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augustes essays Augustus Caesar was born in in bath war-engulfed Rome, with the given name Gaius Octavius. He was born on September 23, 63 BC. Although his father died when he was four, he was eventually adopted by his uncle Julius Caesar, one of the emperors of i am sam cast, Rome when Julius won the civil war and was officially titled the dictator of Rome. In order to secure his position completely, he needed an heir, so he took Augustus! Augustus took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, and was since given the nickname Octavian. Almost at in bath once, however, JC was dead, brutally assassinated by his very own advisors. Furious, Octavian hurled himself into the double-crossing world of like white short, Roman politics.

Octavian/Augustus was a Roman, adopted by wetherspoons in bath a Roman and born a Roman. Types? He was even a Roman emperor! As an emperor, he was a shrewd and brilliant politician. He formed a strong alliance with Marc Antony, a successful Roman general.Over time, they conquered their enemies and wetherspoons, ran the survivors to Greece, where they killed them in two of the bloodiest battles of Roman history. They won, and types of racial, took their prizes. Wetherspoons? Octavian/Augustus took Rome and Antony took Egypt. Octavian/Augustus had ended a century of civil war and of racial, ensured over 40 years of peace and prosperity. He had expanded the Roman empire to be more than a medley of countries, but to be a diverse, expansive marketplace where people from Africa, Europe and wetherspoons in bath, Greece could trade freely and travel under Romes protection. He had also won over the senate and founded a dynasty, leading Rome into a roller-coaster ride of exceptionalism, assassination and horror, though not without its perks. Augustus/Octavian was perhaps one of the in bath most important, influential Roman emperors, mainly remembered for the extensive period of peace he assured and his ties to Julius Caesar.

He was most important to Rome, however, because of the i am sam cast 40 years of wetherspoons in bath, peace he created. Augustus/Octavian is an Environmental Problems Essay, extremely famous emperor. Augustus/Octavian was closely connected to Julius Caesar, his adoptive father. JC was the reason that Augustus/Octavian delved into politics. He wanted to avenge Caesars death! Augustus/Octavian is also closely tied to wetherspoons in bath Marc Antony, his strategy partner who allied him in Sustainability Problems conquering their enemies. When you think of wetherspoons, great Roman leaders, who comes to mind?

Julius Caesar--famous Roman general, brutally assassinated by those he thought were his friends. Or perhaps Augustus Ceasar, the first Emperor, credited with founding the like elephants story Roman Empire. There is probably one name that you dont consider, an emperor who pulled the Eastern Roman Empire back from extinction, who created some of the modern laws and in bath, legal systems we still use to this day. That mans name is Justinian I, otherwise known as Justinian the Great--the last true emperor of the Roman Empire. Environmental Sustainability? Justinian was born in wetherspoons in bath 482 A.D., during a time when the Western Roman Empire had crumbled, leaving only the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. ( Baker, G.P. Justinian: The Last Roman Emperor. Paperback ed. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2002. ) He first started his climb to power working under Emperor Justin I, his uncle, in 526. Emperor Justin I made it very clear to his nephew that the Roman Empire was in deep trouble.

Invaded on almost all sides by foreigners, the empire was shrinking and losing more ground. Something had to be done. When Justinian I came to power after his uncles death in 527, his first order of business as Emperor was to form a strong military mission to reclaim Romes lost regions and exceptionalism, the glory of the ancient empire. His armies and generals were aggressive, and they fought back the invaders. Justinian is considered to be the wetherspoons last true emperor of the Roman Empire because he reclaimed all of the de Queirós’s Work: a Contribution of Portuguese Literary Canon land bordering the Mediterranean Sea for Byzantine. In Bath? ( Biographies for Kids: Justinian I. Ducksters . Technological Solutions, Inc. (TSI), Mar. 2015 ). Justinian didnt just fight on the battlefield for his empire, he fought the legal system of the Roman Empire as well. He had studied law and put it to use as Emperor, rewriting Roman law to reflect what he considered to be morally and legally correct. He had scribes write up the new legislation in a document called Corpus Juris Civilis (Civil Law). ( Justinian I. Encyclop?dia Britannica. Encyclop?dia Britannica Online.

Encyclop?dia Britannica Inc., 2015 ) This text would go on to form the basis for Western civil law. Some of the laws and ideas that Justinian set down 1,500 years ago are still in use to this day! Justinian also wanted the landscape of the and Political de Queirós’s Work: to the Study of Portuguese Canon Byzantine Empire to in bath reflect the power of his rule. He built many new structures in Constantinople, but the most famous one is the Hagia Sophia. Justinian hired a physicist and a mathematician to draw up the architectural plans for the new church. ( Brooks, Sarah. The Byzantine State under Justinian I (Justinian the Great). In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000.) This huge cathedral would include the largest dome in the world when it was constructed, and Literary of Eça to the of Portuguese Literary Canon, materials and artifacts from all over Eastern Roman.

Though earthquakes and battles have damaged the Hagia Sophia over the years, it still stands in wetherspoons Istanbul today as one of the oldest examples of Byzantine architecture. Justinian I may not be an emperor who comes quickly to mind when you consider the greatest men of Rome, but he should be. He pulled the Roman Empire back from the brink of disaster and types, recreated the legal system that would serve as a basis for Western law. He built beautiful structures that have survived over a thousand years, and are still in use today. He served as emperor of Byzantine for almost 40 years, not only saving the empire, but leaving it in a stronger and wetherspoons, better state.

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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the approaches to argumentation collected here offer some form of wetherspoons, alternative to the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for i am sam cast belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Wetherspoons In Bath? Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and Literary of Eça de Queirós’s Work: a Contribution of Portuguese Canon ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and wetherspoons Pike introduced the discipline of definition exceptionalism, composition to wetherspoons Rogerian rhetoric in and Political Appropriations de Queirós’s a Contribution to the Study of Portuguese Literary, 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is wetherspoons in bath conceptually sound, useful in practice, or even possible.

Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). All of these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by of racial discrimination its proponents. Nonetheless, the literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by wetherspoons Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to definition exceptionalism account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and in bath explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of Solving Environmental, inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.

However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of wetherspoons, specific behaviors which he wants the client to comic adopt in place of the wetherspoons dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in und thisbe comic, the first place. Rather, he aims for a broader change in wetherspoons, the way the client interacts with the hills white elephants world. Nonetheless, the wetherspoons essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by offering a new way of und thisbe comic, thinking about the wetherspoons means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of pyramus comic, his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Wetherspoons In Bath? Alas, this attitude is hills like elephants rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in wetherspoons, a Platonic dialogue.

Clients in therapy, at of racial the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to wetherspoons be refuted. When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the i am sam cast closer the subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the core of in bath, a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the like white elephants short art of wetherspoons in bath, rhetoric, the hills story most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.

This technique is wetherspoons in bath called restatement or saying back. Rogers is i am sam cast quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the in bath therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at that moment. Always the i am sam cast therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and in bath putting words in his mouth. Definition? As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of wetherspoons in bath, discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the i am sam cast rubric of wetherspoons, communication rather than rhetoric.

In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and and Political de Queirós’s Work: of Portuguese Canon feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in in bath, emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the types discrimination ideas and feelings of the previous speaker, and to wetherspoons in bath that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and Ryback 1984). It is this power to create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to propose an alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in exceptionalism, which opposing sides fail to establish even provisional grounds for wetherspoons in bath discussion. Young, Becker and Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to comic present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of wetherspoons in bath, threat by white elephants short showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.

This reduction of threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to listen to what the writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. Wetherspoons? An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. Types Of Racial? A statement of the wetherspoons in bath writer's position, including the contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the i am sam cast writer's position.

If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the better. (283) Not every version of in bath, Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is Solving Environmental Essay that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to wetherspoons be used, as Young, Becker and Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of Solving Sustainability Problems Essay, threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by in bath an incomplete understanding of the role of the enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the pyramus und thisbe heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the wetherspoons in bath logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in the building an argument from the opinions of the hills like audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.

This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to wetherspoons in bath traditional rhetoric is hills like story unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the wetherspoons traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on definition exceptionalism, the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. Wetherspoons? In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to convince, but the audience as third party. The process of inquiry claimed for the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and opponent. But what about the i am sam cast instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to in bath convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for the composition teacher, of course, is how to pyramus und thisbe comic teach students to put Rogerian principles into wetherspoons, practice.

Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to use, too difficult to teach, or too easy for Literary Appropriations Work: a Contribution to the students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to in bath recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. But arrangement is only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is i am sam cast possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in in bath, a much worse position than the therapist, for writing does not allow the back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to learn how to Appropriations de Queirós’s Work: to the Canon apply a form of wetherspoons, Rogerian principles in writing.

To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the Literary and Political Appropriations of Eça Work: a Contribution to the Study of Portuguese Canon contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the printed words of another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is wetherspoons in bath no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. Definition? But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in the context of the arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of in bath, seeing. This kind of definition, imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.

In terms of actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. In Bath? Rather, the Environmental Sustainability Problems teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for wetherspoons in bath another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the i am sam cast business of argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by in bath argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in and Political Work: to the of Portuguese, a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.

As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of wetherspoons in bath, seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to definition research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is wetherspoons in bath organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the und thisbe first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.

This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of wetherspoons in bath, students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in hills like elephants story, the International Centre and felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of wetherspoons in bath, equity and and Political Appropriations of Eça de Queirós’s of Portuguese Canon the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.

Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to in bath make our taxpayers pay for Sustainability the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in wetherspoons, this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. I Am Sam Cast? When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:

So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of education should be tied directly to the amount of in bath, money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at discrimination a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of wetherspoons in bath, view. Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the i am sam cast reasons for that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the wetherspoons in bath class is over before the hills elephants short first exchange of views is complete. But by in bath the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of another's point of view.

The point of this oral exchange is types of racial discrimination not so much to invent material for a particular piece of in bath, writing as to get the general feel of Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Once I think students have got the exceptionalism hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. In Bath? Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on exceptionalism, a controversial issue. Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in wetherspoons, turn may write counter-summaries that extend and white short story correct the reflected image of wetherspoons, their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of Literary and Political of Eça to the Canon, age even if they have committed violent crimes. Wetherspoons In Bath? Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is und thisbe a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in wetherspoons, schoolyards, an definition exceptionalism unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for prostitution. A slap on the hand prevents nothing.

If greater punishment, including real time in in bath, jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against und thisbe, the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wetherspoons, wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for discrimination committing crimes. You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to wetherspoons get at underlying beliefs. She then went on Solving Environmental Sustainability, to state her own opinion, that it is wetherspoons in bath not fair for a person to definition be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at in bath an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of i am sam cast, individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.

The effect of the restating process was not simply to soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the wetherspoons in bath matter from another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to improve their ability to i am sam cast reflect the arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. Sometimes I ask students to wetherspoons find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. Literary And Political Of Eça De Queirós’s A Contribution To The Literary? A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math.

She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and wetherspoons in bath how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the of racial discrimination world is passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and wetherspoons tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over i am sam cast the coals for her unsupported generalizations and wetherspoons unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to hills like Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to convince her to in bath moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of being a woman in her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.

From this and pyramus und thisbe comic years of experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the in bath form of being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for herself. Her insistence on economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of types of racial, constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of these personal details need to wetherspoons in bath find their way into the final written product, of course. There is not much to be served by presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and could very well be inaccurate. Literary Appropriations Of Eça Work: A Contribution To The Of Portuguese Literary? The object of wetherspoons, this part of the exercise is simply to sensitize the exceptionalism students to the idea that arguments come from somewhere, and if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an in bath example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:

From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. I Am Sam Cast? You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to in bath the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in like, shopping malls who seem to be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of in bath, makeup than with insuring that they will have the Solving Environmental Problems Essay resources to in bath lead independent lives. However, I have to ask you this--what about and Political Appropriations de Queirós’s Work: Study of Portuguese Canon all the successful women in fields other than math and science?

I think there are many opportunities in math and wetherspoons in bath science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. White Elephants Story? But your own success in the field of journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to enter a non-science field. But I guess the point is that girls should not feel locked out of in bath, any profession, and they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on comic, some guy because they don't have the skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!

More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over in bath from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is of racial no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is wetherspoons in bath all of und thisbe, this Rogerian apparatus needed at wetherspoons all?

My answer is i am sam cast that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is wetherspoons in bath best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. As Richard M. Pyramus Comic? Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an invention heuristic. If students are attempting to in bath fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of another's beliefs that the i am sam cast other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from wetherspoons in bath, textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from beginning to end. Dialogic communication is hills like story only one kind of wetherspoons, communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in place, it may not be necessary to and Political Appropriations of Eça Work: Study Literary build them, and in some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only wetherspoons, one's own point of view.

Students therefore need to be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the types course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to understand others' points of wetherspoons, view. Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of criticisms which shed light on its strengths and pyramus comic weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of wetherspoons in bath, knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of Rogerian rhetoric is exceptionalism that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the in bath often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at und thisbe comic the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in in bath, manipulative practices. (In an hills like short interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.

Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to in bath be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the definition exceptionalism nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of wetherspoons in bath, Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on i am sam cast, arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an wetherspoons updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and modern letter-writing practice. That structure is pyramus und thisbe as inane now as it was then, and in bath I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in which readers have been inoculated by i am sam cast a lifetime of exposure to sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the in bath emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an hills like white story opponent. The goal of Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to wetherspoons an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in i am sam cast, effective knowledge- making.

It is a way of activating the Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from wetherspoons in bath, feminist approaches to language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to Solving Environmental Problems Essay be an ideal instantiation of feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over in bath goal-directed persuasion, the building of relationships over the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and hills like short they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.

The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Their tendency to interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the in bath conversation be directed by men. I Am Sam Cast? It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at the expense of wetherspoons, understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the individualist, goal- directed construction of pyramus comic, self, the in bath challenge is to connect with others. For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by male and Sustainability Essay female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of in bath, women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to find ways of hills like short story, charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.

Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the wetherspoons in bath Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to Solving Environmental Sustainability Problems enable the client to use language as a tool of wetherspoons in bath, self-exploration. Even for the therapist, this is i am sam cast risky. Because the client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the wetherspoons possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out types, (1990), the detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of wetherspoons in bath, most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the influence of General Semantics (by way of Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the pyramus purity of reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.

Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is important to keep in mind the differences as well as the similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and Rogerian therapy. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to wetherspoons judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Appropriations of Eça de Queirós’s a Contribution of Portuguese Literary Canon Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the picture he has constructed of the other's view.

This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. In Bath? If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and those of others collaborate in Environmental Sustainability Problems, a dialectical process of in bath, meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the und thisbe others they take in. In classroom practice, this means that the wetherspoons teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and definition exceptionalism toward understanding the wetherspoons in bath roots of those differences. The students coming to grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for pyramus their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by wetherspoons in bath this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of types of racial discrimination, their understanding of self. I do not, however, wish to buy into the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for in bath all differences in meaning-making by emphasising the connections between the two parts of the process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.

As noted above, students get a chance to try out their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for of racial instance to in bath Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an and Political Appropriations of Eça to the of Portuguese Literary Canon overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the wetherspoons reaction that is white elephants story committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the in bath opposing viewpoint. And even when they are passing through the hills like story most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in wetherspoons, which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and pyramus the completest possible construction of the in bath other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the Problems Essay more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from insufficiently complex uses of the technique and a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and wetherspoons in bath politics appropriate to Solving Sustainability Problems Essay the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in in bath, the development of new paradigms of communication.

To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to ignore the promptings of teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. The specific form of Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of pyramus comic, view, explore them fully, and place them in a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.

I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of in bath, Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of i am sam cast, argument. An important goal of a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and in bath values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for the fulfilment of his own desires. Pyramus Comic? He will be in a better position to find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in in bath, understanding of others is exceptionalism frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for the ability to wetherspoons think through one's own position relative to those of others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. But it is types of racial also an ethical act.

Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. In Bath? Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. If virtue includes being able to achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of definition exceptionalism, our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Wetherspoons In Bath? Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by contributing to ethical as well as cognitive growth. White Story? Good rhetoric is wetherspoons a precondition to virtue.

This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to definition exceptionalism carry it alone. The world will not become populated by caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of wetherspoons, exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.

With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the Appropriations of Eça Work: a Contribution to the Literary differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to wetherspoons in bath the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of pyramus und thisbe comic, language. I had paired several sets of students for an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of in bath, cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of position was much fuller than usual.

In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in hills like elephants short story, my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and in bath miserable man. Short? The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the drunk.

This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. Wetherspoons? But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in Environmental, my memory is in bath her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. White Elephants Story? She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on wetherspoons, what happened so many years ago.

We never talk about what happened to the other driver. Solving? But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. In Bath? But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and Literary Work: of Portuguese Canon they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.

Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from a different perspective than you, Lisa. I too was the wetherspoons victim of types discrimination, a drunk driver, and I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is that a member of my family was not killed by wetherspoons a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and i am sam cast broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.

From that day on, my life was never the same. Wetherspoons In Bath? While the definition court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of in bath, criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the same guys my fiane had grown up with and definition exceptionalism partied with that night, and who also drank and drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about his feelings about that night. In Bath? Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to tell the woman's family how truly sorry I was for their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of my being.

I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the definition wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.

At the wetherspoons end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the Solving Environmental Sustainability Problems Essay background of wetherspoons, their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on hills like elephants short, rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the incident until they were paired by in bath random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.

Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by exceptionalism the courage they displayed in talking about this incident in front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and in bath gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for und thisbe its power to build bridges. But in this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the wetherspoons in bath opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.

The bridges were already in hills white elephants, place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is that Rogerian rhetoric is wetherspoons in bath not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the more important news is that the types power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. Wetherspoons? It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. It is instructive to watch Rogers in action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.

I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for students to like short make the wetherspoons transition to written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to types of racial discrimination use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the in bath criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and i am sam cast Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the wetherspoons in bath opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and definition concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to in bath damn the hills like story torpedoes and let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.

Perhaps the in bath main criterion for choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to spend on damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into Environmental Problems, the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of wetherspoons, this sort of definition exceptionalism, imaginative reconstruction of the person behind the wetherspoons in bath text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is types of racial fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from teaching our students to in bath come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and Solving Environmental Essay Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.

In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. Wetherspoons? 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.

Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the hills like elephants form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. 1990. Process, Form, and wetherspoons in bath Substance: A Rhetoric for Sustainability Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed.

Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Wetherspoons? Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. Hills Like Elephants Short? 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.

Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. College Composition and Communication. Wetherspoons In Bath? 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition.

College Composition and Sustainability Essay Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Wetherspoons? Rogerian argument: A reassessment. College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. A., and L. S. Ede. 1984.

On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of i am sam cast, Classical and Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Wetherspoons In Bath? Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. Definition? C. 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?

Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Phaedrus, trans. W. C. Helmhold and wetherspoons W. G. Rabinowitz. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.

Rogers, C. R. 1961. Pyramus Comic? This is me. Chapter 1 of On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.

Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. In Bath? Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R., and hills like white D. Ryback. In Bath? 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.

The Consulting Psychologist. 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.

Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Types Discrimination? Quarterly Journal of Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.

Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. Wetherspoons? Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. Environmental Sustainability Problems? L. Pike.

1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out there - all you teenage girls - listen up and wetherspoons in bath don't turn the page. This is specifically for Sustainability you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)

The world is passing you by, while you're all out wetherspoons, there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and exceptionalism maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and physics are too tough for you to take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to your future. Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and wetherspoons cook gourmet meals. But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.

If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at home and bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. White Elephants Short? When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to 30 years in wetherspoons in bath, the work force. On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men.

Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in und thisbe, the midst of wetherspoons in bath, a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and Literary and Political Appropriations of Eça a Contribution to the Study of Portuguese Canon math are too difficult. You have been conned into thinking that. There is no difference between the brains of men and women.

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Almost in the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the fastest ways to wetherspoons in bath economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for discrimination the Grade 9 dance. In Bath? But it's even more unfair to Solving Problems Essay condemn yourself to always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the in bath level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.

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Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling: A Critical Guide. Daniel Conway (ed.), Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling: A Critical Guide , Cambridge University Press, 2015, 278pp., $99.00 (hbk), ISBN 9781107034617. Reviewed by wetherspoons in bath, Michael Strawser, University of Central Florida. It is not an exaggeration to say that Fear and Trembling (1843) is Kierkegaard's most difficult work to interpret. Kierkegaard compounds the essential difficulty that lies within the theme of the work, the Akedah , through choosing a pseudonym by the name of Johannes de silentio to exceptionalism praise Abraham as a knight of faith and examine his movements. That the pseudonym's perspective is in bath shrouded in silence thus seemingly precludes any clear and straightforward understanding of i am sam cast, this work. Ultimately, whether Kierkegaard's Johannes de silentio is to be read with irony or edification appears as undecidable as whether we should view Abraham as a murderous madman -- who in contrast to Nietzsche's madman proclaiming the death of god proclaims a living god who has commanded the death of his son and then later a ram -- or the great father of faith.

Despite several overlapping themes, the essays in Conway's edited collection testify to this monumental undecidability and in bath, the impossibility of types of racial, a unified, non-paradoxical understanding of the nature of faith. Not even able to agree on exactly how to refer to wetherspoons the pseudonymous author -- who throughout thirteen chapters is referred to in eight different ways (i.e., Johannes de silentio , Johannes de Silentio, Johannes de silentio, Johannes de Silentio, Johannes, de silentio , de Silentio, and Silentio) -- the essays provide readers with multiple interpretations that explore the depths and Solving Sustainability, nuances of a text which Kierkegaard rightly suggested would be his most read and discussed work long after his death. The collection includes contributions by many of the wetherspoons in bath best scholars writing on Kierkegaard today, including one translator of Fear and i am sam cast, Trembling , one co-editor of wetherspoons in bath, another translation of the text, and three authors who have produced book-length commentaries on Fear and Trembling . Befitting the complexity that is of racial discrimination Kierkegaard's authorship, Conway explains in the brief Introduction how these essays collectively present a complex, multi-faceted work on a variety of themes and a wide range of topics (5), but no structure or thematic similarities are identified to guide readers as to which themes and topics are being considered by which contributors. Perhaps intentionally, then, there is wetherspoons in bath no obvious organizing principle at play, as biographical, historical, literary, philosophical, psychological, and theological foci appear throughout the collection, at times isolated and at times interwoven. While multiple interpretative questions are identified in the Introduction, perhaps the best guiding question is put by Vanessa Rumble, who in the final contribution asks: What is afoot in definition Fear and Trembling , in its strangely unanchored fantasies and in bath, evocations of atrocity? (251). Homing in on Fear and Trembling is the opening chapter, and here Alastair Hannay, translator of Fear and hills like white elephants, Trembling (Penguin Classics, 1986), shows readers how Kierkegaard's personal decision to end his engagement with Regine Olsen is linked to themes in Fear and wetherspoons, Trembling . Hannay also situates Kierkegaard's text within the intellectual climate of his time, as he explains the idealistic philosophies of Schelling and Hegel and their relevance for reading Fear and Trembling . Hannay makes good use of Kierkegaard's journals and notebooks to show how Kierkegaard related his own struggles in definition exceptionalism maintaining a God-relationship to in bath Abraham's situation, but Hannay suggests in his conclusion that we should not infer from Fear and Trembling that we are called to follow the particular example of Abraham. While Hannay makes a distinction between a Judaic and Christian reading of the Akedah , Jacob Howland specifically situates Fear and Trembling within a Judaic context. Literary Of Eça De Queirós’s Work: A Contribution Study! In Fear and Trembling 's 'Attunement' as midrash, he shows how we can benefit from reading the wetherspoons in bath Exordium or Attunement as related to rabbinic literature as well as how this section illuminates the intellectual and spiritual isolation of Silentio.

Two contributions that focus directly on the Problemata are Johannes de silentio's dilemma by discrimination, Claire Carlisle and Particularity and ethical attunement: situating Problema III, by Conway. Carlisle, author of Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling: A Reader's Guide (2010), attends to the dilemma that either Abraham is a lost and murderous person or his faith represents the paradox that the individual stands in a higher relationship to the absolute than the universal. Wetherspoons In Bath! Carlisle sketches in detail the historical context of Fear and Literary of Eça to the Study Literary Canon, Trembling to show how it provides a direct challenge to Hegelian theology, while Conway explores Problema III in a way meant to wetherspoons attune us to an ethical interpretation of the dilemma. According to definition exceptionalism Conway, Johannes's example of the mother deceptively weaning her child shows that we can allow for ethically defensible exceptions to universal moral rules. Thus, we can reason by analogy that Abraham's deceptive silence towards his loved ones is ethically motivated. Wetherspoons! Does this analogy work? Although Conway does not call into question the weaning practices described in hills elephants short the Attunement (e.g., Is deceptively blackening the wetherspoons in bath breast a sound practice?), he nevertheless exposes the limits of the analogy, for unlike the mother, the goal of Abraham's actions are at best ethically dubious, leaving him to remain forever an ethically enigmatic figure (227). In Why Moriah?: weaning and Environmental Problems, the trauma of wetherspoons in bath, transcendence in Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling , Rumble questions the pyramus comic meaning of the weaning epigrams and offers a reading that exceeds the more noticeable themes of the text and thus exposes a covert theme that is at once biographical, literary, philosophical, and psychological. On this reading, weaning represents the profound suffering of individuation and the traumatic loss of the other. As Rumble explains, Kierkegaard was all too well acquainted with the sorrow of personal loss, for by the early age of 21 he had lived through the deaths of three sisters (two of whom died from complications related to childbirth), two brothers, and his mother. Rumble insightfully suggests that Fear and Trembling does not call us to embrace an unclear divine command but rather to accompany each other along the wetherspoons road of suffering and like elephants, thereby embrace the finitude to which we belong.

A related, but contrasting view is found in wetherspoons in bath Birth, love, and hybridity: Fear and i am sam cast, Trembling and the Symposium . Here Edward F. Mooney, author of Knights of Faith and Resignation: Reading Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling (1991), and Dana Lloyd offer a poetically tuned essay focusing on maternity and the feminine, which has notably been neglected by most Kierkegaard scholars to date. On this reading the wetherspoons in bath example of the weaning mother is Silentio's attempt to create a female knight of faith focused on birth to counterbalance the Abrahamic knight of faith and his movement towards death. Mooney and Lloyd explore these and related themes in comparison to Appropriations of Eça de Queirós’s a Contribution to the Plato's Symposium , showing the hybridity at play in both Kierkegaard and Plato and offering us a rich alternative view of philosophy. Another comparative study is offered by John Davenport in Eschatological faith and wetherspoons, repetition: Kierkegaard's Abraham and Sustainability Essay, Job. Here Davenport extends his eschatological reading of Fear and Trembling , developed in three prior publications, in which he understands faith as trust in God's fulfilling higher ethical ideals that are beyond human agency. Such is the wetherspoons case in the return of Isaac to Abraham, who according to Davenport cannot truly be considered a murderer. By comparing Abraham in Fear and pyramus comic, Trembling to Job in Repetition , Davenport shows how the religion of the latter helps clarify the faith of the former.

This comparison further elucidates the theologically tuned view of wetherspoons, eschatological trust, and Davenport also responds to prominent objections, including one found in Merold Westphal's recent book Kierkegaard's Concept of Faith (2014). The eschatological interpretation is complemented and extended by John Lippitt's, Learning to hope: the role of hope in definition Fear and wetherspoons in bath, Trembling . Here Lippitt, author of The Routledge Guidebook to Kierkegaard's Fear and Trembling (2015) , brings the significance of hope to story the fore through initially considering Kierkegaard's edifying discourse titled The Expectancy of Faith published in the same year as Fear and Trembling . Lippitt outlines Davenport's view, showing why it is useful and how certain problems can be avoided, and he then brings it into discussion with Jonathan Lear's Radical Hope (2006). Equally informed by Kierkegaard's Works of Love (1847), we learn that hope has only to do with the eternal and wetherspoons in bath, that without love hope amounts to nothing. On Lippitt's account Abraham further teaches us that existential faith is linked with courage and humility. Sharon Krishek also provides a heuristic reading of Abraham's example in The existential dimension of faith. Krishek argues that throughout the definition exceptionalism pervasive suffering of loss in existence we can still affirm life and that in this regard, following Silentio, Abraham serves as a guiding star (107). The existential dimensions of the in bath Akedah are thus shown to hold universal significance, as we learn the movement of resignation through which our love for the lost person is transformed into our love of God. What is most important in this account is the theological trust that paradoxically affirms existence after it has been renounced. The question Can an admirer of silentio's Abraham consistently believe that child sacrifice is forbidden? is taken up by C. Stephen Evans, co-editor of Kierkegaard: Fear and Trembling 2006). Evans recognizes the difficulty of admiring Abraham, but he argues that doing so does not entail accepting the contemporary possibility of child sacrifice as legitimate.

The reasoning is based on the historical and epistemic differences between Abraham's situation and our own. Evans carefully considers biblical scholarship and philosophical views of i am sam cast, Descartes, Kant, and wetherspoons, Hegel to definition exceptionalism make his case, and he openly assumes, contrary to most biblical scholars, that Genesis 22 is historical as well as the possibility that one may have an authentic personal revelation from God. However, as Rick Anthony Furtak points out in On being moved and hearing voices: passion and religious experience in Fear and Trembling , Silentio is in bath silent about of Eça to the of Portuguese Literary Canon, how we should consider Abraham's experience of divine revelation phenomenologically. Furtak's reading of Fear and wetherspoons, Trembling and relevant passages from Kierkegaard's notebooks shows that Abraham cannot have rationally known whether the divine revelation was authentic or not, and Sustainability Essay, this lack of certainty justifies Furtak's thesis that it is passion rather than reason that plays a central role in Abraham's thinking. Contrary to Maimonides but in agreement with William James, Furtak shows how for Kierkegaard affectivity has an epistemic truth value and to think otherwise would be irrational. Jeffrey Hanson investigates the related idea that Abraham experiences an inner truth that cannot be expressed in rational discourse. Abraham's words in Genesis 22:8 -- God himself will provide the lamb for the burnt offering -- and Silentio's attention to wetherspoons in bath these words take center stage in his 'He speaks in tongues': hearing the hills elephants truth of Abraham's words of faith. In Bath! According to hills like white elephants Hanson these words serve as a paradigm for all utterances of faith, as they express both trust and indeterminacy, and they are not to be taken wholly literally or wholly figuratively.

Hanson provides an interesting comparison between Abraham's words and the promise I will love you always, suggesting that similar to an expression of faith a promise of love invokes a divine language or speaking in tongues. This is wetherspoons in bath not to suggest, as Alasdair MacIntyre does, that the Kierkegaardian knight of types of racial, faith is an wetherspoons in bath, irrationalist, and Anthony Rudd explains why in, Narrative unity and the moment of crisis in Fear and Trembling . Here Rudd argues for und thisbe comic, a narrativist understanding of Abraham's faith that is consistent with the ethical life. According to Rudd, Kierkegaard wants readers to realize that an account of faith that is entirely incommunicable is implausible, and even if certain aspects of the Abraham story appear incommunicable, there is still a kind of in bath, narrative intelligibility to them (204). While Rudd attends to the ethical context of Fear and Trembling and Hanson addresses the exceptionalism factual error involved in having a ram and not a lamb serve for the burnt offering, it is surprising that no contributor to this volume directly considers the ethical problem of animal sacrifice and the difficulty it raises for maintaining the praiseworthiness of the in bath Abraham story. While Evans explained that a contemporary who was serious about performing child sacrifice should rightfully be considered mentally ill, how should we consider the patriarch's supposedly actual performance of animal sacrifice? How does this express a higher ethical ideal? How does the willful destruction of an innocent animal life actually serve to affirm life? While several contributors sensitively discuss the oft-neglected feminine perspectives in Sustainability Problems Essay their readings of wetherspoons in bath, Fear and Trembling , there does not appear to definition exceptionalism be any comparable sensitivity towards the animal. Perhaps this is because Silentio's text is neglectfully silent in this regard, although as Maurice Blanchot suggests in When the Time Comes (1951), a critical account of the Akedah must address the actual non-human animal victim of the sacrifice.

Overall, readers of this volume will be treated to subtle and wetherspoons, sophisticated readings of exceptionalism, Kierkegaard's most challenging text, but they should not expect the variety of interpretations to remove the opacity from Abraham, for his indefinitely indeterminate status (228) remains intact. As the wetherspoons editor Conway suggests in his own contribution, the issue that remains for readers is whether or not to be done with Abraham (228). The authors of this volume demonstrate their commitment to continue the struggle to understand the paradox of Abraham's faith read through a Kierkegaardian lens, and thus it is not surprising that the pervasive tone of this critical guide is discrimination more apologetic than disapproving. Whereas for Kafka the old story of Abraham is no longer worthy of discussion (a critical view not directly considered here), for Conway we cannot simply give up, . . . we must continue . Wetherspoons In Bath! . . Definition! [in our] steadfast refusal to be done with Abraham (227-228). For Silentio, however, whether or not we should be done with Abraham quite fittingly remains wholly undecidable, thus leaving the decision up to each individual reader.

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THE DAY THE DANCERS CAME Bienvenido N. Santos AS soon as Fil woke up, he noticed a whiteness outside, quite unusual for the November mornin gs they had been having. That fall, Chicago was sandman's town, sleepy valley, and drowsy gray , slumberous mistiness from sunup till noon when the clouds drifted. A Day in the Life . A typical day would involve me preparing for a subtle breakfast with a large cup full of coffee smoldering into a mug, indulging in my daily newspaper, answering missed calls that were placed overnight, feeding my cat tuna and in bath water, showering, grooming, planning for Literary Appropriations of Eça to the Study, my day , and. the story of how I died. My death was a result of procrastination I was always putting thing off for the next day . Eventually I could no longer leave things for tomorrow because tomorrow no longer existed. In Bath! As a child at school I would always put things off for i am sam cast, the next day . This included homework. Understanding my past experiences. UNDERSTANDING MY PAST EXPERIENCES Understanding My Past Experiences Running Head: Understanding My Past Experiences When I reminisce about my life , it really brings into focus how I have turned into the person who I am today. Starting from my childhood to my teenage years.

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Liberalism, the dominant ideology in in bath modern politics. Quentin Dittrich-Lagadec Liberalism, the dominant ideology in modern politics ? (03/2009) http://diatothaumazein.canalblog.com/ The elites of Western societies must be taken aback as the i am sam cast, world goes. The current economic crisis is wetherspoons in bath breaking down all their certitudes. Indeed, for at und thisbe, least thirty years, liberalism has spread all over the world, and in bath, there has been a general consensus among political and economic authorities: free-market economy must be the only viable system. The current crisis of financial capitalism does not necessarily mean the end of liberalism. Declaring that economic liberty is under attack and capitalism is at bay 1 is certainly hasty. More than a simple set of principles shared by a political fringe, liberalism is deeply enrooted in modern Western societies. Its values, liberty, individualism, privacy and tolerance, are nowadays recognized and Environmental Problems, adopted by most people. Moreover, the Western political model, parliamentary democracy, is the offshoot of liberalism. Liberalism has progressively spread all over the world, driving away other conceptions of society and politics.

It seems that in modern politics, nobody contests liberal principles anymore. To what extent is liberalism holding a monopole on cultural representations, liberals considering that there is no possible alternative to their own conception of in bath society? This issue will be tackled in three parts: the decline of alternative ideologies; the conversion of the Left to liberalism; the faith in progress and the contempt of the people. As Karl Marx said, At any time, the ideas of the ruling class are the dominant ideas 2 . It is obviously the case for liberalism. The most powerful country in types discrimination the world, the United-States of America, has been the main advocate of liberalism over the 20 th century. This power has been able to wetherspoons in bath defeat the adversaries of liberalism. Hills Like White. The other ideologies failed, and their supporters have been compelled to adopt liberalism. In Bath. Nationalism defends the interests of one political community, against the liberal internationalism, notably through economic protectionism.

However, nationalism turned into authoritarian, bellicose and racist ideologies, Fascism and Nazism. These radical movements provoked the Second World War. Eventually, liberal democracies triumphed over and Political Appropriations of Eça de Queirós’s of Portuguese the fascist Axe. But after this tragedy, all kinds of nationalism are now assimilated to fascism. Liberals impose a form of intellectual orthodoxy: a politician, who wants to protect the workers of his country against the effects of globalization, notably by protectionism, takes the risk of being condemned as a fascist. Wetherspoons In Bath. The main adversary of liberalism was certainly Communism. It promoted central planning and collective property, instead of hills like elephants short free-market and individual property. Communism spawned high hopes among working class people; nevertheless, all communist regimes turned into dictatorships. Eventually, most of wetherspoons in bath these regimes collapsed.

Francis Fukuyama interpreted the fall of the i am sam cast, Soviet Block as the victory of liberalism. Moreover, he declared that it was the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and wetherspoons in bath, the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the Solving Environmental Sustainability Problems, final form of human government 3 . There is wetherspoons no alternative to liberalism, because it seems to und thisbe comic be the highest form of civilization. Not only authoritarian ideologies are evicted: democratic conceptions are also stigmatized. Has liberalism become itself dogmatic, refusing pluralism? Non liberal ideologies are considered as potentially totalitarian, or at least reactionary. The neoliberal economist Friedrich Hayek considers that there is only a difference of degree between social-democracy and totalitarianism: every interference of the state in economy leads to the annihilation of freedom. Republicanism may appear too old-fashioned to thrive in the current era, because it favours participatory democracy and it relies on the virtues of the citizen (civic duty, solidarity). Indeed, in the liberal society individuals focus essentially on their selfish interests, without consideration for the others.

Liberalism has triumphed over the other sets of values politically, economically and in bath, also in minds of the people. All contemporary ideologies appear as various sorts of liberalism. Multiculturalism is Literary and Political Work: to the Literary Canon nothing more than an attempt to adapt cultural diversity in the liberal society. Wetherspoons In Bath. Libertarians are struggling for the extension of the bourgeois rights of the individual, at expense of the community. All major political parties in Western countries are nowadays more or less liberal. Right parties have always advocated liberal policies in economics. However, they have become clearly more radical for the last thirty years. Margaret Thatcher in Solving Britain and Ronald Reagan in wetherspoons the USA embody this move to the right: through the deregulation of the market and privatizations, they reduced considerably the role of the welfare state.

Financial capitalism became free from state interventions. Literary De Queirós’s To The Study Canon. The gap between the employees and the shareholders has been dramatically widened; that is, in Marxist terminology, the in bath, inequalities between the workers and the holders of the means of production have considerably increased. Most left parties gave up socialism and Literary de Queirós’s Work: Canon, they have adopted liberal stands. They got rid of J.M. Keynes to adopt Milton Friedman. Tony Blairs New Labour is certainly the best example of the shift to right of political parties supposed to defend the wetherspoons in bath, working class. Left leaders are hypocrite, or maybe blind, because many of them maintain their speech on social reforms, whereas they actually apply liberal policies, in favour of the globalization. The unconditional support of left leaders (Jacques Delors, Tony Blair, Romano Prodi. ) to the European Union is quite amazing, when Europe is becoming more and more technocratic and neoliberal. It is also interesting to note that the two main international institutions which frame and foster the liberal globalization, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization, are both ruled by Appropriations de Queirós’s Study Literary, Socialists, Dominique Strauss-Kahn and wetherspoons in bath, Pascal Lamy. Because left parties have failed to propose an alternative economic system to definition exceptionalism liberal capitalism, they focus on post-materialistic struggles, the extension of the rights of the wetherspoons in bath, individuals. Since the 1960s, a multitude of libertarian parties and exceptionalism, associations have emerged.

They claim for variety of rights, for particular groups (women, homosexuals, ethnic minorities. ). But what they often do not realize, even if they are sincere, is that they represent a kind of in bath superstructure, hiding the real discriminations. Instead of denouncing economic inequalities, they just want new formal rights: although his cultural specificities are recognized, a poor immigrant worker will remain exploited. Solving Environmental Sustainability. Christopher Lasch (1995; 27) could thus say that not only the new social movements have nothing in common [with socialism] , but their only coherent demand aims at inclusion in wetherspoons in bath the dominant structure rather than a revolutionary transformation of social relations . Granting sexual freedom to the young burgesses will not improve the standard of living of the working class. The new social movements divide people into elephants small communities, and thus they prevent any kind of unified struggle against inequalities. Actually, they play on wetherspoons the hands of the capitalists, and as Lenin said, they are the useful idiots of capitalism.

Left liberals and right liberals are obviously complementary. While the Right applies liberal policies in economy, the Left serves as an Literary Appropriations of Eça Work: Literary ideological superstructure. The appearance of democracy is maintained through alternance. People believe that they can still control the elites with their votes; they think that they can modify the policies by changing the party in wetherspoons government. Literary A Contribution To The Study. But actually, all the governing parties are liberal. Liberalism is truly the ideology of wetherspoons in bath modernity. Liberals got rid of the references to the past and like white short, the old traditions. They are confident in the progress, because they rely on rational and scientific mechanisms, such as the so-called efficient and rational free-market.

But this confidence has turned to a kind of irrational faith. Wetherspoons. Liberals became blind over pyramus the pernicious effects of the socioeconomic organization they provide (social inequalities, destruction of the wetherspoons in bath, environment. ). Indeed, Adam Smiths invisible hand appears as a modern secularized Divine Providence: the comic, free-market will provide a better life for everyone; if we let the economy free from external intervention, the wetherspoons, wealth of nations is ensured. Liberalism distrusts every reference to the past; as Nietzsche said: men of modern ideas believe almost instinctively in progress and the future, and types of racial discrimination, are more and more lacking in respect for old age 4 . Liberals forgot that modern times are reliable to the Ancients. After all, democracy had been founded in in bath Athens in the 5 th century B.C.; the supremacy of law and moral came from the Jewish tradition; eventually, liberty and self-responsibility are Christian concepts. But modern elites scorn traditions; they prefer the cult of the body and Youth; they praise economic success rather than intellectual development. The flow of mass culture, provided by the consumerist society, threats the existence of the classical culture; art itself has become a market. Liberal elites live in self-contentment, without any self-responsibility 5 , and also with a growing contempt towards all kinds of critics, immediately denounced as reactionaries. This scorn is especially obvious against the common people, who are too stupid to understand that there really is no alternative 6 , that liberal reforms are a necessity . Those I call the elites include political leaders, economic decision-makers, the dominant media and intellectuals, and also a large part of the upper-middle class in developed countries across the world.

They feel comfortable in the globalized world: they share the same values, the same way of life. Contemporary elites are cosmopolitan, interconnected with each other all over the world. However, they cut themselves from their own peoples. Literary Appropriations De Queirós’s Work: To The Study. Thus, American elites have more in common with their counterparts in Brussels or Hong Kong than with the masses of Americans not yet plugged into the network of global communication (Lasch, 1995; 35). They constitute an isolated sphere, completely blind over the standard of living of in bath most of the population. They often do not realize that, in liberal society, those who are not enough flexible, movable, adapted to the market, must be crushed by types discrimination, the wild concurrence.

Despite of their principles on democracy, many liberal elites consider that the proper functioning of the wetherspoons in bath, economy often require to be imposed, without the consent of the people. The distrust towards the mob is clearly expressed the way elites prefer the world to be ruled. Instead of the government of the people, elected to defend the general will, the liberal elites praise governance, that is the technocratic administration of society: the Solving Environmental Problems Essay, rational management of public policies must be better for the perennially of the economic order than effective democracy. Wetherspoons In Bath. The growing discontent of the people, their claim for a more equalitarian system, with more controls of the State on types of racial discrimination economy, are comprehensible, overall in the context of a huge economic crisis, essentially caused by the errors of the liberal elites. Liberalism has dominated the sphere of ideas for the last two centuries, especially since the 1970s. The superiority of its political and economic model seems to wetherspoons in bath be proved, and Essay, the other main ideologies have radically declined. Most people in developed countries accept this model of society, and a large consensus exists among the elites of the contemporary world. In Bath. However, Liberalism has become more and more radical.

The liberal demand of limiting the powers of the State has turned to a claim of suppressing all kinds of rules, especially in the economy, at the expense of the weaker members of societies. Contemporary liberals have lost the prudence and the wisdom of their predecessors. Indeed, in the mid-19 th century, the liberal historian Alexis de Tocqueville warned of the dangers of dogmatism and extreme individualism. The passion for liberty must not lead to increasing inequalities. Arendt, Hannah; the Human Condition (1958), Between past and future: eight exercises of political thought (1961, 1968)

Fukuyama, Francis; the like white elephants short story, End of History? in The National Interest (1989) Hayek, Friedrich August von; the road to serfdom (1944) Lasch, Christopher; the revolt of the wetherspoons, elites and Environmental Sustainability Problems Essay, the betrayal of wetherspoons Democracy (1995) Marx, Karl; On the Jewish question (1843), the German Ideology (1845), Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) Michea, Jean-Claude; lempire du moindre mal (2006) 1 The Economist , volume 389 number 8602, October 18th 2008.

2 Karl Marx, the German Ideology (1848), in Karl Marx, Philosophy p.338. 3 Francis Fukuyama, the End of History? in National Interest (1989) 4 Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil (1885) 260. 5 Whereas the old Liberals (Constant, Mill) advocated the extension of self-responsibility, as the main expression of Liberty and individualism, nowadays total freedom means a total absence of consideration for the others. Definition Exceptionalism. Contemporary liberals have adopted Max Stirners credo I am owner of my might , and I am so when I know myself as unique. () All things are nothing to me ( the Ego and in bath, its Own , 1844). The multiplication of financial frauds, caused by individual traders, is white elephants short story clearly a symptom of the modern egotism and wetherspoons, selfishness. 6 Margaret Thatcher, Press Conference for American correspondents in i am sam cast London (25/06/1980)

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