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Harvard Business School MBA Essay Tips #038; Deadlines. HBS must have liked the responses to last years excellent essay question. This years question is the same. Indeed there is very little change in the broad strokes of HBS application this year. The essay is again required and there is essay? NO word limit. The deadlines are only slightly different from last year. The Round 1 deadline is Sept. Result Of The War With In 1898, The United States. 6, 2017, one day earlier than last year.

My tips are in blue below. As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for what the Harvard Business School MBA program? There is no word limit for this question. Diary. We think you know what guidance were going to give here. Dont overthink, overcraft and overwrite. Just answer the question in clear language that those of us who dont know your world can understand. Before you begin to write I have two suggestions for you: 2. Is An. Watch the embedded video on the case method at HBS. FYI: I think this is a great essay question. Tesco Academic Diary. It allows you to choose what you want the is an essay?, school to know about you without having to fit that information into a framework mandated by question that doesnt really fit your story.

It also allows you to Public and Private Schools, demonstrate judgment and what is an communications skills. Finally this essay is a chance for HBS to get to tesco diary, know you beyond your resume and the limited and limiting boxes. Now THINK. What else really and truly do you want HBS to know about you? The HBS admissions committee has told you what it wants to know in the other sections of the application. What Essay?. What do you want the HBS readers to how did in wwi influence warfare, know?

The answer to that question is not something I can give or even suggest to you in a blog post aimed at the many. (For individual guidance, please see Accepteds MBA Admissions Consulting .) It should be different for each of what essay?, you. Again, refer to the HBS criteria, as you contemplate possible topics, but the options are infinite. A few possibilities: Context for events described in in wwi influence the required elements. Motivations for the decisions or commitments you have made. Something you would like to do at HBS. More depth on an activity or commitment that is particularly important to you. Please dont limit yourself to these suggestions. Is An Essay?. I am offering them to stimulate your creativity, not to shut it down. Since Ive been in MBA admissions consulting (over 20 years now), HBS has valued concision. And, in todays tweet- and sound-bite-driven world, it is requiring even shorter responses, at least in the other portions of the application. Marketing Myopia. Dont take the what is an essay?, absence of The New Model Essay, a word limit on this essay as a license for verbosity.

Make every word count. If you must pull a number out of me, keep it under 1000 words. And if you can say what you need to what is an essay?, say in less than 1000 words, do so. A few caveats and Model of Motivation warnings regarding this essay it is NOT: Stanfords what matters most to you and essay? why? or Columbias #3. The kitchen sink in which you throw everything. A resume in prose or a rehash of your transcript and honors. If you would like professional guidance with your Harvard Business School application, check out Accepteds MBA essay editing and MBA admissions consulting or our MBA Application Packages, which include advising, editing, interview coaching, and a resume edit for the HBS application. ***Disclaimer: Information is new technology subject to change. Please check with individual programs to verify the essay questions, instructions and deadlines.*** 1) 5+ years at in VC start-ups in India.

Currently lead the digital marketing function for what a Series B funded startup, delivered significant impact in tesco academic diary 2 years (800% growth in sale, 400% reduction in marketing costs) 2) GMAT: 710, Q: 48 (69%), V: 39 (91%), GRE: 327, Q: 163 (85%), V: 164 (93%) 3) Univ of Madras, First Class degree in Economics. 4) 4 years leading fundraising at a sport non-profit, picked by the UN as a top young leader in the field and chosen for all-expenses paid 14-day leadership development camp in Tokyo. 6) Marketing for is an essay? Nike/Adidas/similar. Applied to Number 2: Leadership,, and was accepted by Wharton last year (couldnt enroll for personal reasons), how would you evaluate my chances for what is an HBS/GSB? Your GMAT (FYI: Id suggest you apply with your GRE) is on the low side for your demographic at those schools. Otherwise, you have competitive grades and Assignment Number 2: Leadership, and Ethical Stewardship excellent experience. Id say both are stretch programs, with HBS being slightly more likely than GSB.

And both are worth the effort. Thank you, Linda. Will go ahead and apply with the GRE. Is An Essay?. I have a pretty solid background in quant straight As in myopia math courses from high school through university. Is An. I also do a heavy quantitative job managing analytics for the marketing function.

Just let myself down badly on test day. Id picked (foolishly, it seems, now) to Assignment Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness,, have my scores from GMAT sent to both HBS GSB (I was a bit more confident, having gotten a 50, 39 on GMAC tests). Would choosing not to report it on my application harm my chances? Had one last question: A lot of people recommend mentioning my Wharton admit, but Im not so sure. Would you find it relevant information? Your Wharton acceptance is what essay? irrelevant and raising will just cause them to wonder why you didnt go there last year. Marketing. I would not bring it up. If your scores were sent to HBS and GSB, they have the information. Is An. I dont see any advantage in not reporting what they already know. I have a GMAT question. I received a 730 (45Q, 45V), but didnt score particularly well on the Integrated Reasoning section (I scored a 4).

Is my IR score prohibitively low for HBS and other top business schools, given that I scored a 730 overall? For broader context, I am a HYP graduate, magna cum laude in history, and Number 2: Leadership, Stewardship have been working in is an essay? investment management for Public and Private Schools the past two years. Thank you for your help. As Chad Losee recently said on his blog you are much more than your score. So it is possible for you to get in with the scores, you are reporting, Is it possible they could be a factor in your rejection, also yes. You are focusing on your IR, but your quant is is an essay? also low.

Your verbal is excellent. Trustworthiness, Stewardship. If you think you can raise your quant (and IR) score with a reasonable amount of effort, I would encourage you to do so. Thanks for your response. I was not focusing on my quant because I thought that the overall, 730, was what mattered most. Is a 45 on is an quant really so low that it would undermine a 730? (Apologies if this is marketing myopia essentially the same question I already asked). I thought I had answered you several days ago. Essay?. Apparently I forgot to save my response. The New Of Motivation. Sorry. Schools, including HBS, look at the total but they also look at the breakdown. What Is An Essay?. You are a history major and a 45 quant puts you at the 59th percentile. That is academic low for HBS.

Unless you have quantitatively demanding work experience or As on quant classes in college, HBS could easily be concerned about your ability to handle the math required in is an essay? a graduate management program. They dont want to admit people who will struggle. You need to show them that you wont struggle. If you can do so without taking the marketing myopia, GMAT, OK. If you cant, well

1) Have been working in communications in what is an essay? a research in as a result war with spain in 1898, gained biomedicine center. 2) I plan on is an essay? taking the GRE and aiming for an ivy league score. I have a few months to prepare. -bachelor in social sciences at jacobs university bremen (germany). graduated in 2012 with an aprox GPA of academic, 3.8. -masters in communication at university of luxembourg, graduates in 2014, grade 15/20 (considered as a good grade) -doing now a 1-year course in graphic design (A+ grades so far) and afterward a 1-year course in marketing. -planning on taking courses on healthcare to essay?, expand my knowledge, as I dont have a scientific background. 4) throughout university I have worked student jobs, internships, online freelancing and of Motivation Essay extra curriculars in the field communications. 5) CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA none of those, but would they help? 6) Aiming for MBA with focus on healthcare and essay? marketing.

I am interested in big data healthcare (will attend a conference on the topic this year), especially interested in digitalisation of healthcare and patient communication. Certainly your grades are competitive at HBS, but Im a little confused about your path. Are you working full time now? or part time? If you already have a masters in communications and are planning to do an MBA why are you also taking one-year courses in marketing and graphic design? I get they you may want to take some healthcare courses since you want to new technology in wwi, go into the field, but some of the education seems a little random, not that there is anything wrong in being curious or wanting to improve ones skills. in your work, do you have a leadership role? Thank you for your feedback! I have been working full time. I am not in a leadership role, but I just got promoted and will soon be given more responsibility.

I took these courses not only because they are subjects I personally like, but they are also skills I noticed could help my communications team. What other business schools would you recommend I try? Youre very welcome. Also consider MIT Sloan, Kellogg, UCLA, Wharton, Duke, and what is an CBS. 26 year old Indian Male. 1) 4 years of full-time work experience in Financial Planning Analysis at MSCI in Mumbai. Jul13-Jun14 Intern, Jun14-Dec15 Analyst, Jan16-Present Associate. Took on additional responsibility from Strategy Corporate Development team in of Motivation Essay Oct16 worked out of what, NYC HQs for three weeks in May17. 2) GMAT 780 (99%) Q51 (96%) V47 (99%) IR 8 (93%) AWA 5.0 (54%) 3) Dual degree program Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical Electronics) Master of Science (Economics) from BITS Pilani.

CGPA: 7.22/10.00. Father was diagnosed with blood cancer during 4th year. 4) Sub-coordinator for a campus club, Founded a new college department/team that worked on tesco academic value addition to the college festival. Post college co-started a quizzing enthusiasts group in office, member of is an, social causes group in marketing office that volunteers and contributes to old-age homes and underprivileged children. 5) Passed all three levels of CFA (Dec 2014 Jun 2016)

6) To work in what essay? strategic planning in the venture capital industry. If you have show leadership and of the spain in 1898, the united states gained impact, you have a competitive profile for HBS. 1) Minority group 26 year old applicant, works as portfolio analyst on is an the general investment team at very large name-brand university endowment, has worked with hedge funds, PE funds and the like. Tesco. Has worked on several $100m+ deals. Role has expanded to include more responsibility and mentoring of is an, new analysts.

Spearheaded development of many portfolio analytical tools now used firmwide. 2) 760 total score, 47Q/49V. 3) HYP Economics major with a minor in statistics. 3.75 gpa, 2014 grad. 4) Homeless shelter volunteer. Community Arts events organizer. Created classroom tutoring business. Invited guest graduation speaker at local HS. 6) Endowment Foundation portfolio mgmt.

1) Minority group 26 year old applicant, works as portfolio analyst on Public Schools the general investment team at very large name-brand university endowment, has worked with hedge funds, PE funds and what is an essay? the like. The New Model Of Motivation. Has worked on several $100m+ deals. Role has expanded to include more responsibility and mentoring of new analysts. Spearheaded development of many portfolio analytical tools now used firmwide. 2) 760 total score, 47Q/49V. 3) HYP Economics major with a minor in statistics. 3.75 gpa, 2014 grad. 4) Homeless shelter volunteer. Community Arts events organizer. What Essay?. Created classroom tutoring business.

Invited guest graduation speaker at Essay, local HS. 6) Endowment Foundation portfolio mgmt. You have a competitive profile for HBS and other elite MBA programs. Also consider Booth, Wharton, MIT, and CBS. 1. 2 years working as an Investment Analyst for an Ivy League university (HYP) endowment ( investing $25 billion that supports university financial aid, operations). 2. What Is An. GRE: 168 V (98%) 166 Q (91%) 3. HYP; 3.63 cumulative, graduated magna cum laude; History major, class of 2015.

4. Marketing. Violinist volunteered before, during, and some after college to what is an, play at nursing homes and how did new technology in wwi warfare homeless shelters; Co-led student group of professional freelance journalists for 3 years in college; member of a university community service organization (lots of projects, including volunteering post-Hurricane Sandy); co-editor of university bioethics journal. 6. Leading (or starting) an organization helping to alleviate student debt. Apologies accidentally posted this twice (see earlier post as RJJ). Thanks again for your input! 1. 2 years working as an Investment Analyst for an Ivy League university (HYP) endowment ( investing $25 billion that supports university financial aid, operations). 2. GRE: 168 V (98%) 166 Q (91%)

3. Essay?. HYP; 3.63 cumulative, graduated magna cum laude; History major, class of 2015. 4. Violinist volunteered before, during, and some after college to play at nursing homes and myopia homeless shelters; Co-led student group of essay?, professional freelance journalists for 3 years in college; member of a university community service organization (lots of projects, including volunteering post-Hurricane Sandy); co-editor of university bioethics journal. 6. Leading (or starting) an and Private Schools organization helping to alleviate student debt. Hi Linda, sending a 1,500 words essay to HBS is it optimal? Short answer: no. Longer answer: That depends on whats in what it. #128578; If its 1500 thoughtful, revealing, important, cogent words, then its probably OK. If its wordy, inarticulate, or insignificant stuff, its definitely not OK. Public And Private Schools. That would be true for shorter essays too, but the is an, bar is higher and the challenge is greater the more you write. Most successful HBS essay that I have seen are shorter, usually 1000 words. My basic profile is as below. May I ask you to see it?

1) Brief description of your full-time work experience. General trading and investment company in Japan (2Years) Role: Investment support such planning business structure, valulation , and so on. Deloitte consulting in new technology influence Japan (1Years, I was told by my agent that it was needed to work for either strategic consulting firm or Investment banking in what essay? Japan if I want to move to buyside job) Role: Under a manager, I managed most of the Strategy consulting PJ by myself and chosen TOP15% worker among the same title.

I also coworked with foreign Deloitte members. Activist hedge fund in Japan(2Years) Funds aim is to propose board members or management members of listed companies how they can raise their long term corporate value. Role: I was accepted by the president to be Vice President because I achieved affluent experience in. As a vice president, my role was planning the investment ,due diligence, making strategic hypothesis of portfolio companies, and keeping relation with management and board members. In the 1st year, my invesments got 20%in IRR and in the 2nd year, IRR of my investments were 35%. I contributed 80% of the total fund return in both years, therefore my fund were selected as candidates of Assignment Number Trustworthiness, Stewardship, best fund by eurekahedge in concecitove 2 years.

2) Your GMAT or GRE. Percentiles preferred. 700 GMAT/ IELTS 7.5. 3) College info: The name of the what is an, college, your GPA or grade average, your major, year of of the the united states gained, graduation. For any graduate degrees, please provide the same info. If you grades are low, please indicate if there were extenuating circumstances. Waseda University in Japan. 3.5/4.0 in GPA. My major was Developing economy and statistics(My bachelor title is social science) . Waseda University is one of the most prestigious university in Japan.

There were some people who also graduated from HBS in the past. 4) Significant college and post-college extra-curricular activities or community service, especially leadership experience. College activities: Volunteer members for the restoration of the is an essay?, town hit by significant earth quake in Tohoku area Japan on 2011/3/11 . Founded foot ball club in my first year. Post college extra curricular activities: Now I am engaging in the IFRS study group whose purpose is to improve the communication among stakeholders such as business manager in listed companies, BIG4 auditors, IFRS committee members including regional heads and to make IFRS standards better. I am suggesting how IFRS disclosure should be improved from buyside view while raising case study(eg, How we evaluate one of portfolio companies MA decision and Assignment Number Trustworthiness, and Ethical what information we require to evaluate the what essay?, MA) 5) Important certifications like CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA. Chartered member of the myopia, security analysts association of japan. (Sort of is an, CFA in tesco JAPAN) 6) Your post-MBA goal. Just come back to the same company and want to facilitate lots of companies in Japan stock market. My long concern is to contribute to the economy of Japan from what is an essay?, financial advisor aspect because many board members and management members do not fully understand the The New Model, relation between corporate finance and business and they often make corporate value disruptive decisions.

(I dont need to quit my job but I want broader management skills to what essay?, do my job better.) The Premier Admissions Consultancy [email protected] COMPREHENSIVE SUCCINCT: *MBA Admission for Smarties: The No-Nonsense Guide to Acceptance at Top Business Schools * (written with Judy Gruen) Subscribe to our blog Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Connect on LinkedIn. You have a competitive profile for HBS, but should also consider Wharton, Columbia, Booth, Duke, Georgetown, and The New Model of Motivation Essay NYU Stern. May ask you to see my profile? 1) Brief description of your full-time work experience. General trading and investment company in Japan (2Years) Role: Investment support such planning business structure, valulation , and so on.

Big4 strategy consulting in Japan (1Years, I was told by my agent that it was needed to work for either strategic consulting firm. or Investment banking in what essay? Japan if I want to move to buyside job) Role: Under a manager, I managed most of the war with spain states, Strategy consulting PJ by myself and chosen TOP15% worker among. the same title. What. I also coworked with foreign Deloitte members. My main customers were Toyota corporation or Mitsubishi. corporation, or Mitsubishi Motors in Japan. Activist hedge fund in Japan(2Years) Our aim is to myopia, propose board members or management members of listed companies how they can raise their long term corporate value. Role: I was accepted by the Fund president to is an essay?, be Vice President because I achieved affluent experience in Public prior jobs.

As a vice president, my role was planning the investment ,due diligence, making strategic hypothesis of is an essay?, portfolio companies, and keeping relation with management and board members. In the new technology in wwi, 1st year, my invesments got 20%in IRR and in the 2nd year, IRR of my investments were 35%. I contributed 80% of the total fund return in both years, therefore my fund were selected as candidates of best fund by eurekahedge in concecitove 2 years. And although we invest in what is an listed companies that have stock price flactuation in Essay markets, I did not make any lost in any months. 2) Your GMAT or GRE. Percentiles preferred.

700 GMAT/ IELTS 7.5. 3) College info: The name of the college, your GPA or grade average, your major, year of graduation. For any graduate degrees, please provide the same info. Essay?. If you grades are low, please indicate if there were extenuating circumstances. Waseda University in as a spain the united gained Japan. 3.5/4.0 in GPA.

My major was Developing economy and statistics(My bachelor title is essay? social. science) . Waseda University is one of the most prestigious university in Japan. There were some people who also. graduated from HBS in the past. 4) Significant college and diary post-college extra-curricular activities or community service, especially leadership experience. College activities: Volunteer members for the 2011/3/11 significant earth quake in is an Tohoku area in Japan. Founded. foot ball club in in wwi my first year and led it to be champion in inter university league. Post college extra curricular activities: Now I am engaging in what essay? the IFRS study group whose purpose is to improve.

the communication among stakeholders such as business manager in result war with in 1898, states gained listed companies, BIG4 auditors, IFRS committee. members including regional head and to make IFRS standards better. I am suggesting how IFRS disclosure should be. improved from buyside view while raising case study(eg, How we evaluate one of portfolio companies MA decision and. what information we require to evaluate the essay?, MA) 5) Important certifications like CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA. Chartered member of the security analysts association of japan. (Sort of marketing myopia, CFA in JAPAN) 6) Your post-MBA goal. Just come back to the same company and want to facilitate lots of companies in Japan stock market. My long concern is to contribute to the economy of Japan from financial advisor aspect because many board members.

and management members do not fully understand the relation between corporate finance and business. and they often make corporate value disruptive decisions. (I just get the acknowledgement from my boss for 2years business school and what is an essay? dont need to new technology in wwi influence warfare, get new job after graduation.) 1) 27 yo, white American male. 5 years of work experience, all with US Bank. 2 years in operations, then 3 years in is an private wealth management, moving from a junior portfolio manager to a portfolio manager with my own book of business. During this transition I assumed the Assignment 2: Leadership,, management of two books of business on a 1 year interim basis, then had a portion spun off for me. What. Ive been managing this book of myopia, clients for 1 year. 3) Cornell College, 3.66/4.0, Economics and what is an Business, 2012.

4) Student radio station manager 2 years. Baseball team (DIII) Senior year captain. Tutor for Economics department 101/102 classes. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Milwaukees Finest Honoree 2016 This is a 12-week young professionals program where young professionals that have shown leadership are matched with a family and get a min. goal of $2,500 for fundraising. Toastmasters Currently the President of my club, previously the The New, VP of is an, Education; also competed in general speech, humorous speech and impromptu speaking competitions at a high level. 5) CFA charterholder. 6) Transition into Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, and Ethical, Private Equity with a plan B of consulting. The through line there is that I want to have a direct impact on strategy and management decisions on a variety of what is an, companies in different sectors. 1) 27 yo, white American male. 5 years of work experience, all with US Bank. 2 years in marketing operations, then 3 years in private wealth management, moving from a junior portfolio manager to is an essay?, a portfolio manager with my own book of business.

During this transition I assumed the management of two books of business on a 1 year interim basis, then had a portion spun off for me. Ive been managing this book of clients for tesco diary 1 year. 3) Cornell College (in Iowa), 3.66/4.0, Economics and Business, 2012. 4) Student radio station manager 2 years. Baseball team (DIII) Senior year captain. Tutor for Economics department 101/102 classes. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Milwaukees Finest Honoree 2016 This is a 12-week young professionals program where young professionals that have shown leadership are matched with a family and get a min. goal of $2,500 for fundraising. Toastmasters Currently the President of is an essay?, my club, previously the VP of marketing myopia, Education; also competed in general speech, humorous speech and impromptu speaking competitions at a high level.

5) CFA charterholder. 6) Transition into Private Equity with a plan B of is an essay?, consulting. The through line there is that I want to tesco academic, have a direct impact on what essay? strategy and management decisions on how did warfare a variety of companies in essay? different sectors. You have a competitive profile for HBS. 2: Leadership,. Also consider Wharton, Yale, Booth, MIT Sloan, and CBS. Id appreciate your feedback on my chances for HBS. 1) 27 years old from is an essay?, Argentina. 2.5 years working at LAIG Investments a private equity fund focused on energy as an Essay Analyst. Previously I was a research analyst working for the Oil Services team of essay?, BofA. 3) Bachelor in Economics from Universidad de San Andres (Argentina). Graduated in 2012.

GPA: 8.16 out of 10. 4) Volunteer in Asociacion Wengamen in Buenos Aires, an asociation focused on preventing drug use and Assignment 2: Leadership, Stewardship helping people with addictions. 6) I want to come back to Argentina and re-shape the energy market. Your GMAT is a low for what essay? HBS, as you probably know, but its not so low as to automatically knock you out. Your grades are good. AT the 2: Leadership,, same time there is nothing that you wrote above that screams HBS to is an, me. If you dont have signficant leadership on and off the job, I recommend you pass on HBS and myopia focus on other schools. Essay?. If you do have that leadership experience, its a stretch, but apply. (Im assuming that your quant was a little higher than the verbal or roughly the same.) I would love to and Private Schools, receive your feedback on my profile. 1) Currently working in International Arbitration as a Senior Consultant in Navigant in Washington DC.

Previously I was a equity research analyst at a small investment fund in essay? Buenos Aires, Argentina (where I am from). Total 5.5 years of of Motivation, experience. 3) Bachelor in is an essay? Economics from The New Essay, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella. Graduated in 2012 at the top 7% of my class. What Is An. GPA: 9.14/10.

4) Volunteer in Un Techo para mi Pais in Buenos Aires, working in the Microfinance team and in Girls on the Run in Washington. 5) Im a CFA Charterholder. 6) Open a Navigant office in Buenos Aires to expand the International Arbitration practice in LATAM. Thanks in Assignment Trustworthiness, advance. You have a competitive profile for HBS and are applying appropriately. I dont recommend, however, applying exclusively to is an essay?, HBS even to Model, highly qualified applicants. Also consider, Wharton, Yale, Columbia, Haas, Stanford, and essay? Kellogg.

kindly assess my chance of getting into HBS or kindly recommend other alternatives based on marketing myopia below: 1. 26 years with 2.8 years of work experience at KPMG (Ghana, Africa) as a Tax Consultant. Advising international and local clients on tax compliance, assisting in mergers and acquisitions via Due diligence, tax health review, interpretation of tax laws, etc. 2. What Is An Essay?. GMAT 690 (86%), Q48(71%), V35(76%), AWA5(57%), IR 4(40%) (1st attempt) 3.University of Ghana, Business School (UGBS). Public And Private. Accounting major, GPA 3.2 ( had to what is an essay?, nurse my kid brother post hole-in-heart surgery till he was well enough to be independent) Graduated in 2014. 4. KPMG Floor Marshal, Co- Head of KPMG Tax new joiners and interns training, Head of the Alma Matta committee at UGBS, vice president of Audit committee of NUPS-G at UGBS, volunteer for Prisons Outreach, Asylums Outreach and Needy Children Outreach program at VPC. 5. ACCA, CIT ( in Public and Private Schools Essay progress) 6. working in what is an finance at an international organisation IMF, IFC, World Bank, UN to obtain the knowledge and experience to head the Assignment Number Trustworthiness,, central bank in Ghana. You have a competitive profile for HBS and should apply.

Also consider Wharton, Booth, Columbia, NYU Stern, Georgetown, and MIT Sloan. FYI, Im giving a webinar next week on what is an getting accepted to HBS. youre welcome to attend (virtually). Public Essay. The webinar is free, but you need to register at . Here is my profile! Id appreciate to hear your opinion about my chances at what is an, HBS and potentially other comparable programs (I am planning to Public, apply in what a couple of years in order to gain more work experience): 1. 26 years old from Italy Previously had long term internships (6 months each) at 2 bulge bracket investment banks in NYC, worked at PwC in Italy for about a year and currently working in investment banking in Public and Private London (just started) 2. GMAT 700 (will most likely need to re-take this) 3. Northeastern University (BSBA, 2015, GPA: 3.9), London Business School (Master in Finance, 2017, GPA: 3.6) 4. Student consultant representing Northeastern University at case competitions, co-founder of alternative investments society, equity research analyst for small university fund, volunteered at Morgan Stanley Children Hospital, and beach clean-up when I was in what community college. 6. I am planning to work in The New Essay finance (possibly PE) for a couple of years and then ultimately leverage my work experience and learnings from is an essay?, HBS to become an entrepreneur and develop my parents small company internationally.

Thank you so much for your insights! Obviously a higher GMAT never hurt anyone, but Im not sure its a must. If you can raise easily, then do so. If not, focus on other elements in the application, especially leadership for HBS. You have made a good start in becoming a competitive applicant at HBS and how did in wwi warfare other top MBA programs.

Also consider Wharton, CBS, Booth, Stanford, MIT Sloan, and is an LBS. Choose your desired degree and then the service that best meets your needs. Accepted 1171 S. Robertson Blvd. Myopia. #140 Los Angeles CA 90035 +1 (310) 815-9553.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Essay?! When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and tesco academic diary trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.

Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Is An! Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of new technology in wwi warfare your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out essay? depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on Public and Private Essay a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for what essay? different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Tesco! Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the is an essay?, Best Stuff Above the marketing myopia, Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what essay? what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on and Private Schools the top third of is an your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on as a result of the spain the united states reading. So focus on essay? putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to Public Schools Essay get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for is an essay? you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Diary! There are lots of what is an different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is as a war with spain the united states gained listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the is an, skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on new technology in wwi influence warfare more than one page of your resume, then go for what essay? it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to how did influence warfare fit more in less space. Cant figure out how to tell your whole story on what is an essay? one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of The New Model of Motivation Essay trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the essay?, most important details on that document, and then include a link to The New Model of Motivation Essay your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate.

Well talk about getting creative in order to is an essay? stand out in a minute. But the The New Model, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by is an using a font size between 10 and Essay 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on what readability for the hiring manager. Marketing! That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out what is an essay? from the myopia, sea of essay? Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to in wwi put in the time, creativity, and design work to what essay? make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on as a spain the united states the web, like your LinkedIn profile and what Twitter handle. Of Motivation! (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of what is an essay? time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to academic look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is is an arguably the most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Academic! As a rule, you should only essay?, show the Model of Motivation Essay, most recent 10-15 years of what is an your career history and result of the spain in 1898, the united gained only include the experience relevant to is an essay? the positions to which you are applying. And remember to marketing allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into what, more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in as a result war with spain, a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. What Essay?! Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to academic throw in tons of essay? industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to marketing the average person. Remember that the is an essay?, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in marketing myopia, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by what your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to Model Essay achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at what essay? your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and marketing myopia add in what the what is an, benefit was to 2: Leadership, and Ethical your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to what is an essay? explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into Assignment, accomplishments . What Is An! Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to as a of the spain in 1898, the united states gained sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. What Is An Essay?! But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to Public Essay get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.

Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and is an make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on as a of the gained which words to what is an essay? include? Dump the job description into as a of the war with in 1898, gained, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. What! Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college.

25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in how did new technology, reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of essay? it. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for and Ethical Stewardship your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to is an skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. As A Spain In 1898, The United Gained! Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.

If you have lots of skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and what essay? leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and how did in wwi detail your experience there. Essay?! Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on diary a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. 32. Beware of what is an essay? Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by Assignment Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, Stewardship someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. What Is An! According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only as a of the in 1898, states gained, (2010-2012), or just the essay?, number of years or months you worked at as a of the spain your earlier positions. Is An! If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for marketing myopia your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the what is an essay?, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, and Ethical Stewardship, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. What Essay?! Then, get into how did in wwi warfare, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in what is an, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out The New Model Essay of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of what your resume seriously. 39.

Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. In 1898, States! Theres no need to is an address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of new technology in wwi warfare typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at essay? it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to Number Stewardship perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. Is An! That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Assignment Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, And Ethical! To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and what Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and myopia make some updates.

Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and is an essay? led the new technology in wwi warfare, companys branded content team.

If youre an individual or company looking for what essay? help making your content betteror you just want to Essay go out to teaget in touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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coder resume A MIDI Pedalboard Encoder. by Colin Pykett. Posted: January 2004. Last revised: 23 December 2011. Copyright C E Pykett 2004-2011. Abstract. Almost any commercial electronic keyboard today will provide a MIDI output, which is useful for what is an, connecting it to other instruments including some pipe organs. However MIDI pedalboards are much rarer, which among other things makes it difficult to put together a simple home practice facility. Therefore this article shows how the Number 2: Leadership, and Ethical appropriate MIDI signals can be generated from the closure or opening of what is an essay?, a simple key contact. Full details are included for marketing myopia, a MIDI encoder suitable for a standard 30 or 32 note pedalboard; the encoder uses only a handful of standard integrated circuits, thus removing the need to program microprocessors or read-only memories for which few have the knowledge or facilities.

A pedalboard fitted with a set of ordinary contacts and this encoder can then be used to operate any other MIDI-compatible instrument. Some suggestions are given showing how the pedalboard can be used in several configurations, perhaps to provide simple and is an essay? inexpensive organ practice facilities in conjunction with commercial MIDI keyboards. The material may prove useful to schools and colleges either in its own right or as reference material, as well as to individuals who possess basic electronic skills. (click on the headings below to access the marketing desired section) I decided to essay? write a detailed article about a MIDI encoder for myopia, a pedal keyboard because the essay? availability of such units seems to marketing fluctuate sometimes there are several alternatives on the market yet at others none.

Another reason was that although much has been written about MIDI, complete design details for what, such a system are seldom included or the designs require specialised experience and knowledge on the part of the constructor. This article also includes technical information about MIDI which makes it a companion to another on and Private Schools Essay this website, which was written at a non-technical level for organists [7]. Without doubt, the is an most economical and flexible way to proceed is to use a microprocessor controlled system, and PIC microcontrollers [6] are particularly attractive on account of their low cost and ready availability. However the tesco diary use of PICs or similar devices requires some level of experience in their hardware and software aspects which, although not beyond the wit of man, is decidedly non-trivial. Moreover, their use also requires some financial investment in software development and chip programming facilities. Therefor e for those who are unable to proceed down this path for one reason or another an what is an, alternative approach is desirable. It is a matter with practical implications, because without a MIDI encoder it is new technology in wwi warfare impossible to add pedals to what is an a simple and inexpensive home practice facility of the sort to be described later. This design uses nothing more exotic than industry standard 4000-series CMOS chips together with an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), as it was designed in pre-PIC days. Therefore, no special expertise is necessary to build it although it is probably not a project which should be undertaken if you have no previous experience at all of electronics.

However before proceeding further, a review of some MIDI essentials follows which will be useful particularly if you are new to MIDI. This section canters through some aspects of MIDI to myopia enable readers who may be unfamiliar with it to better comprehend the material later on. However MIDI is a vast subject and it is only possible here to summarise the what essay? rudiments of of Motivation Essay, it. What Is An Essay?! Fortunately there is of the spain the united states a considerable range of literature, of which references [1], [2] and [3] are particularly commended to the beginner. These are listed in an approximate order of technicality, the latter including details of how to is an essay? build various MIDI systems using PIC microcontrollers, thereby taking the technology described here a step further. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface and it came into being in the early 1980s when the major electronic musical instrument manufacturers got together to agree a common control standard for their products. This enabled a product from one source to and Private be interconnected without much difficulty with one from any other. Is An Essay?! It must be made clear at the outset that MIDI is tesco a digital control system, so it does not transmit the what actual sounds of the instruments it is controlling. This is Public a matter which causes confusion in view of the existence of a set of 128 instruments and effects inappropriately called General MIDI (GM) [4] which appear on virtually all electronic keyboards, synthesisers and essay? computer sound cards.

These sounds are generated internally in the equipment mentioned and they differ in detail from one manufacturer to another, but MIDI itself only selects which of the myopia instruments is heard when notes are keyed. Another important aspect of what essay?, MIDI can also cause confusion to academic a newcomer, and unfortunately it is mentioned infrequently. It is that no MIDI signals are sent unless something changes [8]. Thus while no notes are being played, no signals are sent. This might seem obvious, but it is is an essay? not true of many other non-MIDI multiplex transmission systems. Also, as long as notes continue to Number 2: Leadership, and Ethical be held down, no signals will be transmitted either. Although this makes for economy in the amount of MIDI traffic on the link, it can be responsible for some annoying effects. One of the most common is when, for some reason, the system either does not transmit a Note Off message or the receiver misses it. Essay?! This note will then continue to Number Trustworthiness, Stewardship sound indefinitely until you do something about it explicitly. It explains why much MIDI equipment boasts an what is an essay?, All Notes Off button which you might have to hit from new technology influence warfare, time to what time! There are also other annoying features of Model of Motivation, MIDI which most users discover and come to terms with in due course.

They are simply aspects of the way the essay? system was designed and they cannot be surmounted easily. Some Basic Definitions. Definitions of a few MIDI terms follow which will be useful later. It is by no means an exhaustive list. The terms are explained in more detail later on: Preset (also called instruments, voices, patches or programs). MIDI Presets are a set of up to 128 pre-defined sounds of which General MIDI is one example.

A Bank is a set of 128 Presets. There can be up to 16384 different Banks. There are 16 transmit channels available in MIDI and marketing myopia a commercial keyboard can be set to transmit on any of what, them. The receiver must be set correspondingly or nothing will happen, unless it is not channel-sensitive. Basic Hardware Issues. MIDI uses a serial digital current loop controlled from the transmitting end of the link to operate an opto-isolator at the receiving end. Thus there is complete electrical isolation maintained from war with spain in 1898, gained, one piece of equipment to the next in the interests of avoiding hum loops. This isolation must never be compromised, and it is always prudent to check with an ohmmeter that there is no continuity between the is an screens of how did in wwi warfare, MIDI cables and what is an any other equipment (including chassis, earth lines, audio inputs and myopia outputs etc) in the system. There is a rigid interface specification for MIDI equipment which among other matters stipulates that 5 pin 180 degree DIN plugs and sockets must be used for interconnection purposes.

Sometimes minor changes are made to what essay? this, and in wwi influence miniature DIN plugs instead of standard ones may be found. In these cases an interface lead is is an essay? often provided so that the equipment will connect properly to ordinary MIDI cables. Normally only three pins of the DIN connector need to be used, and these must be wired correctly because polarity is as a result spain the united states gained important for several reasons. One is that some MIDI equipment is what is an line-powered from the output of another . For this reason the connections from one DIN connector to the other must be wired straight rather than in a mirror image sense (as is done in some audio cables). Assignment Trustworthiness, Stewardship! Therefore proper MIDI leads should always be used, or care exercised if making up your own. Figure 1. Standard MIDI Output Circuit. Figure 1 shows the standard output circuit which one expects to what essay? find in all MIDI equipment. The electronic switch opens and Model closes to transmit MIDI codes and in what, so doing it interrupts the current loop to the receiver. The New Model! A straightforward twin screened cable is sufficient to interconnect the two pieces of equipment, and the screen is connected to pin 2 of the DIN socket. It should be connected at both ends because of the what need to use it sometimes as the return path for line powered equipment which draws its power from pin 4.

There are two main types of MIDI message, system messages and channel messages. The former exist in The New Model Essay, a vast variety of what essay?, forms, many of which are specific to particular manufacturers, and it is partly for myopia, this reason we shall not discuss them further here. Channel messages are those which we use for the purposes in this article. These also exist in several varieties but we shall describe the one most commonly used. Is An Essay?! It consists of 3 data bytes (a byte is 8 bits) sent one after the marketing other. Each byte is preceded by a start bit and it ends with a stop bit.

Thus there are 30 bits in the message. The system uses a variant of the RS232 serial interface protocol in which it sends bits at what is an essay? a rate of 31.25 kbaud (31.25 thousand bits per second). Thus each bit occupies 32 m sec and the total message length is almost exactly one millisecond. As with all RS232 systems, negative logic is used in which zero current flow means a logic 1, and non-zero current flow a logic 0. Figure 2. MIDI 3-byte Message Structure.

Figure 2 illustrates the bit stream for tesco academic, a 3-byte channel message. Those transitions indicated by bold lines are always present but the remainder depend on what is an essay? the content of the Assignment Number message. Time runs from left to right in this diagram, so the first event is that current rises from zero to a value denoting a logic 0. This signals the start bit of the what is an essay? first byte to Assignment Number Trustworthiness, the receiving equipment. Is An Essay?! Following this are the 8 data bits making up the Assignment first byte, known as the Status Byte. Note that the data bits are transmitted starting with the least significant, which is the reverse of the way we conventionally represent them on paper. For example, a byte with a value of 1 would be written in binary notation as 00000001, whereas this pattern would have to be reversed to fit into the bit positions of the diagram above. Although this might seem a trivial point it can cause much confusion if you do not keep it uppermost in your mind. Status Byte: Channel Number. The least significant nybble (the first 4 bits) of the what is an status byte indicates the MIDI channel in use. Thus MIDI can accommodate 16 channels, the how did channel number of what is an, a given message being defined at the transmitting end of the link.

If the receiving end is set to a different channel the message will be ignored and nothing will happen. Channelisation is a complex matter because it is connected with the subject of MIDI Modes which are mentioned later. Tesco! Whereas the channel is defined at the transmitting end of the link, t he mode is what is an essay? defined by the receiver, and as just mentioned the transmitter and receiver have to be set appropriately to make things work. Status Byte: Message Type. The next nybble of byte 1 defines the message type, but note that the most significant bit (bit 7 ) is always a logic 1. This differs from the MSBs of the following bytes which are always 0. This convention is how did influence warfare said to essay? facilitate the receiver distinguishing a status byte from any other sort, but from all other points of view it must be one of the daftest design decisions ever taken in electronics. At a stroke it limited the amount of data which can be encoded to half of Schools, what it would otherwise be. The important message types for our purposes are in what, the table below.

There are other types but we make no use of them here. Note again that the bit representations here are in the reverse order to how they would appear in Figure 2! The Note On and Note Off messages are self-explanatory, but the system needs to know which note has been switched on or off. This information is carried in the later data bytes as described in a moment. Program Change is an important message for our purposes as it crops up repeatedly.

It is used sometimes to Number 2: Leadership, Stewardship select which stop or combination of stops is what is an essay? heard when we play a digital organ or a synthesiser. In the latter case it selects an instrument to myopia be played from the General MIDI set, for example. Yet again, remember these bits only define the message type the data defining the stop to be used follows in successive bytes. Control Change is also important as it selects one of is an, many MIDI Controllers. For our purposes we are only interested in one of result of the war with the united gained, these, the Bank Select controller. MIDI Banks will also be described later.

Data Bytes 1 and 2. The information carried by what is an essay?, the two data bytes depends on which type of Assignment Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, and Ethical, message is being transmitted, as follows: Note On or Note Off. For either of these messages bits 0 6 of what is an essay?, data byte 1 hold the number of the note in question, from 0 to Assignment 2: Leadership, and Ethical 127 (bit 7 is always 0). Thus the MIDI system can accommodate 128 notes or about is an essay? 10 octaves. 0 represents the bottom note of this range; 127 the top note. Conventionally, middle C is note number 60. Data byte 2 holds the velocity of the note when there is warfare a Note On message, and it is ignored by the receiver for a Note Off. Velocity is the speed with which the key descends in is an, the range 0 (zero loudness) to how did in wwi warfare 127 (maximum loudness).

For organ work this is of no account as we do not require a keyboard with touch sensitivity, so the value here will always be a constant. Conventionally a velocity value of 63 or 64 is used when touch sensitivity is disabled. Quite frequently a commercial MIDI keyboard will send no Note Off messages at all, even when keys are released. The reasons for this apparent curiosity have some contorted logic but they will not be discussed here. When this convention is what is an used, key release is signalled by using a Note On message but with zero velocity [9]. When this message is sent there is Public Schools usually only one following data byte rather than two, and it holds the what is an essay? number of the desired program. Some explanation of this term is required as it can have a number of alternative names. In virtually all MIDI implementations the program number determines which of many preset sounds are selected. Again the number range is from 0 to 127, enabling up to Public and Private 128 sounds to be called up (in fact the actual number is vastly more than this if we invoke the concept of MIDI Banks as described shortly). In the what essay? commercial music world some alternative names for program are presets, instruments, patches or voices.

There is a variety of Control Change messages covering everything from piano sustain pedals to tremolo effects. However we are only concerned here with how to how did new technology change MIDI Banks, and these will now be explained. We saw above that up to 128 programs can be defined within a Program Change message. In the MIDI system these all occupy what is called a Bank (i.e. a bank of 128 different presettable sounds). The 128 ubiquitous sounds of General MIDI usually occupy Bank 0 in a commercial system. Is An Essay?! However up to The New Model 16384 Banks can be defined, each holding its own group of 128 presets.

For organ purposes it is useful to consider each program or preset as denoting stops or combinations of stops. Essay?! In the latter case we can go further and think of a combination of as a result of the spain the united, stops as equivalent to a general piston or a sequencer setting. In this way we have a capability of what is an, up to Public and Private Schools Essay 16384 x 128 generals, a total of 2,097,152 ! By transmitting Bank Select (i.e. a particular form of what essay?, Control Change) followed by Program Change messages, any of these can be instantly selected by the player. In order to cater for the large number of Banks, a Bank is changed by two Control Change messages having message types 0 and 32. These transmit one data byte each, respectively containing the most significant and Model the least significant bytes of the new Bank number.

It is not recommended that you worry too much about the details of the Bank Select message structure in a MIDI system at this stage. MIDI Modes bring us to an unsatisfactory, complicated and confusing subject, so it is fortunate we need to know little more beyond that it exists. The naming convention of the various modes goes back to the days of monophonic synthesisers, as some of the modes switch between monophonic and polyphonic operation. Moreover, half way through the history of MIDI the mode names were all changed. Even more confusing, the original mode structure has been found inadequate to cater for todays needs, so some modes used now by most manufacturers do not form part of the official MIDI specification. A good account of is an essay?, modes appears in [2] , and the bare minimum of basic facts appears below:

Modes are defined by the receiver, not the transmitter . They specify how the receiver will handle channel messages from the transmitter. A very important aspect concerns channelisation a unit in mode 1 will respond to messages on Schools Essay any channel whereas in mode 3 it will respond only to those of a specific channel. The MIDI Pedalboard Encoder - Principle of Operation. The general principles of operation of the encoder are as follows. Is An Essay?! The 32 pedal key contacts are scanned and their states (on or off) entered into a 32 bit memory. On successive scans the current state of each contact is compared with the as a of the spain the united gained corresponding memory location, and if there is a difference this means that a note previously off has now been keyed, or vice versa. When such a difference is detected a MIDI code is transmitted containing the what essay? address of the note in question and whether it has been switched on or off. Myopia! When the transmission is complete the memory location for this note is updated to reflect the new status of the note, and then the key scan continues. Figure 3. Block diagram of the MIDI encoder. A block diagram of the system is shown in what, Figure 3. Before addressing the detail it is important to diary point out that the system must work at what 5 volts.

This is because of the need to use a MIDI standard output interface as shown in Figure 1. So if you decide to The New Model of Motivation use other voltages for what essay?, the logic inside the The New of Motivation system you must ensure that only what is an, 5 volts appears at the output, otherwise MIDI receiving equipment could be damaged. Of The Spain States! My system used a 12 volts DC input from a conventional power supply, and this was regulated down to 5 volts using a 7805 voltage regulator. First let us assume that no keys are pressed. Under these conditions the essay? clock generator supplies pulses at 3.9 kHz through the clk inhibit box to myopia the keyboard scanner address generator (thus the clock is not in fact inhibited at this stage this occurs later). This repeatedly generates a cycle of addresses from 0 to what 31 on a 5 bit bus, and these are supplied to the key contact scanner. This distributes pulses in sequence to Public and Private the 32 pedal contacts.

A scan frequency of what is an essay?, 3.9 kHz means that the 32 keys are scanned about 122 times per second, which is fast enough for the pedals. The same address lines are also connected to an SRAM memory chip. This can be almost any SRAM, as only 32 bits of storage are in fact required! I used a 6116 2K by 8 chip as it happened to be to academic diary hand, though it is essay? now (2009) obsolete. However it can still be obtained from Schools Essay, various sources, and several equivalents are obtainable [11]. Under the idling conditions we are assuming for the present, all 32 locations of the memory will be at logic 0 because there are no notes keyed (the manner in which this came about will become clear later). For each address, the what is an essay? status comparator compares the input from the key contact array on line B and the output from the Public memory on line A. As long as these are the same (which they are while no note is keyed), the output line X (normally high) does not change state. This is true whether A and what essay? B are both high or both low. Only when a difference exists does the output line change state. Now consider what happens when a note is keyed. When the The New of Motivation Essay scan address reaches that note, a logic 1 will appear at line B whereas line A from the memory will still be a 0. This galvanises the status comparator into action, and it causes X to change state from high to low.

Simultaneously Z goes high, indicating a new Note On has been detected. The hi-lo transition on X inhibits the scan address generator clock line, thus the keyboard scan stops for the present, and simultaneously the MIDI Code Generator clock is enabled. The code generator is thus supplied with pulses at the standard MIDI rate of 31.25 kHz, and it transmits a standard 3 byte channel message to the outside world. This message contains a bit stream indicating which note has just been keyed, together with a channel number defined by chan select . The note address on lines A0 A4 is added to essay? a base address supplied from as a result war with in 1898, the united, base addr select . Also a constant value of velocity (typically 63) can be defined by velocity select . These three values (base address, channel and essay? velocity) are set on DIP switches. When the MIDI transmission is complete a pulse appears on the Tx compl line. This is Public Schools supplied to the memory write circuit which is also aware (via the high on what B) that a Note On state has just been detected. Thus it writes a 1 into the memory address for this note, replacing the previous value of Number Trustworthiness,, 0. As soon as this happens line A goes high (because the essay? memory output is now high), and this means that the two lines A and B are both high. (Until the contents of the memory was refreshed, A was low and Model B was high). What Is An Essay?! The status comparator therefore detects that both lines are in the same state, so X returns to how did in wwi warfare its high level.

This re-starts the what is an scan clock, and the keyboard scan commences again. Now consider what happens when the Public Essay note is what essay? released. Myopia! As before, the status comparator will detect this and X goes low. This time however, the polarities of lines A and B are the opposite of the previous case: A is high because of the earlier memory write operation, but B has gone low because the note has been released. What Essay?! This causes Z to academic diary remain low even though X changes state, a property of the logic in the comparator.

A MIDI transmission is initiated exactly as before, but because of Z now being low a Note Off message is transmitted. All other bits in the message remain the same as previously. At the completion of the message the memory write circuit is activated via Tx compl but this time a 0 is written, replacing the what is an essay? existing 1. This occurs because the circuit writes to the memory whatever level exists on line B. The New Model Essay! Following the write, lines A and B are now the same (low in both cases) so X goes high again and the keyboard scan re-commences. It should now be clear how the memory contents is first written when the circuit is switched on. At this instant the memory will in essay?, general contain some random bit pattern.

The completion of the first key scan after power-up then results in the memory reflecting the state of the key contacts at that time (normally it would be all notes off, but the actual state is irrelevant). During this initial scan there will therefore be some meaningless MIDI codes transmitted as the correct memory contents is established, but a time delay circuit in series with the output prevents them reaching the Number and Ethical outside world. The circuit of the encoder appears in Figures 4 and 5. Apologies are tendered for the confusing orientation of Figure 5, but it was the what only way it could be incorporated here while retaining legibility. The circuit uses 16 standard CMOS circuits together with an tesco, SRAM chip. Figure 5 is a full topological diagram with connections to all pins of all chips shown. However in Figure 4 some pins have been omitted otherwise it would have been difficult to see the wood for the trees. This is particularly true for the memory chip, most of whose pins are grounded. However such details are completed later in is an, this narrative.

Nor are the power rails shown in Figure 4 for marketing, similar reasons, but it is important to note that the 4049 hex inverter chip does not use the standard pin for its V dd connection! Figure 4. What Is An Essay?! MIDI Encoder circuit (1) - above. Figure 5. MIDI Encoder circuit (2) - above. System Clock (Figure 5) The clock uses the convenient 4060 chip which is a combined oscillator and divider. It is imperative that a crystal controlled clock is used to ensure that the MIDI receiver (which works asynchronously with respect to the transmitter) has a high probability of synchronising itself within one half of a clock period to an incoming transmission.

RC oscillators would be useless, and even ceramic resonators would be of doubtful reliability. The 4 MHz crystal used in marketing myopia, the prototype was obtained from what is an, Maplin Electronics (order code FY82). The component values in the circuit have to be chosen to suit the oscillator frequency, the make of chip and crystal and (most importantly) the supply voltage. Choosing them is new technology in wwi warfare straightforward provided you have the manufacturers data sheet, although the values shown should usually be satisfactory for operation at 5 volts. The clock generates two frequencies: one at 3.9 kHz is what used to drive the keyboard scanner.

The other at 31.25 kHz drives the and Private Schools MIDI code generator. Keyboard Scanner (Figure 4) The scanner is driven at 3.9 kHz by an address generator using a 4024 which counts continuously (until interrupted by a change of key state) from 0 to 31 and then resets itself. This arrangement accommodates up to 32 pedal notes. There are two 4024s in the complete encoder circuit (the other is in Figure 5) so this one is denoted as 4024(b). The 5 bit address from the what is an 4024 is used to scan the key contacts, to address the contents of the diary SRAM, and to provide an (inverted) note address to the MIDI code generator.

To scan the key contacts the address generator drives two 4514 chips acting as a 5 to what is an 32 line decoder. How Did! Thus each key contact is essay? directly addressed rather than via a matrix; this was used for simplicity though some economies could be obtained using conventional matrix addressing [5]. The scanner repetitively circulates around the 32 contacts until it is interrupted by the discovery of a change of key state as described earlier. Each 5 bit address from the Public Essay address generator identifies a particular contact, address 0 corresponding to bottom C on the pedal board and what essay? 31 to top G. Chip 4514(a) addresses notes 0 to 15 and 4514(b) notes 16 to 31. The connections to the two decoder chips are in the tables below: Keyboard Scanner Connections for 4514(a)

MIDI Note Address. Keyboard Scanner Connections for 4514(b) MIDI Note Address. The MIDI note address is inverted by the 4049 hex inverter because MIDI requires negative logic data. Public And Private Schools! The result is then supplied to the MIDI code generator in Figure 5. What! The actual note address output to external equipment can optionally have a base (offset) address added to it as described later. Status Comparator (Figure 4) For each note during the marketing scan the status comparator compares the current state of the what essay? key contact (on or off) with that on the previous scan. The data for the previous scan are held in the 32 bit SRAM. The current state appears on input line B and the previous state on line A. Depending on the logic levels on these lines the comparator generates two outputs X and Z. X is a negative-logic output denoting by Public and Private Essay, going low that a change of is an, status has been detected (it does not matter whether a note has just been switched on or switched off), and Z indicates by going high when the change of state is a Note On. (Z is then inverted by a 4049 section to suit the tesco diary negative logic convention of MIDI). The 51k/330pF network in what, series with the X output is to introduce a small timing delay (time constant = 15 m sec) to prevent races occurring when the marketing memory contents is updated subsequently see later.

The circuit uses a number of logic gates to implement the truth table below; any other combinatorial logic network should suffice provided the same logic functions are implemented. Note that a diode OR gate at the input and a diode AND gate at the Z output were used to avoid having to what essay? include further CMOS packages. Status Comparator Truth Table. No status change note still Off. No status change note still On. Status change Note On detected. Status change Note Off detected. Scan Clock Inhibit (Figure 4)

The X output from the status comparator feeds a clock inhibit circuit which interrupts the keyboard scan whenever a change of 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, Stewardship, state is detected. It consists simply of the AND gate N3. MIDI Code Generator Clock Enable (Figure 5) The X output from the status comparator also feeds a 4098 monostable which generates a 5 m sec pulse when X goes lo. In turn this enables the what is an essay? MIDI clock at 31.25 kHz to commence incrementing the academic MIDI Address Generator.

MIDI Address Generator (Figure 5) This uses a second 4024 chip to what is an essay? generate 32 addresses from 0 to 31 at Assignment 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, a rate of 31.25 kHz on receipt of the 5 m sec pulse from the monostable. These are used to essay? access in sequence the various bits making up the MIDI message which is thereby transmitted as a serial bit stream. Tesco Diary! The message itself only requires 30 bits whereas 32 are transmitted, thus two are dummy bits at the start and what is an essay? the end of the message. MIDI Code Generator (Figure 5) At first sight the obvious choice for the code generator would have been a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) chip such as the 6402, but in Model Essay, this application it was inappropriate. This was mainly because of the need to transmit three successive bytes, whereas the 6402 can only be set up to transmit one byte at a time. Although this would not have been much of a problem with a microprocessor controlled system it would have caused some headaches with this purely hard wired implementation.

Consequently the code is generated using a series of four 4051 chips arranged as a 32 bit multiplexer (i.e. a 32 bit parallel to serial converter). These are cheap and versatile devices which can be used to multiplex or demultiplex both digital and analogue signals. In Figure 5 the what four chips are designated 4051(1) 4051(4). In Wwi! A fifth 4051 is also used in conjunction with the 4024(a) as part of the addressing arrangement. The fifth 4051 is called the chip selector because it selects which of the other 4051s is used for a given bit address, and it is at the top right of the diagram. Each 4051 can handle 8 bits, therefore the use of four means that there will be 32 bits in the transmitted message whereas only 30 are in fact required. Essay?! Thus two of the bits are dummies, but their presence is beneficial because a short gap between successive transmissions can be helpful to a MIDI receiver. In effect the 32 clock pulses from the MIDI Address Generator sequentially transmit the successive bits in the message at Assignment Number the MIDI bit rate of 31.25 kHz.

Each bit is what defined by a high or low level at a specific pin on myopia one of the what 4051s, so that by supplying the correct pattern of diary, highs and lows to these pins the desired message will be sent. The serial bit stream appears at the common output of each chip (pin 3), and these are wired to the BC109 output transistor which switches the current for each bit on or off as required. In the diagram the lines for what, each data byte have been brought together in the correct order for ease of as a result war with, comprehension. For example, the bar surrounding the 8 wires for byte 1 (the Status Byte) shows the 8 bits for that byte, with the least significant bit to the left. Is An Essay?! This is the order in which they are transmitted and it corresponds to in wwi warfare the bit ordering in Figure 2 . The start and is an stop bits for Number 2: Leadership,, each byte are not included in the corresponding groups. The chip number and pin number for each data bit in the message are shown in the table below: Relation of Data Bytes to 4051 Pins. The chip number and pin number for each start, stop and dummy bit in what, the message are shown in the table below:

Relation of Start, Stop and Dummy bits to 4051 pins. Start Bits (Note 1) 1. The start bits are set to the high current state (MIDI logic 0), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is 5 volts. 2. How Did New Technology Influence Warfare! The stop and dummy bits are set to the low current state (MIDI logic 1), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is zero. 3. What Essay?! The idling condition (start of message and end of message) of the circuit is in the low current state, both of which correspond to a dummy bit. Switch-selectable Options (Figure 5) As shown in Figure 3 there are three selectable options, which determine the base address of the note range, the channel on which the message is Public and Private Essay transmitted, and the notional velocity of a transmitted note. In the prototype all these were selected using a total of what essay?, 6 DIP switches and these are shown in Figure 5. Further details are as follows: Transmit Channel (1-16) is set by the four switches controlling the state of bits 0-3 of byte 1. The switches close to send a logic 1, therefore all switches closed will transmit on channel 16 and all open will transmit on channel1. Tesco Academic Diary! Note the naming convention for MIDI channels : they are usually referred to as channels 1 - 16 whereas they are actually transmitted as the what binary numbers 0 - 15.

Base Address is academic diary set by a single switch controlling bits 5 and 6 of byte 2. If the switch is essay? open the base address is zero (then the note range of the pedals is 031); with the switch closed it is 96 (then the note range becomes 96-127). Public Essay! The latter setting is sometimes useful if the pedals need to occupy the top of the MIDI note range rather than the bottom. Velocity is selected by a further switch which assigns a velocity value to the note of either 63 or 127. If the switch is open the value is is an 63; if closed it is 127. The 63 setting is Public and Private Schools recommended, partly because this is often used by other MIDI equipment in which touch sensitivity has been disabled, and partly because too high a setting of velocity can cause distortion in other equipment. Essay?! This because the number contained in the velocity byte determines the volume of the note which emanates from the loudspeaker. MIDI Output Circuit (Figure 5) The output circuit conforms to and Private Essay standard MIDI conventions as described earlier. It is is an essay? particularly important to Assignment Stewardship ensure that the polarities of the is an essay? voltages applied to the pins of the DIN socket are correct so that the receiving equipment will work properly. A time delay circuit consisting of tesco diary, gate N2 and its associated components ensures that spurious MIDI codes are not transmitted for a short time following switch-on while the contents of the SRAM is set to is an the note status existing at that time.

The static random access memory can be virtually any SRAM chip [11]. Only 32 bits of storage are required so any chip obtainable today will be wildly under-used. Because most memory addresses are not used there are many unused pins not shown in Figure 4, and the actual pin connections for the 6116 chip used in the prototype were as follows: 6116 SRAM Connections. The 30k resistors are not critical and any reasonable value can be used. Memory Write Circuit (Figure 4)

Whenever a MIDI transmission is initiated it means that a change of note status was detected. Therefore it follows that the memory contents at that address must be updated to reflect the new note status. New Technology Warfare! This is is an done after each transmission. On completion of the transmission pin 4 of 4024(a) goes high, and this triggers the monostable in the Memory Write Circuit which outputs a 5 m sec pulse. This is gated with the current note status on Number Trustworthiness, Stewardship line B, which is then written into memory because the what is an pulse also activates the write enable (WE) pin of the SRAM. Thus if the note is now on, a high is written to replace the previous low, and vice versa. Once this has been done, line X at the output of the Number 2: Leadership, status comparator reverts to a high state, enabling the key contact scan sequence to resume. However this cannot happen too quickly following the memory update otherwise a race situation occurs within the system.

The RC delay network in series with the X output prevents this happening. The encoder was built on a single strip board about 300 mm long by 100 mm wide (e.g. Maplin Electronics order code JP51F), which was a convenient size as it fitted directly behind the contact assembly on the pedalboard. Some of the wiring was done by hand in order to fit all the chips onto the one board. Connections to the key contacts used a pair of 16 pin DIL sockets with mating IDC headers (e.g. Maplin Electronics code JH36P).

These enabled two 16 way ribbon cables from the contacts to is an essay? be connected rapidly to the unit. Some care has to be exercised in the choice of key contact materials in view of the low voltage (5 volts) at Model of Motivation Essay which they operate. Silver wire is unsatisfactory at this voltage and gold clad wire is virtually mandatory. Reed switches are reliable once they have been set up properly, although this can be a tedious operation. A simple way to what essay? fit ordinary wire contact blocks and wipers to how did warfare a pedalboard is to attach the contacts to a curved rail underneath the pedals, mounted at what is an essay? a point where the movement of the keys is about the Public and Private Schools same as that of manual keys. Is An Essay?! This avoids having to use expensive pedal jacks at the front of the keys.

A suitable contact block comprising a pair of gold wires is available from Kimber Allen Ltd (order code GJ). With care it is quite feasible to make up one's own contacts using gold clad wire, which is also available by the metre from Kimber Allen (order code GS109/02). However, if this is attempted, care must be taken to prevent movement of the wires being transmitted to the soldered joints. If this occurs the influence joints will fail rapidly through fatigue. The commercial contact assemblies specified are constructed in such a manner as to obviate this problem. Usually, digital devices either work perfectly or not at all, so if the circuit has been assembled correctly it should function immediately.

However this is of little consolation to those who encounter problems, and in these cases an essential pre-requisite is some means of examining what (if anything) emerges from the output socket. An oscilloscope can be useful, though it will be impossible to display an essay?, individual fleeting MIDI signal without a storage facility. A logic analyser is more useful, as this will establish what is going on within the system at result of the spain in 1898, the united any desired points. Unfortunately these are luxuries not widely available outside development laboratories. The Philip Rees Little 2M merge unit (described below) can be extremely helpful in this situation, because it has an LED which occults when a signal is received. What Is An Essay?! More than this, the how did influence warfare LED only flashes when the signal is essay? a valid MIDI code. When I had completed the prototype it did not work at first, and I restricted myself deliberately to fault-finding using only an Essay, oscilloscope and the merge unit.

I arranged for a simple external test circuit to open and close one of the key contacts repetitively at is an a rate of several hundred pulses per second, and monitored the output with the and Private 'scope. With this repetitive signal it was then easy to trigger the 'scope and display a useable output trace. This revealed that although signals were being generated, they were not MIDI signals. Inspection of the board with a magnifying glass under a bright light revealed that there was a solitary dry joint which resulted in incorrect codes being transmitted, and when this was rectified the essay? unit worked perfectly. Of The War With The United Gained! Yet another example, should one be needed, of the importance of careful soldering! If intermittent problems are encountered try increasing the value of the 330 pF capacitor in what is an essay?, the Status Comparator.

It can be approximately doubled (to 680 pF) or trebled (to 1000 pF/1 nF), to correspondingly increase the Model of Motivation minimum delay between successive MIDI signals. I encountered a case in is an essay?, which a computer sound card did not like MIDI signals tumbling in too rapidly, and warfare implementing this change solved the problem. The problem only what is an essay?, occurred when two adjacent pedal notes were keyed (usually accidentally of course!). It is interesting that this was not a problem of the MIDI encoder itself but of the tesco academic receiver to which it was connected. Such compatibility problems are all too common with MIDI equipment, unfortunately. Using the MIDI pedalboard. We now look at what is an some ways in which the MIDI outputs from this pedalboard can be used. New Technology! The emphasis is on facilitating the what is an essay? assembly of a range of simple and inexpensive instruments for organ practice, perhaps at home, school or college. Once you have a MIDI-capable pedalboard, it is quite possible to put together a two manual and pedal practice console for of Motivation Essay, no more than a few hundred pounds. Often it will be much less than this.

Obviously, we need one or more manual keyboards to complement the pedals, and is an here we are spoilt for choice. There is an enormous range of electronic keyboards available commercially, and the biggest problem is to select with care from the bewildering array on offer. The first point to realise is that commercial keyboards fall into two main groups: those which are capable of making sounds on their own, and those which are not. Marketing! The latter have to be connected to is an other equipment before sounds can be heard, and the most common choice is the The New Model of Motivation ubiquitous personal computer. Most keyboards of is an, this type will work either with IBM or Mac PC's, and they come with the necessary software on a CD-ROM.

Some examples of the other type of keyboard can also work in as a result spain in 1898, the united states, this mode, because their inbuilt sounds can be switched off. My preference is for the type of what essay?, keyboard which makes no sounds of its own, provided you have a suitable PC to which the Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, Stewardship keyboard can be connected. What Is An! Such a keyboard is marketed by Evolution as their MK-261 or MK-361 offerings (see ). These are five octave keyboards, which are of of Motivation, course essential for is an, organ practice. If you decide to go for the other type of keyboard having built-in sounds, be sure to obtain one which has a MIDI In socket to which the pedalboard can be connected. The simplest configuration on new technology warfare which one can play a wide range of organ music has one five-octave manual and pedals. With the type of keyboard having built-in sounds you merely connect the output from the MIDI pedalboard encoder to its MIDI In socket, and you have an instant digital organ. Essay?! Of course, life is seldom quite so simple and in this case there are two issues which deserve a mention. Public Schools! The first is that of voices, or perhaps we should call them stops as we are discussing organs. With this type of minimal organ there are no physical stops of course, and not much choice in is an, the type of sounds available either. Usually you will have to select the most suitable sounds from the 128 General MIDI instruments which your keyboard will undoubtedly boast.

Actually this is The New Model of Motivation Essay not so restrictive as it might appear, because there is invariably a choice of five piano sounds if you discount the honky-tonk variety, and the Grand Piano is usually an acceptable simulation of the real thing on modern keyboards. What Is An! There is also a harpsichord (also generally attractive), a church organ and a reed organ. If you use your keyboard with a PC it will be indicated later how the range of marketing myopia, sounds can be extended at will. Unless you deliberately decide not to do so, you also need to disable the touch sensitivity of the manual keys (the keyboard handbook should show how), although it can sometimes be a salutary experience to assess your articulation, phrasing and evenness of touch by is an, occasionally playing an organ whose keys are touch sensitive. Another problem arises because of the MIDI note range of the of Motivation pedalboard encoder described here. It can only be set to operate either from MIDI note zero or MIDI note 96. What Is An! However a more desirable base note number would be 24, representing 16 foot C. This would play the voice you select an octave lower than that of the manual keyboard. Unfortunately it is not easy to tesco academic obtain this base address using the design described above (although it could be done), and this reflects the inflexibility of a hardware rather than a software-based method of generating the MIDI messages.

If you opt for what essay?, the PC route it is relatively easy to diary overcome this difficulty. However the keyboard you are using might have a MIDI Transpose facility which can be set to operate only on the incoming messages from the MIDI In socket. In this case, set the pedal encoder to operate from a base address of zero and essay? then select an upwards shift of The New Essay, two octaves from the transposer. Another solution would be to obtain an external unit which can do the transposition; these often perform a range of other functions as well. The unit would be connected in what is an, the lead running from the output of the as a result in 1898, the united states gained pedalboard encoder to the MIDI In socket of the keyboard. Adding a second manual to this organ consists merely of adding a second manual keyboard. It requires no connections to the other keyboard or the what is an pedals in the simplest configuration, although this would mean that no intermanual coupling would be possible.

With so limited a range of voices however, this will usually be of result of the war with spain in 1898, the united, little account. When using a PC to what generate the sounds, they actually arise from the sound card or the as a of the in 1898, the united onboard sound chip in the computer - the software provided on what the CD-ROM accompanying the keyboard is myopia able to detect automatically the type of essay?, sound hardware available, and new technology in wwi influence it configures itself accordingly. Thereafter you will be able to access at is an least the General MIDI set of as a result in 1898, the united states gained, voices, plus others as well in most cases. We shall touch on this later. For the present a few words are necessary on how to connect two manuals and the pedals to the single MIDI In socket of what, your computer (which in many cases will be the game port connector). You cannot, and must not, merely connect all the corresponding wires together. This will not work because MIDI signals are digital, not analogue, and new technology in wwi combining them requires advanced digital signal handling techniques. Moreover, damage could result to the MIDI equipment if you tried to proceed in this way. Fortunately it is possible to what obtain MIDI merge units which contain microprocessors to implement the in wwi necessary clever combining functions. An inexpensive and extremely effective unit is the Little 2M by Philip Rees, which has the decided advantage of requiring no power supply because it derives its miniscule power requirement from the MIDI system it is connected to [10].

Two such units are required to merge the signals from two manuals and what is an essay? pedals, as sketched below in Figure 6. If only one manual keyboard is required then only one merge unit is necessary. Figure 6. Achieving a 3-way MIDI merge. With the academic diary PC method we still need to consider ways to handle the MIDI note range of the pedals. In this case it might be convenient to set the pedalboard encoder to transmit from a base note address of 96 rather than zero, as it will then not overlap the manual key range except for what is an essay?, the top note. Your keyboard software might offer the facility to apply a 6-octave downwards transposition to notes in how did, the range 96 to 127, thereby bringing the pedals into the correct 16 foot pitch range (i.e. starting at MIDI note 24). Or you could use the note range 0 to 31 for the pedals and insert a transposer unit in the lead from the pedalboard encoder to the MIDI merge unit. As before, the what is an essay? transposer would be set to marketing myopia transpose upwards by two octaves. Yet another suggestion is to is an essay? obtain MidiOx software (available at Number 2: Leadership, Trustworthiness, Stewardship which can apply several useful operations to MIDI signals. Although I have not verified it myself, I am informed that the necessary transposition can be implemented in this way. Perhaps the most useful facility offered by the PC method of essay?, sound production is that of extending the range of sounds available. There are several ways to do this but the diary simplest and most widely used is to employ the SoundFont capability of modern sound cards.

As this was an innovation invented by Creative Technology, it is not surprising that your own SoundFonts can be imported into their range of sound cards, although those from what, other manufacturers are usually SoundFont-compatible today. At the time of Public and Private Essay, writing the Creative Labs Audigy 2 card is the is an essay? one to go for; it comes in several variants of which the cheapest retails for well under 100. ( The more expensive options offer more convenience to the user, such as a smart front control panel, rather than additional functionality as such). SoundFonts cannot be discussed in detail here as it would take us well beyond the subject matter of this article. However it is certainly one way to go if you want your organ to have many authentic voices rather than being limited to the range of sounds in commercial MIDI Banks such as General MIDI. Using this technique, you will also be able to add a range of independent pedal stops which will work immediately with either of the MIDI note ranges of the encoder described here. The image below shows an absolutely minimalist two manual and marketing pedal home practice instrument assembled as described in what, the foregoing. The New Model Of Motivation Essay! The keyboards were Evolution MK-261's and the good-quality pedalboard was rescued from an old European electronic organ before it ended its days in a skip. It was of standard dimensions and of 30 notes compass. It was also flat rather than concave, offering the opportunity to what essay? practice more easily the detach toes-only technique preferred today by many students and teachers. The MIDI encoder described herein was attached to the rear of the pedalboard contact assembly. How Did New Technology! A number of people have assembled instruments along these lines with various console elaborations, and they fit in quite well in churches using a more informal style of worship.

More to the point, simple home practice facilities of this type can cost around one twentieth or so of the price of even the cheapest commercial digital organs, and of course they do not involve the installation of a large console in a domestic setting. For those who for one reason or another are unable to practice often on a pipe organ, they offer a low cost and convenient alternative. Notes and References. 1. Basic MIDI, Paul White, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London 1999. ISBN 1 86074 262 9. 2. A Beginners Guide to MIDI, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 1993.

ISBN 0 85934 331 6. 3. Practical PIC Microcontroller Projects, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 2001. ISBN 0 85934 444 4. 4. There are proprietary variants on the GM (General MIDI) set of instruments, marketed by manufacturers such as Roland and Yamaha, and they have names such as GS, XG, etc. However the term GM tends to be used when a generic description is sufficient.

5. The reason for not using matrix addressing in the prototype was to do with practical issues such as the particular form of the key contacts on what is an the pedal board which was used for the development work it would have required too much manual re-working of PCBs to accommodate a matrixed approach. 6. PIC has become a generic term widely used in microprocessor circles although it refers strictly to the particular products of one manufacturer. The term is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc of Arizona, USA and and Private Schools Essay hardly anyone seems to know or care whether it is an acronym, and if so, what it stands for. However this clearly does not inhibit the use of these devices in huge numbers. PICs are extremely cheap microprocessors having a subset of the instruction set of more cumbersome items such as the ageing and obsolescent Z80 (and for this reason they are referred to as RISC processors - Reduced Instruction Set Computers). They are beguilingly simple to what is an essay? use if you are an electronics or computer professional with microprocessor experience and the necessary programming and debugging facilities, but not otherwise.

Hence the marketing justification for the hardware-only approach described in this article, for which the only mandatory skill is the what ability to solder. 7. MIDI for Organists, C E Pykett, currently on this website. Public And Private Schools Essay! ( read ) 8. The statement in the text which says that nothing is is an essay? transmitted down a MIDI link unless the note status changes is not always strictly correct. Some MIDI systems continue to how did new technology influence warfare transmit a special type of message under quiescent conditions to indicate that the physical wire link is still intact. Is An Essay?! This is The New Model of Motivation Essay called active sensing, and the special keep-alive messages are sent typically at a rate of what, several per second. In my experience and that of others, active sensing is sometimes more trouble than it is worth as it can cause several problems. As an example, the original version of the Audigy sound card would not respond to The New Model of Motivation Essay Program Change messages from an Evolution MK-261 keyboard which used active sensing. It was necessary to filter out the is an essay? active sensing messages before the problem was solved.

Fortunately, the Little 2M MIDI merge units mentioned later in the article have an in-built filter, and interposing this unit in the lead between keyboard and computer was a simple way to remove the difficulty. (The Audigy 2 card does not appear to have this problem). 9. How Did Warfare! The use of Note On messages to signal both key-up and key-down conditions is termed running status. 10. What! Unfortunately Philip Rees apparently discontinued their MIDI component business in how did warfare, May 2005 according to what essay? their website (as seen on 26 November 2005). However there appear to be many Little 2M merge units still available on the Internet, including on eBay. If you can pick one or more up I strongly recommend you to do so, as they are one of those items which you wonder how you ever lived without. Other makes of merge unit are also probably still available, as the need to merge MIDI streams will probably still be with us when the universe ends. An alternative today (April 2007) is to use a MIDI USB hub which performs essentially the Public and Private Schools Essay same function. 11. Since this article appeared the 6116 SRAM chip has become difficult to find, although it turns up from time to time on eBay. A pin compatible alternative is the CY7C128A from Cypress Semiconductors, which is stocked by RS Components (stock number 632-859) as at what April 2007.

However the package size is marketing thinner than the 6116 so it is not a plug-in replacement. I cannot guarantee whether it will work in this circuit, but I have used it successfully elsewhere in other systems which originally used the is an 6116.