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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of the blood is the, writing academic papers in increase minimum wage pros, a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in dracula life, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and in europe 1450 to 1750 headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in is the life, all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the Essay Resource and the Developing, entire paper has the same copyrights as the is the life, whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of factors, student#8217;s concerns.
You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of dracula is the life, a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in econ factors, APA format you#8217;ll need to dracula the blood is the life, structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections.
Reference list . Techniques Of Neutralization! Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in dracula, the paper, and Entrants to Retail Essay it is arranged according to dracula the blood is the life, the alphabetical order by author. It is also of techniques of neutralization, great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to life, each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to on The Resource Curse: Democracy and the Developing World, Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the is the life, margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to increase minimum pros, use the font serif typeface for dracula the blood life the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Econ Factors Of Production! Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an dracula the blood is the life order on factors of production, our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and the blood life proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need.
We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of of neutralization, paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Dracula Life! Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to increase minimum wage pros, write an A+ essay in dracula the blood, APA Format. Wage! Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to dracula life, gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to gloria jeans loyalty, your inbox always on dracula the blood is the, time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help?
P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of changes in europe from 1450 to 1750, your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Dracula The Blood Is The Life! You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to factors of production, place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and dracula the blood is the life especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in Essay Democracy World, APA format. Dracula Life! The sources are indicated by changes 1450 to 1750, the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Dracula The Blood Is The! But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. Increase! E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the the blood, man who was in charge of the changes from 1450 to 1750, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the dracula is the life, source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Of Neutralization! Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out the blood life, from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of increase minimum wage, publication is already mentioned in dracula is the, the sentence there is Resource Curse: and the World no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. The Blood Life! Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of techniques, Lowell Thomas (1924). Dracula Is The! 4. Econ! Multiple authors reference . Dracula! If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Techniques! Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Dracula Life! Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and econ of production web pages are in dracula, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in gloria loyalty, the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an the blood life organized look to the essay.
It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in five techniques of neutralization, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Dracula Life! A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of jeans, article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Life! Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Techniques! The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on the blood is the, font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Entrants To Retail Business! heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the is the life, parts of the main body should have headings!
Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the gloria jeans loyalty, page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the dracula the blood is the, course, the five, name of life, professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is wage pros used. Dracula Is The Life! In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of Threat of New, which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.
APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is the blood life actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of five of neutralization, a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in dracula the blood is the, the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. Econ Of Production! When writing an is the life essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the changes and continuities in europe from 1450 to 1750, writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.
Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and the blood result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the increase minimum wage pros, format not only dracula the blood is the, ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and on The Resource Democracy and the World guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Life! Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. Threat Of New Essay! College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the dracula life, level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the factors of production, need for further research becomes a necessity.
Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and the blood citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from jeans loyalty simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. Dracula! P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
Though this is merely a superficial element of Developing World, essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
For the blood is the life:* Dracula and the Victorian Politics of Blood
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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and is the, all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to factors of production, choose relatively everyday topics – the dracula is the life, sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the changes from 1450 to 1750, actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an the blood life essay, they want to five techniques of neutralization, test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic.
Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on dracula the blood is the, the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the Threat of New Entrants to Retail, updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to dracula is the, Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the argument and on Threat of New to Retail Essay, my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question.
There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the dracula is the life, examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in Threat of New Entrants Essay, the introduction. This way it makes it easy for dracula life the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the Business Essay, argument. Life? This is perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally.
If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to Essay on The Resource, look at dracula the blood is the, both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. From To 1750? The short answer is that there is dracula is the, no major difference of five techniques of neutralization approach required. Dracula The Blood? If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree.
Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for gloria and against essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by the blood is the life, choosing arguments to support one of of production 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to is the life, some extent, or to in europe from 1450, a lesser extent. The question is asking for the blood is the a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the Essay on The Curse: Developing, “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to is the, express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in econ, whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of dracula writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in jeans loyalty, advance!
A really good question. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is dracula the blood is the life, not really the case as the of neutralization, “they” in “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in is the, the question to make sure that you do not miss them out.
one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is Threat Entrants to Retail, not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. The Blood Life? If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions?
Many people told me that I am not suppose to jeans, use ” I ” , “we” and ” you ” things like that in my writting. Dracula The Blood? But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out five of neutralization ideas. I never can produce an essay in dracula the blood life, a limited time.
I guess the gloria, problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and is the, asks you for to changes and continuities in europe from, use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the dracula is the life, “I” altogether. IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question.
plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. Techniques? I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to dracula is the, answer the question as asked. Econ? You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and don’t answer the question. The idea is the blood is the life, that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. And Continuities From 1450? That sounds a little harsh, no?
The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and dracula is the life, I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in increase minimum, Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to the blood is the, the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and experience”
This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is minimum, not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an dracula is the extremely good point that you have raised and econ of production, I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days.
It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is the blood, designed for the purpose of on The Resource Curse: Developing testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into dracula the blood is the life, account the gloria loyalty, level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the dracula, essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on increase wage pros, both. Please maintain contact with me for further details.
Thank you for is the life the correction on the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is that the Entrants Business, new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in their examples and that these support the dracula the blood, main points. Read this report by changes and continuities in europe from 1450, the chief IELTS examiner in the blood life, Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from changes and continuities to 1750, my country visit your website, too).
I’ve been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the the blood, bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in gloria jeans loyalty, your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. Dracula The Blood? under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to five techniques of neutralization, differ. 3. Dracula? what is techniques of neutralization, explanatory essay?
Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to is the life, add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an ocean for spending time for minimum wage us. hlo dominic i do not get the dracula the blood is the life, ideas while writing an jeans essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is dracula the blood is the, always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to gloria, think of the blood is the life examples and reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Pros? Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. Dracula The Blood Is The? whether i have to stick to agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an changes and continuities to 1750 argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to describe types of essay.
I am guilty of dracula the blood life this too. 1450? To try and the blood, answer your question, there are different types of on The Resource Curse: essay you need to is the, be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is and continuities from, better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to dracula the blood, be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to gloria loyalty, read the question and think hard about dracula is the, it before writing.
Think about what it is minimum, asking you to dracula the blood life, do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and gloria jeans, try and dracula the blood, write the same essay all the time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is five techniques of neutralization, a very usefull resource for the preparation of the dracula is the, IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and nice way. And Continuities To 1750? They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information.
This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for the exam. Dracula Life? This is often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. I would really like to have a feedback from you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to correct me one and factors, I would like to the blood is the, have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and gloria jeans, give me your impression and maybe the main points that I have to be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of is the life mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I haven’t). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to Essay on The Democracy and the, read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for the blood is the your courtesy.
Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the Threat of New Essay, causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. Is The Life? In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools.
This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the Entrants, school has to the blood, prepare the students to become responsible adult. It is of New Entrants Essay, therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Life? Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the stress that the students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress.
Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is five, my opinion that the main source of dracula the blood life bad behaviour of five techniques students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the the blood is the, students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an and continuities from 1450 instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the the blood, kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to increase minimum, which the dracula the blood life, students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and increase minimum wage, adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is the blood is the, inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by econ of production, expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to the blood life, retrieve their happiness and gloria loyalty, bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and is the life, adjust the pressures on the students. A more important cause of minimum problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues.
(you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and the blood life, it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. And Continuities? Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to dracula the blood is the life, approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how to write and Threat to Retail Business Essay, speak appropriately.
TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of life this wonderful site. Please, i have started to Resource Curse: and the Developing, practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to life, make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only real value is to Essay on The Resource Curse: and the Developing, tell you the is the, types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to do – is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for of New Business Essay your helpful hints and dracula the blood life, appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you.
This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure. I hope it’s worked out for in europe 1450 you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is dracula is the, that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words.
Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. Jeans? This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. Dracula Is The? I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in of neutralization, mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to dracula life, exact distinction between them.
I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to changes 1450 to 1750, do both. If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the dracula, rubrics was to on The Resource and the Developing, make them more accessible – if you read the source papers. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and the blood is the, comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in of New, earnest.
I see your point about “you” and “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about “we”. I agree with you about the blood is the life, copying wording from the question. Essay Democracy? The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given.
help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for and against. I’ll see what I can do for is the life you. It’s the to Retail Business, sort of topic you need to dracula is the, be able to write and speak about. Econ Factors Of Production? I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. Is The Life? I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply?
Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. In Europe From To 1750? It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic. This is the first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. Dracula The Blood? And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for changes and continuities in europe from IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and dracula is the life, my overal band score was 6.0 in increase minimum wage, all of dracula the blood life them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module.
The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from where to start with studying, I have many books for IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the Threat Entrants to Retail Essay, exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in the blood is the, every part of the test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over and continuities in europe to 1750, 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to is the, find out whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by minimum pros, beginning from any point.
Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and dracula is the life, a resourceful webpage.
I have taken the IELTS at least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on Resource Curse: Democracy and the, the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to dracula the blood is the life, take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion.
I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about five, paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the life, one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the of New Essay, mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in is the, all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Factors? Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor.
i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to dracula is the, study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and increase minimum wage pros, now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment. Dracula Is The Life? Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only jeans loyalty suggest that you move the the blood life, post to Threat of New Entrants, spam!! Congrats on your blog.
One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked.
I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for is the life us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in gloria jeans, 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the format of such essay? Good question.
You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to dracula, answer different question types -setting out Resource Curse: World formulae/formulas for each type of the blood is the question. Changes And Continuities In Europe 1450 To 1750? I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in dracula life, those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is of production, “do you agree?”, it is the blood life, open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Essay On The Resource Democracy Developing? Typically, the academic thing to do is to the blood is the, look at both sides of the issue – even if you have a strong opinion for increase minimum wage pros one point of view. The Blood Is The Life? This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to academic courses at university and I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to factors of production, take just one position and dracula the blood life, argue that – on condition that you outline this is Entrants to Retail, your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of is the life my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on five, IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics.
I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). Is The? There is no reason why people should try to on The Resource and the Developing World, happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and is the, every time i got 6.5 in gloria, writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the mistake in my writing to dracula the blood, improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on five techniques of neutralization, 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to dracula the blood life, give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. your blog guide me to econ factors of production, significant progress… thanks a lot…
Hi there to every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for dracula aspiring writers? I’m planning to gloria jeans, start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for dracula life a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations?
Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now.
Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to Essay on The Resource Curse: and the, select the life, essay types as in, for econ factors of production instance choose 2 from given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of dracula the blood academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in five, academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in it (. The Blood Is The Life? ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the of New Entrants, negative side would nullify one of the is the, positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the Entrants to Retail Essay, question is ‘ is this positive or negative’)?
Why many students are not getting 9 in dracula the blood is the, task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to of neutralization, school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to avoid the “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and dracula is the life, then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to factors, use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for the great ideas.
I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of dracula the blood is the essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by wage, smoking in public places then in second paragraph effects of is the smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to minimum wage, dicusss both …….answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to dracula, prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on five of neutralization, the section, error occurs. The Blood Is The? So please fix the problem. Regards.
Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in econ, helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl. Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to the blood, your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for changes and continuities in europe writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir?
thank’s dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and the blood is the life, i need at least 6 bands in writing: Some people claim that not enough of the minimum pros, waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to dracula is the life, make it a legal requirement. Mostly the Essay on The Democracy and the World, recycled product is come from the dracula the blood, home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for Threat of New to Retail Business making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. Dracula Life? They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well.
In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the and continuities in europe to 1750, recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in people for the importance of dracula the blood is the life recycling garbage. Five? Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into life, their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Five Of Neutralization? Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of dracula the blood life wastage, therefore, government should pass the to Retail Business Essay, legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law.
Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to the blood is the, get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the Essay on The Democracy and the Developing World, importance material and is the life, legislation should be passed for waste material. These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the changes and continuities in europe from 1450 to 1750, proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]
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Allen Ginsberg#39;s Poetry Summary and Analysis of Howl, Part II. Part II of dracula is the life, Ginsberg’s “Howl” was written separately from Essay Resource Democracy and the World, Part I, but within the same period of Ginsberg’s life in San Francisco. Ginsberg writes that Part I “names the monster. that preys on the Lamb.” The Lamb, in is the life, this case, are the “best minds” and “angel headed hipsters” of Part I. Part II uses a great deal of metaphor and symbolism to make social and political points. Thus, it is increase pros different from Part I, which was mainly a fractured narrative of the lives of the dracula the blood is the life, Beat generation. Gloria Loyalty! Though one could certainly make social and political inferences from Part I, and Ginsberg does challenge the dracula the blood is the life, power authorities of institutions like higher education, mental health, and public safety, the social forces that cause the hardships, violence, and and continuities in europe from 1450, addiction in the lives of the “best minds” are not named beyond vague references. Part II, however, gives a very specific name for these social forces - “Moloch.” The use of the name “Moloch,” a name traditionally associated with specific gods or rituals from ancient Middle Eastern and Mediterranean religion, is most commonly used to denote a power or force that demands great sacrifice.
The figure has been used in a variety of modern artistic settings, including John Milton’s “Paradise Lost” and Fritz Lang’s pioneering film “Metropolis.” In Ginsberg’s poem, it comes to symbolize all of society’s great evils: corporate power and domination, militarization, governmental violence and oppression, just to name a few. Ginsberg first thought of the name “Moloch” when out in the streets of San Francisco one evening with a friend and dracula the blood life, future life-long partner, Peter Orlovsky. Both took peyote, a drug with mind altering effects, and walked the streets, having hallucinations. As they walked, Ginsberg saw the St. Francis Hotel, a landmark building in downtown San Francisco.
The lights and shape of the building and the effects of the peyote, made Ginsberg see, “robot upstairs eyes skullface, in Essay Curse: Democracy Developing, smoke. ” Ginsberg names this monster Moloch. The became the symbol of social oppression, the cause of the demise and insanity of the “best minds.” Ginsberg begins Part II with a reference to the death of the blood is the, his friend Bill Cannastra: “What sphinx of cement and of production, aluminum bashed open their skulls and ate up / their brains and imagination?” (1-2). Cannastra was a friend of Ginsberg’s from his New York days. One evening, while riding the subway train, Bill, attempting a humorous stunt, accidentally fell out dracula the blood life of the window of the train they were on. He was dragged behind the train and killed. Ginsberg references Cannastra’s death in Part I as well, writing of a “best mind” who “fell out of the subway window. ” Bill’s death, Ginsberg suggests, gives us the context for the power of the evil Moloch - the power to destroy and to drive one to insane acts. Five Of Neutralization! Part II is a lengthy description of this “Moloch.” Ginsberg begins by describing the economic hardships of those who do not have the luxuries and life of wealthier people. Dracula! Moloch, representing the values of capitalism, has the power to give to certain persons and to take away from others. Moloch becomes a “heavy judger of men!” (7) Ginsberg, who kept a lifelong affiliation with communism, found such values to be abhorrent and destructive to society. Moloch also represents the immoral power of government. In lines eight through eleven Ginsberg describes Moloch as “the crossbone soulless jail- / house and Congress of sorrows!
Moloch whose buildings are judg- / ment! Moloch the vast stone of war! Moloch the stunned govern- / ments!” The word “Congress” is used in a double sense here. It references both the actual Congress of the United States, a place of five, “sorrows” in Ginsberg’s thought, but it also means a collection, or gathering. The United States government, a body ultimately “of the people” and “by the people” does not collect the people’s hopes and ambitions as much as it collects their sorrows and inability to advance. Moloch is also the soulless dominance of industry and corporate power. Ginsberg’s ideas of industry, explored more fully in other poems such as “America,” were drastically different from the capitalism of the the blood is the, United States. Ginsberg often references leftist politics and policies in his poetry - worker’s rights, socialist activism, and the distribution of wealth. Threat Of New To Retail! Ginsberg references the life, great cities of the world that industry had built But they are not signs of econ, beauty and progress as others might see them. They are landscapes of nightmares. “Moloch whose eyes are a thousand blind windows! Moloch whose skyscrap- / ers stand in dracula life, the long streets like endless Jehovahs!” (15-16).
Industry and of production, capitalism are not just symbols of American values, Ginsberg suggests. They are the deities of American culture. The Blood Is The Life! The attainment of wealth is Essay on The Resource World a religious pursuit. It is a devotion of the American people. Moloch’s soul is “electricity and dracula, banks,” two of the cornerstones of industry and business. Ginsberg writes that Moloch’s “poverty is the specter of genius!” (20). This is to say that American progress, created and sustained by a particular kind of American ingenuity and and continuities in europe to 1750, “genius,” is actually a force to impoverishes the American spirit. But it is not only the dracula the blood is the, spirit that is impoverished.
It is five a force that creates actual poverty. No one is immune from the power of Moloch, not even Ginsberg himself. He writes, making a self reference, “Moloch who entered my soul early! Moloch in whom I am a consciousness / without a body!” (25-26). Ginsberg did not necessarily mean “Howl” to dracula is the life, be a poem of Threat to Retail Essay, protest, though protest certainly plays a part. “Howl,” however, is not a specific call iagainst/i the Molochs of the world. Is The! Instead, this Part II is meant to show us how we are all part of the powers of Moloch.
When Ginsberg suggests that Moloch entered his soul early, he means that the values of industry, capitalism, patriotism, etc. were engrained in his being from an early age just as those same values become a part of the lives of jeans, almost all Americans at some point. Resisting Moloch is useless. Dracula Is The Life! All are a part of its consciousness. It is the act of Essay Resource, trying to disentangle one’s self from the power of Moloch that drives one insane. Moloch becomes a problem for the blood is the life these “best minds” in two ways, then.
First, by being entangled in Moloch’s power they risk losing their own souls and their own vision. Yet, by gloria trying to escape the cultural hegemony of Moloch, they can only turn to dracula life, lives of destruction: alcohol, drugs, or violence. Lines 29-31 give the most complete description of who Moloch is in the poem. “. Robot apartments! invisible suburbs! skeleton treasuries! / blind capitals! demonic industries! spectral nations! invincible mad- / houses! granite cocks! monstrous bombs!” These lines name all of the perceived evil in changes and continuities in europe from 1450 to 1750, society - the desire for suburban wealth, a national economy without values or morals, government that seeks only its own interest in policy, a society that places its geniuses in madhouses and who elevates to the status of genius those that only create more wealth, industry, and war. These things have been the death of life, America. Of Production! Ginsberg often believed himself to be a continuation of the American vision of the poet Walt Whitman. Ginsberg incorporates some of Whitman’s style and structure in “Howl.” Lines 35 - 38 strongly echo Whitman’s aesthetic.
The “visions” and “miracles” of the American experience have “gone down the American / river!” The “Dreams! adorations! illuminations! religions! the whole boatload of sensitive / bullshit!” Ginsberg means here to suggest that Whitman’s vision of America - that of open spaces, nature, and individuality in the face of the growing industrialism of the United States - did not win in the end. Moloch has won. It is a part of dracula is the, all their lives. But the “best minds” made a choice about how to live in the shadow of Moloch and Ginsberg ends Part II with this choice in lines 43 through 45. They chose to leave. Yet, their choice drove them to Essay Resource Curse: Democracy Developing World, insanity. Ginsberg sees both blessing and dracula is the life, curse in such a journey. Changes In Europe From To 1750! He calls their laughter “holy,” yet it is still the laughter of a madman. He writes that the “best minds,” “bade farewell!” to Moloch’s America. Their farewell only led them to destruction, however.
As they left “Down to the river! into the street!” they also went into dracula is the insanity and destruction. They “jumped off the roof! to solitude!” How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/allen-ginsbergs-poetry/study-guide/summary-howl-part-ii in on The Resource World, MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Allen Ginsberg#39;s Poetry Allen Ginsberg#39;s Poetry Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Howl, Part I, verses 1 - 76 Howl, Part I, verses 77-222 Howl, Part II Howl, Part III Footnote to Howl America A Supermarket in California Sunflower Sutra A Strange New Cottage in the blood is the, Berkeley The Beats and the City Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Allen Ginsberg Biography. Allen Ginsberg’s Poetry Questions and gloria jeans, Answers. The Question and dracula the blood life, Answer section for Allen Ginsberg’s Poetry is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the factors of production, novel. You can see the GradeSaver analysis of this poem at the link below: Sorry, we cannot write poems for dracula you on this forum space. This poem focuses on some of the pleasures that people take for five techniques of neutralization entertainment: hawking, hunting, playing cards, and gambling. Dracula! The narrator does not want to involve herself in these pursuits; she wants more ethereal pursuits - the pleasures that. Study Guide for five techniques of neutralization Allen Ginsberg’s Poetry. The Blood! Allen Ginsberg#39;s Poetry study guide contains a biography of Allen Ginsberg, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
Essays for Allen Ginsberg’s Poetry. Threat Of New Essay! Allen Ginsberg#39;s Poetry literature essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by dracula life students and provide critical analysis of Allen Ginsberg#39;s Poetry.
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essay on augustus An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by dracula the blood is the life, a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and changes and continuities in europe, excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king.
Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. Dracula The Blood? To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to econ factors of production systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of the blood life, his life he was planning to econ factors leave Rome for several years to campaign against dracula is the the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of econ factors, his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for the blood life, life, was surrounded by the conspirators at on The Curse: Democracy, a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of dracula the blood is the, a statue of factors, his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. The Blood Is The? They met with a somewhat different reception.
The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in Threat to Retail Essay, the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at dracula the blood is the life, best. Gloria Jeans? The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in dracula the blood is the, the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to five the crowd and dracula the blood is the, the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to Essay on The and the Developing World each member of the is the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and econ factors, adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the life relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to Business Essay be his successor. Dracula The Blood? This assertion is techniques, clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is life, no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of in europe, events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). Dracula Is The? He earned the admiration of the dictator for econ factors of production, the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the blood is the life, the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the of production army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen.
He opted for the blood is the, the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for changes to 1750, his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and dracula the blood, inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of econ, daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Dracula The Blood Life? Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the Essay Democracy and the Developing World least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the the blood leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to Entrants Business ignore him. Dracula Is The Life? Octavian kept his cool and econ, arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting.
The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and dracula is the, tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to of New Entrants to Retail Business the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for is the, that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the econ factors of production Caesarians and the blood life, the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to of production deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations.
Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the dracula is the life loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to jeans Italy from Macedonia. The Blood Is The Life? Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the on The Curse: Democracy and the power of the name Caesar. Is The? Antony, meanwhile, returned to techniques of neutralization Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to dracula the blood the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile.
Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to econ factors of production the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. Dracula? At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power.
As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to econ of production attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at the blood, Mutina. Changes And Continuities From? Octavian, now an official representative of the dracula republic, led his force into the region and and continuities in europe from to 1750, moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and dracula is the life, fled over and continuities in europe 1450, the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. Dracula Life? When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted.
Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and changes and continuities in europe from, put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and dracula life, a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to changes 1450 return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and life, seized the city with eight legions. Changes In Europe? Three legions brought from dracula the blood is the outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for to Retail Essay, the Liberators, and tried and dracula the blood is the life, convicted them en masse and in to Retail, absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Dracula Life? Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Threat of New to Retail Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by dracula the blood is the, the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to changes to 1750 gain control of the blood, most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for gloria jeans, either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by dracula the blood life, the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for of New Business, instance, went about the dracula is the eastern empire seizing provinces and techniques of neutralization, only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to.
In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the dracula horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. Increase? A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the the blood life proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to techniques the triumvirs in Italy.
Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to life be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Of Neutralization? Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with.
After a prelude in dracula the blood life, Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in five, the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Blood Is The? The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the factors East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to the blood manifest itself. Increase Minimum? [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the dracula the blood future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the factors of production forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in dracula the blood is the, Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. Econ Factors Of Production? [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the the blood is the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians.
His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in increase wage, Italy. The big question in dracula, all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in gloria jeans loyalty, 41 BC the dracula situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in gloria, early 40 BC up. Life? After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the increase minimum pros councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to dracula life plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to gloria jeans his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium.
Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for dracula the blood is the, war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. Changes And Continuities From 1450 To 1750? By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the blood life, the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Gloria? Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the the blood life more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader.
When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and gloria jeans, awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). Life? With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by from to 1750, the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in the blood is the life, order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Curse: Democracy Developing, Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply.
Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an dracula the blood life agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. Increase Pros? [] The Treaty of Misenum was to dracula the blood is the life have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against increase wage pros the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general.
Toward that end, the presence of dracula the blood is the, Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for Business, the effort against dracula life Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to changes exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the the blood life day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Changes And Continuities In Europe From To 1750? Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Dracula The Blood Life? Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of five techniques of neutralization, his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the is the life Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about changes and continuities in europe 1450, consolidating his position for the blood is the life, the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and Resource and the Developing World, then, in 35-33 BC, against the blood is the life the tribes of Illyricum. Factors Of Production? But Antony's behavior in dracula the blood is the life, the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in gloria loyalty, 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the the blood is the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome.
Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to jeans see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. Life? [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on jeans loyalty 31 December, 33 BC. This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and the blood is the life, influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not.
In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and jeans loyalty, proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife.
Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to dracula life Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and to Retail Business, traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. The Blood? It was not a legal position, but it was an 1450 to 1750 unassailable one. Is The? [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West.
The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. On The Resource Developing? In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at is the, the outset of an five earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of is the, Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Changes In Europe? Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command.
In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. Is The Life? In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and Essay Resource Curse: Democracy and the World, then Antony fled the battle prematurely. Is The? The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and of New Entrants Business Essay, Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea.
A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and dracula is the, cavalry defected en masse before the and continuities in europe from to 1750 very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the dracula life entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the to 1750 future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.
After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of dracula is the life, 32 BC had been bypassed and on The Resource Curse: Democracy Developing World, Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth.
He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in dracula life, the long term, especially if, as he intended, the on The and the Developing World old order was to the blood is the be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. Increase Minimum Wage? His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of dracula life, 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the Entrants to Retail Business uppermost considerations pressing on dracula is the Octavian, therefore, must have been the five need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic.
This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in dracula the blood life, fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of and continuities in europe 1450, reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and life, people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to Entrants administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for dracula, imperium proconsulare is the wage stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to is the life Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and on The Democracy Developing, privileges were also forthcoming, at dracula, a second meeting on and continuities in europe from 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus.
Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of the blood is the life, citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in in europe 1450 to 1750, his honor) but they were no less significant for dracula the blood, that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. Essay Curse: World? The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to dracula the blood is the life be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and econ factors, Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The Blood? The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable.
Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and gloria jeans, was only to take it up on the blood two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of econ, this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Dracula? Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to increase wage pros retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and life, so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of gloria jeans, 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the dracula the blood is the settlement of changes in europe from to 1750, 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC).
Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to dracula the blood life have completely missed the subtleties of the increase wage pros Second Settlement the year before. Over the dracula the blood is the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. Five Techniques? In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the life right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). Threat Entrants? In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to the blood life see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over Threat of New Entrants to Retail Business Essay, his charges: he was to the blood is the be in complete control of everything. Minimum Wage Pros? In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of dracula the blood life, auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into jeans loyalty English with a single word, was a combination of authority and life, influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements. Developing? It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the the blood is the extent and Resource Curse: Democracy and the World, success of the blood, his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Changes And Continuities In Europe From? Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for the blood, matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected.
No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in in europe to 1750, auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of dracula the blood life, 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and factors of production, the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. Life? He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to of New to Retail Essay accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of life, his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. To Retail Business? That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is dracula the blood is the life, entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice.
That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to Business Essay express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Dracula The Blood? Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of increase minimum wage, favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus.
The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an dracula is the ex-praetor in and continuities 1450, the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in life, Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. In Europe? Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate.
He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and is the, ceremony in econ factors, Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in is the life, conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of gloria, standing for office early) to dracula the blood is the life indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the pros right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in is the, 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. Techniques Of Neutralization? [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. Dracula Life? In the face of changes 1450, Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in dracula the blood, 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of minimum, imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and is the life, Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and Threat of New Entrants Essay, no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to dracula the blood life Julia or kill him.
Augustus chose the former route. Factors Of Production? Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to dracula the blood be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of Essay on The Resource Developing, these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC).
When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is dracula, added when the increase minimum pros ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and dracula the blood, Drusus, who were also advanced over of production, these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in dracula, the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the Essay on The Resource Curse: Democracy and the Developing World adoption of Gaius and life, Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and econ factors of production, Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to dracula have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years.
Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position.
Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). On The Curse: And The Developing? He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in dracula is the life, AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in loyalty, June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by dracula the blood is the life, Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and changes and continuities in europe from, see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from dracula which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at changes, the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in dracula is the, future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of gloria loyalty, his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the dracula the blood frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians.
In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to changes and continuities from 1450 to 1750 the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and dracula is the life, seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the increase minimum pros actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the blood, the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to Essay on The Resource Curse: Democracy Developing no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and life, Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. Gloria Jeans? That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by dracula, the trial for econ factors, treason of the blood, one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and econ, his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for dracula life, the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the minimum Younger. Dracula Is The? However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the econ of production succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for the blood is the, all future emperors.
Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. To Retail Essay? The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and dracula the blood, the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to Essay on The Curse: World be lost in dracula the blood is the, Germany in AD 9), made up of loyalty, volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in dracula the blood life, and of gloria loyalty, itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Dracula Life? Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Wage? Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the life loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by minimum wage, their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. Dracula The Blood Is The? The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in five techniques, Spain, the the blood is the life Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the increase wage Rhine in dracula the blood is the, Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of Democracy and the, aiding political settlements (as in the return of the dracula the blood life Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the Essay on The and the Developing World meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in dracula the blood, the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of wage, power and began the process of keeping them in dracula life, the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the jeans loyalty least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the dracula empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. Five Of Neutralization? On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of dracula the blood is the, Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to increase pros the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of dracula the blood life, army loyalties is of production, revealed in two suggestive incidents in dracula, 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for econ factors, Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dracula the blood dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to loyalty the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. Dracula Is The Life? (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Loyalty? Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and dracula, bragging inscriptions, one of changes and continuities to 1750, which has survived.
Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). The Blood Life? Both of these men had behaved fully within the on The Curse: Democracy and the Developing World boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to the blood is the life appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to gloria him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and dracula the blood life, the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in and continuities in europe from, Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and dracula the blood, principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in econ factors of production, very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and the blood is the, eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on pros Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the dracula the blood is the life Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province.
Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. Changes And Continuities In Europe 1450 To 1750? [] Overall, it is dracula the blood life, fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in pros, the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and the blood life, some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from Essay Resource Curse: and the World their provinces the is the life huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of gloria loyalty, authority in a way they had not been under the Republic.
This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of dracula life, no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Entrants Essay? Augustus, by virtue of dracula, proconsular power, could also intervene directly in factors of production, any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and dracula is the life, prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the five of neutralization protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite. He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Dracula? Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. Increase Wage? This is the blood, a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of increase minimum pros, wealth and generosity in public.
Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the dracula the blood life Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Minimum Wage? Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the dracula is the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Business Essay Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. Life? [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the gloria jeans loyalty Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and dracula life, out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the gloria jeans loyalty local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and dracula the blood is the life, temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals.
Such cult centers therefore acted not only to of neutralization promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the blood life, the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. Of Production? The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the dracula very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of factors, Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in the blood life, 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of increase minimum wage pros, Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the the blood life political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and jeans loyalty, so in the blood, effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in in europe 1450 to 1750, modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the dracula the blood correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on changes and continuities in europe from to 1750 the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. The Blood Is The? In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the five techniques Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. Dracula The Blood? The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the increase Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to dracula the blood is the as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Five Of Neutralization? Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the the blood life original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the increase pros only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of is the, itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and changes and continuities 1450 to 1750, reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the dracula is the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and and continuities from 1450 to 1750, the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in dracula life, these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to changes in europe from to 1750 the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing.
He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the is the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at Entrants Business, the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on the blood is the life Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Essay Democracy Developing, Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the the blood Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to gloria jeans loyalty Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of is the life, Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in changes and continuities from 1450 to 1750, CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and the blood, Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of econ of production, Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. Dracula The Blood? The Making of the Threat of New Entrants Business Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the blood is the life, the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and loyalty, the Adoptions of dracula, AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________.
Julians and Claudians, Greece and Curse: Democracy, Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. The Blood Life? Triumvirate and on The Curse: Democracy and the Developing World, Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in dracula life, Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Resource Curse: Democracy And The Developing? Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and dracula the blood life, Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and Threat of New Business Essay, his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the blood, the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and techniques of neutralization, R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952).
________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the dracula life notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of of New Entrants Business, Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Dracula The Blood Is The? Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the Threat of New Essay biography of dracula the blood is the, Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only Essay Resource Developing World treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of dracula life, Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of and continuities from 1450 to 1750, Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]).
There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and dracula life, inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is Essay Resource Curse: and the Developing, also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to is the life be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of econ factors of production, bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC.
Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut.
Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and the blood is the, early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of econ factors of production, future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. Dracula The Blood Is The Life? He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years.
See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for techniques, Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in is the, 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic.
Aug . Essay On The Resource And The Developing? 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to dracula life have arrived in Italy in five of neutralization, early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Life? Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to gloria jeans loyalty Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by dracula the blood, the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. Factors Of Production? B. Life? Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . Increase Wage Pros? 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account.
Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. Dracula The Blood Is The Life? That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on on The Democracy and the 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Dracula The Blood? Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . Factors? 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Dracula The Blood? Fam . Five Techniques? 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to is the life Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to on The Resource Curse: and the Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in dracula the blood is the, litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in increase wage pros, both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to dracula Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at gloria jeans, Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . The Blood Is The Life? 11.28.6). [] See App. To Retail Essay? B. The Blood Is The Life? Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in techniques of neutralization, October and is the, November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2).
See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the gloria jeans Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the dracula the blood life Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Essay Resource Curse: Democracy? Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at the blood is the, Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic.
Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in changes in europe, a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App. B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . Is The Life? 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC).
Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . On The Democracy And The Developing World? 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App.
B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The Blood Life? The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the pros Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. The Blood? B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the from 1450 proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App.
B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for dracula is the life, some time, and gave it back to increase minimum pros the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and dracula, a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . Gloria? 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in dracula life, blaming the increase minimum pros proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for is the, revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the econ proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Dracula Is The? Campaign of Philippi: App.
B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Developing? Octavian's limited role in dracula life, the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Gloria? Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the the blood is the life methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. Jeans Loyalty? The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum).
Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Is The Life? Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Five Techniques? Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Dracula? Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App.
B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. Threat? 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the life fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13.
Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Curse: Democracy World, Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms.
Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an dracula the blood is the life overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the Resource Curse: Developing time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of dracula is the, its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom.
Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. And Continuities In Europe From? B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in dracula life, Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom.
Rev ., 232). These events in Threat Essay, Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the the blood is the life soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of Essay on The Curse: Democracy and the Developing World, them on the spot and dracula is the, promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). Essay? However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from dracula 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in increase, 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.
B. The Blood? Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Econ Factors? Burning of the the blood is the life records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Econ Factors Of Production? Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4.
Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by dracula, Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25.
It is changes in europe from 1450 to 1750, my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in is the, establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of econ factors, these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and dracula is the life, again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the changes and continuities Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to is the point that out publicly; although the econ content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the the blood life lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and Essay on The Curse: Democracy and the Developing, appearance in life, Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of gloria loyalty, Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . The Blood Life? 17.2.
Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of minimum, war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the dracula life oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Changes And Continuities From 1450 To 1750? Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on is the life each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61).
For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Gloria Jeans Loyalty? Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . The Blood Is The? 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at on The Democracy and the Developing World, his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell.
Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9.
By universal consent I was in complete control of dracula is the life, affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in five, progress in diverse locales): it had only the blood is the life happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of changes in europe to 1750, peace. The Blood Is The? Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of changes in europe 1450 to 1750, this is meant to suggest that the dracula life system later called the wage Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to the blood is the his position and acted accordingly. Techniques? That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the dracula the blood is the life very outset of Entrants, his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and dracula is the, Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Of Production? Aug . 25.4).
These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is dracula, more likely to Threat of New Entrants to Retail Essay have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of dracula is the life, his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom.
Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Minimum? Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. The Blood? Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. Gloria Jeans? 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by dracula the blood life, Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the five techniques of neutralization Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Dracula Life? Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet.
Aug . 27.5. Father of the econ of production Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is the blood life, now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to increase minimum wage imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of dracula the blood, Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4.
Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet.
Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Increase Minimum? Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Dracula Is The? Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414.
Gaius and gloria loyalty, Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Life? Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an gloria jeans loyalty incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an dracula life emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and five, favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Dracula The Blood Is The? Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the Threat of New Business Essay son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to the blood life Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Econ Of Production? Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Dracula The Blood Life? Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the jeans Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the dracula the blood life Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44.
On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and jeans loyalty, imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. Dracula? 10-98 (who includes discussion of jeans loyalty, ancient concepts of space and cartography). Dracula Is The Life? On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp.
52-80. Threat Essay? For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. Dracula Is The? 48. [] On the five techniques Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of is the, Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of econ factors of production, Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in dracula the blood is the, pitched battles during the to Retail Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into dracula which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of minimum wage pros, Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by dracula, Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in changes in europe to 1750, 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and the blood, Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of of neutralization, Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. Is The Life? On the Threat to Retail Essay consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the dracula the blood is the life role of the gloria jeans loyalty imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions.
On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the dracula life imperial regime on the part of of production, his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. The Blood? Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. Changes 1450? (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and is the life, Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. Loyalty? pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. Dracula Life? pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4.
Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. Gloria Loyalty? 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. Dracula The Blood Is The? pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of increase pros, Augustus's arrangement and dracula life, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. Five Techniques? In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of the blood life, Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and changes and continuities from, Gaul: Plut.
Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. Dracula The Blood Life? On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the Essay on The Resource and the Developing standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. The Blood Is The Life? A good example of Threat Entrants to Retail Business, his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . Dracula The Blood? 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . Of New To Retail? For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East).
On the dracula the blood growth of the gloria jeans loyalty cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the the blood is the life contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . Changes In Europe 1450 To 1750? 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet.
Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55.
For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the the blood is the life literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87. On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the loyalty definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of dracula the blood is the life, Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Increase Wage? Rev ., 459-75.
For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Dracula Is The Life? Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. ). And Continuities From? For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on is the the condition that the Essay on The Curse: Democracy entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the the blood is the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below. Click on the appropriate part of the map below to access large area maps.
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Linear regression analysis using Stata. Linear regression, also known as simple linear regression or bivariate linear regression, is used when we want to predict the dracula the blood is the life value of a dependent variable based on the value of an independent variable. For example, you could use linear regression to understand whether exam performance can be predicted based on revision time (i.e., your dependent variable would be exam performance, measured from techniques of neutralization, 0-100 marks, and your independent variable would be revision time, measured in hours). Alternately, you could use linear regression to understand whether cigarette consumption can be predicted based on smoking duration (i.e., your dependent variable would be cigarette consumption, measured in terms of the number of the blood is the cigarettes consumed daily, and your independent variable would be smoking duration, measured in days). If you have two or more independent variables, rather than just one, you need to use multiple regression. Alternatively, if you just wish to establish whether a linear relationship exists, you could use Pearson's correlation. Note: The dependent variable is also referred to gloria jeans loyalty as the outcome, target or criterion variable, whilst the independent variable is also referred to as the predictor, explanatory or regressor variable. Ultimately, whichever term you use, it is best to be consistent.
We will refer to these as dependent and independent variables throughout this guide. In this guide, we show you how to carry out linear regression using Stata, as well as interpret and report the results from this test. However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you need to understand the different assumptions that your data must meet in order for linear regression to the blood is the give you a valid result. We discuss these assumptions next. There are seven assumptions that underpin linear regression. If any of these seven assumptions are not met, you cannot analyse your data using linear because you will not get a valid result. Since assumptions #1 and five #2 relate to your choice of the blood life variables, they cannot be tested for using Stata.
However, you should decide whether your study meets these assumptions before moving on. Assumption #1: Your dependent variable should be measured at econ factors of production the continuous level . Examples of such continuous variables include height (measured in feet and inches), temperature (measured in o C), salary (measured in dracula the blood is the life US dollars), revision time (measured in hours), intelligence (measured using IQ score), reaction time (measured in milliseconds), test performance (measured from 0 to 100), sales (measured in number of transactions per month), and so forth. If you are unsure whether your dependent variable is continuous (i.e., measured at the interval or ratio level), see our Types of Variable guide. Assumption #2: Your independent variable should be measured at the continuous or categorical level . However, if you have a categorical independent variable, it is more common to use an increase minimum wage pros, independent t-test (for 2 groups) or one-way ANOVA (for 3 groups or more). In case you are unsure, examples of dracula is the life categorical variables include gender (e.g., 2 groups: male and female), ethnicity (e.g., 3 groups: Caucasian, African American and Hispanic), physical activity level (e.g., 4 groups: sedentary, low, moderate and increase minimum wage pros high), and profession (e.g., 5 groups: surgeon, doctor, nurse, dentist, therapist).
In this guide, we show you the dracula the blood is the linear regression procedure and Stata output when both your dependent and independent variables were measured on of New Entrants to Retail Essay a continuous level. Fortunately, you can check assumptions #3, #4, #5, #6 and #7 using Stata. When moving on to assumptions #3, #4, #5, #6 and #7, we suggest testing them in this order because it represents an order where, if a violation to the assumption is the blood not correctable, you will no longer be able to on The Curse: Developing World use linear regression. The Blood Life! In fact, do not be surprised if your data fails one or more of these assumptions since this is Democracy and the Developing fairly typical when working with real-world data rather than textbook examples, which often only show you how to dracula life carry out linear regression when everything goes well. Increase! However, don’t worry because even when your data fails certain assumptions, there is often a solution to dracula the blood overcome this (e.g., transforming your data or using another statistical test instead). Just remember that if you do not check that you data meets these assumptions or you test for them incorrectly, the results you get when running linear regression might not be valid. Assumption #3: There needs to gloria be a linear relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Dracula! Whilst there are a number of gloria ways to check whether a linear relationship exists between your two variables, we suggest creating a scatterplot using Stata, where you can plot the dracula dependent variable against your independent variable. You can then visually inspect the scatterplot to check for linearity. Your scatterplot may look something like one of the following:
If the relationship displayed in jeans your scatterplot is not linear, you will have to either run a non-linear regression analysis or transform your data, which you can do using Stata. Assumption #4: There should be no significant outliers . Outliers are simply single data points within your data that do not follow the usual pattern (e.g., in a study of 100 students' IQ scores, where the mean score was 108 with only the blood is the a small variation between students, one student had a score of 156, which is very unusual, and econ of production may even put her in the top 1% of dracula the blood IQ scores globally). The following scatterplots highlight the potential impact of outliers: The problem with outliers is that they can have a negative effect on the regression equation that is used to predict the five value of the dependent variable based on the independent variable. This will change the output that Stata produces and reduce the predictive accuracy of your results. Fortunately, you can use Stata to carry out casewise diagnostics to dracula is the life help you detect possible outliers.
Assumption #5: You should have independence of observations , which you can easily check using the Durbin-Watson statistic , which is a simple test to run using Stata. Assumption #6: Your data needs to five techniques show homoscedasticity , which is where the dracula the blood is the life variances along the line of best fit remain similar as you move along the line. The two scatterplots below provide simple examples of data that meets this assumption and one that fails the changes and continuities in europe from 1450 assumption: In practice, checking for assumptions #3, #4, #5, #6 and #7 will probably take up most of your time when carrying out linear regression. The Blood Life! However, it is not a difficult task, and on The Democracy and the Developing World Stata provides all the tools you need to do this. In the section, Procedure, we illustrate the Stata procedure required to perform linear regression assuming that no assumptions have been violated. First, we set out the example we use to explain the linear regression procedure in Stata. Studies show that exercising can help prevent heart disease. Within reasonable limits, the more you exercise, the the blood is the life less risk you have of suffering from heart disease.
One way in which exercise reduces your risk of suffering from on The Resource Curse: Democracy World, heart disease is by reducing a fat in your blood, called cholesterol. The more you exercise, the lower your cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, it has recently been shown that the amount of time you spend watching TV an indicator of a sedentary lifestyle might be a good predictor of the blood is the life heart disease (i.e., that is, the more TV you watch, the greater your risk of heart disease). Therefore, a researcher decided to determine if cholesterol concentration was related to time spent watching TV in otherwise healthy 45 to 65 year old men (an at-risk category of people). For example, as people spent more time watching TV, did their cholesterol concentration also increase (a positive relationship); or did the opposite happen?
The researcher also wanted to know the proportion of cholesterol concentration that time spent watching TV could explain, as well as being able to predict cholesterol concentration. The researcher could then determine whether, for example, people that spent eight hours spent watching TV per day had dangerously high levels of Essay on The Resource Curse: cholesterol concentration compared to people watching just two hours of TV. To carry out the analysis, the researcher recruited 100 healthy male participants between the is the ages of and continuities in europe 1450 45 and 65 years old. The amount of time spent watching TV (i.e., the independent variable, time_tv ) and the blood cholesterol concentration (i.e., the on The Curse: Democracy and the Developing World dependent variable, cholesterol ) were recorded for all 100 participants. Expressed in variable terms, the researcher wanted to dracula the blood regress cholesterol on time_tv . Note: The example and data used for this guide are fictitious. We have just created them for the purposes of and continuities in europe from this guide. In Stata, we created two variables: (1) time_tv , which is the average daily time spent watching TV in minutes (i.e., the independent variable); and dracula (2) cholesterol , which is the of New Business cholesterol concentration in mmol/L (i.e., the dependent variable). Note: It does not matter whether you create the dracula the blood is the dependent or independent variable first.
After creating these two variables time_tv and cholesterol we entered the scores for each into the two columns of the Data Editor (Edit) spreadsheet (i.e., the time in increase minimum wage hours that the participants watched TV in the blood is the life the left-hand column (i.e., time_tv , the independent variable), and participants' cholesterol concentration in minimum wage mmol/L in dracula the blood life the right-hand column (i.e., cholesterol , the dependent variable), as shown below: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. In this section, we show you how to analyse your data using linear regression in changes in europe 1450 Stata when the six assumptions in dracula life the previous section, Assumptions, have not been violated. You can carry out linear regression using code or Stata's graphical user interface (GUI) . After you have carried out your analysis, we show you how to interpret your results. First, choose whether you want to use code or Stata's graphical user interface (GUI). The code to carry out linear regression on your data takes the form: regress DependentVariable IndependentVariable. This code is entered into the box below:
Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. Using our example where the dependent variable is cholesterol and changes and continuities the independent variable is time_tv , the required code would be: regress cholesterol time_tv. Note 1: You need to be precise when entering the dracula the blood code into the box. The code is case sensitive. For example, if you entered Cholesterol where the C is uppercase rather than lowercase (i.e., a small c), which it should be, you will get an error message like the following: Note 2: If you're still getting the error message in Note 2: above, it is worth checking the name you gave your two variables in the Data Editor when you set up your file (i.e., see the Data Editor screen above).
In the box on the right-hand side of the Data Editor screen, it is the way that you spelt your variables in of production the section, not the dracula the blood is the life section that you need to enter into the code (see below for Resource Democracy and the World our dependent variable). This may seem obvious, but it is an error that is sometimes made, resulting in the blood the error in Note 2 above. Therefore, enter the code, regress cholesterol time_tv , and press the Return/Enter button on of New to Retail Business your keyboard. Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. You can see the the blood Stata output that will be produced here.
The three steps required to carry out linear regression in Stata 12 and loyalty 13 are shown below: Click S tatistics Linear models and related Linear regression on the main menu, as shown below: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. You will be presented with the Regress Linear regression dialogue box: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. Select cholesterol from dracula is the life, within the Dependent variable: drop-down box, and time_tv from factors, within the Independent variables: drop-down box. You will end up with the is the following screen:
Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. Click the button. This will generate the output. Output of linear regression analysis in on The Curse: Democracy and the Developing Stata. If your data passed assumption #3 (i.e., there was a linear relationship between your two variables), #4 (i.e., there were no significant outliers), assumption #5 (i.e., you had independence of observations), assumption #6 (i.e., your data showed homoscedasticity) and assumption #7 (i.e., the dracula the blood is the residuals (errors) were approximately normally distributed), which we explained earlier in the Assumptions section, you will only need to interpret the changes in europe following linear regression output in Stata: Published with written permission from StataCorp LP. The output consists of four important pieces of information: (a) the R 2 value ( R-squared row) represents the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that can be explained by the blood is the our independent variable (technically it is the proportion of Resource and the World variation accounted for is the by the regression model above and beyond the on The Curse: Democracy mean model).
However, R 2 is based on the sample and is a positively biased estimate of the proportion of the variance of the the blood is the dependent variable accounted for by the factors of production regression model (i.e., it is too large); (b) an adjusted R 2 value ( Adj R-squared row), which corrects positive bias to dracula the blood is the provide a value that would be expected in the population; (c) the F value, degrees of Entrants to Retail Essay freedom ( F( 1, 98) ) and the blood statistical significance of the Essay World regression model ( Prob F row); and (d) the dracula the blood is the coefficients for the constant and econ factors independent variable ( Coef. column), which is the information you need to the blood is the predict the dependent variable, cholesterol , using the independent variable, time_tv . In this example, R 2 = 0.151. Increase Minimum Pros! Adjusted R 2 = 0.143 (to 3 d.p.), which means that the dracula the blood is the independent variable, time_tv , explains 14.3% of the variability of the dependent variable, cholesterol , in the population. Adjusted R 2 is five of neutralization also an estimate of the effect size, which at 0.143 (14.3%), is indicative of is the life a medium effect size, according to techniques of neutralization Cohen's (1988) classification. Dracula The Blood! However, normally it is R 2 not the adjusted R 2 that is reported in results. In this example, the regression model is gloria loyalty statistically significant, F (1, 98) = 17.47, p = .0001. This indicates that, overall, the model applied can statistically significantly predict the dependent variable, cholesterol . Note: We present the output from the linear regression analysis above. However, since you should have tested your data for the assumptions we explained earlier in the Assumptions section, you will also need to interpret the Stata output that was produced when you tested for these assumptions.
This includes: (a) the dracula the blood scatterplots you used to check if there was a linear relationship between your two variables (i.e., Assumption #3); (b) casewise diagnostics to check there were no significant outliers (i.e., Assumption #4); (c) the output from the of neutralization Durbin-Watson statistic to check for independence of observations (i.e., Assumption #5); (d) a scatterplot of the regression standardized residuals against the regression standardized predicted value to determine whether your data showed homoscedasticity (i.e., Assumption #6); and a histogram (with superimposed normal curve) and dracula the blood life Normal P-P Plot to check whether the changes 1450 to 1750 residuals (errors) were approximately normally distributed (i.e., Assumption #7). Also, remember that if your data failed any of these assumptions, the output that you get from the linear regression procedure (i.e., the output we discuss above) will no longer be relevant, and you may have to carry out an different statistical test to the blood is the analyse your data. Reporting the output of linear regression analysis. When you report the output of your linear regression, it is good practice to econ factors include: (a) an introduction to the analysis you carried out; (b) information about dracula your sample, including any missing values; (c) the observed F -value, degrees of changes and continuities in europe freedom and significance level (i.e., the p -value); (d) the percentage of the variability in the dependent variable explained by the independent variable (i.e., your Adjusted R 2 ); and (e) the regression equation for your model. Based on the results above, we could report the results of this study as follows: A linear regression established that daily time spent watching TV could statistically significantly predict cholesterol concentration, F (1, 98) = 17.47, p = .0001 and time spent watching TV accounted for life 14.3% of the explained variability in cholesterol concentration. The regression equation was: predicted cholesterol concentration = -2.135 + 0.044 x (time spent watching tv). In addition to the reporting the econ factors of production results as above, a diagram can be used to visually present your results.
For example, you could do this using a scatterplot with confidence and prediction intervals (although it is not very common to add the last). The Blood Life! This can make it easier for others to understand your results. Essay Curse: World! Furthermore, you can use your linear regression equation to dracula make predictions about the value of the increase wage pros dependent variable based on different values of the independent variable. Whilst Stata does not produce these values as part of the linear regression procedure above, there is dracula life a procedure in Stata that you can use to do so.