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ap calculus homework Part 2 : List of book problems that should be done AFTER you feel confident with the problems in part 1. You will work out these problems on the coversheet with all the problems and will write the answers on the answer line. Show all work. The answers for these WILL NOT BE POSTED . Islam Judaism Christianity. These will be graded on of participant, right or wrong. These should not be too difficult IF you do part 1 first. You will staple the “cover sheet” to the front of your homework for part 1.

Part 3 : AP Style questions based on this section. It will be another worksheet/packet that will be multiple choice and free response questions. This will be turned in separate from the book work; do not staple it to the homework from the book. ANSWERS POSTED AFTER COLLECTED. The test is 33 questions in length You can have the passing time to islam judaism get started Not much room for error if you would like to score a high grade on it Most of this test does not require a calculator, however, I will let you use one of the class inspires. No HP Prime, CAS, or any other calculator will be allowed. If you do not agree with this, you can take it without a calculator. Any of those calculators can calculate derivatives without a value and for this test, it is expected you do it without the calculator. Okay so here are some tips over the problems to disadvantages observation be covered Finding derivatives of islam judaism christianity, inverse trig functions Finding derivatives of simple expressions involving trig functions, radicals, and disadvantages of participant, polynomials Related rates problem ( maybe two- Involving pythagoreans theorem, area of circles, etc.

None of the islam complicated ones (not much time)) Derivative of a log or natural log problem Finding slope of a function by nectar, finding the derivative 1st Determine where the function has a horizontal tangent Given position, know how to find velocity and acceleration Know how to find average velocity over an interval Know how to find a derivative of a function and then use a table to find the value of the derivative at that number Find second derivatives Know the difference when parentheses are involved with trig functions and when their not Know your product rule Know your quotient rule Be able to find the judaism christianity derivative of a function using the chain rule AND the quotient rule! Know how to find the derivative of piaget, y using implicit differentiation Know your cases when a function is not differentiable Use implicit differentiation to find the slope at a point Be good at finding the equation of the tangent line at a given point of x-value (find the derivative, find the slope, find the point (if only given x) and then write the equation Know how to find acceleration given velocity and islam judaism, using the quotient rule :) Know how to The Struggle for the Holy differentiate e using the chain rule as well Know when a particle changes directions Know how to islam judaism find when a particle is moving right or left Know how to piaget find the derivative of a function involving a,b,c etc as constants KNOW ALL DERIVATIVE RULES. Anything covered from this semester is fair game from section 1.1-3.4 A lot of this exam is based on concepts and skills along with MENTAL math and your ability to work problems out islam christianity, without a calculator; this could be tedious for some but unfortunately, part of the rigor to the course. Your exam is loosely based on the exam review. The exam review/weekend review is to help reinforce many of the concepts taught to you but those questions are not everything that was taught to you or were they written like AP questions If you would like an extra 10 minutes for your exam, get to class as soon as you can and start the exam during the passing time Every question on the exam is a concept, a rule, a fact, that was taught to you at some point in the course and not it is your job to demonstrate mastery of that objective. This exam focuses on the kodak camera, two of the three big ideas for Calculus: Limits and Derivatives.

Students must have a solid, intuitive understanding of limits and be able to islam christianity compute various limits, including one-sided limits, limits at disadvantages infinity, and infinite limits. They should be able to work with tables and graphs in islam judaism christianity, order to on The Struggle for the Holy Land estimate the limit of a function at a point. Students should know the algebraic properties of limits and techniques for finding limits of indeterminate forms, and they should be able to apply limits to understand the behavior of a function near a point. Christianity. Students must also understand how limits are used to determine continuity, a fundamental property of functions. Using derivatives to describe the rate of change of one variable with respect to Essay Lab Report: of Sucrose Affect another variable allows students to understand change in a variety of contexts. Islam. In AP Calculus, students build the derivative using the concept of Essay on Analysis of Cassius in Julius by William, limits and islam, use the derivative primarily to compute the instantaneous rate of Essay for the, change of islam, a function. Applications of the derivative include finding the Essay on Analysis Caesar by William Shakespeare slope of a tangent line to a graph at a point, analyzing the graph of a function (for example, determining whether a function is increasing or decreasing and finding concavity and islam, extreme values), and solving problems involving rectilinear motion. Students should be able to use different definitions of the derivative, estimate derivatives from tables and graphs, and apply various derivative rules and properties. In addition, students should be able to Essay on Analysis of Cassius Caesar Shakespeare apply the Mean Value Theorem, and be familiar with a variety of real-world applications, including related rates.

These two paragraphs summarize what you can expect to find on the exam. Finding derivatives, slope, tangent and normal lines will be huge. Finding limits of islam christianity, all types and limits involving L'Hopitals Rule. All derivative rules are fair game. Continuity questions and the 3 requirements for continuity to exist. Position, velocity, and acceleration concepts. Different notations for derivatives will be used and higher order derivatives will be asked of you to find.

Know the difference in graphs from f, f', and f''. Know how to use process of elimination in your answers to cognition save you some time on the mc section! Know the different types of discontinuity. Islam. Know how to find extrema and do the math by hand with fractions! Know how to use the nectar first derivative test and find where a fxn is increasing and islam judaism, decreasing. Of Participant Observation. Know how to islam use the second derivative test and finding intervals of concavity, points of inflection, and using the 2nd derivative test sometimes to find extrema. Also know the Mean Value Theorem. Know how to find limits by hand with no calculator and when none of the tricks, including LHopitals Rule doesnt work. Know when a derivative is undefined. Know how to The Struggle for the find horizontal asymptotes and the tricks to finding them. Know how to use implicit differentiation and know how to solve a related rates problem.

The exam is broken up into four parts. Final exam review ( you are welcome- a few points of the exam come from the weekend review and yes, it is graded) Multiple choice with a calculator (9 questions long) Free Response Questions No Calculator (2 questions each in parts) Multiple choice with NO CALCULATOR (40 questions) 2. I would give yourself no longer than an islam judaism christianity, hour for the two calculator portions. Disadvantages Of Participant Observation. I would save at least an islam judaism christianity, hour for the 40 question no calculator section. If you don't know how to start the problem in about 30 seconds, skip it and come back to it.

Place of Abraham in Islam, Christianity, Judaism - WhyIslam

Islam judaism christianity

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Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future. Durkheim assembled a team to promote his vision for islam judaism christianity sociology, but he and Mauss were a double act like Marx and Engels. There was room for only one leader of the movement, so we speak of the nectar john, Durkheimians and the Marxists. Mauss and Engels each assumed leadership of the movement they jointly founded after their partner’s death, but the intrinsic inequality of the islam christianity, partnership was made worse in Mauss’s case by age difference, kinship seniority and his inability to write books of his own. Of Participant Observation? The publication of an islam abridged English translation of Marcel Fournier’s Marcel Mauss: a biography allows us to reconsider his historical relationship with Durkheim, as well as his legacy for anthropology, history and the social sciences today. French scholarship on Mauss is, of course, much more advanced than its Anglophone counterpart and it is who invented the kodak camera, less confined to academic anthropology. Fournier’s 800-page collection of Mauss’s Ecrits politiques remains virtually unknown to christianity, English-speakers and the collective organized in his name, the Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste dans les Sciences Sociales (with its journal, revue du MAUSS ), continues the eponymous founder’s commitment to integrating progressive politics and intellectual work over a wide range of issues. In both cases, The Gift has iconic significance as Mauss’s most discussed work; but, as Sigaud has already pointed out, the of participant, Anglophone academy, with assistance from one or two leading French anthropologists, has taken up its message in ways that depart seriously from the author’s original intentions. This short review essay accordingly has two parts. In the first, I will outline a schematic trajectory of Mauss’s life, conceived of first as Durkheim’s junior partner and afterwards as himself. The initial phase lasted from christianity, 1895, when Mauss entered academic employment as an agrege in nectar lewis philosophy aged 23, to the outbreak of war in 1914.

This was followed by a decade of great personal fulfillment, first in military service and islam christianity afterwards as the Essay for the Land, leader of his uncle’s cause, following Durkheim’s premature death in 1917. Mauss now flourished as a political journalist, while redefining his main academic interest as the relationship between socialism and the nation. The years 1920-1925 account for fully two-thirds of the political writings assembled by Fournier. They culminated in the foundation of the Institut d’Ethnologie with Mauss at its head and, not coincidentally, in the publication of The Gift. Mauss lived another 25 years after that. He achieved considerable renown as a teacher and public figure, managing to be acknowledged both as Durkheim’s heir as a professor of sociology in the College de France and as the guru for a new school of ethnographers. His political engagements waned in this period and judaism his academic publications even more so. His last decade was a sad one, when he was first forced to withdraw as a Jew in German-occupied Paris and then was more or less abandoned by people who later claimed to lionize him.

He died in 1950 in his late seventies. The second part of this essay considers ‘The strange history of The Gift ’. Of Sucrose On Osmosis? My aim here is to show that the essay’s prominence in contemporary anthropological discourse owes almost nothing to Mauss’s agenda in writing it. This is because his political program, articulated so fully in the same period, has dropped out of sight, being replaced by the star-struck concerns of a self-aggrandizing academic elite. Islam Judaism Christianity? But it has to Essay about Lab Concentration, be acknowledged that his text is in some ways rather obscure, permitting a variety of judaism christianity interpretations. Of Participant Observation? It was also a vehicle for Mauss to assert himself against Durkheim’s sociological reductionism in pursuit not only of an integrated intellectual politics, but also of an opening up to the full complexity of human existence which he summarized in the rather mystical phrase “total social fact.” This message was hard to understand at the time – his long-term collaborator, Henri Hubert, said so – but is even more so in islam judaism our age of academic bureaucracy and specialization. I conclude that Mauss’s value for us today lies in his attempt to piaget cognition, integrate politics and christianity intellectual life in the heady years after the Essay of Cassius Shakespeare, First World War, of which The Gift was one enigmatic outcome. Marcel Fournier’s achievement as Mauss’s biographer and archivist is hard to overstate. Islam Judaism Christianity? Without his patient labors, Mauss would be even more the creature of myth and legend than he is about Lab Report: of Sucrose, already. A Montreal sociologist, Fournier describes this as an intellectual biography; yet his treatment of the christianity, main texts is rather cursory and much concerning Mauss’s central ideas remains opaque. For example, we learn that he was a methodological tiger, often attacking authors in his countless book reviews for piaget their errors in this regard.

Yet readers of judaism christianity this book would be excused for wondering what Mauss’s methods actually were. Instead, what we get is cognition, a very rich account of Mauss’s social life and relationships. This balance is islam judaism christianity, appropriate, since the Essay by William Shakespeare, protagonist occasionally expressed doubts about the intellectual life and his uncle for judaism one sometimes wondered if he was more suited to the kodak, cafe society than to judaism, hard academic work. Piaget Cognition? Reflecting his own personality rather than Durkheim’s, Mauss kept pushing for a more concrete and complex approach to studying the human condition than the islam christianity, modern social sciences allow for. He supervised a revolution in French anthropology that he was never able to participate in directly, while the sociology he professed came under acute pressure during the interwar years. Essay Of Cassius Caesar Shakespeare? Marcel Mauss’s own life is the “total social fact” whose meaning he sought to illuminate and judaism we have to excavate. Even his apparent failures offer us much opportunity for reflection. While the twentieth century denied his enterprise at every turn, he sought a method for placing the whole person in society as a whole. A life in Essay about Report: Concentration of Sucrose Affect on Osmosis three stages.

Emile Durkheim’s The Division of islam Labor in on Analysis of Cassius Shakespeare Society , a version of his doctoral thesis written while teaching at islam Bordeaux, was published in 1893. Nectar John? It provided a template for the school of sociology he sought to found and his nephew, Marcel Mauss, was still addressing its central concerns more than thirty years later, when he wrote The Gift . The idea of economic progress through specialization was at the core of the British economics founded by Adam Smith. A century later economic individualism was the cornerstone of an evolutionary social theory articulated by judaism Herbert Spencer and popularized as the native ideology of a triumphant western bourgeoisie. Durkheim sought to show that division was a dialectical process of separation and integration, that society became stronger as labor was divided and as the scope for individual action was enhanced. Emphasis on the making of individual contracts obscured the social glue of “the non-contractual element in the contract” that made the economy possible – a combination of law, state, customs, morality and shared history that it was the sociologist’s task to make more visible. The individual is the result of social development and not, as in Smith’s origin myth, its source. Durkheim’s aim, in Essay Concentration a socialist tradition begun by Saint-Simon, was to uncover the islam judaism christianity, sources of solidarity, of which he identified two main types: mechanical and organic. The first was grounded in the sameness of “primitive” or stateless societies and was expressed as a conscience collective , while the second arose from higher levels of disadvantages of participant interdependence in economies whose differentiation obscured common interests. Modern nations draw on a culture of sameness while organizing a complex division of labor. Durkheim hoped to judaism, promote the stability of the French Third Republic through a syndicalist politics (the professional association of occupational groups) that was antagonistic to class-based socialism.

Above all he hoped to nurture the development of Concentration of Sucrose on Osmosis a secular science of ethics to replace the traditional mixture of religious and class prejudice. Following the academic trend of the day in judaism christianity fields such as chemistry, he aimed to establish an exclusive and reductionist method for sociology and, in the following years, before moving to a more central base in Paris, he did so with the cognition, publication of two books, Rules of the christianity, Sociological Method and Suicide: a study in sociology . Marcel Mauss came from the same Jewish family of small embroidery manufacturers in the Vosges region of Eastern France, Durkheim being his mother’s brother and fourteen years his senior. His academic training was in philosophy, philology and the kodak the history of religions, with a strong emphasis on ancient languages. When qualified to teach, he joined the section of religious science at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and took up a chair there in the religions of islam judaism uncivilized peoples in who invented 1901 when he was 29 (“there are no uncivilized peoples,” he said). Islam? The decades around the turn of the century were the heyday of a new scientific approach to the study of Essay about Concentration religion in France, being a time of anti-semitism (the Dreyfus affair) and the separation of church and state in christianity education.

Religion was the precursor of the kind of secular republican morality that Mauss and his uncle wished to promote as a middle way between bourgeois individualism and communist revolution. Mauss wanted to discover the elementary forms of religion through studying the ancient Indo-European texts and the new ethnography of primitive peoples coming out of Australia, Oceania and piaget Africa. He chose prayer or oral ritual as the subject of his doctoral thesis, for the interesting reason that speech is the unity of thinking and action. But his first major publication was a collaboration with his historian friend, Henri Hubert, “On the nature and function of islam christianity sacrifice” (1899), an attempt, focusing on Hinduism and Judaism, to place the individual at the centre of the disadvantages observation, collectivity through communion with the sacred. Many of Mauss’s abiding themes are to judaism christianity, be found here — contract, atonement, punishment, the of participant observation, gift, the soul etc. The essay was published in Annee Sociologique , Durkheim’s ambitious review of new work in sociology for which Mauss was in effect the co-editor. In sixteen years (1898-1913), he reviewed and summarized hundreds of islam books and articles, producing a quarter of the 10,000 octavo pages published. He was responsible for the religious sociology section which Durkheim admitted had “a sort of primacy.” Uncle and nephew collaborated in “On some primitive forms of classification” (1903), an audacious attempt to nectar lewis, reduce the categories of understanding to christianity, social morphology, for which Mauss dryly remarked, “I provided the facts.” Mauss could thus be said to have led Durkheim towards an engagement with religion and philosophy that culminated in his supreme achievement, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life . On Analysis In Julius By William Shakespeare? Certainly they drew on the same Australian ethnography; but Mauss never completed his own book on prayer, despite working on it seriously in the period 1908-1913. Mauss actively embraced socialist party politics, maintaining an affiliation to the French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO). He was a founder of and contributor to islam, the journal, Mouvement Socialiste , and wrote regularly for the left-wing press — first for Humanite and later for Essay on The Struggle Land Populaire , his party newspaper. He was committed to judaism christianity, voluntarism and to social action, being heavily involved in the co-operative movement; indeed he lost 10,000 francs in sponsoring a co-operative bakery, La Boulangerie . He openly embraced an on The Struggle Holy anti-capitalist ideology, believing, unlike Durkheim, that only the working class could lead society to a more universal form.

He never sought to separate his scientific work from politics and this led to some tension between them, especially since Durkheim was able to link this trait to his nephew’s inability to settle down (he remained a bachelor and something of a socialite) and to follow through on judaism christianity his major writing projects. Mauss’s rejection as a candidate for a chair in the College de France in 1908 brought much of this to nectar lewis, a head. In the run-up to the First World War, Mauss embraced pacifism and internationalism, but, when it broke out, he signed up with some alacrity, serving for judaism christianity four years as an interpreter with British and cognition Australian troops, for the most part on the front line. Military service was a liberation for him from the academic drudgery of being Durkheim’s second-in-command. “I’m doing wonderfully. I just wasn’t made for christianity the intellectual life and I am enjoying the life war is giving me.” Of course, long before the end, he and everyone else became fed up with the reality of the war. While still on active service, he started writing a book, unencumbered with footnotes, “On Politics”; but, like every other similar project, it remained unfinished. In 1919, he returned to Paris and his old job at who invented the kodak camera the Ecole Pratique , heavily decorated and in judaism christianity the novel situation of being his own man at nectar lewis last. Durkheim lost his only son Andre in 1915 and died of grief two years later without having yet reached sixty. Even his friends told Mauss that now was the time for him to grow up; and he accepted responsibility for leadership of what was left of the team Durkheim had brought together. He entered the years 1920-1925 full of energy for politics and intellectual life, with a greater emphasis on the former.

It was without doubt the high point of his career and its main academic outcome was the Essai sur le don (1925). Mauss wrote scores of articles for political publications in this period – especially for La vie socialiste , Action cooperative and Populaire . His intellectual energies were focused on the nationalization of judaism christianity socialism and he began a book on “The Nation” that remained his dominant writing project for the next two decades. He was much taken with English versions of socialism, not just the Rochdale Pioneers of his beloved co-operative movement, but also the Fabians, especially Sidney and Beatrice Webb, for whom nationalization of the the kodak, means of production was a priority. Mauss returned to internationalism after the war and was pleased that Durkheim’s idea of the division of labor was now being applied between societies as well as within them. Like everyone else, he had to take a position on the Bolshevik revolution and its aftermath; and he did so while drawing explicitly on sociological method. He was highly critical of the islam, Bolsheviks’ coercive resort to violence, especially against on Analysis of Cassius the most active classes, and of their destruction of the market economy along with confidence and good faith.

He advocated an “economic movement from islam, below,” in the form of syndicalism, co-operation and mutual insurance. His greatest hopes were for a consumer democracy driven by the co-operative movement. He even enjoyed a brief period as a financial commentator on the exchange rate crisis of 1922 and argued that “economic revolutions are always monetary.” His ethics were based on “gentleness and legalism,” his politics on the need to add economic self-organization to juridical socialism. He was increasingly fascinated by the national variations in socialist practice emerging at Essay of Cassius Caesar this time. Mauss also edited for publication his uncle’s lectures on socialism in judaism the tradition of Saint-Simon (1928). In all this time, Mauss continued his academic career at the Ecole Pratique ’s section of religious science.

His researches were no longer focused on the elementary forms of religion, but rather on Essay on Analysis in Julius the political sociology of the post-war period – nationalism, socialism and the Bolshevik revolution. He revived the Annee Sociologique , but the journal soon failed for lack of the committed manpower Durkheim was able to mobilize in its heyday (principally his own and his nephew’s). In the early 1920s, he began to take an interest in the potlatch reported for America’s Northwest Coast by Boas and his colleagues. This was amplified by the publication of Malinowski’s Argonauts of the judaism, Western Pacific , confirming Mauss’s view that the potlatch was a common feature of Melanesian societies. He began to read the ancient Indo-European sources for Lab Affect on Osmosis analogous phenomena; and we may recall that his essay with Hubert on sacrifice was also in part about the gift. The result was the Essai sur le don: forme et raison de l’echange dans les societes archaiques , published in the first volume of the new series of Annee Sociologique , a medium-length tract with over 500 footnotes and christianity a hundred references, but still offered as a preliminary report on on Analysis of Cassius in Julius by William Shakespeare ongoing inquiries. Along with his incipient interest in christianity joking relationships, this essay was intended to “…counter the Durkheimian image of lewis a society functioning as a ‘homogenous mass’ with the christianity, image of a more complex collectivity, groups and who invented camera subgroups that overlap, intersect and fuse together”. In the same year, the Institut d’Ethnologie was founded in the university with a remit to train professional ethnologists and offer support to amateur inquiries in islam the colonies. Mauss took his place in the Institute’s leadership along with Levy-Bruhl and Rivet. Not long afterwards, despite an unexpectedly close fight, he won a chair in sociology at the College de France . Sociology was under considerable pressure at who invented this time, as witnessed by Annee Sociologique ’s failure; but Mauss won great renown in his twin capacity as Durkheim’s heir and the de facto guru of the judaism christianity, new discipline of Lab Concentration of Sucrose Affect on Osmosis ethnology. Judaism Christianity? Apart from nectar, a very brief sojourn in Morocco, Mauss did no fieldwork; but he was an engaging teacher with a dialectical style of improvisation who had plenty of judaism time for cafe conversation with his students.

He had his detractors still: a rival for Rockefeller patronage dismissed Mauss as “essentially a politician who produces nothing on of Cassius in Julius his own.” And it is true that much of his effort was devoted to publishing the judaism christianity, posthumous work of former friends and colleagues, including Henri Hubert, Robert Hertz and Emile Durkheim. On Analysis Shakespeare? In The Gift , he acknowledged the validity of criticisms by historians and others that social scientists tend to abstract too much and proposed instead to address the full complexity of “individuals in their moral, social, mental and above all corporeal and material integrity”. Consistent with this anti-reductionist stance, his two major publications before retirement were essays on “the person” and “techniques of the body”, opening up sociology to technology, psychology and the humanities in general. Mauss married his secretary in 1934 and she was soon bed-ridden after an incident involving poisonous gas. He suffered a prolonged sequence of personal bereavements throughout the second half of his life; and was forced out of his job and spacious apartment by islam the German occupation of who invented the kodak camera Paris (but escaped being sent to Buchenwald). After the war, he remained socially isolated and eventually, before his death in 1950, his mind began to give way. A new school of French ethnographers was happy to claim him as their inspiration; and his international reputation, which was already considerable, has continued to grow ever since. Islam Judaism Christianity? In the same year as his death, Claude Levi-Strauss edited and introduced a collection of of participant observation his principal essays ( Marcel Mauss: Sociologie et anthropologie ), Mauss’s first and only book-length publication. Despite ongoing evidence that these essays have not been closely read by the bulk of anthropologists, Mauss’s reputation as a founder of the modern discipline appears to be secure; and every undergraduate student of judaism christianity anthropology in the world at least pays lip service to having read The Gift . The strange history of The Gift. Mauss’s essay on The Gift is offered as a provisional fragment of a more comprehensive study (which never appeared).

At one level, this could be taken as just another example of the author’s style. But I would suggest that the essay’s greatness lies in Mauss’s aspiration to the kodak, embrace the human condition in its entirety by exploring the moral relationship between concrete persons and judaism society as a whole, a heroic aspiration that is bound to fail. About? The French words he uses are totalite and islam christianity integrite which have their direct analogues in the Latin register of English. Moreover, he claims that this wholeness is Essay on Analysis of Cassius in Julius Caesar by William, better approached through concrete description, in judaism the manner of the humanities, rather than as scientific abstraction. His method is eclectic and encyclopedic, relying on knowledge of numerous languages, dead and extant, in the manner of the great classical philologists. But Mauss claims that his is a controlled comparison, drawing on selected ethnographic phenomena of Polynesia, Melanesia and the American Northwest, plus western legal traditions as revealed by documentary sources, while seeking always to preserve local color and the original context. The argument is inevitably only a partial realization of such an Report: Concentration Affect on Osmosis ambitious project and is often obscured by christianity an accumulation of detail. Mauss provides extended conclusions on the relevance of his study for contemporary societies, but these do not include even a summary account of prevailing economic and legal institutions, so that the reader is forced to make numerous imaginative leaps in order to keep up with the author.

Fortunately for Mauss, his essay has encouraged many to join him in this enterprise; but he must be held partly responsible for the wide range of interpretations that have subsequently emerged. The Gift is in a direct line of descent from Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society , published over piaget cognition three decades before. If Durkheim referred somewhat vaguely to the non-contractual element in the contract, this essay is focused explicitly on that issue. Mauss summarily eliminates the two utilitarian ideologies that purport to account for the evolution of contracts: “natural economy,” Smith’s idea that individual barter was aboriginal; and the notion that primitive communities were altruistic, giving way eventually to our own regrettably selfish, but more efficient individualism. Against the contemporary move to replace markets with communist states, he insists that the complex interplay between individual freedom and islam judaism christianity social obligation is synonymous with the human condition and that markets and Essay on Analysis Caesar money are universal, if not in islam christianity their current impersonal form. In this way he fleshes out his uncle’s social agenda, but also questions the accuracy of his model of mechanical solidarity for stateless societies. Mauss’s key term for the range of who invented archaic contracts he intends to investigate is untranslatable into English and something of a feudal relic in judaism French. Prestation is a service performed out of obligation, something like “community service” as an alternative to imprisonment. According to The Struggle, him, the earliest forms of exchange took place between entire social groups and involved the whole range of things people can do for each other, a stage he called the christianity, systeme des prestations totales . On The Struggle For The Land? But his main interest is in a form that probably evolved from this, named after the Northwest Coast example as “potlatch,” which he considers to be general in Melanesia and Oceania, where his chief examples are the judaism, kula ring and the Maori.

Excavation of classical sources reveals analogous phenomena in Thrace and possibly Germany. These forms of gift-exchange involve aggressive competition between the individual leaders of groups which he labels prestations totales de type agonistique . As is well known, Mauss’s guiding question is: “What is the principle of right and interest in Affect backward or archaic societies that makes it obligatory to return a present one has received? What force is there in the thing given that makes the recipient give something back?” He rarely refers to judaism, this process of giving and making a return as “reciprocity.” His answer, broadly speaking, is that human beings everywhere find the personal character of the gift compelling and are especially susceptible to Essay on Analysis in Julius Caesar, its evocation of the most diffuse social and spiritual ties. Islam? Potlatches provide a clear instance of this principle in action. Mauss goes on to trace its appearance in about Lab Affect on Osmosis sacrifice ( do ut des ), in early Roman law and in the Germanic wadium , even in the apparently negative instance of alms-giving, where the recipient is assumed to be incapable of making a return except in the form of spiritual deference. A lot of islam christianity ink has subsequently been spilled on this part of the argument. Mauss’s concluding chapter addresses the relevance of all this for contemporary societies without offering an explicit analysis of john lewis capitalist markets (which we are all supposed to know about). There are three sections: 1. Islam? Conclusions de morale 2. Nectar John? Conclusions de sociologie economique et d’economie politique 3. Conclusion de sociologie generale et de morale . The logic of the structure is that Mauss will consider first “moral” questions and then the islam judaism christianity, economy, returning to john lewis, morality in islam judaism christianity the context of sociological method more generally. The difficult term for us is morale which in on The Struggle Land the first instance clearly refers to the science of ethics that Durkheim aimed for in the Division of Labor , but in the latter case it probably means more generally the human aspiration to islam judaism, place relations between person and the kodak camera society on a just footing of shared morality.

Mauss’s chief ethical conclusion is that the islam christianity, attempt to create a free market for private contracts is utopian and on The Struggle Land just as unrealizable as its antithesis, a collective based solely on altruism. Islam Christianity? Human institutions everywhere are founded on the unity of individual and society, freedom and obligation, self-interest and Essay of Cassius in Julius Caesar by William concern for others. Modern capitalism rests on an unsustainable attachment to one of islam judaism these poles and it will take a social revolution to Essay about Lab of Sucrose Affect, restore a humane balance. If we were not blinded by ideology, we would recognize that the system of prestations survives in our societies — in weddings and at Christmas, in friendly societies and more bureaucratic forms of insurance, even in wage contracts and judaism the welfare state. With regard to the economy, Mauss, who had earlier insisted that the kula valuables are money, if not of the sort we are familiar with, takes Malinowski to task for who invented reproducing in his typology of transactions the ideological opposition between commercial self-interest and the free gift. The economic movement from islam, below that he advocated in his political journalism – professional associations, co-operatives, mutual insurance – is a secular version of what can be found in the religions of archaic societies, as well as in the central phenomena described here. These are all faits sociaux totaux , total social facts, in the sense that they bring into play the whole of society and who invented all its institutions – legal, economic, religious and aesthetic. And this is the challenge they pose for sociological method. Mauss claims that he has studied these societies in their dynamic integrity, not as congealed states to be decomposed into analytical instances of rules pertaining to christianity, law, myth or value and price. “By considering the Essay of Cassius in Julius Caesar, whole together, we have been able to perceive the essential, the movement of everything, the live dimension, the judaism, fleeting moment when society or rather men become aware of the common feelings they have for themselves and others. On? This concrete observation of social life gives us the means of discovering new facts that we are just beginning to glimpse.

Nothing, in our opinion, is more urgent and fruitful than this study of social facts.” We must follow the example of the historians and observe what is given, rather than split up social phenomena into separate abstractions. The reality is islam judaism christianity, always a concrete person acting in society – “the middle-class Frenchman, the Melanesian of this or that island”. Then sociologists will furnish psychologists with material they can use, while maintaining their distinctive pursuit of the social whole and disadvantages observation of group behavior as a whole. This is Marcel Mauss’s manifesto for how he will carry forward his uncle’s academic legacy. Judaism? In some ways it entails the nectar john lewis, inversion of Durkheim’s reductionist program for social science. It is therefore unsurprising that he is now considered to be a founder of modern anthropology more than a sociologist. Lygia Sigaud has provided a trenchant account of The Gift ’s subsequent trajectory in twentieth-century anthropology which I will just summarize briefly here. Judaism Christianity? She argues that the disadvantages of participant, essay became famous only in the second half of the last century and then in a distorted version that privileged economic exchange to the detriment of Mauss’s other concerns. The chief culprit is Levi-Strauss whose introduction to the collected essays was designed to harness Mauss’s reputation to his own theory of reciprocity as previously published in The Elementary Structures of Kinship . Christianity? But The Gift really took off as a staple of Anglophone anthropological discourse following Sahlins article, “The spirit of the gift”, which entrenched Levi-Strauss’s claim that Mauss’s essay hinged on camera a faulty understanding of the Maori concept of islam hau . She notes that the opposition between “commodity economy” (the West) and Essay Lab Concentration of Sucrose on Osmosis “gift economy” (the Rest) began to take root after 1980; and she identifies this trend with Carrier (1995) who sought to subvert it, while characterizing the dichotomy as “Maussian Occidentalism.” We could add that this is the period of neo-liberalism. Sigaud makes no connection between Mauss’s essay and his political commitments.

The trajectory she describes is a purely academic one. As a result, when trying to account for the remarkable discontinuity between what Mauss wrote and islam judaism what he is now thought to have written, she relies for Report: Concentration of Sucrose on Osmosis explanation on the cult of personality and the power of gossip in small-scale oral communities such as academic anthropology. In fact, Chris Gregory launched the modern trend with his book, Gifts and Commodities , even though, as he states in islam judaism christianity Savage Money , “I have never used the distinction between gifts and commodities to classify societies nor have I ever suggested that ‘we’ are to piaget, commodities as ‘they’ are to islam christianity, gifts. Such an approach is anathema to me. My problem in Gifts and Commodities was to explain the paradox, brought about by colonization, of the efflorescence of gift exchange in a world dominated by piaget cognition commodity production and islam christianity exchange. Essay Land? I characterized Papua New Guinea as an ‘ambiguous’ economy where things are now gifts, now commodities, depending on the social context.

Thus I developed the logical opposition between gifts and commodities in order to try to understand the ambiguity of the historically specific situation of islam judaism colonial Papua New Guinea (…) Ethnographic classification is quite distinct from conceptual division by the logical principle of dichotomy.” But it didn’t do any good. The “fictions” employed ingeniously by Marilyn Strathern in The Gender of the Gift – that “we” (the West or “Euroamerica”) are opposed to “them” (the Rest or “Melanesia”) and that the Essay Report: Concentration Affect on Osmosis, gift is the conceptual opposite of the commodity in some linked way — are now routinely reproduced in introductory anthropology courses everywhere. Mauss’s text is adduced in support of this notion, even though it is the very ideology his essay was intended to islam judaism, refute. But then who reads anything closely these days?

The French literature is, for Essay of Cassius in Julius Shakespeare obvious reasons, much more respectful of Mauss’s actual rather than his invented legacy (Godbout and Caille 2000, Godelier 1999). There are honorable exceptions in the English-speaking tradition, among whom I would include myself. Judaism Christianity? Jonathan Parry’s article also argues correctly that the purely altruistic gift was for Mauss the inverse of the market conceived of as a sphere of pure self-interest, whereas the archaic gift was a mixture of the two; so that market ideology leads us to think of Christmas presents as pure gifts, an idea that we then project onto our reading of john lewis Mauss’s text. But chief among the exceptions must be counted David Graeber who offers a full-length reanalysis of islam judaism The Gift , complete with detailed attribution of Mauss’s socialist views and acknowledgment of the continuation of his intellectual politics by the MAUSS group, among others. It will be interesting to see if this long chapter makes any difference to the wholesale adoption of bourgeois ideology by Anglophone anthropologists who affect disaffection from it, while imagining that Mauss was as opposed to the market as they claim to be, at camera least in their classrooms. It cannot be said that Marcel Fournier’s biography of Mauss makes the latter’s ideas more transparent than they were already. Judaism Christianity? But he does show us that his protagonist’s political engagement is indispensable to understanding his academic production. Moreover, his account of the life should be the the kodak camera, baseline for all future judgment of Mauss’s intellectual significance.

I believe that the academic division of labor that shapes contemporary anthropology has passed its sell-by date. Judaism Christianity? Mauss already felt so eighty years ago. When we come to consider how anthropology might contribute to the formation of a more just world society, Mauss’s example will be even more influential than at present. In the meantime, his most famous work is generally seen upside down through “the camera obscura of ideology” (Marx). One thought on nectar john lewis “ Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future ” You must be logged in to post a comment.

The two great memory banks are language and money. Exchange of meanings through language and of objects through money are now converging in a single network of communication, the islam judaism, internet. We must learn how to use this digital revolution to advance the human conversation about a better world. Our political task is to make a world society fit for all humanity.

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Global Classroom#8217;s 2017 World Citizen Essay Contest. **The goal of the judaism christianity World Citizen Essay Contest is to promote discussion among students, teachers, families, and Essay on Analysis in Julius by William Shakespeare community members about the ways that individuals can effect positive change in islam judaism the global community.* 2017 Essay Contest Prompt: You have won an nectar lewis all-expenses-paid trip to the destination of your choice. In 1,000 words or less, describe where you will go (and why), and explain what steps you will take to make sure that your travels are truly sustainable. Congratulations to our 18th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest winners! Students were celebrated at a public awards ceremony on May 2nd with keynote speaker Katherine Cheng, head of the global corporate citizenship and christianity community relations for Expedia, Inc. Read all of the winning World Citizen Essays here. 2016 World Citizen Essay Contest. In the 2015-2016 school year, the World Affairs Council partnered with Water1st International; our prompt asked students to think critically and be engaged as global citizens by addressing one of the most critical issues of our time: The worldwide water crisis. Essay Of Sucrose On Osmosis? Congratulations to our 17th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest winners! The student winners were celebrated at christianity a public awards ceremony on May 5th, with keynote speaker and former CEO of the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation Jeff Raikes, and featuring the founder of Water1st International Marla Smith-Nilson.

CLICK HERE to watch Jeff Raikes#8217; keynote at Essay about Lab Report: of Sucrose on Osmosis our Essay Contest Awards Ceremony. CLICK HERE to watch the Q A with Jeff Raikes and Marla Smith-Nilson. Read all of the islam winning essays here. 2015 World Citizen Essay Contest. Piaget Cognition? Congratulations to our Winners: Washington State students in islam judaism christianity grades 3 through 12 were invited to think like a foreign news correspondent with the who invented camera following essay prompt: In our increasingly interconnected world, it is important to be informed of issues and islam events around the globe in order to better understand and Essay about Lab Report: Concentration Affect engage with the islam judaism people around us. Of Participant? If you were a foreign news correspondent, where would you like to be assigned? What story would you cover and how would you gather the necessary information? Why do you think this is an important story to judaism christianity tell? Read the winning essays here. The Kodak Camera? 2014 World Citizen Essay Contest.

On June 5th, Rick Steves joined the World Affairs Council and judaism christianity essay contest winners to speak on Caesar, the value of thoughtful travel and present students with their certificates and prizes. Congratulations to our winners: Read about the way these students are thinking about the world beyond our borders! Find excerpts and the full essays here. Washington State students in grades 3-12 were asked to respond to the following prompt: Through his book, TV and islam judaism christianity radio shows, guided tours, and public speaking engagements, Rick Steves h a s introduced Americans to many parts of the world. His recent book, Travel as a Political Act , suggests th a t travel may be important for of Cassius in Julius by William, reasons that go beyond a dream vacation. Rick Steves has traveled to islam judaism Iran, Israel, and Palestine among other places, with the goal of The Struggle for the Holy making connections with and islam christianity understanding the concern s of the people who live there. If you traveled with the same goal, where would you go and why? What would you hope to learn? How will traveling to Essay on Analysis of Cassius by William this place and meeting its residents broaden your perspectives why is this important? We received nearly 450 essays this year!

Thank you to everyone who participated. And thank you to islam judaism christianity our volunteer judges! 2013 World Citizen Essay Contest. We celebrated our winners at a special event at Essay of Sucrose Affect on Osmosis the Seattle Asian Art Museum with Nancy Pearl on May 30th. At the ceremony, the winners received their cash prizes, a certificate, and a copy of Nancy Pearl’s book, Book Crush . Islam Christianity? Congratulations to our 2013 World Citizen Essay Contest Winners: 2012 Games Without Borders Youth Challenge. Congratulations to the winners of Essay on Osmosis our First Annual Games Without Borders Youth Challenge!

In lieu of the World Citizen Essay Contest, Global Classroom encouraged students to apply their knowledge of and passion for islam judaism christianity, gaming while learning about disadvantages world issues. Since fun, educational games about global topics are hard to find, GC gave Puget Sound students a new challenge: create a game that young people would love eto play and that would raise awareness about a global topic or issue. The winners were: Children of Change by islam judaism christianity McKenna Sevruk (7th grade, Tahoma Middle School)Middle School Division: Microloan Adventures by Luke Johnson, Christo Pamboukas, Joey Peterson, and Reed Stever (7th grade, Tahoma Middle School) Animal Rescue: The Video Game by Kaylene Stocking and Sarah Yerrace (9th grade, Timbercrest Junior High) Let#8217;s Trade! by Alina Amkhavong, Hannah Madani, Cristina Martinez , and Sahar Mohammad (10th grade, Kent-Meridian High School) Syria at Risk by Sopheaktra Danh and Essay Shakespeare Melody Northcutt (12th grade, Aviation High School) To learn more about this contest, visit our Games Without Borders Youth Challenge webpage. 13th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest (2011) Congratulations to our 2011 World Citizen Essay Contest Winners! On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the judaism christianity World Affairs Council and the upcoming 50th anniversary of the Seattle World’s Fair, the World Affairs Council embarked on a two-year partnership with the Seattle Center Foundation. The question for the 2011 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;Looking back over the last sixty years, please identify a Puget Sound-based innovation that has left its mark around the world. Explain why and how this innovation had an impact beyond the United States. (This impact can be related to observation the arts, sports, music, popular culture, technology, civic action, global health, education, manufacturing, etc.)#8221; Thank you to all of the islam judaism christianity students who submitted essays and to the outstanding judges who volunteered their time to Lab Concentration of Sucrose Affect on Osmosis read them all! Our special congratulations to judaism christianity the following students who were the top finalists in each category. Click on the links below to who invented read excerpts from our winning essays.

On June 23rd, 2011 World Citizen Essay Contest winners were interviewed about global innovation on Public Exposure SCAN-TV. Watch the 30 minute interview here. Islam Judaism Christianity? 12th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest (2010) The question for the 2010 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;Despite the camera ever increasing importance of understanding the histories, governments, and islam judaism christianity cultures, of people from all over Essay on Analysis Caesar by William the world, many news organizations in recent years have had to cut their foreign correspondent staff. If you were a journalist on an international assignment, where would you like to go, what issue would you cover, and why? #8220; Thank you to the 390 students who submitted essays and the 78 judges who spent time reading them all. Essay Contest winners were being honored at judaism christianity a Global Classroom Celebration on May 17th, 2010. Our special congratulations to the following students, top finalists in each category. The question for piaget cognition, the 2009 World Citizen Essay Contest was: #8220;Imagine that you are Hillary Rodham Clinton, the new U.S.

Secretary of State and head of the U.S. Department of State, which has a mission to judaism create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community. Describe one international issue you think is nectar john lewis important today. Why do you think this issue is important to judaism both the U.S. and the world? Considering the mission of the U.S. Department of State, what would you do about this issue?#8221; Thank you to the 215 students who submitted essays and the 78 judges who spent time reading them all. By William? Essay Contest winners were being honored at a Global Classroom Celebration on May 27th, 2009. Our special congratulations to the following students, top finalists in each category. 10th Annual World Citizen Essay Contest (2008) The question from the 2008 World Citizen Essay Contest was:

#8220;In April, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama (1989 Nobel Prize winner for Peace) will journey to Seattle to discuss and celebrate compassion in action with Seattle-area youth, educators, and policy makers. Definition: #8216;Compassionate acts are generally considered those which take into account the suffering of others and attempt to alleviate that suffering as if it were one’s own.#8217; (From Wikipedia as cited by the organization Seeds of Compassion) A) Considering the definition above, identify an individual who has been moved by compassion to take action on islam judaism, a problem. John? Describe his or her work. How did he or she demonstrate compassion? B) Now, imagine yourself as an christianity adult. Following in Essay on Analysis of Cassius this individual’s footsteps, what international issue would you want to tackle? Why is this issue important? What steps might you take to resolve the islam judaism christianity issue?

Why does this issue awaken compassion in Lab of Sucrose you?#8221; Thank you to the over 200 students who submitted essays and the 33 judges who spent time reading them all. Essay contest winners were honored at a special reception and award ceremony on islam judaism, June 17, 2008. Our special congratulations to the following students, top finalists in each category. copy 2013 World Affairs Council | Your link to the world.

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The trial and islam christianity, death of observation joan of arc. THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF JOAN OF ARC. Joan was a simple peasant girl who was raised in a Catholic home as the youngest of five children (Thurston). Her mother was very religious and had a big influence on Joan's life. Joan never learned to christianity, read or write, but was skilled in spinning and sewing. She was also always very strong and healthy (Michelet 8). At the about Lab age of thirteen, Joan began to judaism, have holy visions and hear the Essay The Struggle Holy Land voices of saints she identified as St.

Margaret, St. Catherine, and St. Michael (Thurston). Her voices convinced her to vow to remain a virgin (Lucie-Smith). When Joan was seventeen years old, the voices revealed her divine mission. Judaism. Joan was told that she had been chosen to lead the French army into battle against the English, to drive them from French soil. The voices instructed her to go to see Robert Baudricourt, the Captain of Vaucouleurs, who would arrange for her to who invented the kodak, be taken to see the king (Michelet 12). Christianity. On her second visit she was able to convince Baudricourt to allow her to see the king. She dressed in men’s clothing for the first time to make this trip (Thurston). When she arrived, the The Struggle Land council kept her waiting for two days while they debated whether she should be taken to the king. Islam Judaism. Eventually, it was agreed that the king would receive her.

The king was doubtful and tested Joan by disguising himself. Joan identified him immediately, and won his confidence by on Analysis of Cassius Caesar Shakespeare assuring him that God recognized him as the islam true heir to the French throne. A committee made up of several bishops and doctors were assembled in Poitiers to examine her and determine the truthfulness of her revelations (Michelet 18-20). Joan made a good impression on the committee members. Their final conclusion was that they could find no evil but only good, humility, virginity, devotion, honesty, and simplicity in Essay on Analysis in Julius Shakespeare, Joan. They finally recommended that the king accept her help (Pernoud 30). King Charles gave her armor, and judaism, horses.

A special banner was made for Essay about Lab on Osmosis her to islam, carry into battle (Michelet 22-23). An army was assembled to lift the the kodak siege of judaism Orleans and Joan rode with them. She was not a military commander, but acted more as a moral leader. Joan imposed strict rules and required her troops to go to confession and leave prostitutes behind. She traveled with the army and Essay on Analysis Caesar by William Shakespeare, was there to inspire the troops with confidence for victory. After inviting the English to surrender, she developed the plan that was used to free the city of islam Orleans from the English.

She was actually wounded in the battle, but returned to inspire her troops to a great victory (McBride 80). She continued to lead her troops into battle against the kodak the English, resulting in great successes in many more battles. In a great victory at Patay, the English were completely defeated and forced to retreat. This opened the way for the fulfillment of her mission and the coronation of judaism Charles VII as king of camera France in Reims on July 17, 1429 (Thurston). After the coronation, the king seemed less interested in Joan and the continuation of the campaign to remove the English from France (McBride 81). Joan was frustrated by the king’s attitude and a truce he had signed with the Duke of Burgundy (Thurston).

Finally, at the end of the truce, Joan once again rode with the troops to defend the town of Compiegne which was under siege from the English. Although her voices had predicted that she would be captured, she threw herself into the battle. She stayed to the rear to cover the retreat of her men, but ended up being pulled from her horse and captured. The man who had taken her prisoner sold her to John of Luxembourg (Michelet 50). Joan’s capture was met with strong reactions.

The English badly wanted to discredit Joan, especially her claim that God directed her. If true this would mean that God favored the French over the English (McBride 81). England was a government dominated by islam christianity Bishops who were led by a Cardinal. Any suggestion that God favored Joan’s mission was intolerable (Michelet 62). Of Participant Observation. The Vicar General of the Inquisitor demanded that Joan be sent to Paris for trial on the grounds that she was a heretic and judaism, a witch. A letter had been sent from the University of Paris to the Pope in Rome accusing Joan of heresy because she pretended to predict the future (Lucie-Smith 207). Although Joan was in reality a political prisoner of war, the English leadership wanted a trial that was conducted by camera the Church (Michelet 63). Although the French people saw Joan as a hero and a saint, her name inspired fear and dread in the English people, and they were determined to be rid of her for the humiliation she had caused them.

The English could not afford to put Joan to death for beating them in battle, but they could possibly have the Church condemn her as a heretic and a witch (Thurston). Incredibly, Charles and his advisors did nothing to rescue or ransom Joan even though she was responsible for placing him on his throne (Pernoud 98). To accomplish their goals, the English used Peter Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais. He was an ambitious man with no scruples who could be relied upon to use his authority to ensure the outcome of the islam christianity trial favored the of participant observation English position (Michelet 64). Cauchon negotiated a sale price for Joan of 10,000 pounds, which was paid by islam judaism christianity the English crown. The English always intended to burn Joan, and money was used to make sure it would happen (Lucie-Smith 231). The English paid all of the expenses of the judges and gave letters guaranteeing protection from consequences to piaget, Cauchon and christianity, other officials who participated in the trial (Lucie-Smith 227). Cauchon then had himself appointed the chief judge for Joan’s ecclesiastical trial (Pernoud 89). The trial took place in Rouen Castle where Joan was also held prisoner and guarded by English soldiers.

Joan complained about this and Essay Concentration of Sucrose, requested to islam, be placed in a church prison where she could have women to attend to her needs (Thurston). They tried everything they could think of to break her. On Analysis By William. She was treated very badly. She was kept in an iron cage and chained by her neck, hands and feet. Christianity. She was made to john, endure mental torment and insults by the guards. Throughout her ordeal Joan was treated as a prisoner of war and refused the decent treatment that she would have had in a Church prison (Pernoud 104-105). Intellectuals at the University of Paris supported Cauchon’s efforts. Most of the trial judges were doctors and theologians from the University. The Great Schism of the judaism Catholic Church had been mended when Joan was only a young child. During the Schism, opposing factions within the Church supported either a pope residing in Rome, or one in Avignon, France (Pernoud 4).

The Schism had allowed the University’s faculty members to the kodak, become a great independent political power because they had dominated the former councils called by the Avignon popes (Lucie-Smith 208). To preserve their position, the judaism christianity University supported the concept that a General Council should rule the Church together with the Pope. This was similar to the manner in which the English crown and parliament functioned (Pernoud 106). The University faculty was a dictatorial body that demanded that heritage and faith be accepted without question, that men only believe what their appointed authorities told them to believe, and that belief in the supernatural was not reasonable. On Analysis Of Cassius In Julius Caesar Shakespeare. The doctors at the University considered themselves to be the experts in these matters. If Joan’s visions and voices were accepted to be fact, it would seriously undermine their authority and credibility.

Additionally, Joan’s unsuccessful assault on Paris in islam christianity, September of 1429 had scared them and caused them to consider her to be a great threat to their power base (Lucie-Smith 208-209). The trial began on January 9, 1431, and took five months to complete (Pernoud 105). To lend legitimacy to the event, Cauchon requested that an officer of the Inquisition help officiate at the proceedings (Michelet 73). The Inquisition was a special council established by the Catholic Church to discover and investigate heretics. It was necessary to have a representative of the Inquisition be present whenever a bishop conducted a trial for heresy (Lucie-Smith 226). However, the local vice-inquisitor, a Dominican friar named Jean Lemaitre, did not want to be involved in the trial. He argued that he did not have jurisdiction to preside since the alleged heresy had taken place in another diocese (Pernoud 108). Who Invented. After this problem had been resolved, he then claimed that he had doubts and did not want to jeopardize the proceedings. Although he continually argued against being a judge, he could not avoid it, and ended up being paid generously for his involvement (Michelet 73).

The trial proceeded even though an ecclesiastical body in Poitiers had already examined Joan. Islam Judaism Christianity. The result of Essay of Sucrose that interrogation had been to approve Joan and support her mission. That assembly of Church officials had accepted her voices and visions as coming from God. Unfortunately, the islam judaism transcripts of the proceeding conveniently disappeared, and could not help Joan during her trial for heresy (Pernoud 30). Heresy could not necessarily be proven by facts. Caesar By William Shakespeare. It was considered to be an islam intellectual crime. The judges were required to examine the heart and intent of the accused in order to decide whether there was an disadvantages error in christianity, understanding, or that the heresy was deliberate and knowing. For this reason, the accused person was considered to be guilty until a determination otherwise was reached (Lucie-Smith 231-232).

Cauchon began by presenting information he had been collecting about Joan to the judges in a closed session. Unfortunately, the investigation of her habits and morality near and around her home, did not produce the compelling evidence needed to try her for heresy. The judges could not find anything to accuse her on (Pernoud 107-108). In spite of this, they proceeded with the public phase of the trial. On February 21, 1431, Joan was brought before a room full of intimidating figures, with Cauchon presiding, to be tried on charges of lewis heresy and witchcraft. Judaism Christianity. Although Cauchon had brought together an impressive group of who invented the kodak camera judges, most of them were Frenchmen, many from the islam University of Paris (Lucie-Smith 232). Essay The Struggle For The Holy. There were forty-four people, including nine doctors of theology and judaism christianity, four doctors of canon law in attendance. Established procedures for the Inquisition permitted a lawyer to represent the accused, but Joan stood alone without a lawyer to help her (Pernaud 109). The trial began with Joan refusing to swear to tell the truth since she did not know what they intended to ask her.

She was finally persuaded to swear to tell the truth about her religious beliefs (Pernoud 109). For days she was asked questions about her youth, her voices, and her activities prior to her meeting with Charles. The judges continually badgered and tried to confuse and entrap her with trick questions (Thurston). There were six public interrogation sessions conducted by the court. Joan’s strength, honesty, and Essay of Cassius Caesar by William, her ability to remember the christianity answers she had given previously to the questions she had been asked impressed witnesses to these sessions. Report: Concentration Affect. Joan was a tough nut to crack, and Cauchon became worried about the outcome of the trial. For this reason, he decided to stop the public sessions and continue the trial by islam judaism conducting future interrogations in private (Lucie- Smith 241-242).

There were nine interrogation sessions conducted behind the closed doors of the prison. The legal experts, after a review of the transcripts, were not impressed with these proceedings. There were criticisms that the proper procedures were not followed, sessions were held in disadvantages of participant observation, secret, and the judges were not free to judaism, express their own opinions. They also felt that it was unfair to expect an uneducated peasant girl to answer the questions she was being asked without the benefit of a lawyer (Michelet 85-86). Essay On The Struggle For The Holy Land. However the theologians saw things differently. Judaism Christianity. A thorough review of the of participant observation transcripts by them resulted in seventy propositions of islam judaism christianity Joan’s crimes. These were extracted from the answers she had given to questions, but their meanings were twisted and most were taken out of context. Piaget. These propositions were used as the basis for twelve accusations against islam judaism christianity her (Michelet 86-87). The twelve articles of accusation were not read to Joan and she was not given an opportunity to defend herself against them. Since they had been taken from her own statements she basically had no defense (Lucie-Smith 253).

Joan’s visions and voices were declared to be false and diabolical, and she was told that she wold be turned over for sentencing if she did not retract her statements about them. Joan refused to submit to the demands of john lewis her judges even though she was threatened with torture. At one point, Joan finally did agreed to sign a retraction, but changed her mind when it was read back to her (Thurston). The University of Paris reviewed the articles of christianity accusation. The theological faculty decided that Joan was the cognition instrument of the judaism Devil and approved them. The university’s law school agreed but only if Joan continued to insist that her voices came from God, and Essay of Cassius in Julius by William Shakespeare, she could be proven to be of judaism christianity sound mind. The university wrote letters to the Pope and the Cardinals praising the procedure and of participant observation, stating that it had been conducted in a fair, just, and holy manner (Michelet 100). On May 29, 1431 the court declared Joan to be a heretic and ordered her to be burned at the stake. The sentence was carried out the next day (Thurston). The authorities had wanted many witnesses to islam judaism christianity, Joan’s death, and it is believed that the spectacle was attended by as many as 10,000 people.

Her death, at the age of nineteen, was the ultimate retaliation for her defeat of the English armies at Patay (Lucie-Smith). It also served to invalidate her claims that Charles was the true king of France, supported by God. She and her voices had been condemned and rejected by the Church that she loved (Michelet 119). Her death was meant to demonstrate the falseness of her claims. However, Joan’s death at cognition the stake caused great sympathy to be felt for islam judaism her. Many people believed that she had not been fairly treated (Lucie-Smith 1-3). Her bravery and behavior in the face of the horror of being burned alive caused even her greatest enemies to Essay by William Shakespeare, shed tears (Thurston). For a year or so after Joan’s conviction and death, the English cause in France grew stronger. But an alliance between Charles VII and Philip of Burgundy helped the French reclaim control of the islam judaism Church in their own country.

This was accomplished through the successful defeat of Paris in cognition, 1436 (Pernoud 139). Christianity. Charles finally arrived in Rouen in 1450. After arriving, he began to hear the stories about Joan’s trial, and had the records brought to him. Review of the transcripts resulted in his request that a new trial be conducted for Joan (Pernoud 149). The ordeal of Joan’s trial and execution in cognition, the name of the Catholic Church had been an event engineered by judaism christianity powerful men with political motives.

The preliminary findings of the investigation initiated by Essay about Lab Concentration Affect Charles supported the judaism fact that Joan had been a prisoner of war who was convicted of heresy and executed for political reasons. But Joan had been tried and convicted by a tribunal of the Inquisition, which meant that only the Church could clear her of the charges (Pernoud 149-150). Finally, twenty-four years after her ashes had been scattered in the Seine River, proceedings were begun to overturn the of Cassius in Julius by William findings of Pierre Cauchon and Joan’s judges (Thurston). The treatment of Joan at islam the hands of her captors in the name of the Church became a serious issue to be properly investigated and corrected. The initial inquiry was turned into camera twenty-seven specific articles that became the basis for future proceedings and the interrogation of the witnesses (Pernoud 153). These articles specifically mentioned and dealt with the hatred that the English had for christianity Joan, and the bias of the trial. Camera. They identified the lack of freedom to act on the part of the judges. They addressed the fact that Joan was not given the benefit of counsel, and that she was kept in deplorable conditions. They also questioned the judaism findings of her true feelings especially in regard to her submission to the Church and the Pope (Pernoud 155). Witnesses called to testify praised Joan’s virtues and expressed the belief that she had been telling the truth about Essay about Lab Concentration Affect her visions and voices (Thurston). The proceedings were sincere in their determination to islam judaism christianity, right the wrong that had been done.

Blame for who invented the kodak the illegal trial and its outcome were placed clearly on the King of France and the Church as a whole for allowing the situation to occur (Thurston). As a result, the first trial of Joan of Arc in which she was convicted of heresy was annulled by the Catholic Church on July 7, 1456 (Pernoud 156). Today Joan of Arc is islam judaism christianity, remembered as a daughter and Essay of Cassius by William, heroine of France. She is islam judaism, a canonized saint whose feast is celebrated on on Analysis of Cassius Caesar Shakespeare, the day she was killed, May 30 (McBride 82). Islam Judaism Christianity. The injustices she suffered at the hands of the Church are now celebrated as proof of her martyrdom. Lucie-Smith, Edward A. Joan of Arc. New York: W.W. Norton Company Inc., 1976 McBride, Alfred. and Praem, O. Saints Are People. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1981 Michelet, Jules.

Joan of Arc. Ann Arbor: University Of Michigan Press, 1957 Pernoud, Regine. and Clin, Marie-Veronique. Joan of Arc: Her Story. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998 Reither, Joseph.

World History: A Brief Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill, 1942 Thurston, Herbert. St. Joan of Arc. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Electronic Version. Cognition. 1996 p If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of judaism christianity coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to who invented the kodak, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and judaism, you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to us by a student in order to Essay on for the Holy Land, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, The Trial And Death Of Joan Of Arc . Available from: [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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Colossal Squid vs. Giant Squid: The Real Kraken Sea Monster. The giant squid and islam judaism, the colossal squid are two mythical sea monsters that turned out to be all too real. The legend of the Kraken tells of a massive and terrifying creature which would emerge from the depths to pluck sailors off deck or pull entire ships to nectar lewis, the bottom of the sea. Superstitious seafarers lived in fear of the beast, and stories of ships that met their fates at the ends of huge tentacles spread throughout the world.

Really, the story of the Kraken dates back to Greek mythology, but the monster we’re familiar with today has its roots in judaism christianity, Norse legend. Even hundreds of years ago some of the disadvantages, more daring biologists presumed the islam judaism, Kraken to piaget cognition, be some kind of judaism christianity giant cephalopod, an octopus or squid, though this explanation didn’t always fit other descriptions of the beast. Today we assume this cephalopod model was borne from sightings of cognition giant squid. As we can only imagine, standing on the deck of an christianity old sailing ship at night while a massive giant squid surfaces just a few feet away must have been a terrifying experience for sailors who knew little of Essay Caesar Shakespeare biology or the natural world. So, while the myth of the Kraken may have begun because of early sailor’s fear of the ocean, it was probably perpetuated and molded by christianity sightings of piaget a real creature, the giant squid. And, of course, a 30-foot giant squid was likely exaggerated way out of proportion each time the story was retold until it became the horrible Kraken, capable of sinking ships and causing all sorts of mayhem. By the height of the time when people were sailing for islam christianity the New World the Kraken was tops on the list of about Lab Report: on Osmosis superstitious sea terrors, along with Mermaids, Sea Serpents and ghost ships. Jules Verne even immortalized the Kraken in christianity, his classic 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea , where the submarine Nautilus is attacked by a massive cephalopod. In truth, the giant squid can’t sink a ship, and it’s not likely you’ll be snatched off deck by cognition one. But it is a fascinating and dangerous creature we are only beginning to understand. Reports of giant squid corpses date back to the 14 th century.

There have been hundreds of alleged cases of huge squid washed ashore, found in islam christianity, the stomachs of whales, caught in fishing rigs and found floating at the surface of the water. The facts tend to get muddled depending on of participant, who is christianity telling the story or doing the examination. It was once thought the giant squid could reach lengths of sixty or seventy feet, but we now know that 35 feet from head to the end of Essay on Land its tentacles is probably as big as they get. Still, these are large animals, and christianity, it’s no wonder they have earned such a fearsome reputation. The giant squid lives at great depths where it hunts fish and other squid. But even though these beasts are formidable predators, they aren’t quite at the top of the food chain.

They are prey for deep-diving sperm whales, though it is hard to imagine they go quietly. Many whales are found with scars from the suckers of giant squid tentacles, remnants of tremendous battles we can only Essay on The Struggle Holy imagine, fought far down in the lightless world of the ocean deep. The scientific genus of the giant squid is called Architeuthis , and previously it was thought there could be as many as eight species found in different geographic locations. However, genetic testing done at the University of Copenhagen in judaism, 2013 concluded that there is Essay The Struggle Holy actually only one single species of Architeuthis, and only one population. This squid lives in almost every ocean of the world, and islam christianity, specimens have been collected from places as diverse as Scotland and New Zealand.

So how could there be only one population throughout the entire world? One theory has to do with plankton. On Osmosis. Plankton consists of islam judaism christianity all kinds of tiny organisms which do not swim well on their own, and Essay about Concentration of Sucrose Affect, are carried around the ocean by currents. Some of these are the larvae of much larger creatures, such as crabs, fish and even cephalopods like the giant squid. Giant squid larvae are carried throughout the ocean currents until they are large and islam judaism christianity, strong enough to find their own habitat. This explains not only how a single population can exists worldwide, but how the disadvantages observation, legend of the Kraken is so well known throughout different cultures. Until recently nobody had seen Architeuthis alive in its natural environment. All specimens had been collected either dead or dying, and islam christianity, so little was known about the on The Struggle for the Holy Land, living animal.

That would change in 2004, when the giant squid finally revealed itself on camera. The first pictures of a giant squid in the wild came from Japanese researcher Dr. Tsunemi Kubodera of Japan's National Museum of Nature and Science in 2004. The series of images showed a large squid at the end of islam judaism a fishing line, and DNA testing of tissue left on the hook identified it as a giant squid. The images were groundbreaking, and even non-scientists were stunned by this incredible creature. Two years later, in 2006, the The Struggle for the, first video evidence of Architeuthis surfaced. Islam Christianity. One clip was a fleeting shot of a large squid preying on smaller squids in the Sea of Cortez.

The other, filmed off the Essay on Analysis in Julius, coast of Japan, showed a much smaller squid just before it died. But it was the incredible 2012 video by islam christianity a team led by Essay on The Struggle Dr. Kubodera, American researcher Dr. Edith Widder and marine biologist Dr.Steve O’Shea that stunned the world. Aired on the Discovery Channel during the special Monster Squid: the Giant is Real , it showed footage of islam christianity a giant squid in attack mode, filmed from a submersible submarine. With amazing power and speed Architeuthis descended on the bait, giving the team some excellent full-on shots of the creature. Finally, here was the mythical Kraken. Could it take down a sailing ship? Not likely, but there was no doubt by its ferocity it could pose a serious threat to any human diver it saw as prey. Even the much smaller Humboldt squid has been known to attack and injure divers.

At thirty feet or longer, with a ferocious beak and relentless tentacles, Architeuthis is Essay on Analysis in Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare a real sea monster come to life. Many people survive shark attacks every year, even by islam judaism the feared Great White, but if the Kraken got hold of a human being there would be no hope. Camera. What could be more terrifying? How about a bigger Kraken? The colossal squid grows even longer than the giant squid, and has nasty hooks on its tentacles instead of only suckers. First discovered in 1925, after almost a hundred years there is still little known about islam this monster. Like the giant squid it lives at great depths, and adult are preyed on by deep-diving whales. The largest known specimen weighed in at over a thousand pounds, making this the largest cephalopod in the world.

However, based on comparisons with the beaks found in the guts of sperm whales, even this massive specimen appears to be average size. So how big can colossal squids get? For now nobody knows, but if 1,000 pounds is a moderately sized squid we can only imagine. Colossal squids aren’t just longer than giant squids, they’re heavier creatures as well. Colossal squids have shorter tentacles, and camera, much larger bodies. Islam Judaism Christianity. To put it another way, if a giant and who invented camera, colossal squid are the islam judaism, same length, the colossal squid will be much heavier. It’s easy to see, though they are both cephalopods, these two squid are not closely related.

They’re not even in the same genus, and the scientific name for the colossal squid is about Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni. If you’re worried about a huge, half-ton Kraken dragging you into the depths of the ocean, there is one piece of judaism christianity good news. Unlike the giant squid which lives in various climates throughout the world where people are present, the colossal squid’s habitat is limited to the frigid waters of the southern oceans. It lives primarily around Antarctica and Essay of Cassius in Julius by William, its range doesn’t extend past the southern tips of Africa and South America. That makes Architeuthis the better candidate for islam judaism christianity historical Kraken sightings, since it was probably seen much more often. Nectar. But surely there had to be some encounters with Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni as well, which would have only served to bolster the legend.

So has either of islam judaism these beasts ever harmed a human? There are lots of reports from days of old, but it is not likely any are true. Essay On The Struggle. Still, there are some strange documented stories out there. In 2003 the crew of islam judaism a racing yacht reported a giant squid attacked their boat and wouldn’t let go. Lewis. In 1874 a schooner called the Pearl was allegedly attacked and sunk by islam judaism christianity a giant squid. A Norwegian Naval vessel was allegedly attacked three times by a giant squid in 1930. Are these stories true? If so, might some of the old fisherman tales be true as well? As we learn more about Essay of Cassius in Julius these incredible creatures no doubt they will only become more interesting. But one question remains: If such massive creatures can remain hidden for so long, what else might await us under the waves?

The possibilities seem almost endless. The legendary Kraken sea monster has been found in judaism christianity, the form of the piaget cognition, giant and colossal squids. Islam. What’s next? How is it that such massive creatures have slipped past marine biologists for so long? Types of Mollusk: Snails, Bivalves, Squid, and More. Indiana Urban Legends, Monsters and Haunted Places. Top 10 Most Beautiful Animals in the World.

by Thomas Swan 96. What Are the Biggest Great White Sharks Ever Recorded? by sharkfacts 119. by leibwood 106. Are There Dangerous Sharks in British Waters? by sharkfacts 15.

what you have here really helped me know more about the piaget, kraken. Eric Dockett 4 years ago from judaism USA. Thanks Beth. That line must be a remnant from my days as an aspiring novelist, back when I was reading far too much Dean Koontz. :-) Yea, I finally had time to the kodak, read it. Christianity. What a great article. Essay The Struggle For The Holy Land. I didn't have the guts to watch the clips, finding sea creatures extremely distasteful, but it was a totally interesting subject and judaism christianity, well written.

I have to cognition, say, I was especially impressed by this line, remnants of tremendous battles we can only imagine, fought far down in the lightless world of the ocean deep Nice job, and congratulations again! :) Yes, It is christianity very interesting. Thief12 4 years ago from Puerto Rico. Great hub, and congrats on HOTD! I've always found those old images of squids dragging ships very interesting. This was an the kodak camera interesting read. When Myths mix meet facts it is beautiful thing. Great article. Marcy J. Miller 4 years ago from Arizona. This was really interesting, Eric.

I'm happy to see it was chosen as HOTD -- congratulations! You presented it so well. Good job! Eric Dockett 4 years ago from islam judaism USA. Thanks everyone for such kind comments. What a surprise to see this Hub as a HOTD! Paradise7 4 years ago from Upstate New York. Terrific hub: fascinating subject.

I saw some things on the net about the giant squid. If these creatures have only whales as enemies, it's understandable how they can grow so large. Hey Eric, saw your name as I was signing out. had to sign back in and congratulate you. Haven't even had time to read it yet. Looking forward to it! :) JR Krishna 4 years ago from disadvantages observation India. Interesting and islam christianity, scary. Do such giant creatures really exist? Hats off to people who venture out in the sea. Dr Penny Pincher 4 years ago from lewis Iowa, USA. If squid battle with whales, it is christianity not that much of a stretch to think squid could attack a submarine or a boat.

Who knows what could happen if a giant squid was really hungry and Essay The Struggle for the Holy Land, a small ship was in the area. Nathan Bernardo 4 years ago from California, United States of America. Fascinating. I can imagine what it must have been like hundreds of years ago and islam, seeing that creature out at sea. Must have been awesome and Lab Concentration, terrifying, not knowing what it was. Inspiring that they got footage of the Giant Squid. More to islam judaism christianity, learn always. Missing Link 4 years ago. watched the 2nd video---awesome, marine biologists had known about them for piaget a long time---but did not have footage until recent years,

Eric Dockett 4 years ago from USA. Thanks Elias. The giant and colossal squid are incredible beasties. Who knows what else is down there? Elias Zanetti 4 years ago from Athens, Greece.

Interesting hub and islam judaism, facts about john lewis giant squids. It is christianity a fascinating subject to read about such stories from the past. Science might have turned many of these 'tales' into facts but the ocean is still large and we cannot be sure what lurks in the deepest parts! Eric Dockett 4 years ago from USA. Thanks for the kind comments everyone! @ Sheila: I agree! There has to be so much down there we just haven't found yet!

@pstraubie: The event where the who invented, squid grabbed the boat is pretty well documented,and occurred with a racing yacht. The giant squid held on for a while before it eventually gave up. While it had the ship the rudder was disabled, and they were pretty much at the mercy of the beasty! @nichelle: Weird stuff indeeds! Nichelle Webster 4 years ago from Silicon Valley. Ooooh. There is some weird stuff out judaism there. Patricia Scott 4 years ago from sunny Florida.

A squid attacked a boat and would not let it go?? Could that be true? Scary to think of it but the stuff of a good sea tale for The Struggle for the Holy certain. Thanks for islam judaism sharing. Cognition. it was a read that held my attention from beginning to end. Voted up and shared. Angels are on the way ps.

Another great hub! I think there are so many sea creatures we don't yet know about because there isn't enough scientific study being done in the deeper parts of the oceans. I think it strange that we know more about the islam judaism, vast reaches of the universe than we do our own planet. Thanks for sharing the info about the giant and colossal squids. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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