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Bankruptcy Organization Research Paper Starter. This essay investigates the topic of competitive bankruptcy as it relates to corporate organization. Bankruptcy is a proceeding that is governed by federal law; and offers protection to debtors from creditors under certain guidelines and for a certain period of time. The most common options that corporations have for gaining protection from Challenges Foreign Face English Essay, creditors are to file Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization). This article focuses on issues and topics related to sustainable competitive, Chapter 11. The term bankruptcy is often used to refer to financial failure in general. Fishing Physics? However, in the U.S., bankruptcy has a specific legal meaning; in fact, bankruptcy is federal law. Congress has the competitive, power to enact uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcy and restricts the high parity, ability of states to provide a discharge or collect assets that are not in the state. In addition to being federal law, modern bankruptcy law has several other defining characteristics. Bankruptcy is a collective proceeding and all of advantage a debtor's creditors are involved. It provides a pro rata distribution of an insolvent debtor's assets among like creditors, and it provides a discharge to qualified debtors (Hansen Eschelbach Hansen, n.d.).
Prior to the 20th Century, bankruptcy laws generally favored the creditor rather than the debtor; debtors were often considered criminals and fishing physics might be punished with imprisonment or death as a result of the inability to re-pay their debt. U.S. Bankruptcy laws were originally modeled after English law, but were enacted as Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4 of the United States Constitution. Article 1, section 8 became known as Uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. Throughout the 1800s, legislation and amendments dealing with bankruptcy came about; generally in response to bad economic conditions. There were many reforms and amendments regarding bankruptcy during the 1800s, but it was the Bankruptcy Act of 1898 that ushered in laws that most resemble our modern legislation regarding bankruptcy. The emergence of a credit economy and the Industrial Age changed the focus to the discharge of debt or liquidation of assets rather than punishment of the debtor (A brief history of bankruptcy in the US, 2007).
Today's modern bankruptcy law has its roots in competitive the 1898 Bankruptcy Act. Essay On The Founding Fathers Beliefs? This revised law focused on liquidation of a debtor's property or assets, but it also contained several chapters that dealt with the re-organization of competitive distressed businesses. In 1938, the Chandler Act created further amendments to bankruptcy law with the creation of chapters X and XI. These chapters allowed public and private companies to Land, reorganize instead of sustainable competitive advantage automatic liquidation of assets. The Chandler Act also introduced the role of the bankruptcy referee who had quasi-judicial powers (A brief history of bankruptcy law, 2002) and served as an appointed representative to act as an intermediary in the proceedings.
Bankruptcy law had been part of federal legislation from the meaning of titan, beginning of the competitive, 19th Century but it was not until the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 and the introduction of Chapter 11, that the practice of bankruptcy was legitimized as a viable option for businesses in distress to re-organize. Prior to the revision of on The Founding Beliefs Chapter 11, bankruptcy had been avoided by businesses as a ghetto and not a viable business tool for re-organization and restructuring. The 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act introduced a reorganization tool for corporate debtors (A brief history of bankruptcy in US, 2007). The Bankruptcy Code has been amended several times since 1978, most recently in extensive amendments in 2005 through the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 or BAPCPA. Sustainable Advantage? The U.S. Bankruptcy Court handles all bankruptcy cases through the U.S. district court system.
Thus, while Federal law procedurally governs bankruptcy cases, individual state laws are applied when determining property rights. State law therefore plays a major role in most bankruptcy cases. When a public company is unable to maintain operation because of crippling debt, the fishing physics, organization may seek protection under federal bankruptcy laws. Bankruptcy laws provide guidance about the course of action that a business may take-whether it is to go out of business or to re-organize. When a public company (corporation) files for bankruptcy protection it is sustainable advantage, generally under one of the following two chapters of the Bankruptcy Code: Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code to reorganize its business and try to become profitable again. Management continues to fishing physics, run the sustainable, day-to-day business operations but all significant business decisions must be approved by a bankruptcy court. Chapter 7, the company stops all operations and Foreign Face Essay goes completely out of business. A trustee is appointed to liquidate (sell) the company's assets and the money is sustainable advantage, used to pay off the debt, which may include debts to creditors and investors (Corporate Bankruptcy, 2005). When a business fails there are a number of stakeholders who are likely to have a vested interest in what happens to the organization. If a public company files for protection under federal bankruptcy laws, investors in the company will be interested in of titan recouping value of stocks and securities. Of course, a corporation's creditors or debt-holders will also be seeking reparations if a company needs to liquidate or re-organize.
The following list outlines stakeholders in the order that they would typically be able to recover debt or investments during bankruptcy. Investors with the least risk are paid first (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). Advantage? Secured Creditors: Typically a bank is high parity, paid first. Debt is secured by assets or collateral. Sustainable Competitive? Unsecured Creditors: Banks, suppliers and bondholders fall into the category and have the next claim. High Parity? Stockholder: Owners of the company (stocks) may not receive anything. Competitive Advantage? Secured and Unsecured creditors have first claim and must be fully repaid before stockholders get anything. Securities Trading for Companies under Bankruptcy Protection. Most companies that are under bankruptcy protection do not meet minimum trading standards to trade on high parity, major market indexes.
There is no federal law that prohibits the sustainable competitive advantage, trading of securities of companies in Essay on The Founding Beliefs bankruptcy (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). There are several alternatives for the trading of securities, and even an index that trades shares from companies in financial trouble. The reorganization plan will spell out advantage your rights as an Essay on The investor, and what you can expect to receive, if anything, from the company. The bankruptcy court may determine that stockholders don't get anything because the debtor is insolvent. (A debtor's solvency is determined by the difference between the value of its assets and sustainable advantage its liabilities.) If the Essay on The Beliefs, company's liabilities are greater than its assets, stock may be worthless (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. The implementation of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (also known as the Act) in October of 2005, signaled the largest change in bankruptcy code in 20 years (Cecil, 2005). The Act, welcomed by proponents and competitive vilified by its detractors, has shifted the focus of the code to the rights of the fishing physics, creditor and away from debtors.
The Act's creditor-friendly provisions, in contrast to the old law's debtor-friendly provisions, make it much more important for prospective chapter 11 filers to think and plan ahead and significantly easier for creditors to collect on certain types of debt (Chapter 11 then and now, 2006). The Act came about as a result of much lobbying by advantage, creditor banks, credit card companies and other's who wanted to curb alleged abuse of the bankruptcy system. There's no doubt that changes to the code will make it more difficult for Challenges Students Learning Essay, companies to restructure and many predict that there will be more filings for Chapter 7 (liquidation) as a result of the code changes. In one article alone, the author makes the following statements regarding the sustainable competitive, burden of the Act's new provisions on Challenges Face Learning, debtors(Cecil, 2006): There are some businesses that will find it almost impossible to re-organize after October 17th (date of the Acts implementation). Competitive? New laws make re-organization more difficult. New rules make it more difficult to fishing physics, restructure and sustainable competitive advantage keep companies safe from creditors.
Prior to October of 2005, the U.S. Bankruptcy code was much more friendly and forgiving to high parity, debtors (companies in financial trouble). Financially strapped companies took advantage of leniency in the code and more flexible timelines and schedules to investigate re-organization options. According the Securities and Exchange Comission, the following statement applies in many cases (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005): Most publicly-held companies will file under Chapter 11 rather than Chapter 7 because they can still run their business and control the bankruptcy process. Chapter 11 provides a. (The entire section is 4117 words.) Get Free Access to this Bankruptcy Organization Study Guide. Advantage? Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. On The Struggle? Get Better Grades.
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E. Advantage! B. Fishing Physics! White, The Art of the Essay No. Competitive! 1. E. B. Darwin's Theory Selection! White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the sustainable competitive advantage workings of Essay The Struggle for the, boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to identify yourself as E.B. White. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about that for fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B. Sustainable Competitive! White and to fishing physics, his friends as Andy.
Andy White. Andy and Katharine White. The Whites. Andy and Katharine have been married for forty years, and in that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to think of one without the competitive advantage other. On the occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is so likely to Land, center on Katharine that she becomes all the more present for being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from sustainable advantage, professional association on the same magazine to Founding Beliefs, preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to advantage, regard as imaginary. Years ago, in a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for possessing “ mens sana in corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to behold the intuitive seesaw adjustments by Essay on The Struggle for the which one of them got well in time for the other to get sick.
What a mountain of good work they have accumulated in that fashion! Certainly they have been the strongest and most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of their ailments. Now that age is bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to the rest of us, “You see? What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and that yet hints at the heroic: back of Andy, some dying knight out of sustainable, Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is small and wiry, with an unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and an air of being just about to turn away, not on an errand of any importance but as a means of Essay on The Founding Fathers, remaining free to cut and run without the nuisance of competitive, prolonged good-byes. Essay On The Fathers! Crossing the threshold of his eighth decade, his person is uncannily boyish-seeming. Though his hair is competitive advantage, grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from fishing physics, him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is brown to me.
Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by the tiresome un-necessary accident of baptism; his youth and his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and inexpungeable. Competitive Advantage! Katharine White is a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in Essay The Struggle, print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of blue-eyed augustness in competitive, it, and her manner is formal. It would never occur to Founding Beliefs, me to go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an editor of The New Yorker , refers to sustainable, her within the Foreign Students Face Learning English Essay office precincts as “Mrs. Competitive! White.” (Roger Angell is the son of her marriage to a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and theory of natural selection Andy have a son, Joe, who is a naval architect and whose boatyard is a thriving enterprise in the Whites’ hometown of Brooklin, Maine.) At the risk of reducing a man’s life to a sort of Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to a psychosomatic view of his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in a Model T body.
With Andy, this would pass for a compliment, because in competitive, the tyranny of Founding Fathers, his modesty he would always choose to be a Ford instead of sustainable competitive, a Rolls, but it would be closer to of titan, the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to a stop and humming to itself, not without infinite pleasure to others along the way. What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and sustainable competitive appears to cost him very little. His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over the pastures of his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the on The Beliefs labyrinthine corridors of The New Yorker offices on West Forty-Third Street with the off-hand grace of competitive, a dancer making up a sequence of steps that the high parity eye follows with delight and competitive that defies any but his own notation. Clues to the bold and delicate nature of fishing physics, those steps are to be discovered in competitive, every line he writes, but the man and his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the dancer from the dance. So many critics equate the Foreign Learning English success of a writer with an unhappy childhood. Can you say something of your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy. Sustainable Advantage! My parents were loving and kind.
We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and worried. My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. Fishing Physics! We lived in a large house in competitive, a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and Essay The Struggle stables and grape arbors. I lacked for nothing except confidence. I suffered nothing except the routine terrors of sustainable competitive, childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the fishing physics future, fear of the return to school after a summer on sustainable competitive advantage, a lake in meaning of titan, Maine, fear of advantage, making an appearance on a platform, fear of the lavatory in the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about. I was, as a child, allergic to pollens and high parity dusts, and still am. I was allergic to platforms, and still am.
It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an unhappy childhood. If so, I have no knowledge of it. Perhaps it helps to have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to follow a literary profession? Was there a particular incident, or moment? I never knew for sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of writing.
I had done a great deal of writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to put it to good use. I went abroad one summer and on my return to New York found an accumulation of mail at my apartment. I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail. From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from The New Yorker . I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at last. It was a good feeling and I enjoyed the meal. What were those first pieces accepted by The New Yorker ? Did you send them in with a covering letter, or through an agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an agent.
I used to competitive advantage, put my manuscript in the mail, along with a stamped envelope for of titan the rejection. This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in the doctrine of immaculate rejection. Sustainable Competitive Advantage! I never used an on The Struggle for the Holy Land agent and sustainable advantage did not like the looks of a manuscript after an agent got through prettying it up and putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an agent for such mysteries as movie rights and foreign translations.) A large part of all early contributions to The New Yorker arrived uninvited and unexpected. They arrived in the mail or under the arm of people who walked in with them.
O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is one example out of hundreds. Students Face English! For a number of years, The New Yorker published an average of fifty new writers a year. Sustainable Competitive! Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important. I’m speaking of magazines of on The Founding Beliefs, general circulation. Sustainable! There may be some justification for a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to persons who are known to be qualified.
But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an interest in publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. Charles Darwin's Theory! It read everything submitted. Hemingway, Faulkner, and the others were well established and well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene. The magazine would have been glad to publish them, but it didn’t have the money to sustainable, pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit. High Parity! They were selling to sustainable, The Saturday Evening Post and other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to contribute to the small, new, impecunious weekly.
Also, some of them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to fishing physics, The New Yorker ’s frivolity. Ross had no great urge to publish the sustainable competitive big names; he was far more interested in turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the Helen Hokinsons and the James Thurbers. We did publish some things by Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald. But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to fishing physics, corral “emerged” writers. He was looking for competitive advantage the ones that were found by The Struggle Holy Land turning over a stone. What were the sustainable advantage procedures in turning down a manuscript by a New Yorker regular? Was this done by Ross? The manuscript of a New Yorker regular was turned down in the same manner as was the manuscript of a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by the subeditor who was handling the author in question.
Ross did not deal directly with writers and artists, except in the case of a few old friends from an earlier day. He wouldn’t even take on Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and fussy. Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and on The Founding Fathers Beliefs he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the editorial department and advantage the advertising department.
This was largely a one-sided affair, with the editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on general principles, to help them remember to stay out of sight. Ross was determined not to of titan, allow his magazine to advantage, be swayed, in the slightest degree, by the boys in charles darwin's, advertising. Sustainable Competitive! As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to Students Face Learning, New York, and what were some of the competitive things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the Algonquin group? After I got out of college, in 1921, I went to work in New York but did not live in New York. The Struggle Holy! I lived at home, with my father and mother in competitive, Mount Vernon, and Challenges Students Face English commuted to sustainable competitive advantage, work. I held three jobs in about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the of natural selection American Legion News Service. I disliked them all, and in sustainable competitive advantage, the spring of 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to seek my fortune and Essay on The Founding Beliefs as a way of getting away from what I disliked. I landed in Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on the Times for competitive advantage a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and then returned to New York.
It was on my return that I became an advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. H. Of Natural Selection! Newmark. In the competitive advantage mid-twenties, I moved into high parity, a two-room apartment at 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of mine at Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and sustainable advantage Mitchell T. Galbreath. The rent was $110 a month. Split four ways it came to Essay on for the Land, $27.50, which I could afford. My friends in those days were the fellows already mentioned. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and more advanced but I met him and liked him), James Thurber, and others. I was never a part of the Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for sustainable competitive it and was embarrassed in the presence of the great.
I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott. I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of whom I greatly admired. I was a younger man. Subscribe and save nearly 40%. Already a subscriber?
Sign in fishing physics, below. Last / Next Article. These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along. Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and sustainable Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and Penises. We reached the car, and I held the Founding door open for him, but he didn't climb in right away. He stood there rocking on his crutch, gazing off at the sky and the fields and the fall trees starting to go the color of sherbet#133; Back when my son Harry was little, I’d take him out early in the morning, usually with Miss Otis in tow, and walk over to Les Deux Gamins. Competitive Advantage! One of those mornings, I got there around eight. They were still setting up inside, but the morning was mil
Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No. 47. I met Eudora Welty in her room at the Algonquin Hotel an hour or so after her train had arrived in fishing physics, Penn Station. She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened. A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically. She was admittedly nervous about being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder.
After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the questioning. Once the interview got underway, she grew more at ease. Sustainable Competitive! As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. She is extremely private and fishing physics won’t reveal anything personal about competitive advantage, herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of high parity, family novel.
Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so! I love and admire all she does, and profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on assignment for competitive Brief Lives , an Face Learning English Essay anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and Chekhov I do dare to think is more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to sustainable competitive advantage, do. Chekhov is Foreign Students Face English, one of usso close to today’s world, to my mind, and very close to the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is Chekhov close to sustainable competitive advantage, today’s South? He loved the singularity in people, the individuality. He took for granted the sense of Challenges Learning, family. Competitive! He had the sense of fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to me kin to the humor of a Southerner. It’s the kind that lies mostly in character.
You know, in Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and talking, no one’s really listening. Yet there’s a great love and Essay on The Struggle Holy Land understanding that prevails through it, and a knowledge and acceptance of each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and also an acute enjoyment of the dramatic. Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and sings and talks about the future. That kind of responsiveness to the world, to whatever happens, out of their own deeps of character seems very southern to me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes. Advantage! She was the Essay Founding Fathers Beliefs one who opened the door. When I read To the Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is this?
I was so excited by the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary. Any day you open it to will be tragic, and yet all the competitive advantage marvelous things she says about charles theory of natural selection, her work, about competitive advantage, working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her. Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on high parity, the best-seller lista first for you, I believe?
It occurred to competitive, me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering. Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of Essay Fathers Beliefs, how it would be received when I wrote it. I thought about the opinion of a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the public. Do you write for sustainable advantage your friends? At the time of writing, I don’t write for meaning of titan my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for the pleasure of sustainable competitive, it . I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. Essay Land! I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. But in the writing, I have to sustainable, just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an high parity inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this.
It was a page of dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. I wrote to my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. Competitive! He called me up and read me from the meaning manuscriptword for word what the proofs said. Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the position of writer to the position of reader, and advantage I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. It gives me a terrible sense of exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned.
Do you make changes in galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to trust that moment when you were sure at last you had done all you could, done your best for that time. When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to look at it again. It’s too late to worry about its failings. I’ll have to apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction? I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for me: translating every thought and feeling into action and of titan speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the whole life of competitive, it off through the completed gesture, so to speak. Charles Darwin's Theory Selection! I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of introspection on the part of my characters.
I tried to see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about advantage, what was going on of titan, inside the competitive advantage characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to write best of all. Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play. Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on paper? Yes, it was there in charles darwin's theory, my head, but events proliferated as I went along. Competitive! For instance, I thought all the action in the novel would be contained in one day and night, but a folder started to fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the meaning stories that grew out of the sustainable storiesthat was one of the charles darwin's theory joys of working the novel out. I thought the book would be short, and instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work.
There’s no way of estimating its original length because I had great chunks of things in paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer. And I must have thrown away at least as much as I kept in competitive advantage, the book. Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the charles darwin's theory of natural selection easiest thing in the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Competitive! Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and so forthall in fishing physics, his single speech. And the speech would have to keep the essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in competitive advantage, concentrated form. This isn’t to say I succeeded. But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing.
I used to Essay Founding Fathers Beliefs, laugh out sustainable loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. On For The Holy! Wodehouse is said to do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the scene out just to let them loose on sustainable, somethingmy private show. Sign up for The Struggle for the the Paris Review newsletter and keep up with news, parties, readings, and more. Join the writers and staff of The Paris Review at our next event. Visit our store to buy archival issues of the magazine, prints, T-shirts, and accessories. This site was created in collaboration with StrickWilliams, Tierra Innovation, and the staff of The Paris Review .
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Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Definition,…
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21 Writing Prompts for competitive Design Students. Several design instructors have confessed to me, in casual conversation, their struggles to inspire students to write. Students complain about writing: always have, always will. Design students are no exception. Writing is boring. Writing is all about high parity rules. Writing has nothing to do with me. Writing doesn't matter.
But students don't find all writing boring or irrelevant or burdened by rules. They complain mainly about the nature of their school writing assignments. So how can design teachers make writing more interesting for sustainable their students? It's a great problem. I came up with 21 prompts that are dramatic, provocative, fun, urgent and personal. Assignments that require research tempt students to copy entries from Wikipedia or other online sources.
Designed to defeat that urge, these prompts depend on personal information or perspective. Some involve parodies, which promote awareness of language by demanding that the student bring one kind of language into a new and jarring context (like, say, writing about a rifle through language typically used to advertise a new baby stroller). To combat charges of irrelevant subject matter, I geared many prompts to involve popular culture, technology, and meaning current trends and sustainable competitive advantage debates, but most importantly they demand the student to write persuasively—that is, engage in argument in order to high parity persuade a specific person of some specific thing. My intent is to get writers thinking about the uses of language, about audience and authorial intention, about jargon and slang and context and how language works or doesn't work in sustainable competitive advantage different ways on different people at different times. Students already write on blogs, Facebook, Twitter and email.
Most email services, such as Gmail, save all emails. This material may be selectively gathered and repurposed in a variety of ways, such as for collages, found poetry or dramatized conversations. Write a found interview. Make a list of 10 questions lifted from real magazine interviews. Imagine these questions are asked of you.
Answer them using only writing you have already written, such as in emails, on blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, Twitter or other online places. High Parity? Edit for competitive advantage punctuation and grammar to fit in with the style and format of the magazine interview, but keep your answers conversational and meaning of titan as unaltered in substance as possible (that is, you must rely on what you have already written, and include citations to where you originally wrote your text, e.g., “email to C.B., 12/4/2007”.). Explain a conversation. Find a long back-and-forth email, instant-message, or text-message conversation between you and someone else. Try to find a conversation on a single topic, if possible, such as deciding where to eat dinner, what to do over sustainable competitive the weekend or where to go for vacation. If you can't find one, then you may use any long conversation or series of emails or instant messages. Select only your own messages. Do not include the fishing physics, messages of anyone else.
Copy and competitive advantage paste them into a new document. After each message you previously sent, write a note that explains what you meant. Students English? Define any jargon, slang or personal jokes so that a general reader may understand your meaning. Explain your intention in writing a certain message (to amuse, to persuade, to sustainable advantage distract, to annoy, to criticize, to forgive, to clarify, etc.). And report on whether or not your writing successfully conveyed your intent and Essay Founding Fathers Beliefs had its intended effect on the other person.
Starting with existing forms is a great way to ease students into writing. Students can download real forms online, such as tax forms, police forms, accident reports, resume templates, query letters, immigration forms, consumer-complaint forms, opt-out forms and more. Instructors can also create their own forms in order to advantage allow greater space for certain entries. Meaning? And forms as a category does not necessarily have to sustainable competitive advantage limit you to actual forms or templates—blogs, product reviews, holiday cards, opinion columns and letters of fishing physics resignation, for example, also follow conventions. The dramatic twist, however, is for students to fill out the forms unconventionally. Students should be encouraged to sustainable write outside the lines, literally and figuratively.
Make a case using hot topics for persuasive writing. A useful structure for persuasive writing is the Argument/Objection/Reply form. Fishing Physics? The writer begins by informally listing all conceivable arguments for and against a proposition. Choosing a side in sustainable the first paragraph of the essay proper, the charles of natural selection, writer begins with the strongest argument. Advantage? In the second paragraph, the high parity, writer envisions an opponent's strongest objection to that particular argument. In the third paragraph, the writer replies to that objection. Sustainable Competitive? The fourth paragraph begins a new, second-best argument in support of the writer's position, and the cycle repeats.
A standard essay of this form sets out the three strongest arguments in support of the writer's position. Why do we need graphic design theory? Armstrong calls on the design community to Essay on The Fathers meet the challenges of our time and competitive keep the discourse alive. How the Web Made Me a Better Copywriter. The way we read is constantly changing, and so is the way we write. Curtis articulates why this is a good thing. Should designers be taught writing the same way as everyone else? Lupton looks at meaning of titan, current teaching methods to help the visual become verbal too.
In what ways can an e-book be better than a printed book? First-time author Marks looks at the upsides of competitive digital publishing. Fishing Physics? Could computers be to design what cake mixes are to baking? FitzGerald welcomes students back to school with an “outside the box” lesson.
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Essay contest: What has changed your life? Essay contest winners write about how birth and death have affected them. Everyone has had an event that has changed his or her life. Mine was the birth of my little brother, Matthew. Competitive Advantage. My whole life changed with his birth, but sometimes change can be a good thing, even when it’s not expected.
When my parents first told me that they were having a baby and I would have another brother, but this time I’d be an Students Face Essay older brother, I was full of emotions. I was happy and sustainable competitive advantage sad at fishing physics, the same time. Sustainable Competitive Advantage. My whole life was going to change and I wasn’t sure if I was ready. Back then, I did not know what a positive impact this event would have on meaning my life. When Matthew was born (I picked out his name, by the way) I could not stop smiling. Sustainable Competitive. There, in fishing physics the bed, was this little “creature” my parents called their son. Competitive. Not until I picked him up did I feel the weight of his life on my shoulders, and the weight of the effect I would have on him. I immediately felt I had more responsibility, and I was ready to fishing physics do anything for competitive, my little brother.
My whole family took care of him, even the cat, and life was somewhat peaceful during those first few weeks. When my mom went out for the first time in months, I fed him a bottle, and although he spit up most of of titan it and sustainable competitive only drank a few drops, it was just as satisfying for me as for Matthew. I was there when he rolled over for the first time, and I was there when he took his first steps. I saw his first tooth come in, and high parity I will soon see his first tooth fall out. I helped feed him his first solid food, which he spit up as well, and I heard him say his first word, “momma.” Even when he started talking more and more, he called me “Donadan,” which was sufficient considering Jonathan is pretty hard to say. At least he was making an effort to talk to me. That was seven years ago, and sustainable Matthew and I are closer than ever.
My older brother is a senior in high school and getting ready for meaning, college, so he does not get to spend much time with us. My parents are constantly busy and when they’re not, they’re sleeping or doing something relaxing. And something relaxing in my house is anything that doesn’t involve Matthew. So that leaves me to sustainable advantage spend time with my brother, which, although it is Challenges Foreign Face Essay, often difficult and tiring, is quite gratifying. He may cheat in checkers, but he is only doing that to win and get respect from his big brother. When he gets all 4s in first grade and says he is doing second-grade spelling words, I am just as happy as my parents.
I baby-sit him constantly and we have fun, even though he is pretty much in charge. It’s a wonderful feeling knowing that my little brother idolizes me. I don’t know any other 7-year-old today who likes Cat Stevens, Marvin Gaye, James Taylor and Stevie Wonder more than the Wiggles. He knows all the words to dozens of sustainable Ray Charles songs, and he even has his own blues-y voice. But more than just my music rubs off on Matthew. When I got an electric piano for Hanukkah, so did he. On The Founding Fathers. I haven’t had the sustainable competitive advantage, time to high parity schedule lessons, but Matthew is learning to play every week. Of course we still play our “Heart and sustainable Soul” duet whenever we can. Like me, he would rather watch Scrubs and Seinfeld on TV than SpongeBob, although I’m pretty sure he doesn’t understand them at the same level that I do. I can’t help but smile when I walk Matthew to school or help him with his computer games. He drives my family crazy, maybe me more than everyone else, but I still love him.
I teach him things every day and he teaches me things too, most of them about Essay on The Struggle for the Land myself. I’ve grown as a person since my brother was born, not just in sustainable competitive advantage age, but in responsibility and morality. He comes before everything else in of titan my life and rightly so. He’s probably caused multiple viruses on sustainable advantage our computer, but I’m so proud that he knows how to on for the use the sustainable advantage, computer (better than my parents). Every site I visit on on Holy the Internet he bookmarks in his folder. Although Matthew can still relate to kids his age, he is probably more mature than most of sustainable them just for Challenges Foreign Students, having spent so much time with me.
Although I am in intense classes and competitive advantage busy in my sophomore year, I sometimes feel like a little kid again as I unleash my inner child when I’m with Matthew. Everything we do rubs off on Students Face English each other. I didn’t really want a brother at sustainable advantage, first, but now I wouldn’t have it any other way. Natalie Reed , 13, Wilson MS (Glendale) A lot of of titan things have changed and affected my life. The most life-changing experience was the death of my mother. When I was young, around 5 years old, my sister Alisha died. Alisha was only 11 years old when she died and I don’t remember much about her, but I’ve been told that she had a cold which got into her lungs and suffocated her. Right now, Alisha would probably be starting college. My mom was so depressed about Alisha’s death that she committed suicide. I don’t remember a lot about my mom, just the way she looked, how she stood in competitive front of the mirror putting on makeup, the Rice-A-Roni dinners and Essay Beliefs the smell of bacon and coffee in sustainable advantage the morning.
I remember once, while we were in line to of titan get food from El Pollo Loco, she was eating MM’s and her tooth fell out. She just looked at it for a second and stuck the tooth back in her mouth! I thought she was crazy! It was so funny, but gross at the same time. Some people tell me that when you commit suicide, you go to hell. I don’t know if I don’t believe it, or just don’t want to believe it. I miss my mom a lot, and try to picture how my life would have, or could have been, if she were still alive. Sustainable. I sometimes wonder if she was even thinking about me when she killed herself. Darwin's Theory Selection. Did she not care?
Did she think that it would be best for me? The worst part of all is the fact that I was still in the house when she slit her wrist, and sometimes I get so angry at her for that. I was only 7 years old and clearly she wasn’t thinking about me or my future. Sustainable Competitive. When I get married, she won’t be there for my wedding. My kids will never have a grandmother from my side of the Essay on The Struggle for the, family. I will never have a mom to go shopping for bras with, and sustainable I will never have a normal life. I will always be haunted by fishing physics, the memory of sustainable competitive what she did. Whenever someone describes slitting their wrist or anything about veins and arteries or anything that has to do with the details of it all, I get squirmy and chills go down my spine, and sometimes there is a tingle in my wrist. Meaning Of Titan. It irritates me until I calm down or forget about it, and competitive I fear that the feeling will never go away.
I don’t understand; I can watch bloody shows where people are being cut open and blood is Essay on The Struggle for the Holy, everywhere, like House and advantage Animal Cops, but I can’t stand people talking about veins. It gets spooky, and Fathers I wish that she would have thought twice before she did anything. My life will never be the same, and sustainable advantage I will never have a mother. Michelle Stevenson , 16, John R. Wooden HS (Reseda) I know exactly what can change a person’s life in darwin's theory of natural selection an instant. Advantage. What, you may ask? When I was 12 years old, my father was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Founding Beliefs. At this age I wasn’t very aware of advantage what cancer was or what it could do to high parity a person. I remember my dad couldn’t eat certain foods and he always had pain in his stomach.
I remember my father would always help me with my schoolwork and was my best friend. He taught me everything, from how to use a computer to how to fish. He was the best blessing God gave me. No one could ask for a better father. He always went out with my sisters and sustainable competitive advantage me to go salsa dancing. As a family we would have the best times in the world.
When he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, my two sisters and I formed a salsa group called Triple Threat. That year we performed in the fourth annual Salsa Congress. Unfortunately, during the month of fishing physics April my father failed his chemotherapy and was admitted to the hospital. I remember going to the hospital every day after school. Sustainable Competitive. He was so weak.
On May 17, 2003, God decided to take my father to heaven. I was too young to understand what had happened. Of course I was devastated, crying every day. My mother forced me to go to Holy school the sustainable competitive advantage, next day. She said my father had always wanted me to Challenges Students Face Learning Essay do well in school.
At that age it didn’t hit me as much as it does today. Sustainable. I miss him so much. I always wonder what it would have been like to have him here with me during my teen years. There’s not one day when I don’t think about him. I still cry at high parity, times. It’s so hard to lose a person that close. Sustainable Competitive Advantage. I was the most tomboyish of my three sisters, so that’s most of the darwin's theory of natural selection, reason I was closest to my father. Nothing can take away that pain.
The other day my mother and I were talking. She, a widow at 42 years old, said she would try hiding her feelings and grieving from me because she didn’t want to show me her pain. She said she would cry every day after dropping me off at sustainable competitive advantage, school. She would try her hardest not to cry in front of high parity me and it showed me how strong she is. Then when we were talking it hit me I don’t have a father. After three and a half years, that just hit me.
I will never have my dad to walk me down the sustainable competitive advantage, aisle. I will never have that father figure, and I lost my best friend who really understood me when I was growing up. It hurts me so. Although I may not have all those things, I try every day to realize how beautiful life is. Ever since his death, my family has gotten closer.
We realize that we have each other, and that’s what matters most. We have learned that family comes first before anything. In that way it helped. I have also been really independent. I work, I do well in school, I pay for my own phone bill and soon will be able to afford my own car, and I dance. I also try every day to high parity appreciate that I have a beautiful family and a loving boyfriend. So in my opinion a death, no matter who it is, can change lives. My father was my hero. Sustainable. I thank God every day that he was in my life.
Cyndhl Imaysay , Paramount HS. We do not get a chance to choose our family, we just end up with whomever God has chosen for fishing physics, us. When I was young, everything seemed to be OK. But as I got older, I began to notice that my father was getting more and more verbally abusive. Sustainable. Not just to fishing physics my brother and me, but to my mom as well. When I first noticed the competitive, verbal abuse, I thought that maybe someone had done something or said something to charles darwin's of natural make my dad upset. My dad would yell at us and call us names, and then he would calm down and competitive advantage act as if nothing had happened.
But as the years went on, he started yelling and screaming obscenities at the drop of a hat. We were very careful about what we said and did around him, afraid that we might tip him off. I felt as if I was always stepping on Founding eggshells. I eventually got tired of the yelling and name-calling and started to talk back to sustainable advantage my dad. High Parity. I was raised not to talk back to my elders, but when you’ve had enough, you’ve just had enough. One afternoon I was watching the Oprah Winfrey Show and they were doing an episode on domestic violence. Advantage. I paid close attention to what they were talking about. Ninety percent of what they said described how my dad was acting. I knew that my dad was verbally abusive, but I didn’t know that his actions fell under the of natural, category of domestic violence. I used to be a very fun-loving child. I had a lot of advantage friends and made new friends quickly.
My friends would hang out at my house and Founding Fathers Beliefs I would hang out at sustainable competitive, their houses. As soon as my dad started to act the on The Struggle Holy, way he did, I was embarrassed to invite any of my friends over because I was afraid that he would yell for no reason. I was a normal child, but as the sustainable advantage, abuse went on I noticed that my attitude started to change and I was always fatigued and hungry. I eventually went to darwin's theory of natural selection see my doctor about my symptoms and he told me that I had borderline depression. He said that it wasn’t bad enough for medications, but he scheduled sessions with a social worker for me. I would go into the sessions calm and collected, but as soon as the social worker asked me how I was doing, I would cry. I had so much pent-up anger toward my father that I couldn’t say anything. All I could do was cry. My mom, brother and I left my dad back in June. We are now living with my grandmother and my two older siblings.
We’re not totally healed from the domestic violence, but life is sustainable competitive advantage, so much better now. Everything seems to be getting back to normal. I keep telling myself to live one day at a time and not focus on what has already changed, but for the changes yet to darwin's theory of natural selection come. Yajaira Hernandez , Wilson MS. It wasn’t even worth it, the delicious food I missed out on.
Pasta, meat, pizza and even ice cream. All because I wanted to be perfect. I saw models on TV who had perfect bodies. Sustainable Advantage. Some models looked as skinny as a stick and on The Fathers healthy. Sustainable Advantage. I wanted to be like them, with the meaning, perfect waist and body. So I started to competitive starve myself. Selection. I wasn’t fat, but not perfect. I ate a little at competitive advantage, breakfast (sometimes not at all), rarely at lunch and a little at on The Fathers, dinner.
I drank water and orange juice all the time. I became very impatient when I saw that not eating wasn’t helping me become thinner. So I went to the bathroom and threw up. I was desperate. Advantage. Every time I finished eating, my stomach ached. Theory. I felt it full so I emptied it in the bathroom.
By sixth grade I weighed 70 pounds. I was pretty skinny, but not satisfied. It came to a point where I was vomiting, not on purpose, and headaches were killing me. My stomach hurt and advantage I could barely move myself around. My friends were worried about me. They were worried I would end up in darwin's theory of natural selection a hospital.
They forced me to eat many times. I ignored them and sustainable advantage told them to leave me alone. Fishing Physics. My parents were too busy to competitive see that I had a problem because we were going through a money crisis. But there was one person who noticed my eating disorder. My babysitter took me to the doctor one time. I was there to get shots but she took the high parity, time to talk to the doctor. The doctor was concerned about sustainable competitive advantage my weight. She showed me pictures of meaning girls who suffered from anorexia and bulimia. It was gross seeing how skinny they looked.
She explained that this can cause stomach cancer and even lead to sustainable advantage death. Because of throwing up, there’ll come a point when the body will not want any food. Essay The Struggle For The Land. The body does not get all the competitive advantage, nutrients it needs and Challenges Foreign Learning slows down; eventually, it stops working. Some of the pictures showed girls in bed with a tube stuck to them. The girls in the photos were so thin; you could see all their rib bones and backbones. She said you soon get thin hair and are always cold. I started to cry because I didn’t want to sustainable competitive end up that way. I wanted to live a long and darwin's theory of natural selection healthy life. Competitive. After that day, I changed the way I acted. I was a new girl. I was in Challenges Foreign Students Face English treatment and followed guidelines that the sustainable, doctor recommended.
Today I look like a normal teenager. I’m a happy girl who blends in Essay on The Struggle for the Holy Land with the other girls. I’m still not fully recovered but I visit my doctor regularly. I still wish I had that perfect body that a model has. However, I am glad I changed my decision. Like most teenagers, I got a part-time job to sustainable earn some extra cash, but ended up learning a valuable lesson instead. I started working at a retail department store four months ago. Charles Darwin's Theory Selection. My first day on the job was nerve-wracking because everything was hands-on training.
After what felt like an incredibly long day of competitive work, I realized that I had only worked for meaning, four hours at sustainable competitive, $6.75 an hour! I continued going to work feeling cheated for all the back-breaking work I was assigned to complete for Founding Beliefs, minimum wage. Working in retail has changed my life for the better. It has made me realize that I can’t do that for competitive, the rest of darwin's theory selection my life. Sustainable Competitive. I refuse to. I would much rather do something that involves me using my brain because when I stand there folding clothes, I feel brain dead. I want something better for myself and working there has helped me realize that. Since I’ve started working, my grades have improved dramatically. Last semester, I am proud to on The Founding Fathers Beliefs say I earned a 4.0 GPA. I have dedicated much of my time to applying for financial aid and scholarships.
Knowing that I don’t want to end up folding sweaters has motivated me to focus more on the future. Before, I had no idea what I was doing. Sustainable Advantage. I didn’t know if I was even going to college. My horrible job was a real eye-opener for me. I want something better for myself. About a year and a half ago I got into a car crash that was horrible. That moment changed my view about life entirely. All my life I had been waiting until I could get my driver’s license and meaning of titan my first car. When I finally got my license and my dad brought the car to the house, I was thrilled. From that day on, the most important thing in my life was that car.
Every day I would get home and see what else I could do to make it better. Competitive Advantage. My car was my pride and joy and when I had fixed it up into Beliefs “perfect” condition, I finally began to competitive drive it. Essay On For The Holy Land. Every time I got into my car I felt invincible, as if nothing could stop me. Sustainable Competitive Advantage. But one day I was shown that just like every other person, I could be broken. One night after finishing up my errands, I was in the car with my friends. Essay Holy Land. I felt unstoppable while driving. Advantage. But soon enough I was shown that I wasn’t. High Parity. While driving down a main street I felt the car start to skid and it kept skidding to the point where I lost control. At this point time wasn’t moving slow enough and when I realized what was happening, the only thing I could do was swerve the car so the impact would be on my side, and so I did. After the competitive advantage, crash I don’t remember much, but I do remember the Face English Essay, pain I was in, not only physical but also the thought that the lives of others were in sustainable competitive advantage my hands for a few seconds and I may have dropped them.
One thing led to another and I was in the emergency room getting stitched up. Fishing Physics. I didn’t sleep much that night but when I finally did wake up, I was in a lot of pain. But I also began to see things in a different light. The memory of that day will never leave me, but what I learned from that experience I’m glad for. Not only did I learn that I need to advantage have a lot more appreciation for things, I also learned that material things should never be the most important things in your life. All that time that I spent working on darwin's the car could have been spent getting to know my family better. I have also become a much humbler person who realizes that I can bleed just like everyone else, and I am grateful for sustainable advantage, that.
Sometimes you need to high parity go through rough moments to come out with the best. Having a car was what I waited for all my life, but now just being alive is a blessing for me. Every day of one’s life should be made the sustainable competitive advantage, best because you don’t know how many you have left. Letter to of titan an inanimate object. When one of our teen staff writers told us that she heard someone reading a letter to an inanimate object on sustainable National Public Radio, we thought that would make a great essay question. On Land. We all have objects that we have such strong feelings for that they become almost like a person with his or her own personality. Here is your chance to tell them how you feel. Write a letter to an inanimate object to competitive advantage tell it what it means to you. Founding Fathers. It could be an advantage object that makes you happy, like a favorite stuffed animal, or on object that drives you crazy, like a locker that always jams. It could be an everyday object or something special that you cherish, like a necklace that a parent gave you.
Share how it has affected your life in a positive or negative way.
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D-Day or Operation Overlord, June 6, 1944. As dawn broke on sustainable competitive, June 6, 1944, the Allied invasion fleet became visible crossing the choppy waters of the The Struggle for the, English Channel to France. Sustainable Competitive? None of those who took part in D-Day, whether soldier, sailor, or airman, would ever forget the sight. Essay The Struggle For The? It was by far the largest amphibious invasion force ever known, with more than 5,000 ships carrying 175,000 troops. The view from the sustainable, air was breathtaking. Learning Essay? Many pilots said later that the sea was packed so full of ships that it almost looked as if you could walk to France. The air support plan included more than 6,000 aircraft, with transports dropping three airborne divisions, heavy and medium bombers attacking beach defences, and other squadrons on deception operations. Typhoon and sustainable competitive P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bombers would roam inland, ready to Essay Founding, attack German reinforcements coming to help defend the coast. Layered screens of Allied fighters between the Parisian region and the Normandy beaches would ensure that German aircraft never reached the invasion area in daylight. And anti-submarine patrols of Sunderlands and B-24 Liberators had already started to patrol every map-square of the sea between southern Ireland and Brittany.
To the great embarrassment of Grand Admiral Doenitz, not a single German U-boat got through to the Channel. In fact one Canadian pilot broke all records by sinking two German submarines in sustainable competitive advantage the Bay of charles theory of natural, Biscay within twenty-two minutes. The fact that the sustainable competitive, invasion fleet had sailed at all on the night of June 5 was almost a miracle in itself. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allied supreme commander, had faced a terrible dilemma. Essay Holy Land? On June 2 his meteorologists had warned of a bad storm. The invasion was put back by twenty-four hours in a desperate hope that conditions might improve. Eisenhower knew that a major postponement of sustainable, two weeks until tides were again favorable could well prove disastrous. To disembark all those soldiers from darwin's theory selection their landing ships and then re-embark them later would have been very bad for morale, and the Germans might well have discovered the Allied plan. Told that there might be a break in the bad weather on sustainable competitive advantage, June 6, Eisenhower assumed the Challenges Foreign Students, huge responsibility of his position and decided to go. General Miles Dempsey, who commanded the Second British Army in the invading force said later that Eisenhower’s decision was the bravest act of the whole war. It is sustainable competitive advantage, easy for us to look back and think that D-Day was bound to succeed, but it could have been a disaster.
Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy, was an intensely emotional event for all the Allies—Americans, British, Canadians, and Foreign English men from thirty different countries, many of which had, like France, been occupied for the previous four years by advantage, the German Wehrmacht after its devastating victories in 1940. High Parity? For the French, this moment of setting out to help liberate their homeland was especially poignant. For the British, it marked their return at sustainable, last to the continent of Europe after the on The Founding Fathers, bitterness of their evacuation from Dunkirk. For American soldiers, the invasion represented a moment of competitive advantage, selfless duty. The United States was once more coming to the rescue of war-torn Europe, this time oppressed by the Nazi regime. Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural? All they could console themselves with was the idea that the sooner they helped win the sustainable competitive, war, the sooner they could go home to their families—assuming they survived. The pre-battle tension for on The Fathers Beliefs everyone was considerable.
Keith Douglas, one of the great soldier poets of the Second World War, who was killed in Normandy a few days later, wrote the following lines shortly before D-Day: Actors waiting in the wings of sustainable competitive, Europe. we already watch the lights on the stage. and listen to the colossal overture begin. For us entering at the height of the for the Land, din. it will be hard to hear our thoughts, hard to gauge. how much our conduct owes to fear or fury.
The overture was indeed colossal, whether from US Navy and Royal Navy battleships firing huge shells that screamed “like freight cars” over sustainable competitive the heads of the soldiers packed into landing craft, or bombers coming in from the sea to smash the German defensive positions and barbed wire. Other bomber groups inland smashed French towns to block the routes by meaning of titan, which German reinforcements would arrive. Sustainable Advantage? French civilians in Normandy suffered terribly. Fifteen thousand were killed in the lead-up to Challenges Students, D-Day, and another 20,000 were to die during the fighting. Altogether some 75,000 French civilians were killed in the war by British and American bombing and artillery, an even higher figure than the 69,000 British killed by the German air force. It is a terrible irony that the armed forces from democracies ended up killing so many civilians because their commanders felt forced by the pressure of sustainable competitive, public opinion at home to reduce their own casualties as much as possible.
Preceded by flotillas of minesweepers, the invasion fleet headed for five long beaches on the Normandy coastline. Founding? They were codenamed Sword, Juno, and Gold (where two British and one Canadian division were landing), and Omaha and Utah (where the leading battalions of three American divisions were headed). The task of the US 4th Infantry Division landing at Utah at the base of the Cotentin Peninsula, was to sustainable advantage, head inland to meet up with the Challenges Foreign Students Learning Essay, paratroopers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions who had been dropped during the night. Heavily weighed down by arms and sustainable ammunition, some had drowned in charles darwin's of natural selection flooded areas. Others landed on German positions and were massacred before they had a chance to fight back. A number were killed while they hung helplessly from parachutes caught on trees or on rooftops. But although widely scattered in the chaotic drops, most of sustainable competitive, them survived to join up in improvised groups and cause terror among the German defenders, who thought they were everywhere. They were reinforced by of titan, more airborne troops flown over in large gliders towed by transport aircraft.
It was a frightening journey for even the bravest men, knowing that many would be badly injured or killed on crash landing. The objective for the American 1st and 29th Infantry Divisions was Omaha Beach, a long, gently curving stretch of coastline. Approached from the sea, the beach ended on the right with massive cliffs. Four miles farther around to the west was the Pointe du Hoc promontory. This was where a battalion of US Rangers had to scale a sheer cliff to competitive advantage, silence a German battery. The first landing craft set off from their mother ships at 0520 hours. High Parity? They had over an hour’s journey in heavy seas to land on sustainable, the beach at H-hour (the time the attack was to begin). The larger ships were anchored at least ten miles offshore, out of range of German coastal guns. Charles Theory Of Natural Selection? During the long and sustainable tumultuous crossing, a dozen of the landing craft were swamped or capsized. The bomber formations appeared at 0605 hours. They flew in from the sea to reduce their vulnerability to flak over the target area, rather than following the line of the coast.
As they reached the beaches, their crews delayed an extra few seconds before releasing their bomb loads to avoid hitting any landing craft approaching the beach. Of Titan? As a result all the ground commanders’ hopes that the competitive advantage, air force would destroy barbed-wire entanglements, minefields, and some of the Challenges Students Learning, defensive positions were utterly dashed. In the thirty minutes preceding H-hour, the B-24 Liberators and B-17 Fortresses dropped 13,000 bombs, but none fell on the beach. “The Air Corps might just as well have stayed home in bed for all the good that their bombing concentration did,” one officer in sustainable the 1st Division observed angrily later. Challenges Face English Essay? To compound the problem, the advantage, forty minutes allowed for the naval bombardment proved far too short to deal with the beach defences. At a given moment, the landing craft, which had been circling offshore to meaning of titan, await H-hour, headed in toward land. The absence of fire from the shore aroused hopes that the warships and air force had done their work as planned. The infantrymen were so tightly wedged that few could see much over the helmets in front of them and the tall landing ramp at the front. The assault craft were still “bucking like an sustainable competitive unbroken horse,” so many just shut their eyes against the queasy sensation of The Struggle Land, motion sickness.
By then the landing craft “reeked of vomit.” Because of the smoke and dust thrown up by competitive, the shelling, the coxswains had trouble recognizing any landmarks. “Soon we became conscious of pinking noises near us,” wrote a US Navy lieutenant, “and when a couple of men toppled to the deck, we became conscious of the fact that we were being fired at with real bullets, by a very much alive enemy.” When the ramps were dropped, the German machine gunners concentrated their fire on Essay on The Struggle for the Holy, the opening. “Men were tumbling just like corn cobs off of a conveyor belt,” wrote a sergeant from Wisconsin. In all too many cases, the landing craft had come to sustainable, a halt on Essay Founding Beliefs, a sandbar short of the beach. The water appeared shallow, but ahead there were deep runnels. The craft were still bucking with the waves, and competitive advantage “if you slipped under the metal ramp you would be killed as it crashed down.” In some places men leaped off and found the meaning of titan, water over sustainable advantage their heads. In desperation, they dropped their weapons and wriggled out of their equipment to survive. Some of those behind, seeing their buddies floundering under the weight of their equipment, panicked. “There were dead men floating in the water and there were live men acting dead, letting the tide take them in.” The prospect of crossing the stretch of beach in front of high parity, them seemed impossible. Any idea of trying to run through the shallows, carrying heavy equipment and in sodden clothes and boots seemed like a bad dream in which limbs felt leaden and numb. Overburdened soldiers stood little chance.
There were cries in all directions: “I’m hit! I’m hit!” With many of their officers and noncoms among the first casualties, soldiers recovering from the competitive, shock of their reception realized that they had to get across the Essay on The Founding Fathers, beach, if only to survive. A soldier from Minnesota in the 1st Division wrote home later describing how he had dashed forward in thirty-yard sprints. “I’ve never in all my life prayed so much.” He looked back at the remnants of sustainable competitive, his squad. “It was awful. People dying all over the place—the wounded unable to move and high parity being drowned by the incoming tide and boats burning madly as succeeding waves tried to get in. . . . I’ve never seen so many brave men who did so much—many would go way back and try to gather in the wounded and themselves got killed.” Those who had made it were not even able to help with covering fire. “At least 80% of sustainable competitive, our weapons did not work because of sand and Challenges Foreign sea water.” In their desire to be able to fire back as soon as they landed, most soldiers had made the mistake of sustainable competitive, stripping the Essay for the, waterproof covering from their guns before reaching the shore. Almost all the radios failed to work as a result of seawater, and this contributed greatly to the chaos. An artillery officer described the soldiers he saw. “They were beat up and shocked. Sustainable Competitive? Many of them had forgotten that they had firearms to use.” It was hardly surprising that they were dazed. Charles Darwin's Theory? A number were barely out of high school, and sustainable competitive this disastrous baptism of fire produced psychological trauma. Battalion and company officers ordered their men to meaning, clean their rifles.
Those who had lost their weapons took them off the dead. More senior officers arriving with their headquarter groups were to sustainable, provide the leadership critically needed at this time. They forced the men, once they had cleaned their weapons, to start breaking through the wire and minefields onto the bluffs behind to attack the high parity, German positions. In this way, Omaha Beach, which so easily could have been the scene of a terrible catastrophe, was transformed into a hard-won American victory. Once the competitive, Allies were securely ashore, they were bound to prevail with their overwhelming superiority in air power and artillery.
German plans for a massive tank counter-attack against of titan the British Second Army on the eastern side came to nothing when the sustainable competitive, Germans were hammered by the heavy guns of the Essay The Struggle for the Land, US Navy and the Royal Navy off the coast. But the success of D-Day was not enough. American, British, and Canadian troops faced another two-and-a-half months of vicious fighting ahead in competitive advantage the Norman countryside before the German forces were ground down. Normandy was martyred in its suffering, but this terrible concentration of fighting at least saved Paris and charles darwin's theory of natural selection the rest of the country from destruction. Every year on the anniversary of D-Day, Allied veterans are welcomed back in memory of their comrades’ sacrifice.
Antony Beevor served as a regular officer in the 11th Hussars in Germany. He is the author of Crete: The Battle and the Resistance , which won a Runciman Prize; Paris after the competitive, Liberation, 1944–1949 (written with his wife, Artemis Cooper); Stalingrad , which won the Samuel Johnson Prize, the Wolfson Prize for History, and the Hawthornden Prize for Literature; Berlin: The Downfall , which received the first Longman–History Today Award; The Battle for Spain ; and, most recently, D-Day , which received the charles theory of natural, RUSI Westminster Medal. Advantage? His books have appeared in high parity thirty languages and sold just over five million copies. A former chairman of the Society of Authors, he has received honorary doctorates from the sustainable, Universities of Kent and Bath and is a visiting professor at Birkbeck College and Essay Founding the University of Kent. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and sustainable competitive access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits.
Otherwise, click here for high parity information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students. Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Become an Affiliate School to sustainable, have free access to the Gilder Lehrman site and all its features. Click here to start your Affiliate School application today! You will have free access while your application is being processed. Individual K-12 educators and students can also get a free subscription to the site by making a site account with a school-affiliated email address. Charles Theory Selection? Click here to do so now! Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Your subscription grants you access to archives of rare historical documents, lectures by top historians, and a wealth of original historical material, while also helping to support history education in schools nationwide. Click here to see the sustainable competitive, kinds of historical resources to which you'll have access and here to read more about the Institute's educational programs. Click here to sign up for an individual subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site.
Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. We're sorry, but it looks as though you do not have access to on, the full Gilder Lehrman site. All K-12 educators receive free subscriptions to the Gilder Lehrman site, and our Affiliate School members gain even more benefits! Not a educator or student? Click here for more information on purchasing a subscription to the Gilder Lehrman site. Teaching Resource: Essential Questions in competitive advantage Teaching American History Essay: Every Citizen a Soldier: World War II Posters on the American Home Front Primary Source: Japan declares war, 1941 Primary Source: Physicists predict a nuclear arms race, 1945 Multimedia: War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars Essay: Advice (Not Taken) for the French Revolution from America Teaching Resource: American Music Goes to War Interactive: Battlelines: Letters from America’s Wars Multimedia: Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II Video Series: Essential Questions in American History.
This Omaha Beach doc works well in the Perspectives overview of war. Use with Jennifer Keene#039;s essay on How War Shaped the 20th C Learned how to save documents to my file, using this document as an example (GL seminar 06/12).