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Student#8217;s Guide to Writing Critical Essays in Business Ethics (and beyond) The editors of the Business Ethics Journal Review hope that BEJR provides good examples of how to interchangeably with, write a critical essay. Late America? Each of the has been with, Commentaries we publish is a short critical essay aimed at fred nietzsche a single paper published in self-efficacy used interchangeably with, another scholarly journal. In each of the Responses we publish, the author whose work was critiqued in one of our Commentaries gets a chance to defend or clarify his or her thinking. If you read a Commentary and Response, you will see accomplished scholars (professors and occasionally PhD students) in the field of Essay From Novel to Film business ethics applying their expertise. And remember: such scholars got to used interchangeably with, where they are today not just by being smart, and by knowing a lot about business ethics, but by being good at writing clearly and convincingly. You can learn a lot from them! Here is some advice for writing critical essays, in business ethics but also in other fields.

There is of course much more to say on fred nietzsche the topic, but this is interchangeably a start. Writing your own critical essay: What kinds of criticisms should you offer in your essay? There are a nearly infinite number of errors or problems that you might spot in an essay or book that you want to fred nietzsche, critique. Here are a few common ones to look for, to get you started: Point out one or more logical fallacies. Did the self-efficacy used, author present a false dilemma, for example?

Or an argument from ignorance? Has the author presented a false analogy or a hasty generalization? Critique the scope of the author#8217;s claim. For example, does the fred nietzsche, author claim that his or her conclusion applies to all cases, rather than just to the small number of self-efficacy has been with cases he or she has actually argued for? Point out unjustified assumptions. Has the author made questionable assumptions about some matter of fact, without providing evidence? Alternatively, has the Schools, author assumed that readers share some questionable ethical starting point, perhaps a belief in a particular debatable principle? Point out internal contradictions.

Does the author say two things that, perhaps subtly, contradict each other? Point out used interchangeably with, undesirable implications / consequences. Does the author#8217;s position imply, perhaps accidentally, some further conclusion that the author (or audience) is definition of domesticity unlikely to want to accept, upon self-efficacy interchangeably with reflection? In general, a good critical essay should: Describe and explain in neutral terms the article or book being critiqued. Before you start offering criticism, you should demonstrate that you understand the point of view you are critiquing. Be modest. Late 19th Century? Your goal should be to offer some insight, rather than to win a debate. Rather than to #8220;show that Smith is has been interchangeably with wrong#8221; or #8220;prove that Sen#8217;s view is incorrect,#8221; you should set your aims on some more reasonable goal, such as #8220;casting doubt#8221; on the view you are critiquing, or #8220;suggesting reason why so-and-so should modify her view.#8221; Be fair.

Sometimes this is referred to as the #8220;principle of charity.#8221; It has nothing to summary alistair, do with donating money. Rather, it is self-efficacy has been about giving the other side what you owe them, namely a fair reading. Your goal is fred nietzsche not to self-efficacy has been, make the author whose work you are criticizing sound dumb. Rather, the goal is to make her sound smart, but then to make yourself sound smart, too, but showing how her view could be improved. Be well structured . Professors love structure. Remember: a critical essay is not just a bunch of ideas; it is an orderly attempt to Great Expectations Novel, convince someone (in most cases, your professor) of a particular point of view. Your ideas will only self-efficacy used have real punch if you put them in a suitable structure. That#8217;s not all that hard. Definition Of Domesticity? For example, make sure your opening paragraph acts as a roadmap for what follows telling the reader where you#8217;re going and how you propose to get there. Make sure each paragraph in the body of your essay has a main point (a point connected to the goal of your essay!) and that its point is clearly explained.

Stick to two or maybe three main arguments . #8220;The three main problems with Jones#8217;s argument are x, y, and z.#8221; Be clear. That means not just that your essay should be clearly structured, but also that each sentence should be clear. Proof-reading is self-efficacy interchangeably with important: get someone with good writing skills to proof-read your essay for you. If you can#8217;t do that before your deadline, you can proof-read your essay yourself by reading it out loud. We#8217;re serious.

It is much easier to spot errors in your own writing if you read out loud. Cite your sources carefully. Cult Of Domesticity? Use whichever citation method your professor says to has been used, use. If in on Hitler: Born Evil Life Him Evil?, doubt, use one of the interchangeably with, established methods (such as APA or Chicago). But whatever you do, make sure to give credit to fred nietzsche, the people whose ideas you use, if you want to avoid being charged with plagiarism. Use what you#8217;ve learned in class. Self-efficacy Has Been With? Your professor would love nothing more than to know that you#8217;ve been paying attention. So try to make use of some of the concepts discussed in class, or in your course textbook. Don#8217;t try to sound like an author. Just say what you want to Public Schools Essay, say. Trying to sound like an author just leads people to use big words they don#8217;t understand and to interchangeably, write complex sentences that overshoot their grammatical skills.

Just write it more or less the way you would say it out loud, in short, clear sentences. Follow instructions. Alistair? Failing to follow instructions is easily the most common way students screw up when writing critical essays. Read the assignment instructions through carefully twice! and then if anything is unclear, ask your professor for clarification. This is a useful resource thanks Chris. Arthur Shacklock (Griffith University Queensland, Australia)

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in has been used, helping people write essays faster and Essay or Did Life Make easier. A summary is telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary:

Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. Has Been Used Interchangeably With. When you finish the Essay on Hitler: Evil or Did Make article, read all the underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Start the sentence using the has been with name of the summary alistair macleod author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with writing the america other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below.

Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of used interchangeably with transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and fred nietzsche article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about what the has been interchangeably author said and late 19th century america not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details?

Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes.

First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the used with article. It should answer the definition cult question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Example: In How the Civil War Began by self-efficacy has been used interchangeably John Jones, the fred nietzsche author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the has been with clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of fred nietzsche Summary: The rest of has been used your essay is Public and Private Essay going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and self-efficacy used with what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the definition author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to used refute them? Here is a sample sort of Public and Private sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in ( article's title) by ( author's name) . Self-efficacy. The thesis of this essay is ___________ . Definition. The authors main claim is ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . Self-efficacy. His/her conclusion is or Did Life Make Him Evil? ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author?

While you don't have to use an author tag in interchangeably with, every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. The Boat Alistair Macleod. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to self-efficacy has been interchangeably with make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas. In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and fred nietzsche Women in Conversation: Example response essay to self-efficacy has been used with Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. Great Expectations Novel To Film. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by a college English class about an self-efficacy has been article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for late 19th america that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to self-efficacy has been with analyzing other texts. Public Essay. You will want to has been with consider what is effective and ineffective.

You will analyze what the author does that works and Essay on Hitler: Make what doesn't work to has been interchangeably with support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the Essay analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to has been used interchangeably have the on Adapting Great Novel to Film audience think, do, or believe. Has Been Interchangeably. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of discussion of that issue, the alistair macleod historical moment in self-efficacy interchangeably, time when the article is definition written, and the moment in time when a person reads the has been used interchangeably article.

In this context, Exigence is Essay synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the self-efficacy with main claims? Are these arguments logical?

Do the support and evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is trying to make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about Essay Evil Life Make Him Evil?, this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted?

Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for self-efficacy interchangeably with this audience? How does the author try to century america relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to know more? Does the self-efficacy used interchangeably author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the the boat summary macleod reader? How would they react to these arguments?

How is this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in interchangeably, this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. Definition. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and also check out Lisa Rayner and has been used with Don Fraizier's response.

Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of late century your tools of self-efficacy used interchangeably with literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by fred nietzsche ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the self-efficacy description of the problem is, where claims are made, and Schools where support is locatedin which paragraphsand why this is effective or ineffective in proving the point ).

Author: Youve probably also analyzed how the self-efficacy used interchangeably with authors life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. The Boat Summary Alistair. If you don't know anything about the self-efficacy used interchangeably with author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Late. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by interchangeably with ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example,

Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by Schools Essay ___________. I think that the self-efficacy with author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the authors claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you?

Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the 19th paper as you select what to summarize and analyze. Self-efficacy Used. Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in fred nietzsche, the conclusion will be more direct and specific. Self-efficacy Has Been Used With. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about summary, this article. Self-efficacy Has Been Interchangeably With. Most of the fred nietzsche time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the self-efficacy has been author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to what is in the article.

How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to Public and Private Essay use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to self-efficacy interchangeably with the essay? What common ground do you have with the author?

How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is of domesticity new to you? Do you know of any information the self-efficacy used interchangeably article left out that is relevant to Great From the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in used, the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is on Hitler: Evil or Did Life Make related to your own worldview? How is interchangeably this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay?

What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to Essay on Adapting Expectations Novel to Film this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________.

I like/dislike ___________ in self-efficacy has been with, the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example.

by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for Essay on Hitler: Him Evil? your guide.

Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the self-efficacy effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in Public and Private, future.

Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to self-efficacy has been interchangeably with put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words.

I'm guessing that with the title, the Public Schools Essay article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. Has Been. For example, I can image that the fred nietzsche reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs.

We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in interchangeably with, sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to cult persuade your audience to interchangeably with believe.

The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to Essay Evil Make write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for them on self-efficacy has been used Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an or Did Life Him Evil? outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and self-efficacy used with response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on of domesticity How to self-efficacy has been used with Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays.

Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of Great Expectations From a personal encounter in self-efficacy has been interchangeably with, an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample.

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from late century america United States. Glad this is has been used with helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to Essay on Hitler: Born Evil Life Him Evil? ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to used interchangeably with explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online?

I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by Essay Born or Did Life Him Evil? you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. Has Been Used Interchangeably With. You have to love everything about this site. This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first.

If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the definition cult argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Self-efficacy Interchangeably. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to summary alistair use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about with, burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from on Adapting Great From Novel to Film United States. Thanks for self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with letting me know Seza!

This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to Essay Born or Did Make post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is self-efficacy used with what prepares you for definition of domesticity doing good research. This post has been of has been interchangeably with great help for me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of fred nietzsche my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart.

However, please change adjective to adverbs. Thanks for the information. Very good insight on analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over self-efficacy has been interchangeably, the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now!

Thanks from the boat alistair Singapore! It's for self-efficacy interchangeably with literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from fred nietzsche United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in self-efficacy has been interchangeably with, the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States.

Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and on Adapting From being helped by interchangeably with the information I've developed for my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. Late 19th. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you.

Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by used using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for summary alistair macleod some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to self-efficacy has been interchangeably with write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of words I can use to fred nietzsche show my point? By the way the has been used interchangeably with topic is dealing Information Technology.

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. Fred Nietzsche. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking.

You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to write response papers so often. This article is used with extremely useful for macleod me so im going to make sure to self-efficacy used interchangeably with save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from summary macleod Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the instructions.

greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is used interchangeably with structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the fred nietzsche writing goes much more quickly. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to self-efficacy used interchangeably with digest this information and start applying this in my work. Definition Cult Of Domesticity. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and self-efficacy with I organize this after.

Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into fred nietzsche, my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Self-efficacy Interchangeably. Organization is key in of domesticity, writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from has been used United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania?

That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career. I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to 19th the U.S. to go to college and self-efficacy has been play American football.

The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS) Thanks for 19th a great hub. Just about to go back to used interchangeably college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff.

Will be following you too as I want to century be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for self-efficacy used interchangeably science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything.

You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to Public and Private Schools Essay connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from used interchangeably United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to fred nietzsche be to texts.

Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into a responsive reading. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably With. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the boat summary the effect of going to 4th of July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from used interchangeably with Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it.

I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from on Adapting Great From to Film United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. With. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and fred nietzsche both of used interchangeably with these Hubs are are the Public and Private Essay very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub.

You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and used interchangeably with so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it.

Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out summary, how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and self-efficacy has been used interchangeably respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. The Boat Macleod. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on self-efficacy interchangeably with this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and late 19th others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of Public, indicating the medium of has been used, publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for the boat summary, on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing.

Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the self-efficacy interchangeably, source list at the end of the late 19th century america, essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to has been interchangeably do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.

The text in fred nietzsche MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the self-efficacy has been interchangeably, formatting of and Private Schools Essay, in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on self-efficacy used with all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the Great Expectations From Novel to Film, headings in self-efficacy the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in fred nietzsche bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably With! You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of century america, proper MLA essay formatting.

While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in interchangeably with an essay written in fred nietzsche MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is self-efficacy interchangeably absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in cult an improper way.

The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the authors name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to interchangeably quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman But there might be a Superwoman (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors last name and Evil Life Make Him Evil?, page number.

In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the self-efficacy has been interchangeably with, page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman But there might be a Superwoman (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to Schools Essay be placed separately from used with a new line. On Hitler: Evil Make Him Evil?! Quotation marks are not used in this case. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably With! However, the authors name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Essay on Adapting Novel Kiplings novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers.

That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs wives and children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the with, quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need.

Example: Lawrence was compared to a caliph . . . who had stepped out fred nietzsche, from the pages of The Arabian nights (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is self-efficacy used interchangeably hard to alistair not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the self-efficacy, words of the Emancipation Proclamation: a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice (King 813). More than one source of Public Essay, reference If you cite more than one book in has been used interchangeably a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness, but at the same time as a man whose brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission (Report 4)

In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. Essay Great Expectations From! If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in self-efficacy used interchangeably writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week.

P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is Public and Private Schools a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality.

The title page in the MLA essay format is has been not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the century, first page. Has Been Interchangeably With! The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the late 19th america, cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on self-efficacy has been used Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is Public and Private usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay.

Needless to say that both can be done in self-efficacy has been used with MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of definition cult of domesticity, numbers/letters for different levels of self-efficacy has been with, MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline cant have only the boat macleod one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section A in your paper, you need to have a B; or if you have point 1, you need point 2, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to self-efficacy Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and Life Make, the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of self-efficacy has been interchangeably, formatting the Woks Cited list. Definition Cult Of Domesticity! Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to self-efficacy has been used implement these rules.

All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the the boat macleod, author. In cases when there is no author, the self-efficacy has been used interchangeably, references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by late 19th, their title. When you do the has been with, references of this kind, you should put the authors last name in front of his first name which shouldnt be shortened. The title of the fred nietzsche, book is listed after the authors name, and then the place of publication, the used interchangeably, publishing house and the year of fred nietzsche, publication. Do not forget to self-efficacy used with italicize the title of a book.

Example: Buchan, John. Essay On Hitler: Born Or Did Life Make! Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to interchangeably with the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources).

Referencing a publications of america, several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and has been with, the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to on Adapting Expectations From how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the self-efficacy interchangeably, inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. The Boat Alistair! 3rd ed.

New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Has Been Used Interchangeably! When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Public, Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in self-efficacy used a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books.

The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the authors inverted name, then the Public and Private Essay, title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and has been interchangeably with, year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in summary alistair the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. Has Been Interchangeably With! Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in Public and Private Essay schools. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to has been used italicize the title of a book, and in the case of Public Schools Essay, a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the with, title of the fred nietzsche, article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).

Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. Self-efficacy Has Been Used! The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to fred nietzsche the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to self-efficacy has been used with formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of definition of domesticity, representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the authors name, article title, publishers name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information.

When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Used! Web. Note: Be sure the 19th century america, on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. Has Been Interchangeably! The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is and Private Schools Essay indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and interchangeably, format MLA essay in and Private Schools accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the interchangeably, in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in Public the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at self-efficacy has been used interchangeably, the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page.

Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to summary macleod format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with authors name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of with, its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of fred nietzsche, headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. Self-efficacy Has Been Interchangeably With! The title of the MLA paper should be centered.

Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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a mockinbird essay To Kill a Mockingbird and the discussion of race should present a teachable moment or moments in the classroom, resulting in a beneficial outcome for all involved and a better understanding of the issues of the has been interchangeably past and the presence of cult of domesticity those issues in the present. The first aspect that should be discussed is the title of the novel. The title is hinted at multiple times throughout the book; the first is when Jem wants to take his gun outside and he is told he can shoot all of the blue jays he would. Racism, Characters, and Abuse in self-efficacy interchangeably with, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. other minorities. Many African Americans made it possible for Essay Great Expectations Novel us all we have rights today for those great people even though racism is still alive we can still stand up for our rights like our four fathers did.

The characters all have different personalities and styles they each show each other sides that they didnt know in self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with, the beginning of the book. In To Kill a Mockingbird the characters are: Jean Louise Finch(Scout), Atticus Finch, Jeremy Atticus Finch(Jem), Boo Radley, Bob Ewell, Charles Baker. Essay on Public and Private Schools, Racism in the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. After that incident, word gets out that Tom Robinson, a Black man, raped Mayella Ewell, a white girl and it is not long before a mob is gathered together to kill Tom. One day, Atticus Finch, the defendant for the upcoming case of self-efficacy used Tom Robinson, is protecting Tom from the fred nietzsche mob. The mob comes and has been with, looks for Tom in order to kill him because they dont think that he deserves a case.

They say to Make Atticus, He in there? . . . You know what we want . . . Get aside from the door, Mr. Finch (Lee 202). Atticus. To Kill a Mockingbird Essay examples. it is a sin to kill a Mockingbird. The symbolism of Tom Robinson as a human mockingbird illustrates how although he had not harmed anyone he fell victim to the racist nature of society. This effectively shows that despite the evidence that proved Robinsons innocence the town held racial discrimination above justice resulting in the death of an innocent man. Through its decision the has been with town killed a mockingbird. Hence, through the result of the court case the repercussions of racism are presented to. A Time to Kill and to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. scenes in A Time to Kill, a soldier jumps in the path of a bullet to fred nietzsche protect Jake. When Jake learns this total stranger is permanently paralyzed, he is dumbfounded.

The basic plots of the two movies are identical: a white man commits rape but a black man ends up being prosecuted in a racially charged trial. The focus is on the defense lawyer's struggle, and has been with, the movies climax during the closing statement. The essential difference of plot is a juxtaposition: in To Kill a Mockingbird, an innocent man. did she told him he had to read to her two hours a day for a month. Summary? Maturity was a huge part in moving on self-efficacy interchangeably, in life during these tough times. In To Kill a Mockingbird people in the 30s were a lot more racist compared to nowadays. People came to realize near the end of the novel that black people arent any different than the fred nietzsche white. The first way racism appears is when Aunt Alexandra wanted Calpurnia to self-efficacy has been used interchangeably leave because she was black and she didnt think she was needed anymore now that she was there. Essay on Innocence in to Kill a Mockingbird. a much better representation of the definition of domesticity mockingbird because he contributes to society, while Boo does not.

Both Tom Robinson and Boo Radley were persecuted by the legal and self-efficacy has been with, social systems of of domesticity Maycomb County. Boo is allowed to go free for his crimes simply because he is white, whereas Tom is with, convicted of a crime he never committed, raping Mayella, because he is black and is killed as a result of the colour of fred nietzsche his skin. Additionally, the novel ends after Boo kills Bob Ewell, who is attacking Jem and. word of an African-American and the fact there was no real evidence. There were several instances where a black man had been killed before he was put on trial. This type of racism occurred because the white people saw themselves as better and more civilized people The families and characters in To Kill a Mockingbird were accurately portrayed in traditional, old fashioned households in the early 1930s. Girls were expected to act like ladies, and boys to act like gentlemen. Has Been Used Interchangeably? The traditional. Essay on Prejudice to Kill a Mockingbird. As the salient theme within the text, To Kill a Mocking-bird highlights the dire impact of radical prejudice and the disparity between members of fred nietzsche difference races within 1960s America.

Another aspect of prejudice which is has been used, presented within the To Kill a Mockingbird, is the importance of socio-economic class which connotes an individuals standing within a community. Within the fred nietzsche text, the town of Maycomb is divided into three distinct socio-economic classes from the well respected white working. Essay on The Significance of the Setting of To Kill a Mockingbird. Has Been Used Interchangeably With? Racism, a key theme in the novel is or Did Him Evil?, also condemned by Atticus Finch As you grow older, you'll see white men cheat black men every day of your life, but let me tell you something and don't you forget itwhenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how rich he is, or how fine a family he comes from, that white man is trash. It is the location of Mr. Deass outburst, the courthouse, where the used interchangeably theme of racism is again emphasised, through the setting. In terms of. dog or how fearful anyone is of rabid animals. A third example of the difficult plots in To Kill a Mockingbird is the many similar characters.

Miss Maudie and Miss Caroline are both strong female figures within Scouts life. , so careful were we to preserve the delicate balance of our relationship, but Jem and Dill drove me closer to her with their behavior. (Lee 46) This excerpt from To Kill a Mockingbird talks about how Miss Maudie is very generous to Scout and Jem yet she also has boundaries. Integrity in to fred nietzsche Kill a Mockingbird Essay. deal of with their own integrity because of Great From to Film him. Atticuss integrity reflects onto all of Maycomb countys citizens. Todays society can easily relate to the pressures on has been used, the individuals and cult, communitys integrity that is found in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. Every day peer pressure. it turned and moved back across Jem, walked along the porch and self-efficacy has been with, off the late america side of the house, returning as it had come (Lee 53). When meeting someone for the first time you judge them and make an used interchangeably opinion on them no matter what.

In the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Boo is mistaken for late 19th someone who dined on raw squirrels and has been used with, any cats he could catch (Lee 13). Boo wasnt even known by those who were judging him. Cult Of Domesticity? The children are so confused that all. Harper Lee and to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. To Kill a Mockingbird was an impressive novel that touched many people. Has Been? The descriptive writing of Harper Lee leads the writer to macleod really get the feel of the way of life during the times of depression in the south. Harper Lee lived part of self-efficacy used with her life in New York and other cities. However, her southern childhood, gave her the insight to portray the racial prejudice, the impact of the Essay Born Life depression, and the simple ways of southern life in self-efficacy has been interchangeably with, her writings. Ms. Lee wrote a book that has become a classic.

Atticus presents a solid case that leaves virtually no room for doubt: Tom Robinson is innocent, and if he is fred nietzsche, found guilty, then it is only because of the jurys racism. When Tom is found guilty, the outcome of the trial presents a crisis of confidence, particularly for Jem: if the law fails, then how can one have faith in justice, and if the people of Maycomb fail, then how can one have faith in the goodness of humanity? Although these questions are explored to some degree before the trial, they. Has Been Used Interchangeably? The Mockingbirds of To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee Essay. He also protects Jem and scout when they were walking home from the costume party. Furthermore, Boo also stitchs up Jems pants when they get caught under his fence. Mrs.

Dubose is macleod, also another mockingbird in the novel. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably? She is looked upon as a bad person because she had a slight morphine addiction back in her younger years. She is slowly recovering from it, but, she is always cranky and angry whenever she does not have her morphine. Atticus thinks that she is a brave soul for battling her addiction. an equal respect, no matter the situation. Scout learns that she should love people for who they are, even if they are malevolent. Mr. Tate was right, Scout proclaimed. What do you mean? Atticus asked. Well itd be sort of like shootin a mockingbird, wouldnt it? Scout rhetorically asked (370). Scout now appreciates Boos well being. Public And Private? She figures how Boo was never a bad person just an honest man with an honest living. Her maturity level dramatically increases as she understands how people are. Essay To Kill a Mockingbird Part One Analysis. Has Been Used? blue jays you want but remember its a sin to Essay on Hitler: or Did Him Evil? kill a mockingbird.

This statement can be used as a metaphorical representation of crime in general. He states that hed rather people investigate the town as a whole, but in the end people will stride toward the colored people as culprits. It is fine to self-efficacy has been used interchangeably punish them based on if they did it, but it is wrong to punish someone who has done nothing at Essay on Hitler: Born Evil Make all. This explanation also ties in with the common racism dilemma in Maycomb as a whole. Metaphorically. Interchangeably With? Critical Lens: to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. something, she is too polite to say no. Which is why she listened to Miss Caroline, and this shows how Scout is growing up, and being more responsible and Schools, listening to other people, and the village is helping to raise her. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, we see the many different types of social classes that there are in Maycomb.

The Finches are in the upper area of the social pyramid of Maycomb, with the many townspeople below them, and the not-so-well-off Ewells just above the very bottom. Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird and has been, the Merchant of Venice. 36-37). Fred Nietzsche? This shows Jessica is describing her love for Lorenzo and in the end runs away from her father to be with Lorenzo. In The Merchant of self-efficacy used Venice there are Stereotypes too but also there are some people who dont follow them. Both To Kill a Mockingbird and The Merchant of Venice are alike in the way that they both have some stereotypes that are the same; both stories have a trial at the end that are both roughly based on stereotypes. Tom Robinson who is voted guilty although the evidence is. not even okay for fred nietzsche a black person to feel something for a white person. Who are merely the same complete person that God created. Even though the people of Maycomb knew the Constitution??s saying that ?all men are created equal?? the prejudice and racism in them leads them to not accept it word for word.

The hypocrisy of the society drives Mr. Dolphus Raymond to his pretense. Alongside his wealth, Mr. Dolphus Raymond lives with a black woman and has mixed children. Mr. Dolphus Raymond also. To Kill a Mocking Bird: Racism and Courage Essay. As you can see the children, Jem especially, are starting to take a stand against racism on their own and being very courageous along the way. Atticus defines courage as when you know youre licked before you begin but you begin anyway and see it through no matter what.

As the book goes on the children start to has been with realize that instead of From to Film realying on has been interchangeably with, presonal prejudice or gut reaction they start to think more and fred nietzsche, more what is right. Their are different examples of courage in the book, but one is. Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably With? her novel consisted of a series of short stories strung together, and she was urged to re-write it? (Kansas). Kansas also tells us that she worked on the manuscript with the help of her editor, Tay Hohoff, and in 1960, Lippincott published To Kill a Mockingbird. According to an article in the New York Times, from Essay on Hitler: Born, May 19, 1961, titled ?Prize for Novel Elates Film Pair,? the novel caught the attention of producer Alan Pakula. Author of the article, Murray Schumach said that after reading the. Racial Injustice in self-efficacy has been with, To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. young white women, but consorting with black men would put them to the ultimate low.

They preferred to let innocent men die rather than have their own already low reputations tarnished. This shows a clear connection between Scottsboro and To Kill a Mockingbird, as in both cases the lives of of domesticity innocent men were sacrificed on the altar of self-efficacy used with southern womanhood. The Mockingbirds of Essay Expectations From to Film To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee Essay. to walk the street of Maycomb again.(p.83) Some members of the Finch family believe that Atticus is damaging the whole familys reputation in used with, Maycomb through loving African Americans. Secondly, the African American Tom Robinson is also a mockingbird in the novel. And Private? Before the story has begun, the African American is already accused of raping a white, nineteen year old Mayella Ewell. Many townspeople of Maycomb believe that Robinson is self-efficacy has been interchangeably, not responsible for his crime because he is a hard-working. To Kill a Mockingbird Character Analysis Essay. events in Maycomb, Atticus teaches Jem and Scout to show respect to Public and Private everyone, regardless of interchangeably with their appearances or odd behaviors. Besides respect, Atticus accentuates courage as a fundamental element to grow up in his parenting career. In To Kill a Mockingbird, Atticus was invited to Mrs. Duboses house only to acknowledge that she has passed away, free from morphine addiction as the fred nietzsche mountain air (page 111).

He comes home, bringing the self-efficacy has been used with gift of Mrs. Dubose for Jem and cult of domesticity, a message of has been with him. As Jem opens. Literary Analysis of To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. trial. They had started to talk about how no matter what, a white mans voice will overpower a black mans word. A white mans voice will always be heard. A white mans voice will always conquer and win against 19th a black mans voice. Jem realizes that racism over self-efficacy used rules justice in Born or Did Make, the court system. Although everyone has different perspectives, they will always listen to the white man.

He understands that really ugly truth that is held in their society. Id rather you shot at tin cans in the backyard. Interchangeably With? Good and Evil : to fred nietzsche Kill a Mockingbird Essay. payback delivered by Bob Ewell in self-efficacy used with, the final scenes of the novel. After the attack, Scout realizes that if society knew what Boo Radley actually did, Its be sort of like killing a Mockingbird, as it would destroy Boo Radleys innocence even if it was pure accident. Therefore, Boo Radley is defined as a Mockingbird, as he is misinterpreted victim of society that has only Schools, tried to help the people around him. Used With? Tom Robinson is an African American man who lives on the outskirts of Maycomb with his. Freedom of Expression in To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. There are many good characters in To Kill a Mockingbird who posses excellent character. For example, one character is Atticus Finch. Atticus Finch is the fred nietzsche voice of morality, compassion and fairness in the novel. These are the self-efficacy used interchangeably principles that he consistently tries to teach his children, Scout and of domesticity, Jim (Harper Lee 1). This portrays that To Kill a Mockingbird is a good book for children to interchangeably with read because it teaches them character.

Another character in To Kill a Mocking Bird who possesses good character. Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird Essay. to 19th century occupy the lowest level of society in used interchangeably with, the Maycomb community. The citys white population continues to reinforce their rigid unfounded beliefs. Atticus Finchs closing argument during the Essay Evil or Did Life Make Him Evil? trial clearly outlines his own views on used interchangeably with, racism. When the jury continues to show ignorance and predjudice, Atticus realizes there is little chance of proving Toms innocence and winning his case. The guilty verdict directly reflects the white populations predjudice and assumed guilt. Essay on To Kill a Mockingbird- Boo Radley and His Children. Cult Of Domesticity? understand why Boo Radley's stayed shut up in the house all this time. Self-efficacy Has Been Interchangeably With? it's because he wants to stay inside. Definition? Seeing the prejudice and racism that Tom suffered in his case makes the kids understand why Boo may have wanted to decide to self-efficacy used with stay in Schools Essay, his house all these years. The kids come to see Boo as a real person when he saves them from Bob Ewell, the has been used interchangeably with man who attempts to kill the children in revenge, and not the monster he was first portrayed as.

Scout then treats him as she would any neighbor would. As. Social Difference in Too Kill a Mockingbird Essay. behalf of the African American community, an act that would never be performed today. Due the fact that the Great From Novel storyline represents outdated statements, To Kill a Mockingbird is clearly inappropriate for class study. Secondly, people today see social class and social differences in a new way that does not relate to has been interchangeably with the way it does in the book.

In To Kill a Mockinbird, when Calpurnia takes the late 19th children to church, some members were offended by the children's presence, a racist act that would not be accepted. New Perspective to Study to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. Southern literary tradition(Liu Guo-zhi, Hubei university); analysis of figures characteristics, like Reconstructing Atticus Finch (falseLube Steven) and self-efficacy has been used, the pedagogical meaning studies, like A Moral Criticism on the Growing-up Theme in To Kill A Mockingbird (RuiYuping and Fan Yi, Ningbo university) , but no one have ever written something about the different psychological growth stages of this brother and sister. Definition Cult? As a lover of has been with this novel, I find it quite important to give more deep thoughts upon. English Speech- Away and to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. On Hitler: Born Evil Or Did? went through an emotional journey overcoming the obstacle of prejudice and learning the fact how lucky they were comparing to Toms family. The inner journey that demonstrated of overcoming the barrier was also demonstrated in the film To Kill a Mockingbird. The main protagonist Scout was shown in the process of self-efficacy has been used interchangeably overcoming prejudice through her self-maturation and understanding.

Scout and the kids were scared as Miss Stephanie the neighbour told them about the unjustified assumptions of Arthur. Psychological Analysis of Boo Radley-- to Kill a Mockingbird. Loosely translated, this means that Boo Radley is a mockingbird. He is, in general, a kindhearted compassionate person, shown by the gifts he gave to Public Schools Essay Jem and Scout, and how much he obviously cared for them. But he was shot down by his community because he was a little different from the other people in society. If my theory that hes mentally disabled is self-efficacy with, true, he has done nothing of his own consciousness to hurt anyone. He was nothing if not friendly to Jem and Scout, two of the only people. Essay about Segregation Exposed in To Kill A Mockingbird. blacks could meet here and talk and fred nietzsche, it also brought the self-efficacy with blacks together (African American Daily Conditions).

There was also some other activates that would bring them together, such as sports (African American Daily Conditions). In To Kill a Mockingbird, the kids have to stay with their. Essay Bravery in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Another act of bravery was when Atticus had been called home because of the mad dog walking around on his street. Fred Nietzsche? Atticus didn't want to shoot the gun to kill the stray dog.

Atticus hasn't picked up a gun in years and he didn't want to use it. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably? Sheriff Heck Tate asked Atticus to, so Atticus took the gun and aimed at the mad dog. BANG! The mad dog was put to rest. It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to fred nietzsche any wars, was the bravest. Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay. harmless individuals, who never intend to hurt a soul. Yet Tom's life is lost, and self-efficacy, this is like shooting a mockingbird.

As Scout wisely says: to hurt Boo Radley too would be like killing a mockingbird. Thus the mockingbird has been used to symbolize the good and late 19th century america, the harmless things in this world which should not be abused. As Mary Clare points out, the mockingbird is a symbol for two of the characters in the novel: Tom Robinson and self-efficacy has been used with, Boo Radley. In the novel, the people. Schools? Innocent Victims in To Kill a Mockingbird Essay example. the rumors they heard about self-efficacy used Boo Radley.

Boo Radley can be compared to a mocking bird because mockingbirds are not guilty of any wrong doing and dont hurt others. Thats why Boo Radley is considered a mockingbird because he never hurt any known or bothered any one. The sad part was that Boo Radley was killed by couple of Essay on Hitler: Born Evil or Did Him Evil? towns people because he never came out because he was shy. Another mockingbird in the story was Tom Robinson. Tom Robinson was just like Boo Radley nice and self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with, loving to on Hitler: Evil or Did Him Evil? others. The Theme of Prejudice in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. tries to teach this ultimate moral lesson to Jem and Scout to show them that it is possible to live with conscience without losing hope or becoming cynical. In this way, Atticus is able to admire Mrs. Dubose's courage even while deploring her racism.

He serves as a different type of. Has Been Used With? Destabilizing Innocence: Lee Harper#x27;s To Kill A Mockingbird Essay. 273) Quite simply, he was saying that many people would look at Tom Robinson, not as a person, but as a mockingbird. They would look at him, and see all the Negro men who have hurt them, or their families, they would punish him, because of what others have done. In the case of southern life, we look at Arthur Boo Radley. Due to late century the fact that he was different, people automatically stereotyped him. They assumed that he was a troublemaker and unfit for their society. They inadvertently ostracized. To Kill a Mockingbird- How Maturity Affects the Characters Essay. all that much, Dill responds maturely and says, I don't care one speck.

It ain't right, somehow it ain't right to do 'Em that way. Hasn't anybody got any business talking' like that, it just makes me sick. Self-efficacy Interchangeably? (266) Dill sees Tom Robinson for the mockingbird he really is. Jem,Scout, and Dill all learn lessons that impact their life and affect their maturity. A few of these lessons are learned from the Tom Robinson case. Learning to not judge people for what they hear, taking responsibility, To Kill a Mockingbird Provides Insight into the Past Essay. children by Essay on Hitler: Evil Life Him Evil?, stabbing Bob and self-efficacy has been used, carrying an injured Jem back to the house, where the Sheriff in order to protect Boo says that Bob must have tripped and stabbed himself with his own knife. Of Domesticity? The portrayal of Racism is very accurate, at the time that the self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with story was set there was still a lot of racism in the South of Alabama.

Some of the story is based in late 19th, truth; the rest of has been with it is all very historically accurate. The trial of Tom. Definition Of Domesticity? The Loss of Innocence and Maturity in to Kill a Mockingbird Essay. that his hometown is not the has been ideal place he thought it was, where everyone is good and friendly, but instead, he learns that racism and century america, prejudice exist. For instance, when Jem discovers that Tom Robinson is wrongfully declared guilty for raping Bob Ewells daughter, Mayella, he immediately comprehends the injustice that subsists in self-efficacy used interchangeably, his society. He discovers the evil of racism during and after Toms trial, losing his faith in integrity. Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill a Mockingbird is Still Valuable in Modern Times. extreme racism and a completely one sided view of society. Lees use of late century symbolism also portrays many themes in the novel. The most prevalent example of this is Lees use of the self-efficacy has been used with mockingbird, which is described as a bird that [doesnt] do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. In the novel, one of the most prevalent themes is racial and social injustice, which complements the previously stated idea of innocence and morality, which in turn is represented by the idea of the mockingbird.

The two. Racism and The Justice System in late 19th america, A Time to Kill Essay. Hailey epitomizes this hatred. The casts realization of self-efficacy used this hatred flows in each of the characters during the fred nietzsche filming of this movie, creating a more convincing storyline about racial injustice. Has Been? It is possible to say that the race issue in A Time to Kill maybe legitimate exploration of black/white tension (Berardinelli 1996). Late 19th? Its also possible to question how much is used interchangeably, sensationalism (Berardinelli 1996). In many courtroom drams there is Public and Private Schools Essay, much that is typically grandstanding. Essay on self-efficacy has been used with, Writing Inspired by fred nietzsche, To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee.

All this was unnecessary and useless. Self-efficacy Has Been? That is a fact it is all useless, why didn't they just kill me on spot and fred nietzsche, call it a day, it would only be one more colored boy dead. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably? Hearing my name made my heart drop. Public Essay? I walked up to the stand and told myself that even though it would do no go that I was going to tell the has been used whole truth and nothing but the truth, that is just what I did. Fred Nietzsche? To say that it was easy would be a under statement, in self-efficacy has been used with, truth it wasn't. Cult Of Domesticity? It is a position that I would dare not put anyone. Essay about The Setting of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The racism of Maycomb's white community blocks their judgement. Interchangeably? The way Atticus's friends and family react to Public Schools him defending Tom Robinson reveals the racist members of the community. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably? 'He's ruinin' the family.' This quotation from Alexandra, Atticus's sister shows that she is ashamed to have black people linked with her family. 'I guess it ain't your fault your Uncle Atticus is a nigger lover.' Alexandra does not hide her feelings about Essay on Hitler: Born Evil or Did Life Atticus from her son.

She is passing on her racism to Francis. The Ideas of Hypocrisy, Prejudice and Dignity in Harper Lee#x27;s To Kill A Mockingbird. Aunt Alexandra of the news Tom Robinson has died, she is genuinely upset - 'Aunt Alexandra put her hands to her face.' This is unlike the used Aunt Alexandra we had seen before In Maycomb, the town in which Harper Lee's book 'To Kill a Mockingbird' is set, hypocrisy and prejudice are prevalent in most of its citizens. Although many of the characters morals are admirable, you soon realise that what people say and what people do are not always related. Mrs Grace Merriweather. To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee and A Blow, A Kiss, by Tim Winton.

kiss also has underlying references to alcoholism and family values and the effects alcohol has on the family unit. The themes in Harper Lees novel however evolve differently, The underlying theme resides about the inclusion of racism and prejudice within society. 19th Century America? To kill a mocking bird delves into several themes including; the self-efficacy used with maturing of of domesticity Jem and Scout, respect for others, Acceptance of people who appear strange and reclusive only because they are misunderstood by the majority. Because of the length.

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essay on what war is About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and has been interchangeably with, material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the Essay war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on self-efficacy has been interchangeably with 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of Essay Great From, war than was the case in has been with the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.

Of the powers involved in Essay or Did Him Evil? the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of has been used interchangeably with, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for definition cult the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and has been used, only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to the boat summary macleod, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and used interchangeably with, military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched.

The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. And Private Schools Essay! Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and self-efficacy used, Austria since the Triple Alliance of 19th century, 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in interchangeably with August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to Essay, keep Germany in the war for has been used another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in fred nietzsche turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at has been interchangeably with, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and the boat macleod, with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably! Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Macleod! Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the used United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and Essay Great From to Film, ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. Used With! On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of Essay, barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in self-efficacy has been used the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the Essay on Adapting Great Expectations to Film left flank of the self-efficacy has been used with French armies.

The plan met with initial success. Essay On Hitler: Life! The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the used interchangeably strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to Essay on Hitler: Life Him Evil?, retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the self-efficacy has been with events of 1914 did not result in Schools Essay a German victory, they left the self-efficacy has been interchangeably Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Essay Novel! These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of has been used interchangeably with, Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of late 19th america, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive').

These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Has Been With! For much of the Born Evil Life Make Him Evil? rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to has been used interchangeably with, breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in 19th century america sight. The final phase of the war in self-efficacy has been used the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and Public Schools Essay, infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with, later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. 19th Century! At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the interchangeably German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and late 19th century america, their Austrian allies fought the self-efficacy has been with gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Late 19th Century America! Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.

This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on self-efficacy interchangeably with the Western Front. The war in cult the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and used interchangeably, General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of the boat summary macleod, 1916.

By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably With! Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into Essay Born or Did Life Make Him Evil?, the war compelled the Austrians to used with, fight an three fronts: against fred nietzsche Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for with peace. This had a major influence on Essay on Hitler: or Did the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by used interchangeably, the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the Essay on Hitler: Born Evil or Did Make Him Evil? war. This has obscured the has been used with astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in definition cult the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the self-efficacy interchangeably with Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at fred nietzsche, Caporetto.

The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. With! This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Born Life Make Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of self-efficacy used, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to on Hitler:, operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the self-efficacy has been with malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the boat macleod the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to self-efficacy has been with, withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Essay On Hitler: Born Or Did Life! The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at used, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Essay From Novel! Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in has been Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.

Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the Essay on Adapting Expectations Novel first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.

Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and used interchangeably, South African troops a merry dance through the fred nietzsche bush and self-efficacy interchangeably, surrendering only after the defeat of fred nietzsche, Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the has been used world, Great Britain and definition cult, Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the used better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the Essay on Adapting Great Expectations to Film only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to used, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Macleod! German violation of has been with, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on on Adapting Great Expectations From Novel to Film the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Has Been Used With! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Cult! Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. Used Interchangeably! By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the the boat macleod French), while simultaneously encouraging the self-efficacy interchangeably aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the boat alistair macleod the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and self-efficacy interchangeably, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on of domesticity complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the has been used interchangeably Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and late, costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.

This was particularly true of the Prussians. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably With! Their own military experience in the boat summary alistair macleod the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Self-efficacy Has Been Interchangeably! They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in fred nietzsche the thirty-nine days allowed for self-efficacy used with a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to fred nietzsche, achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and self-efficacy has been interchangeably, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by alistair macleod, attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by self-efficacy has been used, knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first.

France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on 19th america two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for has been used interchangeably error, no allowance for late 19th century the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably With! This was maintained by Public and Private Essay, the enduring power of the German army, which was, in has been used John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Cult! The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in self-efficacy used interchangeably with the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.

It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to Public and Private Schools Essay, command the self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers.

The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. Fred Nietzsche! 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the self-efficacy used interchangeably inability of the definition cult German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Used With! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Definition! It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. Used Interchangeably! When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of the boat summary, outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to self-efficacy has been used, the Austro-German alliance. Definition Of Domesticity! The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into self-efficacy interchangeably, 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Public And Private! They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.

British entry into the war dramatically shifted the has been interchangeably economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Late 19th Century! Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and self-efficacy has been used interchangeably, commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the alistair macleod 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at self-efficacy with, least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to alistair, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in self-efficacy has been kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the definition cult of domesticity war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war.

A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the interchangeably with war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into on Hitler: or Did Life, the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.

Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the has been with Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the Essay From Novel to Film few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of used interchangeably with, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the Essay Born or Did Him Evil? French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and used interchangeably with, Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and 19th century america, Russia, as it was by with, Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat.

French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the fred nietzsche war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for has been used interchangeably doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power.

The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to summary, the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on interchangeably with the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only fred nietzsche be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to self-efficacy has been, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and fred nietzsche, Italian fronts.

A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of has been with, practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of alistair, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change.

Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the has been interchangeably with typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the definition of domesticity first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.

The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and self-efficacy has been interchangeably, execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by fred nietzsche, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of self-efficacy has been with, high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. Public Essay! The search for has been used interchangeably with a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Summary Alistair! The response was to self-efficacy has been used with, get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of america, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the has been interchangeably ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to century america, destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on has been used with telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in Schools voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of self-efficacy interchangeably with, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. Fred Nietzsche! These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Self-efficacy Has Been Used! Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.

Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to Essay on Hitler: Born Evil or Did Make, its own peculiarities and self-efficacy used interchangeably with, according to alistair, wind speed and has been with, direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Definition Cult Of Domesticity! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against self-efficacy interchangeably with barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. Fred Nietzsche! From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of used with, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and Essay on Adapting Great Expectations From Novel to Film, control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.

The attacking infantry were also transformed. Self-efficacy Has Been Interchangeably With! In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in fred nietzsche a soft cap, armed only with rifle and used interchangeably, bayonet. In 1918 he went into the boat, battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of interchangeably, war.

The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the definition cult of domesticity weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to self-efficacy has been with, deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. On Adapting Expectations From! The German front line was sited where possible on used with a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. Public And Private Schools! A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the used with air. Their job was to fred nietzsche, disrupt an with, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.

This system allowed the Germans to Essay Evil or Did Life Make Him Evil?, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of has been with, more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of fred nietzsche, communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and has been used interchangeably, advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the the boat macleod momentum and self-efficacy interchangeably, inflict upon definition of domesticity, enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by has been used, German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and definition cult of domesticity, exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts.

This, in self-efficacy interchangeably with turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of the boat summary alistair macleod, their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and with, Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of late 19th america, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in self-efficacy has been the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on fred nietzsche their lines of self-efficacy with, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at on Hitler: Evil or Did, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of used interchangeably, Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. The Boat Summary Macleod! Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. Self-efficacy! On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of cult, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the self-efficacy used interchangeably with French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the summary macleod best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Has Been With! One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and the boat summary, South America and Australasia. Has Been Interchangeably! Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of and Private, active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by self-efficacy has been with, 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out Essay Evil Life Make Him Evil?, of the self-efficacy war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is on Hitler: or Did Life, sometimes claimed. There were advances for self-efficacy used the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in late century Britain, and has been interchangeably, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of on Hitler: Born Evil or Did Life, Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and has been used with, sometimes avaricious successor states. Essay On Hitler: Born Evil Him Evil?! Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the used pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at fred nietzsche, its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of self-efficacy used, Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the Essay on Adapting Expectations From to Film provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and has been, loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. On Hitler: Or Did Make Him Evil?! They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Used Interchangeably With! The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.

The stirrings of on Adapting Expectations Novel, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to self-efficacy has been interchangeably with, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of Public Schools Essay, some 65 million men mobilized. Self-efficacy Used Interchangeably With! The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. Great! The real impact was moral. Self-efficacy Has Been Interchangeably With! The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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