enjoy every book.
And no one, especially a child, should be forced to the Panama Canal, read or listen to ryanair, books that bore. Even after children have outgrown picture books they still enjoy hearing a story read aloud. Hearing a good story read well, especially if it is just a little beyond a child's own capabilities, is an excellent way to Building the Panama Essay, encourage independent reading. Not all books are best read aloud; some are better enjoyed silently. There are plenty of children's books that are twice as satisfying when they are shared a chapter at a time before bed or during long car rides. There are some books that children should not miss, books that they will want to hear many times and ultimately read for themselves. Young children want to read what makes them laugh or cry, shiver and gasp. They must have stories and poems that reflect what they themselves have felt. They need the thrill of imagining, of being for j dadamo, a time in Building the Panama Essay some character's shoes for a spine-tingling adventure. They want to experience the delight and amazement that comes with hearing playful language. For children, reading must be equated with enjoying, imagining, wondering, and reacting with feeling.
If not, we should not be surprised if they refuse to read. So let your child sometime choose the story or book that they want you to read to them. Give your child many opportunities to read and write stories, lists, messages, letters, notes, and postcards to relatives and friends. Since the skills for reading and colonisation of asia, writing reinforce one another, your child's skills and proficiency in reading and Building the Panama, writing will be strengthened if you help your child connect reading to writing and writing to reading. Children love to be creative when it comes to drawing, and illustrations add visual imagery to stories. Drawing paper Pens and pencils Magic markers or crayons. Find a fable, fairy tale, or other short story for ryanair organisational structure, your child to Building Essay, read. Then ask your child to illustrate a part of the story he or she likes best or describe a favorite character.
Have the child dictate or write a few sentences that tell about brothers movie 2008, this picture. Activity 16: Shopping your way with words. Use your weekly shopping trip as an opportunity to help your child develop reading and writing skills. Paper and pencils Newspaper ads Supermarket coupons. As you make out your grocery shopping list, give your child a sheet of paper and read the items to Building, him or her.
If the black prono, child asks for the Panama, spelling help, write the words correctly for him or her to copy or spell the words aloud as your child writes them. Ask your child to look through the newspaper ads to find the prices of as many items as possible. Your child can write these prices on the list and then look through your coupons to select the brothers movie 2008, ones you can use. Take your child to the supermarket and ask him or her to read each item to you as you shop. Cooking is always a delight for children, especially when they can eat the results! Easy-to-read recipes Cooking utensils Paper and pencils. Show your child a recipe and go over it together. The Panama Canal Essay! Ask your child to read the recipe to you as you work, and define environmentalist, tell the the Panama Canal Essay, child that each step must be done in of asia a special order. Let your child help mix the ingredients.
Allow your child to write down other recipes from the cookbook that he or she would like to help make. A dictionary is a valuable learning tool, especially if your child makes up his or her own booklet of words that are challenging. Paper and pencils A stapler Old magazines Newspaper and the Panama Canal, supplements. Encourage your child to make a dictionary by putting together several sheets of paper for a booklet. Ask your child to write at the top of each page a new word he or she has recently learned. If the word can be shown in a picture, have him or her look through magazines and newspapers to find pictures that illustrate the words and paste them on the correct pages. Have your child write the meaning of each word and a sentence using each new word. Your child can then use some or all of these sentences as the basis for a creative story. Have your child read this story to you and other family members. Keeping a journal is a way for your child to european colonisation of asia, write down daily events and record his or her thoughts.
Two notebooks - one for your child and one for you! Help your child start a journal. Say what it is and discuss topics that can be written about, such as making a new friend, an interesting school or home activity just completed, or how your child felt on the first day of school. Encourage your child to the Panama Canal, come up with other ideas. Script! Keep a journal yourself and compare notes at the end of the week. You and your child each can read aloud parts of Building Canal Essay your journals that you want to share. Activity 20: Greetings and salutations. Everyone loves to get mail, especially when the define, card has been personally designed. Paper and pencils Crayons and magic markers Stamps and Building Canal Essay, envelopes. Ask your child to script, list the Building the Panama Essay, birthdays of family members, relatives, and friends. Show your child some store-bought birthday cards with funny, serious, or thought-provoking messages.
Your child can then create his or her own birthday card by using a folded piece of paper, making an attractive cover, and writing a short verse inside. Then your child can mail the cards to friends and relatives for their birthdays. Activity 21: Giving the gift of reading. Reading a book is more fun when you have a homemade bookmark to j dadamo, mark your spot. Pieces of Building Canal Essay lightweight cardboard Pens and pencils Paper Crayons and magic markers.
Provide your child with a piece of cardboard about 6 long and 2 wide. European Colonisation! On one side of the bookmark, have your child draw a picture of the Panama Canal Essay a scene from structure a book he or she has read. On the other side, ask your child to write the name of the book, its author, publisher, publication date, and a few sentences about the book. After making several of these bookmarks, you might ask the child to send them to friends and relatives as gifts accompanied by Building Canal a short note. Activity 22: Let your fingers do the walking. The telephone book contains a wealth of script information and is a good tool for Building Canal, reading and writing. A telephone book, including the yellow pages Paper and pencils. Have your child look through the yellow pages of the telephone directory, select a particular service, and write a clever or funny ad for it. Have your child read this ad to black prono, you. The Panama Canal Essay! Help your child to find your own or a friend's listing in the white pages of the telephone book.
Explain the different entries (for example, last name and address), along with the abbreviations commonly used. Activity 23: Map your way to success. Children love to read road maps and this activity actually helps them with geography. A road map or atlas Paper and pencil Stamps and envelopes. When planning a vacation, let your child see the road map and help you plan where you will drive. Talk about where you will start and european colonisation, where you will end up. Let your child follow the route between these two points. Encourage your child to write to the Chamber of Commerce for brochures about places you will see on Building the Panama Canal Essay, your trip. Newspapers are a form of daily communication with the outside world, and provide lots of 2008 learning activities for children.
Newspapers Scissors Colored pencils. Clip out an interesting news story and cut the paragraphs apart. Ask your child to read the paragraphs and put them in Building Essay order. Ask your child to organisational, read a short editorial printed in Building Canal your local newspaper and to structure, underline all the facts with a green pencil and all the opinions with an the Panama Canal, orange pencil. Pictures fascinate children of all ages. Clip pictures in the newspaper. Ask your child to tell you about the picture or list adjectives to dr peter, describe the picture. Do you take your child to the movies?
Have your child first look up the movie page by using the index in Building the Panama Canal the newspaper. After a movie has been chosen, have your child study the european, picture or text in Building Canal the ad and tell you what he or she thinks the movie is about. Have your child pick a headline and black prono, turn it into a question. Then the child can read the article to see if the question is answered. Ask your child to clip food coupons from the newspaper for your grocery shopping trips. The Panama Canal Essay! First, talk about which products you use and which you do not. Then the child can cut out the right coupons and field of dreams, putt hem into Building the Panama Canal categories such as drinks and breakfast items. You can then cash in the coupons at the store. Pick out an interesting article from the newspaper.
As you are preparing lunch or dinner, tell your child that you are busy and ask him or her to read the article to you. Brothers! Many newspapers publish materials especially written for the Panama Canal Essay, children, such as the syndicated Mini Page, Pennywhistle Press, and Dynamite Kids. In addition, some newspapers publish weekly columns for dr peter, children, as well as tabloids and summer supplements written by Building Canal Essay educators. Activity 25: Using television to brothers 2008, stimulate reading. What child doesn't enjoy watching TV? Capitalize on this form of entertainment and use TV to help rather than hinder your child's learning.
Some important ideas to consider before turning on the TV: Limit in some way the amount of TV your child watches so as to leave time for reading and the Panama, other activities. Decide how much time should be set aside for watching TV each day. Serve as an example by of dreams limiting the amount of TV you yourself watch. Have time when the the Panama Canal, TV set is off and dr peter j dadamo, the entire family reads something. You may want to watch TV only for special shows. Before the TV set is Building turned on, encourage your child to j dadamo, select the programs he or she wishes to watch. Building The Panama Canal! Ask your child to dr peter, give you the reason for the choices made. In addition, watch some of the same TV programs your child watches. This helps you as a parent share in some of your child's daily activities. A TV A TV selection guide Colored highlighters A calendar page for each month Paper and pencils.
Ask your child to Building the Panama, tell you about favorite TV characters using different kinds of words. Organisational! As your child watches commercials on Building the Panama Canal Essay, television, ask him or her to invent a product and write slogans or an ad for brothers movie 2008, it. Encourage your child to watch such programs as Reading Rainbow. Urge older children to watch such programs as 60 Minutes and selected documentaries. These programs are informative. Discuss interesting ideas covered in the programs and direct your child to maps, encyclopedias, fiction, or popular children's magazines for more information. Have your child name 10 of his or her favorite shows. Ask your child to Building Canal, put them into categories according to the type of show they are, such as family shows, cartoons, situation comedies, sports, science fiction, or news and information. If you find the selection is script not varied enough, you might suggest a few others that would broaden experiences. Building Canal Essay! Prepare a monthly calendar with symbols such as a picture of the sun to represent an outdoor activity or a picture of define a book to represent reading.
Each time your child engages in a daily free time activity, encourage him or her to paste a symbol on Building the Panama Canal Essay, the correct calendar date. Colonisation Of Asia! This will give you an idea of how your child spends his or her free time. It also encourages a varied schedule. Ask each child in your family to pick a different color. Using the TV listing, have each child use this color to circle one TV program that he or she wants to watch each day. Alternate who gets first choice. Building The Panama Canal Essay! This serves two purposes. It limits the amount of time watching TV and it encourages discriminating viewing. Dr Peter! Devise a rating scale from 1 to 5. Building Canal! Ask your child to give a number to colonisation of asia, a certain TV program and to explain why such a rating was given. Have your child keep a weekly TV log and write down five unfamiliar words heard or seen each week.
Encourage your child to look up the meanings of these words in the dictionary or talk about them with you. Kameenui, E. J., Simmons, D. C. The Panama Essay! (May, 1997). Read*Write*Now! Activities for Reading and Writing Fun. A Joint Project of the U.S. Department of black prono Education, the American Library Association, Pizza Hut, Inc., Scholastic, Inc., Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. i like what you have said. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on June 15, 2010 - 12:58pm. Even though these ideas were released in 1997, they are more timely than ever. We must spend some time reading with our children.
Do we really want to set the example that landing in Building Canal Essay front of a t.v. is more important than they are? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on November 3, 2010 - 3:26pm. All of the activities are found to be very productive.Thanks a lot :) Submitted by field of dreams Anonymous (not verified) on December 13, 2010 - 12:02pm. this is really useful for Building Canal, us as parents and teachers.Thanks a lot. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 19, 2011 - 2:54am.
these are good activities. in organisational structure fact, i got some ideas here for my teaching demo. Building! thanks a lot. i highly appreciate it. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on script, March 8, 2011 - 4:54am. All the activities are very helpful in understanding child psycology and growth . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on July 9, 2012 - 1:03pm. Very helpful and informative . helpful in understanding child psychology and their requirements. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on July 9, 2012 - 1:07pm. these activities are good and the Panama Essay, useful to me. can you help me with science reading activities? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on December 19, 2012 - 5:21am.
the activities are very useful for teachers and parents as well. Submitted by define Anonymous (not verified) on April 23, 2013 - 5:14am. It`s really important the information to improve the reading and writing of our children. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 23, 2013 - 10:08am. Great Ideas- Simple and Practical. Submitted by Building Canal Essay Anonymous (not verified) on June 23, 2013 - 8:16am. all the activities are great and black prono, useful especially for Essay, the elementary grade level thnx. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 12, 2013 - 1:49am. I love this web site it is so great for you children.
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Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to read and read better. Building The Panama Essay! Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. Copyright © 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Research-based teaching strategies. From print awareness to comprehension. K-3 professional development course. Writing samples from real kids pre-K3. More in Teaching Reading:
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Why Were the Corn Laws Repealed in 1846? Although the the Panama repeal of the Corn Laws is one of the most studied questions in 19th century tariff politics, its historical interpretations are still disputable today. The repeal of the dr peter j dadamo Corn Laws is historically relevant because of “its alleged significance as an indication of the waning of aristocratic domination of British politics” (McKeown 1989: 353). Historiography has to solve the following empirical puzzle: in 1846 Charles Villiers (a leading member of the Anti-Corn Law League in parliament) proposed total and immediate repeal of the Corn Laws, just as he had in Building the Panama Canal Essay preceding years. We will write a custom essay sample. on Why Were the Corn Laws Repealed in 1846? or any similar. topic specifically for you. The motion was overwhelmingly defeated.
Yet, only a few weeks later, Peel laid his motion for ryanair, repeal before the House. By 16 May, Peel’s version of Building the Panama Canal Essay, repeal had passed its third reading (Brawley 2006: 467). Sir Robert Peel counted on more than 300 votes for passage of repeal in 1846, implying a winning margin of structure, 90 votes (McKeown 1989: 356). However, this shift in Building the Panama political support began as soon as 1842. Moreover, from the beginning of their implementation the Corn Laws were not without controversy in movie the Tory Party itself (section 5).
After having sketched the Building historical debate (section 2), as well as the implementation of the Corn Laws with the Importation Act 1815 (section 3), this essay analyses in how far external shocks (4), theoretical development (5) or interest groups (6) contributed most to the policy reform in 1846. Another possible cause of the repeal might be found in the different understanding of the adjustment process of repeal, changing the interests of structure, landowners (7). Finally, this essay concludes that several long term developments, the increasing fear of a new Irish Famine as well as the changing nature of landowners’ interests can explain why the Corn Laws were repealed. Furthermore, Peel as a person plays a role insofar as he was open to new evidence and can be considered as an undogmatic politician: a typical representative of British Empiricism. 2. THE HISTORICAL DEBATE. Originally the Corn Laws were designed to protect cereal producers in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Page 2 Why Were the Corn Laws Repealed in 1846? Essay. against competition from less expensive foreign imports between 1815 and 1846. The high import duties, which were imposed by the Importation Act of 1815 (repealed by the Panama, the Importation Act of 1846) prevented the import of grain from other countries.
The Corn Laws improved the economic situation of brothers movie 2008, landowners by increasing the Building Canal Essay price of grain and brothers movie 2008 inducing cultivation on less productive land; the land rents thus increased. Since grain was the major consumption good of labourers, the high price of Building the Panama Essay, grain necessitated an define, increase in Building the Panama Canal Essay the nominal wages of labourers and script thusly reduced the the Panama Canal profits of manufactures (Irwin 1996: 94). The essential matter was therefore food prices, since the price of grain influenced the price of the most important food staple: bread. 3. THE IMPORTATION ACT OF 1815 The Importation Act of 1815 thus “provided protection to British agriculture, primarily benefiting the of dreams landlords who dominated parliament” (Irwin 1989: 41). Landowners were a long-established class, who were heavily represented in Parliament. The Tory Party, dominated by the landowning aristocracy, and Peel supported protection of agriculture in the form of the restrictive Corn Law of Building the Panama Canal, 1815.
Additionally, the political representation of the landowners’ interests was supported by Malthus at his concern about the dependence on foreign supply (Irwin 1996: 95-97). After having sketched the of asia political and economic logic of the implementation of the Corn Laws, this essay will deal with the the Panama Canal question as to how and why the european colonisation of asia Corn Laws got repealed in 1846. I will consider whether it was the shocks or long-range developments, a shift in political representation of interest groups or the Building change of personal or public beliefs, which caused the repeal. 4. AN EXTERNAL SHOCK: THE GREAT FAMINE One of the most obvious explanations can be found in using external shocks leading to the different policy outcomes in 1846. Black Prono! As stated in the first section, on 1st of March 1846, Charles Villiers’ proposition to repeal the Corn Laws clearly failed as in preceding years.
On March 7th, John Mitchel, one of the leading political writers of the Irish newspaper “Young Ireland”, wrote an article on “English Rule” that people could expect a famine any time soon and that this event would be not attributed to “the rule of heaven as to the greedy and cruel policy of England” (Mitchel 1846). Although the government had “received already urgent notices beginning in Canal October 1845 of a failure of the Irish potato crop, raising the fear of famine” (Irwin 1989: 52), this article expressed a new form of criticism of English trade policies. This indicates two things: first, that political pressure from field Ireland increased during 1846. Second, that the famine had begun before March 1846. Therefore, the the Panama Canal increase of the political pressure as well as the manifestation of the “Great Hunger” could have influenced the voting process in the House of Commons by 16 May.
Irwin (1989: 53), however, disagrees with the view that the movie 2008 increasing fear of a famine would have pushed Peel to repeal the Corn Laws. If Peel would have still been convinced of the Building necessity to protect agricultural production, a temporary suspension had been more sufficient. This contrasts with the argument that a suspension would have made an ultimate re-imposition not only highly risky at black prono the possible cost of violent public controversy, but would also confess that an Irish famine was at least partly promoted by the Corn Laws (Gash 1961: 593-4 and the Panama Canal Black 1960: 143). Black Prono! A temporary suspension would have lead to Building the Panama Canal Essay a de facto repeal. Field Script! Though, an aspect which weakens the role of the Building the Panama Essay beginning Irish famine, points at the grain prices, which were higher in the early part of the debate than they were when the Corn Laws were repealed (McKeown 1989: 356). The economic situation was economically not worse in brothers Ireland in 1846 than during the years before. In addition to that, McKeown argues that the shift in Building Canal Essay political support in the House of field script, Commons took place over four years. Canal! Peel lost faith in movie 2008 the Corn Laws even over a long period starting before 1841 (McLean 2001: 53-4). Furthermore, from a public choice perspective the shift “can hardly be reconciled with the degree of economic change in that four-year period – especially since there was no general election in the Panama that period” (McLean: 355). . THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON POLICY MAKING The paradigm shift away from black prono mercantilism in the intellectual history of free trade also played an important role: From the “eighteenth-century” rule onwards, which laid the the Panama Canal Essay path for the development of a theory of comparative advantage from 1815 on, by Torrens, Ricardo as well as James and european colonisation of asia John Stuart Mill, (Irwin 1996: 93) heavily influenced how politicians thought about the Corn Laws.
John Stuart Mill argues that “if there were nothing in Building the Panama the whole process but a transfer; if whatever is lost by dr peter, the consumer and by the capitalist were gains by the landlord; there might be robbery, but there would not be waste, there might be a worse distribution of the Essay national wealth, but there would be no positive diminution of this aggregate wealth” (Mill 1814: 399ff cited in ryanair Irwin 1996: 93). Protectionist duties, instead, lead in any case to an absolute loss. According to Mill it would be even better to Canal repeal the Corn Laws and to fully compensate the farmer for his loss caused by this policy. Moreover, all leading economists of the first half of the nineteenth century favoured free trade in their writings (Irwin 1996: 93). How these developments influenced Peel, the central figure in the repeal of the Corn Laws, in his view on the Corn Laws has been well described by Irwin (1989): first, although the Tories were the party which mainly represented landowners’ interests, they had a greater affinity with free trade than the Whigs (White 1968 cited in Irwin 1989: 43). The protection of agriculture was seen as an exception to the general rule of free trade and not as the status quo. Second, Peel did accept the principle of agricultural protection as an inheritance from his party in the 1820s and 1830s. This also becomes evident in his memoirs, in which he writes that he, in environmentalist an early period in his public life, adopted “the opinions generally prevalent at Building Canal the time among men of all parties, as to the justice and necessity of protection to domestic agriculture” (Peel et al. 1856 cited in Irwin 1989: 45).
Third, Peel was inclined towards repeal long before 1846. Ryanair Structure! In his speech on the 15th of March 1839, Peel, taking into account the worsening of the manufacturers’ economic situation, hinted at a possible repeal if no new evidence showing that the Corn Laws are consistent with the general interests of the country can be produced. In 1842, Peel proposed amendments to the original Corn Laws and acknowledged that unless given any new insights he would not oppose new amendments, even though he was the author of the new law (Irwin 1989: 46). All three of these aspects show that Peel’s attitude towards the Corn Laws has always been far from rigid. In all of his speeches, and later on in his memoirs, an increasingly critical evaluation of the Corn Laws became the norm. By the end of 1843 Gladstone noted that Peel mentioned “a strong opinion that the next change in the Corn Laws would be to total In early 1844, Cobden delivered a particularly cogent appeal in Parliament against Building the Panama Essay, the Corn Laws and, so the of dreams script story goes, Peel crumpled up his notes for Building the Panama Essay, reply and european turned to a minister next to him and said, “You must answer this, for I cannot. In early 1845, Cobden was of the opinion that Peel favored repeal and was just searching for a pretext to Building say so.
Finally, Peel indicated to Prince Albert in late 1845 that he would have announced his new convictions before a general election in 1847 had not the Irish situation arisen giving him the of asia opportunity to do so (Irwin 1989: 50-51). In late 1845, Peel’s decision to repeal the Corn Laws precipitated a deep split in the Cabinet. Since the the Panama Canal Whigs failed to form a government, Peel resumed office in a dominant political position. In early 1846, Peel announced his plan for a three year phase out environmentalist, of the Corn Laws in Canal Essay conjunction with other tariff reductions” (Irwin 1989: 52). In general, Peel claimed it was the empirical relationship between wages and prices of taxed goods and not theoretical developments which indicated to him that the Corn Laws did vastly harm the labour force. Colonisation Of Asia! On the other hand, what can be stated is that Peel was influenced, even in 1815, by the idea of free trade, making the debate about the the Panama form of the brothers Corn Laws an empirical not an ideological matter. The progress in trade theory can go so far as to explain Peels openness towards evidence, leading to his proposal to finally repeal the Corn Laws. The increasing fear of an Irish famine explains the fact that he did not wait until 1847. 6. THE ROLE OF INTEREST GROUPS So far, though, the most obvious interest group in the context of the Corn Laws has not yet been considered: [The] well-defined and politically quite influential interest group [the landowners] who benefitted from duties on Canal Essay corn, while the costs of the duties were widely dispersed (McKeown 1989: 356).
The question is, how far this interest group’s relative political power had declined. Many interpretations see this as a triumph of j dadamo, bourgeois, particularly manufacturing interests. The limitations of this theory, however, are obvious, since the large shift in House of Commons voting on the Corn Laws between 1842 and 1846 occurred in the Panama Canal the absence of a general election, in define environmentalist a period of the Panama Canal Essay, moderate economic growth, and with no obvious discontinuities in economic development (McKeown 1989: 358). According to McKeown (1989: 355) the only way that a policy change could have been explained lies in a changing price or quantity of output, degree of script, producer, consumer or geographic concentration, or in Canal a shift in comparative advantage in the protected sector or in sectors that are strongly affected by the imposition of protection. Black Prono! However, this was not the case (McKeown 1989: 357-361). Another explanation could have been found in the (perceived) increasing pressure by the Anti-Corn Law League via a change in the Panama Canal the organisational structure of the League. Yet, this remains doubtful since the field of dreams most intense pressure from the League came in 1842-43, with the Essay large public demonstrations, the bungled assassination attempt on Peel’s life, and define environmentalist a hostile verbal clash in the Panama Canal Parliament with Cobden. As the economy recovered strength, social unrest subsided and the years after 1843 seem calm in brothers movie 2008 comparison with the earlier tumultuous period (Irwin 1989: 52).
The repeal of the Corn Laws occurred at a time when the League’s influence was lower than during the years before (McKeown 1989: 359). When Members of Parliament are considered as an interest group itself, the votes of the anti-protection coalition of the Irish repealers and the Peelists is decisive. Both had their own reasons for Building the Panama Canal Essay, supporting repeal and “neither had undergone any drastic change in 2008 economic circumstances in the few short years since the beginning of Peel’s ministry” (McKeown 1989: 378). Although Irwin (1989: 42) interprets the Peelites’ “personal allegiance” to Prime Minister Robert Peel as decisive, Aydelotte’s study suggests the potential loss of the Peelists’ posts in Building Canal government office also played an of dreams, important role (Aydelotte 1967: 47-60). In addition to these MP-interests McKeown (1989) shows that economic structure made a winning coalition feasible in 1846, since higher incomes, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products from cattle, as well as changing asset portfolios for the wealthy families of Britain, changed the pecuniary interests of MP’s. This assertion challenges the Essay common historical assessment that Peel’s leadership was central to the successful repeal of the Corn Laws, since the pecuniary interests of define, MPs played an essential role, too. This restriction becomes even more evident when the dynamic character of interests is Building the Panama, acknowledged. . AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT So far we considered only arguments pointing to shifts in the political and economic power of define, interest groups as well as explanations for their inherent logic in Essay forming respective interests. Another important explanation points at the malleability or more generally speaking the dynamism of interests them selves. For example, landowners would be more likely to support trade liberalisation when their risk of doing so declined.
Brawley (2006: 468) argues that Peel staked out a distinct third position besides repeal and protection, based on agriculture adjusting its production. According to Brawley this explains why the Peelists rejected Villiers’ motion, but still endorsed repeal in 1846. This view challenges those that portray repeal as a sacri? cial act on the part of the whole of the agrarian elite. Brawley’s argument (2006) contains three steps: first, he argues that “agriculture” was segmented into two different sectors, since factors were used differently for grain farming (land intensive, little input of labour and capital) and dr peter dairy farming (capital and labour intensive). Given these two conditions, grain farming should be in favour of protection, dairy farming should support repeal.
This, however, is Essay, not covered by field, the data (Brawley 2006: 469-70). Schonhardt-Baily (1991) explains this by a diversification of Canal Essay, landowners’ investments. J Dadamo! They were willing to accept losses in Building Canal agriculture because they were compensated by gains in industry. Brothers Movie! Second, Britain’s changed position in the international economy did not lead to a transformation towards capital- or labour-intensive production in agriculture, since a landholder wishing to convert from grain to dairy production was confronted by Building Essay, a series of obstacles (Kindleberger 1964: 247 cited in Brawley (2006: 472)). Third, the reduction of these barriers faced by improving landowners allowed them them to adjust to a potential repeal of the Corn Laws: total and immediate repeal, as proposed by the Anti-Corn Law League, did nothing to diminish the risks landowners faced. Peel’s package – graduated repeal, coupled with various forms of government assistance for agriculture – did (Brawley 2006: 472). Peel considered the problems of dr peter j dadamo, adjustment in the Panama Essay the form of temporary continuance of protection to corn (Irwin 1989: 52). He ensured that capital would be available to dr peter farmers, helping them to shift their output to face foreign competition under free trade (Jenkins 1999, 130). Additionally, “farmers availed themselves of the loans fully.
The government lent farmers ? 2 million based on acts passed in 1846 and 1850” (Williamson 2002: 144 cited in Brawley 2006: 480). With the help of the extended DMM model, Brawley shows that Peel’s new funds were essential for owners of Building Canal, entailed land if these landowners were to adjust their production, because without it they would not be able to generate the capital required. Additional policies facilitating high farming were also implemented: duties on maize and buckwheat or livestock feeds as well as grass and clover seeds were reduced. Infrastructural measures supporting market access and the improved health of the national economy and the government loans convinced some landowners that the adjustment to repeal was an opportunity rather than a threat. This can explain why the same MPs voted against organisational structure, Villiers’ motion for immediate and complete repeal, yet only weeks later voted for Peel’s gradual repeal. Since agricultural interests split in the mid-1840s due to the improved economic climate, this shift in interests can explain why Peel spoke out Building the Panama, publicly for repeal in of asia the mid-1840s, even though he previously appeared to favour it (Brawley 2006: 470, 480-1, 6).
As elaborated in Building Essay the last two sections, there is empirical as well as theoretical evidence that members of the legislature did not vote against their preferences. This contrasts with Mclean’s interpretation (2001) in so far as he models preferences as preferences based on political decisions. Yet, there is no reason why preferences should not include MP’s material interests as e. Colonisation! g. staying in office. Essay! This points at the conceptual weakness of a rational choice approach, where the difficulties – as in applied game theory in black prono general – lie in the question of Building Canal Essay, what preferences consist of. An historical explanation of rational choice easily becomes a tautological undertaking. 8. CONCLUSION This essay shows that both the theoretical influences such as free trade theory and the shift in interests of owners of entailed land from the mid-1840’s made repeal feasible in 1846. Additionally, the increasing fear of a new Irish Famine might be seen as a trigger for the exact point of repeal, since a new type of political rebellion against the Corn Laws can be recorded during the last months of this policy. Black Prono! However, the explanatory power of an increasing fear of a new Irish famine is limited in that a shift in the assessment of the Corn Laws had taken place long before the famine was on the horizon: on a parliamentary and a party as well as on a personal level. Peel as a person seems to the Panama have played a role in of asia that he was open towards new evidence. Even if the reader might disagree with the impact attributed to theoretical development, Peel’s empirical approach is at Building Essay least noticeably typical of the tradition of British Empiricism. In general, the script common interpretation which associates repeal with a decline of the agrarian aristocracy can be moderated as it was rather the transformation and diversification of the Panama, agricultural production which made a political majority for repeal feasible.
The political power of manufacturers and black prono labourers did not increase before and during the time of repeal.
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100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. The Panama Canal Essay! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the situation.
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What is the effect of people not having shoes to wear? What are the 2008, effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs? What is the effect on Building the Panama Essay, children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the dramatic rise in overweight and structure obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the Canal, effects of of dreams, this rise in the Panama Canal Essay obesity on the healthcare system?
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What effect has cancer research had on stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly? What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women?
What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health? What causes people to go blind? What causes people to develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of Essay, technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on dr peter, the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices?
What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight? What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to the Panama Canal buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers?
What effects does playing video games cause in define environmentalist the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to Building the Panama Canal Essay spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of movie, picture and the Panama Canal video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular? What effect does moving away from field of dreams, computers and towards tablets and Building the Panama smartphones have on field script, how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to be the most popular search engine?
What are the social effects of Building Essay, everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students? What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on define, a child? What causes students to think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in Building the Panama Canal Essay classrooms cause students to learn better?
What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the brothers 2008, effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state? How do school programs against bullying affect the actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the positive and Building the Panama negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the effect of having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of brothers, students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out?
What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students? What effect does a good physical education program have on elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in the 1960s and 1970s?
How were WWII veterans affected by Canal Essay, their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring? What are the effects of the field of dreams script, Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the British, what were the causes and Essay effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in ryanair Colombia? What causes illegal immigration?
What are the effects of immigration on a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)? What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the Building Canal Essay, World Trade Center on 9/11?
What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea? by Virginia Kearney 8. Environmentalist! 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. The Panama! Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by black prono, Virginia Kearney 10. Canal! This was great for me because I had to write an european colonisation of asia, essay about the Panama Essay, some kind of topic with a cause and brothers 2008 an effect and this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students.
I have traveled in the Panama Canal China four different times and love your country very much! I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is environmentalist a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Building The Panama Canal! Hi thanks for helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. i got A+ in colonisation all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships.
Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. Building Canal! These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States.
Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for brothers movie 2008 making it lol. WOW this is super great to look up stuff for an assignment. Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect.
Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of Building the Panama, these topics through the years and now this is my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over brothers movie, 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol!
Great work! Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you.
Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics. They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing.
Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for future reference. I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. The Panama Canal! Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from define environmentalist, United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Building Essay! Affect also means to black prono produce an effect upon as well as to Building Canal influence. Dr Peter! I will double check my usage in this Hub just to Building the Panama Essay make sure I haven't made an field of dreams script, error. Thanks!
Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. affect = influence - usually a verb. effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Building Canal Essay, Texas. This will come in structure handy for my English class. Thanks. Building Canal Essay! I Love it very much. Colonisation! rakesh ranjana 3 years ago.
Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to Building the Panama Essay understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks! This is helpful.
Vote up. European! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Building The Panama! Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is used by field of dreams, most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out the Panama Canal Essay that APA and Chicago and field of dreams other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation.
Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Sometimes it is hard to pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Canal! Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in my college profession for the essays to be written were to 2008 be in APA format, and it is Building the Panama Canal interesting when researching and writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is what causes the situation and the effect is what you have to take into consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics!
Voted up and shared. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is j dadamo a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by Building Canal Essay, making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA.
A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Environmentalist! Very interesting and in depth Hub. The Panama! I am passing this along and saving it, as well! Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Black Prono! Thank you for sharing.
Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Building! Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up.
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Free International Relations essays. The international system seems to be changing due to Building the Panama Canal Essay the effects made by globalization. J Dadamo. However, it is just history repeating itself. One of the factors repeated over time is sanctions. Sanctions have been part of the international system for a long time although in different forms. For example, British trade was sanctioned by the Napoleon System.
A more specific example to Africa was in South Africa. The state was sanctioned by the United Nations with the aim to abolish apartheid . In both cases the sanctions were economic. Sanctions, whether in law or ethics, are imposed on groups or individuals to encourage approved behavior. The Panama Canal Essay. The sanctions can either be positive or negative. Define Environmentalist. However, the term has over the years been used in the negative sense especially in international relations (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2015). The sanctions commonly used are political, economic or social.
The political and economic sanctions are used most often in the international sphere. The economic sanctions involve trade embargoes on states while political sanctions involve alienation of the Panama Essay, certain people from traveling to other countries than their own. Social sanctions may involve a state being banned from international participation in activities such as sports. The social sanctions have little effect on structure, state compliance as political and economic matters are more important. Previous work on sanctions have been done by Essay, Florea and Chirtoaca (2013) and Kanishchenko and Mamalyga (2015). Florea and Chirtoaca (2013) wrote on sanctions in the International Public Law. Their work draws from black prono, agreement such as the the Panama Essay 1969 Vienna Convention.
The agreement was drawn at a time when majority of African states were fighting for liberation. Hence, African states were not actively involved in making the agreement. It is important to note that the application of such agreements to a continent with different values and cultures is extraneous. The work by Kanishchenko and Mamalyga (2015) pertained to modern trends of economic diplomacy in a globalizing world. Once again majority of the field of dreams script work points to the Northern Hemisphere states and the regional influences of sanctions. As much as a state is sanctioned by the international community, the terms of the sanctions are difficult to adhere to by the regional states around the sanctioned state. This chapter will investigate the impact of sanctions on South Sudan. Building The Panama Canal. The chapter will examine whether the international community imposed economic, social or political sanctions on South Sudan. Moreover, the brothers chapter will investigate whether the sanctions have managed to change the behavior of the the Panama Essay entities or individuals sanctioned. The sanction period will pertain to colonisation of asia the 2013 civil conflict that still wages on.
2.2 UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL SANCTIONS. The United Nations Security Council met to Building the Panama Essay decide on the fate of the 18 month long unending conflict in South Sudan. The meeting resulted in drafting of resolution 2206 (2015). The resolution imposed certain measures in order to define put an end to the conflict. The measures were in Canal, the form of sanctions (UNSC, 2015).
The sanctions were travel bans and asset freezing. These were not applicable to the whole state but to certain individuals and entities. The committee was unable to identify any entities to sanction but sanctioned 6 individuals. These were Gabriel Jok Riak, Simon Gatwech Dual, James Koang Chuol, Santino Deng Wol, Marial Chanuing Yol Mangok and Peter Gadet. These individuals were identified from either side of the conflict. The list was however subject to change once the colonisation committee found any individual or entity to be accelerating the conflict or preventing the peace process (UNSC, 2015). The travel ban was to be implemented by Essay, member states where the states were to prevent entry into or transit through their territories. The travel bans were to be imposed on the individuals named above. The states were however to enable entry of their own citizens as the define ban is only applicable to the named individuals. The ban was as per paragraph 11 of the the Panama Canal Essay resolution (UNSC, 2015). Asset freezing on black prono, the other hand, was to be implemented by member states where all assets pertaining to the named individuals, all funds, other financial assets and economic resources which were on member states territories were to be immediately frozen.
The states were to also consider assets owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by individuals/entities on behalf or at their direction. These assets were to be frozen as well (UNSC, 2015). The member states should ensure that during the Building Essay initial period the funds are inaccessible to organisational the individuals, their nationals and people within their territory. These guidelines were provided in paragraph 13 of the resolution. To measure the progress of the sanctions, members states were given a period of 90 days.
The period was to enable implementation of the resolution (UNSC, 2015). It is Building important to note that the resolution did not include an arms embargo. This would suggest that the individuals cannot access their assets but can still be able to access arms using other means such as selling of the oil from the oil rich regions. The sanctioning of lower officials is commendable but higher officials should also have been considered. The sanctions should have also included the black prono president and former vice-president as their actions are of immediate effect to the Panama Canal Essay the conflict.
The president and vice-president continue to travel within the dr peter region and making the need for peace less urgent than it actually is. In this case, the UN would be considered a toothless dog as the conflict continues to Canal Essay wage on despite the sanctions. Moreover, the decision was made millions of miles away and dr peter, the direct mediators of the conflict were not involved. IGAD should have been involved in the decision making because they understood the the Panama Canal conflict better. The implementation of the sanctions should be more focused on countries immediately bordering South Sudan. These include Kenya, Uganda, DRC, C.A.R, Sudan and Ethiopian. However, some of the countries such as DRC and C.A.R are not stable and may not be able to help resolve the conflict. As a result, the sanction has had little impact on the conflict.
The sanctions may have affected the named individuals but there are many more individuals, entities and third parties at script play which may have been considered as part of the sanction. Thus, the panel of experts on South Sudan should have carried out Building more research. 2.3 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON SOUTH SUDAN. On 10 July 2014, the European Union Council met to make a decision on dr peter, the conflict in South Sudan. The council arrived at Council Decision 2014/449/CFSP concerning restive measures in view of the situation in South Sudan.
The decision was made in support of the efforts made by the African Union, IGAD and other international organizations (European Union Council, 2014). The measures were to be imposed on individuals obstructing the political process or violating the Building the Panama Canal agreements. In this case, the restrictions were applicable to two individuals who were Santino Deng and Peter Gadet. The European Union Council gave reasons for each individual’s restriction. Santino Deng was said to have violated the european 23 January Cessation of Building Canal Essay, Hostilities Agreement. This was done by recapturing of Bentiu in May 2014. Peter Gadet violated the 23 January Cessation of Hostilities Agreement by attacking Bentiu in the 15-17 April 2014(European Union Council, 2014). The state was sanctioned as much as the individuals.
This was in j dadamo, terms of supply, transfer or export of arms or ammunition to South Sudan. The use of flags by Building the Panama Canal Essay, member states was prohibited as well as use of their aircraft (European Union Council, 2014). The European Union’s effort for an arms embargo is define environmentalist more commendable compared to that of the UNSC. However, this again was a decision made millions of miles away. Moreover, Europe is not the only region which can supply arms to Building the Panama Essay the country in conflict. Ryanair Structure. Countries such as China, Russia and the United States can as well supply arms. This chapter was meant to determine the Building impacts of sanctions on european colonisation of asia, South Sudan, whether political, economic or social. The sanction period pertained to Building Canal the 2013 civil conflict. Moreover, the chapter was also to determine whether the sanctions have managed to deter the behavior of the field individuals or entities sanctions.
The findings of the chapter were that the sanctions have had an impact on South Sudan, however, the sanctioned individuals have not changed their behavior. Gabriel Jok Riak, Simon Gatwech Dual, James Koang Chuol, Santino Deng Wol, Marial Chanuing Yol Mangok and Peter Gadet were the sanctioned individuals by both the UNSC and the Panama, EU. Black Prono. The sanctions imposed were both political and economic. Essay. The political sanction was a travel ban while the economic sanction was freezing of assets. The impact of the sanctions towards the individuals has been political and economic. However, the overall goal to bring peace to South Sudan has failed. Despite the organisational efforts of the UNSC and EU council, the sanctions seem to be causing more harm than good. Monitoring has not markedly improved, and many of the Building the Panama Canal practices and procedures of sanctions committees are to some extent seriously flawed. The Security Council remains in 2008, control and permanent members seem disinclined to modify past practices. Canal. They prefer not to be burdened with rules and brothers, they do not want to be billed for collateral damage.
The sanctioned state are left to rebuild from scratch and more often given loans from Brussels institutions. The loans create a cycle of payment for many generations on the African countries. Sanctions do hold great promise despite the Canal current inability to prevent or stop conflict. Under certain conditions and measures, sanctions may be able to work. For example, states neighboring the conflicted country to define actually come up with the sanctions compared to Building Canal Essay states and institutions which are nowhere near the region. i??i??CHAPTER 3: COMMODIFICATION. War has been part of human history. The war or conflict has been over many differing issues. The first world war was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Dr Peter J Dadamo. World War Two was caused by Adolf Hilter’s goal to kill all Jews. At the end of all conflicts and wars, peace was negotiated.
Majority, if not all, peace agreements were negotiated by the top most officials only. The peace of World War Two was negotiated by the victors who make up majority of the Security Council of the UN. Africa was never part of the negotiation process and was thus commodified in the process. The first instance of commodification for South Sudan was after the colonial period where Sudan became independent in 1956. The government was being controlled from Khartoum and the Southern region was often left out in the political, economic and social process. This led to subsequent conflicts with the two decade war between the Canal government and SPLM/A being the organisational most significant. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement came at a much needed time with Kenya leading the mediation process through former President Mwai Kibaki. After the death of the then Vice-president John Garang, the CPA was deemed to no longer sustain the agreement between the two regions. Building The Panama. The southern region was then given the chance to either remain with the northern region or separate into two. The separation of the two regions was believed to ryanair organisational structure bring an Building the Panama, end to the conflict but an internal conflict was brewing within the southern region itself which eventually led to dr peter j dadamo a civil conflict in December 2013. Previous work on commodification has been done by Bush (2004).
His work suggests that many diplomatic solutions are dependent on agreement between or among the leaders involved in the conflict. Majority, if not all, agreements are per Building the standards of the leaders and are mostly meant to protect themselves. The war prone society is rarely consider and the discontent by define, the people results in the reoccurring of Building, conflicts as in the case of South Sudan. This chapter will find out the relationship between commodification and recurrence of conflict in South Sudan. The chapter will also look at the various peace agreements that have been made before South Sudan became a state as well as agreements afterwards. Colonisation. The agreements that will be examined pertain to peace. The chapter will investigate whether political, economic and social factors were considered. 3.2 THE ADDIS ABABA ACCORD.
The British left a well divided country as was the case in Eastern Africa but nation-states were of little consideration at Building Canal the time.The first military rule by General Abood was not well welcomed and dr peter j dadamo, accepted by Building Canal, the Sudanese people. It eventually led to a rebellious uprising in 1964. His rule was characterized by extreme islamization arabization of the southern region. He also expelled foreign missionaries which were largely christians and had spread christianity in the southern region. As a result of the rebellion governance, identity and acceptance of other ethnic groups were the core issues of discussion. Environmentalist. This was the emerging point of accords and agreements in the Sudanese political scene (Ahmad,2010).
The rebellion was known as the ‘October Revolution’ but called Anya-Nya war according to the southerners. Canal. The transitional government consisted of the field of dreams military and civilian leadership of Building, prominent elites in the South. These included Agrrey Jaden and William Deng.Exerting considerable effort, the european of asia transitional government managed to attract a wide spectrum of politicians representing major political parties from both the North and south to join a round table conference to deliberate Sudan’s most pressing issues of the day. Since it was not able to reach a final conclusion, the conference was suspended and Building Essay, its work was delegated to a 12 man committee composed of black prono, representatives of the various political parties (Ahmad,2010). The committee came up with possible recommendations to solve the country’s issue. The Panama Canal Essay. Some of the recommendations were decentralization of colonisation, government, preservation and development of languages and culture.However, the recommendations did not reach the implantation stage and were swept aside (Ahmad,2010).
The country was to be once again drawn into conflict as a result of the assassination of William Deng. This took place in May 1968 during a tour of the South. The confidence and ties that had developed quickly came to a demise and a civil war ensued. Building Canal Essay. At this juncture, the South Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) was formed. The SSLM came up from the ashes of the Anya-Nya movement and drew ranks from it. After a brutal five years of fighting between the SSLM and the central government, change came about. This was as a result of a military takeover at the centre. The new regime announced the June 1969 Declaration which recognized the multiple differences between the North and the South.
The declaration also granted the much needed regional autonomy to the South (Ahmad,2010). A dialogue between the SSLM and the central government was resumed in which the World Council of Churches and Emperor Haile Selassie played a pivotal role in bringing the define environmentalist two parties to the table. The negotiations culminated in the Addis Ababa Accord of February 1972 which paved the way for stopping the war (Ahmad,2010). It is widely acknowledged that the Addis Ababa Accord indirectly adopted the recommendations of the Twelve Man Committee. The Accord recognized the root problems and attempted to provide serious solutions, thereby initiating autonomous regional rule which provided the southern people enough space for self’determination and guaranteed all rights included in the June 1969 declaration (Ahmad,2010). This being the the Panama Canal first official and significant agreement between the ryanair North and the South suggests that commodification was of much greater importance compared to complete involvement of the Building Canal Essay southern region. Define. In terms of political participation, the South was significantly participating but failing economically due to hegemony within the state. Building The Panama. Hence, the political elites were gaining while the population was loosing economically. As a result, the Addis Ababa Accord did not hold and conflict ensued once again. 3.3 THE COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), also referred to colonisation of asia as the Naivasha Agreement, is the Canal Essay most crucial milestone in the political development of Sudan and South Sudan.The country had been in almost three decade war.
Due to black prono the collapse of the the Panama Canal Addis Ababa Accord, reaching the agreement was very difficult. The process of dialogue took more than 5 years just to reach a consensus. The international community also took part in european of asia, making this possible (Ahmad,2010). The serious beginning of this dialogue was initiated through the the Panama IGAD Declaration of 1994, an approach endorsed by Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the Eritrean President Asaias Afewerki, both of black prono, whom were experts on Sudanese affairs due to their long stays in Building Essay, Sudan while leading the struggle to remove Mengistu Haile Mariam from power in Ethiopia. IGAD was also assisted by troika which was a combination of Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States and later on brothers movie, Italy.The group contributed to maintaining continuity in the dialogue as well as providing an element for the guarantee of its results (Ahmad,2010). From the Abuja talks and so forth was the birth of the Machos Protocol of 2002. This set the pace for other protocols which would ensue later on.The other protocols would involve power sharing, wealth sharing and security.In 2005,the complete comprehensive agreement was signed in Naivasha with the guidance of former president Mwai Kibaki. The hopes and future of Sudan was pegged on that agreement compared to those before it (Ahmad,2010).
John Garang de Mabior became the vice president but his time was soon to come to an end in June 2005.He did in Building, a helicopter crash under questionable circumstances which to date have not been answered. He left the CPA as a tool for the peaceful co-existence among the Sudanese but it did not hold as the southern region wanted to organisational structure become a country of its own, South Sudan. The data above suggests that the Building Canal whole CPA was pegged on the leadership and guidance of John Garang. Without him, the movie agreement was not able to hold. It further suggests the Essay commodification nature of the agreement where the elites were involved and the agreement did not trickle down to the citizens. 3.4 2014 CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AGREEMENTS.
In December 2013, South Sudan was engulfed by a civil war which evoked the response of ryanair structure, IGAD. IGAD has held a number of meetings for the two warring sides to agree but it seems that the two sides can never agree. The meetings held in Addis Ababa consisted of the cessation of hostilities agreements which will be discussed below (IGAD,2014). The first cessation of hostilities was agreed upon on the Panama Essay, 23 January 2014 in Addis Ababa.The agreement was signed by european colonisation of asia, Nhial Deng Nhial and Taban Deng Gai representing the Canal Essay government and the opposition respectively. The agreement was witnessed by Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazaro Sumbeiywo and colonisation, General Mohamed Ahmed M. El Dabi (IGAD,2014). The agreement recognized that the the Panama Essay transitional constitution of South Sudan requires peace building through dialogue. The loss of life on 15 December was recognized and various factors led the violence to ensue. The parties were to immediately without hesitation cease all forms of hostilities between them. All forces and armed groups under their control were to as well observe the agreement. If any side had received any outside support, the outsiders should progressively withdraw (IGAD,2014).
The parties were to also cease all forms of hostile propaganda. Ryanair Organisational. The use of media and other propaganda campaigns was prohibited. Ethnic propaganda was specially prohibited by the agreement. Any further actions to undermine the peace process were as well prohibited (IGAD,2014). The protection of civilians was an essential part of the agreement. Both sides were to refrain from causing harm to Canal Essay the civilian population. They were to protect human right,life and organisational, property as provided for by national,regional,continental and international instruments. Building Canal. The rights of the girl child were to be protected through prevention of rape,sexual abuse and torture.
Only third parties,not involved in the conflict, were allowed to re-unite families (IGAD,2014). Due to the immediate need for humanitarian assistance, both sides were to allow free and secure flow of humanitarian assistance to those affected by the conflict. Human dignity was to be observed by decent burials and memorialization (IGAD,2014). The agreement was to brothers enter into force 24 hour after signature by the Parties and the progressed monitored by a Monitoring and Verification Team. The team would be compose of IGAD member states, the two parties and a mix of civilians and individuals with military backgrounds.The Agreement had such good promise of Building the Panama Essay, peace but it did not take long for movie it to be invoked. The Panama. The invocation sparked fresh civil clashes further engulfing the country into conflict (IGAD,2014). On 9 May 2014 President Slava Kiir Mayardit and chairman of SPLM/A( In Opposition) signed another agreement to put an end to hostilities between the two sides. The guarantor of the agreement was the black prono Chairman of Building the Panama Canal, IGAD Assembly and the Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Dessalegn. The agreement was witnessed by Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazoro K. Sumbeiywo and General Mohammed Ahmed El-Dabi.
This second agreement was to reinforce the efforts of the previous agreement.The two sides recognized that a military solution was not suitable to solve the ryanair organisational conflict but political dialogue was rather more saturable. The two parties were to again cease hostilities within twenty-four hours and agree to deploy the IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism. Finally, all South Sundaes stakeholders not in either parties where to be included in the peace process (IGAD,2014). Although the peace agreements were commendable once again the people at the grass root such as chiefs and generals were not put into consideration.Even though the people present were to represent their views, some of their concerns may have not been represented and hence the invocation of the Building Canal cease fire by the generals who had been sanctioned by the UN.This further suggests the dr peter commodified nature of peace agreement made at top levels. This chapter was meant to find out the relationship between commodification and recurrence of the Panama Canal, conflict in South Sudan. The chapter was to black prono also look at the various peace agreements that have been made before South Sudan became a state as well as agreements afterwards. The agreements that were examined pertain to peace. The chapter would investigate whether political, economic and social factors were considered.
The findings were that commodification and the recurrence of Building the Panama Canal, conflict due have a relationship. Black Prono. The relationship was the Essay various peace agreements made fulfilling only political factors rather than economic and brothers 2008, social factors as well. The peace agreements included the Addis Ababa Accord, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. Building Canal Essay. The Addis Ababa and the Comprehensive Peace Agreements were written before South Sudan became a state. Ryanair. The Cessation of Hositilies Agreements were drawn after South Sudan became a state. The Addis Ababa Accord attempted to incorporate the needs of the society but was deterred by failure in the economic sector and conflict ensued once again. The CPA was the the Panama Canal most significant peace agreement that stopped an almost three decade war.
It was very promising but it died its promises died with the late vice president John Garang. Environmentalist. The state was soon split into the Panama, two giving birth to South Sudan. The agreement seemed to have stopped hostile between the two states but internal tensions were beginning to show. Ultimately a civil conflict took place in 2013 which gave birth to dr peter the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. The agreements were evoked time and time again as political elites kept changing sides. The Panama. This suggested that the agreements were dependent on the politicians rather than the of dreams people. Leaders are a representation of the people and are meant to air their views. However in Essay, the instances of peace agreements, these views may be overlooked. As a result, conflict does not stop but rather ensues into a larger conflict. The commodification nature of the Addis Ababa Accord, the CPA and the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements suggests this to be true. CHAPTER 4:MEDIATION OF THE SOUTH SUDAN CONFLICT.
IGAD has played a huge role in the peace processes in the Eastern Africa region. This is especially true to brothers movie 2008 the peace process of Sudan and South Sudan. The CPA was paramount and no chances were taken to achieving peace. The Abuja talks were the first steps taken towards mediating the two parties. The serious beginning of this dialogue was initiated through the IGAD Declaration of 1994. In the subsequent years the CPA was drawn. Building The Panama Canal. The agreement was signed by the Khartoum government and the SPLM/A. Since IGAD was familiar with the conflict in the region, it was the first regional body to mediate the 2013 conflict in South Sudan. The regional body’s mechanism had even predicted the probability of the conflict occurring.
The regional mechanism was the Intergovernmental Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism. The mechanism had warned of an imminent conflict but failed to prevent it. A mediation team was quickly formed in 2008, 2014 to immediately stop the the Panama Essay civil conflict in such a young nation. Putting the above into consideration, this chapter will examine whether the mediation efforts have actually helped in resolving the conflict. Moreover, the chapter will view the history of european colonisation of asia, IGAD in the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan. The history preview is meant to Essay understand the previous mediation process.The chapter will also examine the european colonisation intervention role played by Uganda. 4.2 IGAD’s HISTORY IN SOUTH SUDAN. IGAD was instrumental in mediating the conflict between the North and south of Building Canal, Sudan in the 1990s. The conclusive efforts led to the signing of the CPA in Kenya.The efforts of IGAD were officially engaged in 1993. Black Prono. A Standing Committee on Peace was established by IGAD. The committee was to the Panama Canal mediate the j dadamo negotiation to end Sudan’s civil war (Young,2007).
The efforts led to the Panama Essay the establishment of A Declaration of brothers movie 2008, Principles. The document contained the the Panama Essay basis for negotiation.The SPLM was quick to accept it but that was not the case for the Khartoum government. However, in 1998 the black prono document was accepted by the Khartoum government. Although it was important for the Khartoum government to accept the document, the peace process had been dwindling. In an the Panama, effort to of dreams script save the process, IGAD once again came in.
In 1999 the Standing Committee established a secretariat, Secretariat for Canal the IGAD Peace Process on the Sudan. The mandate of the secretariat was to ensure and sustain the mediation process. This phase of mediation was led by define environmentalist, Special Envoy Ambassador Daniel Mboya (Young, 2007). Special Envoy Lieutenant General Lazaro Sumbeiywo in 2002 continued to mediate the process. Building Canal Essay. The Machakos Protocol was later signed by j dadamo, the Khartoum government and SPLM/A . Building The Panama. This took place on 20 July, 2002.The document was another guideline for the conduct of negotiation. The process led up to the CPA which was signed in 2005 (Young, 2007). Years later after South Sudan became a state, another civil conflict erupted.It came as no surprise that IGAD would as well mediate the civil conflict in South Sudan.
The success of the CPA suggested the proactive nature of IGAD’s intervention and mediation mechanism.However, the case became different when it came to South Sudan as a separate state from Sudan. IGAD’s mediation team included Ambassador Seyoum Mesfin, General Lazoro K. Sumbeiywo and General Mohammed Ahmed El-Dabi who were to ensure a peaceful agreement was reached. The IGAD head of states and prime ministers were involved at one point or another but it was the mediation team which was essentially charged with the responsibility (IGAD,2012). As stated in the previous chapter various agreements had been put in brothers, place. These included the Building the Panama Cessation of Hostilities Agreements of January and May 2014. The agreements did not hold as conflict kept reoccurring and continues to black prono do so.This suggests that the current mediation mechanism may not be working at all. 4.3 IGAD’s EARLY WARNING AND RESPONSE MECHANISM. In December 2011 South Sudan became the newest member of IGAD making it the 8th member. The others members are Ethopia, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia and Eriteria.
As part of it functions IGAD has the Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN). The CEWARN was established in 2003 with the mandate of the Panama Essay, dealing with cross-border patrol conflicts. Dr Peter J Dadamo. The mechanism has three clusters of operations. These are the Karamoja, Somali and Dikhil. Building Canal Essay. The Karamajo cluster covers the ryanair structure cross border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan and Ethiopia. The Panama Canal Essay. The Somali cluster covers cross borders of Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. The Dikhil cluster covers cross border areas of Djibouti and Ethiopia (CEWARN, n.d). IGAD recognized South Sudan’s struggle to attain peace and wanted to maintain the movie 2008 peace in the state. It also recognized the importance of economic and the Panama Canal, political stability for the region at large. As a result, IGAD established CEWARN in the state.
CEWARN was established in Eastern Equatoria in 2009. The mandate of CEWARN was to detect conflict along South Sudan’s border with Ethiopia, Kenya and black prono, Uganda. Building Canal. The effort was essential to maintain peace in all of dr peter, South Sudan including the border regions (Taye,2012). IGAD, after identifying a gap, proceeded to establish another early warning mechanism to as well maintain peace. On 5 May 2012, the the Panama Canal Essay CEWARN established another unit.
The unit was officially opened by the former vice president Riek Machar. The unit was the National Conflict Early Warning and Response Unit (CEWERU).The unit was located in Juba and field, composed of non-governmental as well as governmental institutions with peace as their mandate. The aim of the Panama Essay, CEWERU was detect any instances of conflict on a nation wide coverage (Taye,2012). In the period between 2012 and 2019, the unit was to focus on key areas for early conflict detection. These included, but not limited to, land disputed, border conflicts, child abduction and statutory versus customary law (Taye 2012). In less than two years, the unit started to detect some early warning signs of define, possible national conflict. The early detection system did fulfill its mandate by warning the state and IGAD of the threat. Building Canal. The threat being division in j dadamo, the national part of SPLM as well as the army.
Despite the warning, the conflict erupted in December 2013. Although prevention of the conflict wasn’t possible, the next option was to mediate the conflict. As done previously by IGAD during the CPA, a mediation team was formed to mediate between the two parties. 4.4 INTERNAL OBSTACLES FOR THE MEDIATION PROCESS. The United Nations Charter recognizes regional bodies to mediate conflicts within the region. IGAD as a regional body has been mediating the South Sudan conflict.
The process began mediating the conflict in South Sudan since December 2013. The team included Uganda.The mediator as a third party should be neutral in Essay, the process. This has not been the colonisation case with Uganda. Building The Panama Canal Essay. Uganda has been actively involved in the conflict by the order of President Museveni. Uganda legitimized its intervention by giving various reasons (Kassaija, 2015). Firstly,Uganda claimed that it had been invited by the government of South Sudan. It was not any government but the legitimate government. The purpose was to protect the of dreams infrastructure and enable safe evacuation of foreigners.Secondly, Ugandan citizens needed to be evacuated. It was not taking any chances whatsoever in the protection of its citizens. The conflict had spilled all over the country and was affecting both national and international citizens. The Ugandan troops ensured the safe passage of Ugandans, South Sudanese and other foreigners (Kassaija, 2014).Thirdly, Uganda claimed that the UNSC asked it to intervene.
President Museveni had bee phoned by the UNSC. This claim was supported by Fred Opolot and Ofwono Opondo,Ministry of Building the Panama, Foreign Affairs official and Government spokesman respectively.Lastly, IGAD had sanctioned intervention, hence it had to act on its own as a state (Kassaija,2014). Kassaija (2014) points to the ties between South Sudan and Uganda back to define the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). The SPLM and the Ugandan government formed tied to allow free passage of SPLM/A so as to support their efforts. The Panama. Due to this action, Sudan and Uganda broke off diplomatic ties in define, 1995.
The breaking of ties was also due to Building accusations by Uganda of Sudan’s government support of LRA. Hence, the ties between the two states were present even before.Uganda’s intervention in the region may have helped to maintain peace in Juba but has not done so for the entire state. The intervention of Uganda has not aided the peace process whatsoever. This chapter was meant to field of dreams examine whether the mediation efforts have actually helped in resolving the conflict. Moreover, the chapter was to view the the Panama Canal history of IGAD in the conflict between Sudan and South Sudan. The history preview was meant to brothers 2008 understand the Building the Panama Essay previous mediation process and the current mediation process. The chapter was to also examine the structure intervention role played by Uganda. IGAD has been the Building the Panama Essay permanent factor in the Sudan and South Sudan conflict. It was there during the Abuja talks, Machakos Protocol and the CPA.
These agreements had been successful. The case has been different in the Cessation of Hostilities Agreements. It employed various mechanism such as CEWARN and CEWERU to ensure conflict does not recur in the region. However, the systems detected the european colonisation conflict but was unable to Building Canal Essay prevent it. Despite the various efforts of IGAD to resolve the conflict though mediation, it is evident that that mechanism alone does not work.
Direct involvement of Uganda in field script, the conflict does not help the mediation efforts either. The IGAD states should be consistent and have the same goals. Less involvement in the conflict would also be advisable but humanitarian assistance should still be provided. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom International Relations essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Building the Panama Canal Essay, hand, waiting to movie 2008 help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.
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essay romantic Christopher Rovee, Stanford University. Used by permission: Department of Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries. Introduction Unguarded Innocence A Harsher Reality Adults-in-Training A New Market The Game of Life Teaching Virtues The Cost of Canal Essay, Innocence Recommended Reading. An understanding of the prevailing attitude toward children in the Romantic period begins with William Wordsworth’s mythology of the infant as a “Seer blest”: trailing clouds of glory do we come. From God, who is our home: Heaven lies about us in brothers, our infancy! Shades of the prison-house begin to close. Upon the growing Boy, But He beholds the light, and whence it flows,
He sees it in his joy; The Youth, who daily farther from the east. Must travel, still is Nature’s Priest, And by the vision splendid. Is on his way attended; At length the Man perceives it die away, And fade into the light of Building Canal Essay, common day. (“Ode: Intimations of Immortality, ll. 6476) Embodying innocence, immediacy, and uncultivated vision, the Wordsworthian child is an brothers movie idealized construction offering a model for the male poet seeking to Essay redeem the dying-away of light and joy.
But newborn babies trail many things besides clouds of glory, and the compulsion to imagine childhood as a state of paradise might be understood as a reaction against organisational structure, the pressure of a harsh world of experience. Building The Panama Canal Essay! The figure of the field of dreams script childa staple of Romanticismrepresented qualities under threat in an increasingly commercial and Building Canal Essay, urban society, such as autonomy, intimacy with nature, and an unmitigated capacity for wonder and joy. “Romantic” children, those literary siblings of the Wordsworthian ideal, are remarkable children. Thus, despite being imprisoned by a tyrannical father all through adolescence, Elizabeth Inchbald’s angelic heroine Matilda, in A Simple Story (1791), somehow sustains a spotlessness of demeanor and generosity of soul. Similarly, in script, “Frost at Midnight” (1797), Samuel Taylor Coleridge portrays his infant son Hartley as a blest being whose closeness to nature endows him with heightened perceptive power. He thus imagines little Hartley wandering “like a breeze / By lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags / Of ancient mountain,” fully able to the Panama Essay “see and hear/ The lovely shapes and sounds intelligible” of God’s “eternal language” (lines 54-60). Yet there is a tension in field of dreams script, the poem between this fantasy of mobility and Building the Panama Essay, mastery and the reality of the sleeping, silent baby. In Songs of Innocence (1789), William Blake questions still more sharply the equation of purity with power, presenting childhood as only barely shielded from a harsh and exploitative world. Ryanair Organisational Structure! His chimney sweepers, heads shaved, maintain innocence as a sustaining fantasy: “Hush Tom never mind it, for when your head’s bare / You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair” (“The Chimney Sweeper,” ll. 7-8).
A Harsher Reality. The disparity between the mythology of the Romantic child (often a masculine construction) and its reality is apparent in Building Canal, Jane Austen’s Persuasion (1818), where a misbehaved toddler nearly strangles the heroine, Anne Elliot. When, in Laurence Sterne’s Tristram Shandy (1760), the philosophizing Walter Shandy suggests to his wife the potential benefits of a Caesarean birth, he neglects to mention the fact that this almost certainly meant death to the mother; Mrs. Shandy turns “as pale as ashes at the very mention of it,” and the subject quickly drops. Forty years later, despite (or, perhaps in part, because of black prono, ) the Building obstetric studies of men such as William Hunter and William Smellie, childbirth remained a terrifying and painful experience that often culminated in black prono, death for the mother. Survival meant the possibility of mourning an older, deceased child (as Wordsworth knew from Building Canal Essay experience). On average, one in four children died within a decade of birth, less than in previous generations but a stark reality nonetheless; rare was the family that hadn’t lost a child. Against the Wordsworthian ideal, then, we might set the example of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. By the time she was twenty-five, two of her children had died and a third had been still-born; a fourth pregnancy had culminated in miscarriage.
Her own mother, the eminent feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, had died of complications resulting from her own birth. It is no surprise, perhaps, that Shelley should have written a book about the 2008 horrors of childbirth and Building the Panama Canal Essay, the tribulations of parenthood: Frankenstein (1818), which has been interpreted as the narrative of a lone parent who abandons his child after a traumatic birth experience. Although Frankenstein’s Creature embodies philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s idea of natural innocence, Shelley simultaneously undercuts the Romantic habit of figuring the child as an attractively primitive figure. Desperate for companionship, the Creature at brothers, one point approaches William, a four-year-old boy whom he assumes will be “unprejudiced,” due to his having “lived a too short time to have imbibed a horror of deformity.” But William’s cruel response shows just how early acculturation begins: “Monster! Ugly wretch! You wish to eat me and tear me to pieces. You are an ogre. Let me go, or I will tell my papa.” The boy’s response, attuned as it is to the Panama Canal the norm of aesthetic beauty (he recognizes the Creature as “Ugly”) and to the symbolic law of the european colonisation of asia father (his “papa” will set things right), indicates the various norms into which he’s been so effectively indoctrinated, even at Building the Panama Canal, so young an movie 2008 age. This emphasis on indoctrination and acculturation was perhaps the defining characteristic of childhood in the Romantic period.
For every writer who celebrated the child as a “Seer blest” whose visionary power could edify and enlighten its elders, many, many more adults participated in Canal, a burgeoning new educational industry which conceived of children as undeveloped subjects in need of training themselves. Whereas Rousseau and black prono, the Romantic poets believed that children needed to be protected from the adult, commercial world in order to remain uncorrupted, these enterprising educators aimed to enmesh children in the conventions of adult society, treating them less as children of Canal Essay, Nature than as adults-in-training. Buoyed by brothers, technological developments, booksellers benefited greatly from this heightened concern with education. In the middle of the eighteenth century, children came to constitute an Building important new market for booksellers (or rather, the adults purchasing books on colonisation of asia their behalf did). Building Essay! John Newbery began publishing children’s books in the 1740s, and by century’s end several booksellers were vying for european, share of the market in this specialized field. Essay! The emergence of organisational structure, new printing technologies made books cheaper at a time when rising literacy rates were expanding the reading market. As steel engraving made illustrations easier to produce, picture books for children proliferated, as well as abridged and illustrated stories from the Bible or Shakespeare.
This new industry was very much influenced by philosopher John Locke’s characterization of the mind at birth as a tabula rasa , or a blank slate, which suggested a subject awaiting acculturation. Young boys were subjected to a steady diet of biographies of Great Men, which incited them to explore, conquer, and Building Canal, reap profit from the outside world, while girls were most often encouraged to perform domestic duties and personify passivity, modesty, and compliance. Colonisation! Instructional literature for girls ranged from overtly prescriptive conduct manuals, such as Reverend James Fordyce’s Sermons to Canal Young Women (1765) and j dadamo, John Gregory’s Father’s Legacy of his Daughters (1774), to Mary Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories from Real Life (1788; with engravings by Blake), to imaginative nursery tales like The History of Little Good Two Shoes (c. 1765). It even included sentimental novels, such as Frances Burney’s Evelina (1778), which taught reasonably well-to-do girls how to survive in a social world governed by intricate and often hard to discern rules of decorum. The Game of Life. The merger of instruction and amusement is readily apparent in the culture of children’s games. A brief look at these games opens a lens onto the vexed nature of Romantic childhood. In his bestselling novel Waverley (1814), Walter Scott lamented that “The history of England is Building the Panama Canal Essay, now reduced to a game at cards,the problems of mathematics to puzzles and ryanair organisational structure, riddles,and the doctrines of Building the Panama Essay, arithmetic may, we are assured, be sufficiently acquired, by dr peter j dadamo, spending a few hours a-week at a new and complicated edition of the Royal Game of the Building Goose.” As Scott indicates, there were games to teach just about everything, from field script codes of conduct to astronomy. Building The Panama Essay! This was in define, line with a trend away from corporal punishment (though this remained common) and toward the cultivation of internalized discipline.
A nationalistic agenda was invariably in play. For instance, John Harris’s Geographic Recreation (1809) personifies, on both its slipcover and on the board itself, the four corners of the the Panama Canal Essay world with idealized Europe clearly on top (figures 1 and black prono, 2). A detail from the same game juxtaposes images of Canal Essay, French and British “eaters”: the Frenchman (space number 24) eats “soup-meagre, frogs, and salad” (players who land here must “Pay two to define the pool”); the Englishman (number 25) “regales on roast beef and plum pudding” (players who land here “Receive one from the Building the Panama Essay pool”). Nationalism could be made fun, and this is an important aspect of such games: as in the exploding popularity of nursery rhymes, the stress was on black prono the compatibility of amusement with instruction. But if games made learning fun, they also were a training ground for finding one’s way in Building the Panama Canal Essay, a brutally competitive world. The Game of Human Life (1790), later to provide inspiration for black prono, an American entrepreneur named Milton Bradley, laid out the harshly realistic course of development for British children, from “Manhood” at Canal Essay, thirteen through “Decrepitude” at sixty-one. Like novels, games offered safe simulations of real life, demonstrating without any pain how, in a commercial society, life itself was as contingent and unpredictable as a game of chance.
One could in fact go so far as to black prono say that such games taught children how to lose. Unlike the the Panama eighteenth-century sentimental novel, which featured attachment to brothers 2008 particular individuals, games reinscribed competitiveness, with several players competing against each other for happiness in “life.” Game publishers were themselves masters of entrepreneurial competition, savvy businessmen who had mastered the Building the Panama Canal Essay ins and outs of the dr peter j dadamo book trade. The rule-booklet accompanying Geographic Recreation begins with an advertisement for 17 other games issued by Building, the same publishing house and closes with a list advertising books that “may be deemed useful Appendages to THIS GAME,” plus 40 additional books sold at his shop. Field Of Dreams Script! The winner of Essay, The Royal Game of British Sovereigns (1820), arriving at the board’s centerpiece, was instructed “to proceed immediately to the Publishers to purchase another game equally instructive and black prono, amusing”! A closer look at one particular game tells us much about the romantic-period culture of the child. The Mirror of Truth: Biographical Anecdotes and Building the Panama Essay, Moral Essays calculated to Inspire a Love of Virtue and Abhorrence of Vice (1811), a lavish hand-colored engraving mounted in define, twelve sections on a piece of linen, consisted of Essay, 45 spaces, each keyed to an historical anecdote in an accompanying pamphlet (figures 3 and 4). Script! A player landing on a space titled “Selfishness,” for instance, had to Building the Panama Canal go back five spaces to “Generosity,” where he was to black prono stay put for a turn. “Disinterestedness” is keyed to Canal Essay a story about a man who, having been offered money to save a family stranded amidst a flood, rows out to them, plucks them from certain death, and then astonishes the gathered crowd by rejecting the proffered reward, declaring: “I will not sell my life, my labour is sufficient to support myself, my wife, and children. Give your money to this poor family, who have lost their all, and are in greater need of it.” The player landing here was rewarded with tokens. The morality could also be ambiguous, as indicated by the game’s representation of “Integrity,” as embodied by Sir Thomas More. J Dadamo! When his wife pleads with him to acknowledge Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church for the sake of his children, More rejects the notion.
Refusing to exchange eternity for an additional twenty years of life, he is beheaded, “the victim of an inflexible integrity.” The example indicts such an the Panama Canal “inflexible integrity” yet reinforces the ryanair structure conventional belief that men act in a public world while women concern themselves with the home and children, often serving as deterrents to public virtue. The Cost of Innocence. If, on the one hand, the Romantic emphasis on idealized childhood suggests anxiety about industrialization and its effects on the Panama Essay human consciousness, it might also be a response to the processes of acculturation and black prono, indoctrination that we see in the popularization of children’s games. In his “Ode,” Wordsworth’s “Seer blest” exists in a provocative tension with a rather different image of the child as the “little Actor” he is to become, “fit[ting] his tongue / To dialogues of business, love, or strife” (ll. 97-102). And in book five of The Prelude , the Canal Essay child prodigy “Engendered by these too industrious times” is monstrous, “no Child, / But a dwarf Man” who “can read lectures upon innocence” (ll. 312-13). The Wordsworthian counter-image occurs immediately afterward, in the figure of the Boy of Winander, suspended in organisational, a state of vibrant imaginative possibility amid a responsive Nature: “sometimes, in that silence, while he hung / Listening, a gentle shock of mild surprise / Has carried far into Canal Essay, his heart the voice / Of mountain torrents” (ll. 406-9).
This boy, as it happens, dies young, “taken from his Matesere he was full ten years old” (ll. 414-15)a reminder that Romantic childhood only sustains its fantastical purity at the cost of existence itself. Aries, Philippe, Centuries of black prono, Childhood: A Social History of Family Life. Trans. Building Canal! R. Baldick. Environmentalist! New York: Vintage, 1962. Natov, Roni, The Poetics of Childhood. London: Routledge, 2003. Plotz, Judith.
Romanticism and the Vocation of Childhood . New York: Palgrave, 2001. Richardson, Alan. “Childhood and Building Canal, Romanticism.” In Teaching Children’s Literature . Ed. Glenn Edward Sadler. New York: MLA, 1992. ---. Literature, Education, and Romanticism: Reading as Social Practice, 1780-1832 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Steedman, C., Strange Dislocations: Childhood and the Idea of Human Interiority 17801930 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).