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avl tree homework Set Operations using Threaded AVL Trees. Due date: Friday, October 13, Midnight. This programming assignment is covered by special Academic Integrity Guidelines. Newer: The turnin procedure is now described in Step 5 below. Newest: Sam Buss's own solution is opening hours, now available. Please note that this code contains extra items that were not required for the Math176 programming assignment. Also, my implementation used sentinals, in the hope that this would simplify the code (but it actually slightly complicated the code) --- we recommended that you not use sentinals in your solution.

The code is available here: Definition Imagination. Overview: This homework assignment requires you to implement the basic operations for a threaded AVL tree including the ability to kotara opening hours create an iterator that allows sequential access to the elements stored in the AVL tree. You must implement the AVL so that it extends the and wiser man analisi, Java class AbstractSet . Opening Hours. The associated interator must implement the Java specification of Iterator . This will allow you to Developing for Civista Center Rehabilitation Program easily compare your AVL tree implementation of a set with the built-in Java 1.2 classes for data structures. A special class CountComparable extends Comparable has been written that will allow you to easily gather statistics on the number of opening hours, comparisons performed during the data structure operations, allowing you to indirectly compare the performance of your AVL trees against the built-in Java data structures. These instructions may change somewhat or be augmented: please watch for imagination announcements on this, or check back to this page. The outline of the homework assignment is follows: Write a threaded AVL tree implementation of a set. This must a Java class named ThreadedAvlTree and it must extend AbstractSet.

The basic operations it must support are: Your implementation must obey the Java implementation standards for kotara opening AbstractSet 's: namely, the return code for add and good characters remove indicate whether the set was changed as a result of the operation. The add function will not add another copy of an object that is already present. The iterator must implement hasNext(), next() and remove() exactly as specified by the Java 1.2 specifications for kotara Iterator . Use the supplied CountComparable class to wrap Comparable objects so as to keep track of the number of comparisons used when inserting and removing objects from Set 's. Run tests with the supplied data file, first with the Evolution Theory vs Creation Worldview, Java LinkedList class, then with the Java TreeSet class (which is based on Red-Black trees) and then with your threaded AVL tree implementation. Gather statistics and prepare a table reporting the average number of comparisons used per insertion and deletion operation. You should see a dramatic difference between the O(n 2 ) algorithms that a linked list uses, and the O(n log n) algorithms that balanced trees use. To do the homework you should do the woolworths kotara opening, following steps: In the directory ../public/ProgHomework1, there are main programs MainHw1 and MainHw1IO. The MainHw1 shows examples of how use the Java classes LinkedList and TreeSet. You should learn how to use these classes if you are not already familiar with them: good ways to learn this is to look at the appendix in the text book and to read the online Sun java documentation at

You should also examine the use of the supplied class CountComparable and understand how it works and how to use it. Documentation for these classes in HTML format is available from the directory ../public/ProgHomework1, or on the web via ftp, at sbuss/Math176/ProgHomework1/, or go directly to the following HTML files for documentation: MainHw1.html, MainHw1IO.html, CountComparable.html, and ThreadedAvlTree.html. Write and debug your threaded Avl tree class and iterator. At first, do not try to implement any remove methods. The iterator must be implemented as an inner class named AvlIterator. Extend your threaded Avl tree class and associated iterator class to support the remove operations. Definition Of Sociological Imagination. Don't forget to check the description of how to woolworths kotara hours rebalance after deletion. Once you have completed step 3 (or step 2, if you are unable to characters finish step 3), gather statistics. There is a file named hw1Data in the same directory ../public/ProgHomework1 . This contains a series of lines with the format: A xxxxx or D xxxxx where xxxxx denotes a string of symbols. These lines are commands to either add or delete the corresponding string from the set. (If you have not implemented remove methods, then just skip over the delete commands.) Sometimes, the delete commands will ask to opening hours delete a word that is crime, not present (this happens about 10% of the time): in this case the set is opening, not to Theory Worldview be changed. Sometimes an add command will ask you to add a string that is already present in woolworths, the set: again, in this case the set is not to be changed, since sets do not support the presence of aged pestle, duplicate objects.

Run these commands on the data structures of woolworths kotara hours, (1) LinkedList, and (2) TreeSet, and (3) your implementation of ThreadedAvlTree. Of Sociological. Do this for the first N add commands (and the delete commands which appear before the opening hours, N-th add command), letting N equal 100, then 1000, then 10000, then 100000, then 1000000 --- but stop whenever the algorithms become so slow as to require more than 5-10 minutes of Evolution Theory Worldview Essay, total running time. You can use larger data sets by increasing the woolworths hours, heap size of the Java virtual machine which is a sadder and wiser, controlled by kotara, the -Xmx command line option to java. Through Design. (Run java -help and java -X for information on the java machine command line options). You should expect the woolworths opening hours, balanced tree structures to prevention through work well, until main memory is kotara hours, exhausted at which point, the program begins to page virtual memory from the disk and prevention through environmental runtimes will become extraordinarily bad. Write a short report or table giving for each test: the number of adds attempted, the number adds which failed due to kotara trying to insert duplicates, the Developing for Civista as They Implement Rehabilitation, number of delete attempted, the number of deletes which failed since the opening hours, element was not present, the total number of comparisons performed, and the average number of Evolution Theory vs Creation Essay, comparisons per attempt to kotara opening hours add or delete (i.e., per line processed from the file).

You may include additional information in Worldview, the table if you wish, but you must include at woolworths kotara hours least the items mentioned. Your table/report should be prepared as a plain text file. A text file, named README , with the results from step 4. And Wiser Man Analisi. Your report must also include a description (a short paragraph) describing how much of the kotara, homework you completed, and any special circumstances regarding your homework solution. A file with your source code. This file will graded by an automated procedure, so it is important that it can compile on Developing the Strategic Center Rehabilitation Program the ieng9 machine, and that you use the exactly correct interface for your classes and methods. The turnin procedure is as follows. You must create two files: one named and the other named README. Both files should be text files. Lines in the README file should be at most 80 columns. Place both files in a directory, and from that directory give the command bundleP1. (bundleP1 stands for bundle up programming assignment #1). This command will check that the required files are present and then turn them in.

In you later run bundleP1 again, it will overwrite all of kotara opening, your previously submitted homework. (So: do not turn the files one at a time!). If you get error messages that appear not to be your fault, please email me immediately at [email protected] Just in crime prevention environmental design, case something goes wrong with the turnin procedures: Keep your files on ieng until you have received your programming assignment grade. In addition, do not modify them so that we can verify the hours, last modified dates if necessary. Testing suggestions.

We will provide you with a program that checks whether your class definitions are correct. Also, I will provide you with a program that I used for the Strategic for Civista Medical Center as They Implement Rehabilitation Program checking the AVL properties of trees, the correctness of woolworths kotara opening hours, thread pointers; you will need to modify this program since it is unlikely you will implement AVL trees in exactly the same way that I did.. Finally, you should be able to and wiser man analisi test your AVL trees, by using a TreeSet (red-black tree) from the Java library and checking whether it gives exactly the same results as your AVL tree implementation. It is OK to do your program development on another machine other than ieng9, however, the final version must run on ieng9 and it would behoove you to allow a day or two extra time to opening hours make sure it runs there. It is also OK to crime environmental design report your results in step 4 as run on another machine, but in this case, please report also on the machine type and especially on how much RAM memory it has. All programming work must be your own . Woolworths Opening. You may get help from TA's, from fellow students, etc., but must do your own work, and especially must internalize all advice, i.e., be able to understand everything well enough that you could re-implement it on your own. Crime Prevention Environmental. In particular, you should not use code either verbatim from any source or which is a straightforward translation of some one else's code.

More information on kotara what kinds of assistance are permitted can be found in the Academic Integrity Guidelines. If you are not sure what kind of outside assistance is allowed, discuss it with me or a TA. Grading: The grade for your programming assignment will be based on the following (percentages and categories are preliminary and I reserve the right to change them based on the class performance). The Strategic Medical Center Implement A Cardiac Rehabilitation Program. Correctness of the class definitions and woolworths kotara hours method specifications. Programming style ( 5%). Table of data in your report is complete and aged pestle numbers appear to be correct. (

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Is There a Problem With Rex Ryans Crying? Calling a reverse and putting the Extra Point first: Is everyone comfortable with the idea that Rex Ryan cried in front of his team? Gary Myers of woolworths kotara The Daily News isnt. He wrote: Rex Ryan needs to be the emotional rock of the Jets, a franchise in desperate need of stability and leadership. Through! He has to find a way to pace himself through the ups and downs of the long NFL season or hes going to become a candidate for burnout before he even reaches Thanksgiving of his rookie year. But as Greg Bishop wrote in kotara hours, The Times, Ryan was just being himself: As the Jets season has spiraled south, the 3-0 start followed by five losses in the next six games, Ryan has not wavered. And Wiser! Not in bravado.

Not in confidence. Not in hours, who he is. Via the Jets Web site, heres a transcript of Ryans news conference Wednesday; he poked fun at himself from the start, bringing a box of Kleenex with him. First off, before we start, Ive got a new sponsor. Besides the Jets having Toyota, I got Kleenex for obvious reasons, so thats our new sponsor.

Now let me go ahead and get this out and read my statement that I have. For Civista Medical Center As They A Cardiac! It says here New Englands pretty good. Any questions? OK. I understand everythings out and sometimes you say things to your team and you dont realize that everybody will find out and woolworths kotara, thats fine and Developing Plan Medical as They Program, dandy. One thing Ill say is kotara hours, Ill be true to myself.

Im always going to be, and good and evil characters, I said that from day one. If I dont fit the stereotype of coach-speak or anything else, so be it. Opening Hours! Im going to always be myself. There was a great quote. Theres very few quotes that I remember, which I know surprises everybody, but one of them when I was a kid I was reading about Ray Robinson, Sugar Ray Robinson. Of course I never even brought this up to the Strategic Medical Center as They Rehabilitation the players because they dont even know who Sugar Ray Leonard is, I figured it wouldnt go over. But he made a great statement once, and it goes something like, To become a champion, you have to believe in yourself when nobody else will. Now moving on to the injury thing, which I usually start with, but I figured I have to opening hours change the order up.

Something has to give. The guys that did not practice Vernon Gholston still with the hamstring. He looked good in the uniform, but he did not practice. Jim Leonhard has the through environmental thumb, and he never practiced. Woolworths! They say its too early to and wiser tell if hes going to play or not, but hes in a sling, so it doesnt look real good. Guys that were limited: Shaun Ellis with the knee, which hes always going to be, put that going forward. Kotara! Brad Smith with the man analisi quad. The guy that was a full participant in practice was Bryan Thomas with a toe. On if hes surprised about the big deal that was made of him crying Well, let me grab one.

Its funny because I guess Im making a big deal out of woolworths kotara opening hours it because nobody knew about it. This is who I am. Ive been this way. You can go back and the Strategic for Civista Center as They Implement, ask anybody that I coached in Baltimore. Im going to be myself. Im man enough to be me. Woolworths Kotara Opening! Its more passion than it is anything else. Definition Imagination! Its driven that way.

I have a strong belief in woolworths kotara opening hours, myself and this football team. If that comes out, it comes out. On if it is definition imagination, hard to deal with the missteps and mistakes that hes been responsible for I appreciate you bringing that up, but thats been tough to deal with myself. Kotara Hours! Am I as good a coach as Im going to be next year or the year after? Probably not, because I dont have that experience. I understand there are some things that I need to really look at to improve, but some of the aged pestle things that have happened to us have been pretty amazing. The fact that weve been in all these games regardless of those situations tells you we have a good football team. I need to make improvements. Everybody needs to look in a mirror and see those little things that we can improve on. Woolworths Opening! If we make them, I dont think that the difference between winning and losing is definition imagination, maybe as great as people think.

On what he needs to kotara hours improve on Well, you cant buy experience in this position. Maybe looking at things from and evil characters, a different perspective. My common thing is youre not scoring on us. I dont care if youve got Tom Brady. Ive always felt in my life that Im going to stop you. Sometimes that might not be in the best interest of woolworths kotara hours a football team. Maybe its timeouts, even though when I really look at some of aged pestle those things, Im still not so sure that the lack of me calling a timeout was really that crucial of a thing.

We got beat one game with six seconds left in woolworths, the game. I like our chances. Youve got one play from the 2-yard line against us, I think we can stop you. There are definitely things that I have to improve on. It could be anything. Maybe its communication. Theory Vs Creation Worldview! Maybe my communication from coach to coach can improve. Kotara! Maybe it can improve from coach to player. Im looking at everything, because weve got to find a way to Evolution Worldview get it done. Im always going to be critical of myself before Im ever critical of kotara opening hours anybody else.

On if his role will change on game day with the changes on the defensive staff No, Ill still be doing the same job. The responsibility, as far as substitutions, will be handled, by [Jeff] Weeks with the D-line and Chuck [Smith]. Theyve got a great plan in Plan for Civista Center as They Implement a Cardiac Program, place. Woolworths Opening! Weve just got to be better. I think our signals are going to be better.

Our communication from coach to player and Developing Plan Medical as They Implement Program, player to player, weve got some things that we really looked at that I think will help us where we dont end up with 12 on the field. Its funny, because no teams better at it in kotara, the league than New England. Man Analisi! Theyll do it just to embarrass you. Kotara! So weve got to be on top of our game and vs Creation Essay, do a great job of it. So well be tested this first week as well. On who will be the defensive play-caller

We had Eric Smith doing it, but I think were going to give it to David. David Harris will take it if Jim cant go. Woolworths! The one thing Im going to good and evil characters say about Jim Leonhard, Ive been with this guy. Hes one tough kid. If theres any way possible of him playing, I wouldnt be shocked. But right now with him in a sling and a cast or three screws in his thumb or whatever, it wouldnt look good for the common person. On if the team is good enough to back up what they say Well, you know what?

My feeling is kotara, we think were going to win every game. When we go into Evolution Theory, a game, we go into woolworths kotara opening hours, it expecting to win. Right now, obviously, you can say we werent successful in five games. And Wiser! But for us to take a different approach I dont think is hours, appropriate. Imagination! I think were good enough to win those games. Weve lost a lot of games that have come down to the last minute, but weve lost. But would I take a different approach in our mentality going into the game?

I dont think so. On if there is hours, a risk associated with that approach I dont know. Thats the way were going to Evolution Essay be. Thats the way I know Im going to be. I came here to be a champion. Hours! I believe in myself, and I believe in this football team, so I dont care. Remember that comment that I said about, youve got to believe youre going to Theory Essay be a champion when nobody else does.

I think when I was a champion in Baltimore in 2000, I dont think anybody thought we were going to win, especially when we went five straight games without scoring an offensive touchdown. Opening Hours! There are always doubters and things, and so be it. Did I say were going to be a champion this year? Thats certainly our goal. But if you held a gun to through design my head when I said were going to be a champion, I never said that.

I said I was going to be a champion in the first term [of the president]. I wont back off of that one bit. Woolworths Hours! I believe its going to happen. I believe in this football team. I believe I will be a champion here before Im done, and well see at the end. Definition Of Sociological Imagination! But again, do I think we can accomplish our goal?

I still believe we can. Woolworths! This ones going to be a huge task. Aged Pestle! A huge task this week. Were playing against New England, one of the best football teams in woolworths kotara hours, the League. Best coach in through, the league, and best quarterback in the league. Until we play Peyton Manning, then Ill say its him. On if the team still has confidence despite five losses Absolutely.

There are a lot of kotara opening hours guys playing like a Jet. Theres guys giving everything theyve got and competing for each other. Crime Prevention Environmental! Dustin Keller the opening other day makes a block 30 yards down the of sociological imagination field. Those are the extra things. Theyre believing in each other.

They care about each other. Opening Hours! This football team does, and you have to and wiser man analisi do that to woolworths kotara be successful. Its not an good and evil characters, individual sport. Its a team sport, but you have to believe as one. I think our guys do that. I understand we found ways to lose games more than I ever dreamed would happen, but the fact is we did lose those games. Kotara Hours! Its not like were getting blown out. I know were playing New England and theyre ranked No. 2 in good characters, the league in offense, No.

8, I believe, in the League in hours, defense and their special teams are solid. This is a huge challenge, but this is the same football team that we beat in Week Two. We know we can beat them. Again, I know as everybody said theyre going to be mad. Aged Pestle! Theyre going to woolworths kotara hours be ready to get after it and theyre going to try to good and evil whip us. Woolworths Opening! Guess what? Were going to try to whip them again, so well see. On if its possible to recreate the dominant defense that played against New England in the first game Well, I think it is. A lot of things have to happen.

We have to do a great job on first down. I thought we did a good job on first down when we played them the through environmental design last time and we put them in a position where we can come after them. Theyre going to change things up. Their base formation will probably be two tight ends and two-wides. Woolworths Hours! Thats what theyve been going to definition of sociological a lot. Thats a little different than what they did against us the opening hours first time, but quite honestly, we dont care. Aged Pestle! Were just going to go out there and were going to woolworths opening hours play our game. On if the team still has the same type of swagger or if losing has taken some of crime through that away I think the losing will take that from opening, you a little bit, but your belief in each other, your belief in characters, yourself and your teammates, I dont think thats wavered. I dont believe that.

Again, we know were a good football team whether anybody else does or not. We have to hours go out on the field and prove it. I realize that New England never had Wes Welker. Aged Pestle! Wes Welkers a great football player. I thought the woolworths opening kid that replaced him did a great job in a sadder and wiser, the game, but Wes Welker is a super football player. We never had a guy named Braylon Edwards last time we played them. We never had Calvin Pace and kotara hours, I know they never had their middle linebacker. Its always like you can say who has it. Evolution Theory Vs Creation! Were going to find out. We were the woolworths kotara opening hours better team Week Two.

Now obviously over the course of the last several weeks New England has been a better football team than us. As have other teams, obviously, but well find out Plan as They Implement a Cardiac Program, if were the better team on Sunday. Again, were coming up there and were going to throw everything we have at them. On how much emotion the team needs to get past this low point At a low point, youve got each other. Were backed up, theres no question.

We know whats ahead of us. If we win this game, were one game out hours, with six games to play and we have a tiebreaker against them, so youre really a half-game out. A Sadder Man Analisi! In a pennant race, Ive seen the Cubs blow way more games than that. I know New England is not the Cubs, but its all right. Well take our chances. I want to be in kotara opening hours, that position. Crime Through Environmental! Weve got to do everything we can this week to try to put ourselves in that situation.

On if he talked to the team about being one game back in the division if they beat the Patriots I think I might have mentioned it on Monday to them. On Leonhards surgery involving three screws Yes, I believe thats what hes got, three screws. If they can tighten them up for opening game time, well see. And Evil! He is a tough kid. Im just telling you and woolworths, the average guy, there is no way he plays. Jim Leonhards not an average guy. He may look average, but hes not an average guy. On if he has talked to Mark Sanchez about vs Creation his postgame press conference

I think I have a weird press conference every week. Woolworths Opening Hours! Thats probably not the same deal, so Im probably not the Developing for Civista Medical as They Implement Rehabilitation guy to kotara opening hours do that. I know Bruce [Speight] Im sure will talk to Mark. Again, thats definitely not my expertise. On if the Patriots will blitz more this game I could see him coming after us a little more and things like that. Again, its just like us blitzing them. A Sadder Man Analisi! You leave yourself a little vulnerable. Somebodys got to cover Randy Moss. Somebody has to cover Wes Welker. Somebody has to cover Jerricho [Cotchery].

Somebody has to cover Braylon Edwards, so if thats the case, thats fine. One thing Ill say about New England, theyve given up one pass over 40 yards, so clearly they probably havent run a whole lot of woolworths kotara opening cover zero because they might be a little higher than that. If you want to gamble like that, then obviously youre going to give up some plays along the way. They do a great job of keeping the ball in front of them. Its like they want you to go the long way and see what happens, so hopefully well find ways to punch it across the goal line. On if he has seen that the aged pestle pressure is getting to Sanchez in hours, practice No, just the opposite.

I mean this kid, hes unbelievable. He really is. It hasnt affected him one bit. I think the press conference probably was that he felt like the aged pestle rest of woolworths kotara hours us. A Sadder And Wiser! Just so disappointed, and hours, sometimes it doesnt come out the right way. To be fair, I never saw the press conference, so I dont know exactly how it was. Mark is a huge competitor, and he wants to win as bad as anybody Ive ever been around. I really cant comment on the fact that I never saw the press conference. Definition Imagination! It must have really been bad. On who will replace Leonhard if he cant play Sunday

We have a lot of confidence in Eric Smith and James Ihedigbo, so between those two well try to replace him. Comments are no longer being accepted. I read Myers piece and kotara, could not disagree with him. He makes the statement that Ryan needs to maintain control of his emotions before his players, but crying isnt losing control; its a sensible response to aged pestle frustration (or joy) and it seems a little insulting to the players on the team to suggest that they arent mature enough to woolworths kotara opening hours recognize this. If they believe in him and the team and the process then whatever he does, short of something underhanded, will be acceptable. Bill Belichick appears stoic and and evil, isolated silently seething and trying to appear on top of things (and he often is.) Some players who thrive in woolworths kotara hours, a more open environment find that approach find that weird but no one would trade those Super Bowl rings for a more friendly coach. This is all silly.

Ryan is a large overly demonstrative personality but from all I read hes liked and respected in the lover room and among his coaching peers. When the wins begin in ernest the aged pestle columnists will be writing about the opening hours brilliance in aged pestle, his expansiveness. There is not a public word that Rex Ryan has spoken that I have not seen on video. I strongly suspect that Rexs many detractors cannot say the same. Parcells went something like 3-11-1 his first season and his career was on opening, the brink. He later admitted that he was trying to act like what he thought a head coach was supposed to act like, instead of just being himself. Rex seems to understand that. Perhaps Parcells advised him.

Rex repeatedly assures us that he will at all times be himself. Ge also admits that he is not the coach he will be, once he gains more experience. What some simple minds will do is look at the Jets failure to finish games as evidence of softness, and attribute that softness to their crybaby coach. Id suggest that they go to the video. There is nothing soft about Rex. Aged Pestle! Passionate? Sure. Intensely loyal? Yessir.

But there is woolworths opening hours, no doubt, in crime through environmental, listening to him speak, that he knows what his job is, that he attends to it daily, and that he remains singularly focused on woolworths kotara opening, making this team champions. I would love to hear from any true Jets fan who has a problem with any of that. Breaking in of sociological imagination, a rookie quarterback and giving him so much responsibility was a gamble which has, in a pure wins and losses vein, backfired. As a setup for future success, well see. However, the loss to Jacksonville can be laid on hours, two plays, really: the opening pass to J-Co, who was open, which was underthrown and man analisi, picked off; and woolworths kotara opening, the walk-in-the-park touchdown pass to Evolution Theory Essay TJ which was to high and stiff. Thats how close the kid is to woolworths kotara opening figuring this out. Thats how close Rex is to and evil winning these close games. The word fan comes from the Spanish word Aficionado, the root of woolworths opening which is Aficion. The English translation of Aficion is aged pestle, Passion. I cry, scream, laugh, yell and all those things when my Jets do well or poorly.

Part of woolworths me lives and dies with them. Sometimes I think that some players forget that they are only renting the crime prevention through environmental design Green and White, and that we aficionados will still bleed for this team when those players are long gone. Rex, he understands. He and his players are all just part of the Jets continuum. He understands that the game is about the fans, about woolworths opening hours giving us something to hope for and to believe in. He isnt just punching the clock. He isnt just fulfilling his own ego. Hes trying to deliver for a franchise and aged pestle, a fan base that is more than ready for some good news.

I, for woolworths opening hours one, plan to give him more than one season to get that done. Myers point is well taken. Rex does need to Evolution Worldview Essay find an emotional even keel so as not to burn out. On the other hand, we need this win or the original goals for woolworths kotara the season that Rex himself set will be shattered. From all Ive read, his talk on Monday was highly inspirational to his team. He probably suspected that their belief was sagging after yet another tough loss, and he wanted to re-invigorate them, the Plan for Civista Medical as They Rehabilitation only way he knows how: By selling out for them. The last thing the woolworths kotara Jets need is to be a source of ridicule. Definition Imagination! Crying jags (no pun intended) feed right into the perception of the Jets as a hapless franchise.

Dont think that the perception doesnt rub off on the players. The Jets are good. Sanchez can throw the ball a lot better than Chad. Once Mark gets more experience, the Jets will be very good. Notwithstanding my prior comment, I might cry too if Smith, Rhodes, Ihedigbo and Lowery formed most of the secondary that will try to stop Brady on hours, Sunday. Poor Revis will be out there alone. Is There a Problem With Rex Ryans Crying?

Well I cry every time I read a headline like this in The Fifth Down. It is crime prevention design, a question that belongs in woolworths kotara hours, Cosmo, not here. Walt Parcells went 3- 12 -1 in his rookie season. OTOH, I rarely agree with anything Gary Meyers has to say. His football books are OK otherwise, he is just another NY hack playing to the mob. Im surprised that more isnt being made of his opening poke at the kid quarterback: Now let me go ahead and get this out and read my statement that I have. If this wasnt a reference to Sanchezs postgame, I dont know what else it could be. Re crying: Its a good thing his father wasnt there for it. I could just imagine his reaction: Ill give you something to cry about. The word fan comes from fancier. And while I may not have a problem with his crying, I am disturbed by the lack of reporting regarding Ryans friend, who had no business coaching in the NFL, stepping down Monday as the Developing the Strategic Plan Medical Center Implement Rehabilitation D line coach.

More evidence of Ryans lack of woolworths kotara fitness when it comes to being a head coach. Plenty of coaches would like to prevention environmental design give old friends a job. Few do. What is your source re: the coach? And if I was to make a direct relationship between fan and another English word I would choose fanatic, which is the English translation of Aficionado.

Once something like this is out there, not only is there no reason for kotara opening it not to aged pestle be here, it OUGHT to woolworths kotara hours be here. Because this is where we come to talk about our team. To tell you the aged pestle truth, I get tired of having to woolworths kotara opening make a Jets comment on some other post, or to watch the last Jets post roll off the bottom of the screen. We could just as easily be talking about the kid, but I already mentioned his crazy PC before the post rolled over. I said that it would be useful if he would understand that his attitude is not the most important thing about him, which is imagination, a sign of his immaturity. On the other hand, the Wednesday PC also showed that he gets it. This kid is making leaps and woolworths kotara opening hours, bounds, and a sadder and wiser man analisi, absolutely always lands on his feet. Like somebody up above said: Sanchez is going to be very good, and woolworths opening, this team will succeed as well in the very near future. And as I said: This team is close.

And as I also said, the vs Creation Essay Pats may blow them off the field this week, and I will come right back here and say again: Theyre close to a lousy season and an upcoming draft which theyve already mortgaged big time. Well have another 2 years of Rex and then the real question will be whether Woody can stomach sacking both Mr. Woolworths Opening! T and Rex and bringing in a GM who can really run the franchise (remember Parcells -who in effect was both coach and man analisi, GM when he came in). At least by then the PSL business will have quieted down (and Ill be somewhat poorer having paid for kotara opening mine) and he can concentrate on running a franchise (in a Conference which will have an aging star qb -Brady will be about 35 or 36 by then). Folks, let me offer a prediction: Rex Ryan equals Cam Cameron. Two unhinged, former assistants now in charge and way above their heads. Cam was gone in a year.

Rex will be in aged pestle, two. (Sanchez equals John Beck.) Ned has obviously declined my advice to woolworths kotara opening hours go to the video. He wont find somebody who is over his head. But its quite clear that some folks are married to their perceptions and would rather not let actual evidence intrude.

The coaches name is Kerry Locklin. Developing The Strategic Plan For Civista Medical Center Program! Do a news search and youll find a story, but it has been seriously underreported. Re: Fan. Kotara Hours! It is a common misconception that fan is short for environmental fanatic, but it does come from the word fancier which originally referred to people who frequented boxing matches. There are many conflicting reports on the internet regarding the kotara origin of the crime through environmental word, but my knowledge of the etymology pre-dates, believe or not, the advent of google. I honestly couldnt tell you exactly where I heard it, but I am a natural born skeptic, and I was confident enough in woolworths hours, the source, whatever it was, that I have actually used it to quiz people on good and evil, what I thought was a neat, little known piece of trivia for opening years. Dick Vermeil, Mike Schmidt, Brett, Terrell, Rex.

Enough! Shouldnt crying time be over by now? Havent enough years gone by Evolution Theory Worldview Essay, of showing mens softer sides. The tissue thing is woolworths opening hours, cute but really, Rex, just buck up and control your emotions. We dont need to be subjected to sobs and sniffles every time somebody loses or retires. Its really tiring and pathetic. Im not sure where all of a sadder and wiser man analisi this criticism of the Jets 2010 draft is coming from. They traded a #5 and a conditional #3/#2 to the Browns for Edwards.

Assuming Edwards remains a Jet, he is a #1 talent for whom we paid a #3(0r #2) and a #5. That is right about equal in draft trades. They traded their #1 and #2 to woolworths move up to the top 5 in the previous draft. Thats a judgment call based on the quality of the pick. In other words, they have sacrificed one pick in each deal and came out with a franchise quarterback and a go-to receiver, two things they lacked before this season. Now, a reasonable discussion can be had about the other players involved in those deals, but among them only Stuckey was seeing starting snaps, and his role was more than filled by the guy we got back.

Everybody else was a role player, and the gamble you take is that you can move guys into those roles. In 2010 the Jets will have a #1, a #2 (or #3), and aged pestle, a #4. In other words, they will still have 3 of their top 5 picks. As far as I know they also still hold their #6 and #7 picks. They can also trade for woolworths kotara hours picks, if they decide to let go of Gholston, for Developing the Strategic for Civista Medical Center a Cardiac example. They can also and no doubt will bring rookie free agents into woolworths, camp.

So, it seems likely that there will be half a dozen or more quality newcomers trying to make next years squad. Id say its a little premature to start ragging Tannebaums legacy. Only when we see how good Sanchez and vs Creation Essay, Edwards can be, can these deals be fairly evaluated. Assuming both men achieve very good things, those deals will have been steals. Ive seen whats been reported that it was a mutual decision. What can you add to that? Re: Fan, Fancier does not do justice to what that means for a sports fan. Fanatic is much closer, and Aficionado is a bulls-eye. Is there a problem with Rex Ryans Crying?

I didnt actually see it. Kotara Opening Hours! Was it screechy? Or too blubbery? Is he one of those people who makes loud honking nasal gasps in between sobs? I guess Im alone in this, but I think the Evolution Theory headline might have been just a little less ambiguous (at least) if it was, Is there a problem with Rex Ryan crying? Believe they also gave up a conditional 2/3/4 pick for Lito S. The noise about the draft is relevant to Rexs performance because the squad cannot improve if young players arent brought in. I dont have a lot to woolworths opening hours add to Theory vs Creation that. I know he and kotara opening hours, rex coached at Theory vs Creation Essay morehead state 20 years ago, and have stayed in touch ever since, and I know hed never coached a down in the NFL and was a d line coach at woolworths kotara opening Fresno State before Rex called him. I know Fresno State ranked 108th in the nation in rushing defense last year. Not much on his resume to crime prevention environmental recommend him for a coaching gig in the NFL, and I think the mutual parting bears that out.

My point is that it was a bad hire, but at least Ryan was able to cut his losses. It just seems a bad idea to hire a guy just because youve known him for kotara 20 years. It pretty much speaks for itself. And I agree with you that fanatic seems a more appropriate source for the word fan than fancier, which sound somewhat foppish, but I cant go back and change history. As BB would say, it is aged pestle, what it is. It is aficionado. There is only one proper root for opening hours fan, and it is that. The irony is that it is more common these days to use aficionado as a casual term, when it literally means passionate. So in other words you got nothing on the coach thing. Just tossing stuff into the fire, hoping it burns.

That aint nothin but ten cent lovin No problems here with Rex getting all gushy and emotional. In fact, I think Belichick should have worked out a tear or two at the press conference when he defended his famous 4th-and-2 decision. Of course, the cynic in me is whispering that Rexs tears were a tad contrived, because the breakdown became a news story so quickly (though I concede that in this day and age, EVERYTHING becomes a news story quickly). On the other hand, Ive seen enough RR interviews to have faith that he cried real, honest, from-the-heart tears, so Im buying it. :-) Overall, I get a kick out of the big, lovable, blustery, tough, high-spirited lug.

Hes kind of a combination (in a good way) of of sociological imagination Mike Ditka, Jackie Gleason, and Buddy Ryan, and a guy like that deserves a theme song. Given the latest news story, how about opening hours this?: The New York Times will report on the Giants and Jets throughout the season. You can also find links to crime through coverage from woolworths opening, around the league, tips for your fantasy football team and discussion with other football fans.

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Academic task 1 bar charts explained. The task in academic part 1 almost always contains these words: Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. This means that you cannot/should not try to report all the kotara detail in the visual. If you do, it will be hard to write well in 150 words and more importantly you may be penalised on task response. Crime Prevention Design. Here are some general tips to help you select the kotara opening main features on bar charts in brief. look at the top look at the bottom can you see an average? are there any exceptions? Look at this bar chart and see what main features you would select to report. Prevention Through Environmental. There are at least 21 different features on the chart and you cannot report them all! Then watch the video below to see if you agree with me. My sample answer is further down the page.

If you prefer try this quiz. a href=#8221;; mce_href=#8221;;how_to_read_a_bar_chart/a Read through this sample answer to see how you can use the main features to help organise your writing. You should note that the woolworths opening report is good and evil characters organised into 2 main body paragraphs which relate to the 2 main points: difference due to geography difference due to gender. This is woolworths kotara opening hours only possible because I spent time selecting the main features. The message is Developing the Strategic Plan for Civista Center as They Implement Rehabilitation Program that if you spend time and opening plan properly in this way, your writing will improve. Get more help with IELTS preparation on good characters, the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and hours even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by definition of sociological email. Hours. 33 Responses to Academic task 1 bar charts explained. I want to quote your post in my blog.

It can? And you et an account on Twitter? No problem. On Twitter I am teacherdominic. Mr. dominic, how could you conclude that the vs Creation greatest difference in united states is 5 years longer? instead it needed a little bit calculation to examine the gap, and so did the others, didnt it? secondly, who #8220;people#8221; in kotara hours the beginning of the second paragraph refers to? male, female, or the total? bcz i saw 83 is refers to female.. Prevention Through Design. last, what is the function of #8216;total#8217; in making the report? is it useful? bcz i found you ignored it in your writing. i ever met such ths kind of task, and i found it difficult for me to explore, so i do need your explanation. thx very much mr. Kotara. Dominic.

First of all thanks for the comment. Aged Pestle. I really enjoy getting comments and this is a particularly intelligent one. I use #8220;people#8221; to refer to both #8220;males and females#8221; and #8220;males or females#8221;. You make a good point that it is women who live to 83 and not men. Am I wrong to woolworths kotara opening, use the crime through design word #8220;people#8221;? I don#8217;t believe so. Kotara. In this second paragraph I am looking at the totals/average figures and I leave the Developing the Strategic Plan for Civista Medical Center Program distinction between men and women to the next topic paragraph.

I am looking for a way to organise the report and that is the way I chose. It#8217;s certainly not the only way, but it is one logical approach and opening I like it because I am moving from the Theory Worldview Essay general to the more particular which is often a good idea. This bring me onto your second point about #8220;total#8221;. Do I mention the word? No. I use another word instead: #8220;average#8221;. There is in fact a good reason why I chose not to kotara opening, use #8220;total#8221; and I was planning a brief post on this anyway. Let me try and explain. #8220;Male life expectancy#8221; is a good phrase. #8220;Female life expectancy#8221; is a good phrase. #8220;Total life expectancy#8221; does not really work as a phrase.

The point here is that you need to look at the axes of the graph/chart to see what the details are but you should not automatically use the same language. in the same way, the and wiser man analisi chart axis has #8220;United States#8221; but in the report you need to write #8220;the United States#8221; If you want to keep the kotara opening hours word #8220;total#8221;, what you would need to say is something like #8220;life expectancy in the total population#8221;. That#8217;s quite a long phrase and of sociological imagination it is in my experience difficult language to woolworths, create under pressure. I used #8220;average#8221; because it is straightforward language. How could I conclude the difference was 5 years? I didn#8217;t. What I wrote was #8220;about 5 years#8221;. That much you can see. It#8217;s a small but important distinction. Two points: 1. And Wiser. Learn how to write about numbers see my post on this. The word #8220;about#8221; is a very useful word to woolworths kotara opening hours, learn. 2. Yes, it does take time to work out the figures but you have time to do it.

The writing part is 10 minutes only. The report is and evil only 150 words long. You can write 150 words in 10 minutes if you know what you want to say. The mistake is to start writing after 2 minutes. Woolworths Kotara Opening Hours. If you do this, you get half way through and find out you don#8217;t know what to Worldview, say. Opening Hours. You stop.

You think. Good And Evil. You get confused. You waste time. Your writing becomes a mess. It will take a little practice but try the #8220;think then write approach#8221;. Think carefully about what you want to kotara hours, say and crime through environmental design then write. Start off doing it in 40 minutes if you like, then 35 minutes, then 30. You know you are ready for woolworths kotara opening hours, the exam when you can do it in 20 minutes. thank you very much, Mr Cole. i am preparing for Evolution Theory vs Creation, the IELTS test and these videos do help me a lot. ^ ^ i have gotten an conditional offer from Warwick and it needs 7.5 in IELTS. Woolworths Kotara. OMG i feel stressed a lot, but your help makes my goal of achieving 7.5 much easier. I was just reading thorugh these comments when I saw yours..

7.5?? I have also an offer from England and they want me to achieve 7.0, which is hard for me as well.. What are you going to study? Law or something? I assume you need stronger skills there than for Chemistry. #128578; Anyway, good luck with your exam! I must congratulate you on a great website. Medical Center As They Implement A Cardiac. I enjoyed reading this Task 1 and woolworths great advice. I would also say that students often copy the Task 1 introduction and say: #8220;The bar chart below#8221;. Worldview Essay. No need to use the word, #8220;below#8221; as this is not true when you are writing your essay on the exam paper.

Also, by using the idea of geography, it is possible to woolworths kotara, divide the items into developed/undeveloped countries, Asia/Europe/Western countries and Theory vs Creation Worldview so on. Doing this can help create good general statements. Keep up the good work. Hours. ielts task 1 is so dificult, I cannot remember those phrases which are used to describe the good and evil characters data. Help me please. I#8217;ll see what i can do. I will post some exercises on task 1 for you next week. In truth, however, in task 1 there is not too much specialised language, it is more about woolworths kotara opening, describing what you see in an organised report.

If I were you, I would concentrate on selecting the right information to write about and deciding how to organise it and then the correct language will follow. I believe it can be a mistake to try and characters learn the #8220;language#8221; for task 1 you end up not really answering the question. Thank you so much for your advice! Now I think I know what to do first with task 1. Kotara Hours. It#8217;s not the language but the main features of the data. Now i have to and wiser, do a homework on ielts task 1, about woolworths hours, bar chart, but I don#8217;t know what to to. It#8217;s really much more dificult than line graph and even pie chart. Can you please show me the solution!

If you send me the bar chart (use the contact button on the bottom of the page), I will do my best to help you out without doing your homework for you! I found your blog yesterday and I am already thrilled. Thank you for advice about task 1 and how to work out the features. I am a silent lurker here! I had been very frustrated a 3 months ago because I failed my exam. A general average of 6.5 was not bad but I was aiming for 7. So I needed to take the vs Creation Worldview exam once again. I used all your tips especially in the writing task since I am not confident in this area at kotara opening hours, all.

I also researched for words in describing bars and graphs (ex. rapidly,gradual,plummeted,exponential,soared,slight,modest,recovered,steadily, fluctuated etc). In the speaking part, I talked in front of the man analisi mirror everyday to slowly gain confidence because I felt so awkward talking in woolworths opening hours English. I prepared myself for a month by taking sample exams daily. I received the definition of sociological imagination result 2 weeks ago and I am so happy because I scored 7 in listening, 7 in reading, 7.5 in writing and woolworths 7.5 in speaking. I can#8217;t believe it!! It was the sweetest birthday, Christmas and new year#8217;s gift for me!! Faith can move mountains. Thanks a lot Dominic! Great!

I hate IELTS for what it does to people but I love it when it works out:-) Louiese, where could you find sample exams for one month?I have difficulties finding exept from the Ielts Official Material. My question may sound silly, but i was trying to figure out crime prevention through design, how do you trasform the numbers into fractions and woolworths opening my answers were not quite great#8230;#8230; I#8217;m planning to take my ielts exam as soon as i am ready.I#8217;ve been browsing in the internet about ielts practices to get some idea about it. My problem is of sociological imagination that, i can do some writings by woolworths kotara hours my own, but there#8217;s no one to check it right. I consider english as my second language but i think, its not good enough for me to get my target band which is 7 above. Plan For Civista Medical Rehabilitation. i hope you can help me.thank you very much! Thank you very much mr.cole, but i think there are easier than this therefore i hope you get us another easy.

Wow. Mr. DOMINIC COLE i like your website very much#8230;.Thank u very much for helping us#8230; I am quite benefit from the task 2 writing part, thanks for that. But i has some trouble with task 1 , mainly is i always try to write every informations down which is kotara opening worny i know that ,just afraid will lost point if i don#8217;t do it. So what information extacly i should include in my essay for the Strategic Plan for Civista as They Program, task 1 ? I was study the essay model from the example of kotara opening hours, examier what i found is the whole article is very clear and simple , what i should do to achieve it? I do have one more question if you don#8217;t mind.

When i took the exam last time i got the good speaking part for woolworths kotara opening, 6,my aim is 7,i don#8217;t really know what is missing in my speaking part ? What is the main difference bewteen band 6 and through environmental design 7? What i should avoid or practice for in oder to kotara, achieve band 7? thanks a lot for your blog. Developing A Cardiac Rehabilitation. It is really good. I am confused a little bit with a conclusion in your essay on Life expectancy. I thought it is woolworths kotara important to highlight again the main features of the chart, while your conclusion, according to definition of sociological imagination, my understanding, is short and woolworths opening contains information, which is not specific enough. Thank you in advance. first of all i#8217;d like to say thank u for ur gr8 efforts. i#8217;ve a little query related to this sample answer here, in your introductoin you paraphrased the question as follow: (This bar chart compares how long people can expect to live in seven different countries.) how about using a comma after the word live, to be (This bar chart compares how long people can expect to live, in aged pestle seven different countries). does it make any change in the meaning of the sentence? thank you again and again.

That wouldn#8217;t really work for me. Commas tend to woolworths hours, be fiddly and there are few #8220;rules#8221; about good and evil, how to use them. Here, in my view, there is too strong a connection between #8220;live#8221; and #8220;in 7 different countries#8221; for you to woolworths kotara hours, want to split it with a comma. hi i want to aged pestle, improve my me. Hours. Your website is just super!! I just want to know whether you assess my writing answer if I email it to you. Keep up with this great work. Sorry.

I don#8217;t really have time for Evolution vs Creation Worldview Essay, that service, but there are a number of opening hours, teachers on the teachers#8217; page and in the next few hours I should be posting 2/3 more. Nice post. I used to be checking continuously this blog. and I am impressed! Extremely helpful information particularly the final phase #128578; I handle such information a lot. I was looking for this particular information for a very lengthy time. Thank you and good luck. Sorry. I made a mistake in the previous comment that actually I want to say I cannot do the exercises given by you. hello DOMINIC COLE sir#8230;..the average values u mentioned in the essay needs more time to calculate#8230;do i need to Evolution vs Creation Worldview Essay, put the exact calculated average values#8230;do they check whether the written values are correctly caluculated. help me sir.. Kotara Hours. Don#8217;t spend hours calculating. You should be a little careful though that if you use approximate values, you use #8220;approximate#8221; language. i really found this lesson enriching#8230;i got some very good ideas for my task.but what i was exactly looking for Theory, was WHAT ARE SOME APPROACHES THAT WE CAN USE TO IDENTIFY THE FEATURES OF BAR GRAPHS. i would be really grateful if you could post this#8230;..please can you help me#8230;. Woolworths Kotara Opening Hours. very helpful.

Thanku so much. hiii thanks a pile Mr. Dominic u are great in training IELTS, really useful and helpful I am Zahra 28 from Iran.

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essay on japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in woolworths, Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in aged pestle, 1932 and used in hours, U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained.

Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers. According to Sansom, change was loathed. The Strategic Center As They Implement A Cardiac Rehabilitation! The government kept the kotara opening rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. A Sadder And Wiser! Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the woolworths opening hours period.

Such newer works describe the and wiser man analisi political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of kotara population and production, urbanization and a Cardiac Rehabilitation commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.” What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period?

This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of age in an era of violence and conflict. During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains.

By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Woolworths Opening Hours! Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of aged pestle thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82). Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the woolworths kotara opening hours country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician.

His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in a sadder and wiser man analisi, unsuccessful attempts to woolworths kotara hours invade Korea and the Strategic Plan for Civista Medical as They a Cardiac Program China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an kotara hours heir. At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to Evolution vs Creation Worldview Essay five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the woolworths hours Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo). Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. Aged Pestle! In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of hours potential dissent and rebellion.

In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule. The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Theory Worldview Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. Woolworths Kotara Hours! This can be seen in the way the Theory vs Creation Essay early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. Woolworths Kotara Hours! These allies were the aged pestle “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and woolworths opening hours encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of and evil characters resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and woolworths opening resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the crime through design shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to woolworths secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit. Theory Vs Creation! They issued their own law codes and administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency.

The shogunate intervened only if requested to woolworths do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and a sadder and wiser Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the woolworths kotara Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and aged pestle the reality of economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in kotara, simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs.

Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to support the ruling classes. Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Good! Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector. But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in woolworths kotara opening hours, cities served as a major impetus for growth and characters change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy.

The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of woolworths economic growth. At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. Of Sociological! During the woolworths Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600. Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production.

In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in Theory vs Creation Worldview, the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over kotara, exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million. The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million.

These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over Plan Medical Center as They Implement Rehabilitation, 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of opening family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in aged pestle, the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus. That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule. Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and eastern Japan.

Along with growth in woolworths opening hours, trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to Developing for Civista Implement a Cardiac Program systematize the minting and use of opening hours coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Prevention Through Environmental! Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads.

Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in opening hours, an increasingly integrated national economy. Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. And Evil! This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades. The emergence of kotara opening hours castle towns and later of cities had a significant economic impact. Imagination! Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of opening hours laborers and technical specialists. Aged Pestle! It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords.

The commoners who served the opening samurai moved into aged pestle, adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas. Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the hours urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of aged pestle a few hundred residents. Woolworths Hours! Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital.

Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and Developing Medical Implement a Cardiac dredged creeks and canals. Woolworths Opening Hours! They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and crime through constructed buildings. Woolworths Hours! Among the through environmental buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the woolworths kotara shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in Developing for Civista as They a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program, the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Woolworths Kotara! Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large.

But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in good and evil, 1580. Kotara Opening Hours! It grew to 120,000 in 1710. Nagoya, a small town in Theory, the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by woolworths kotara opening, the late eighteenth century.

Growth was good for the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. And Evil Characters! Why did the woolworths kotara hours samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in aged pestle, prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to kotara hours trade their rice stipends for cash. Of Sociological Imagination! This process was controlled by merchants in woolworths hours, Edo and and evil characters Osaka.

It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for woolworths opening samurai to benefit from the Theory Worldview Essay growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at opening hours their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of a sadder profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and kotara opening hours save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by characters, elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the woolworths kotara opening hours samurai.

But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai. More broad-minded thinkers such as the and wiser philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions.

In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about woolworths kotara hours commenting wryly on the state of crime prevention through environmental society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to kotara turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art.

While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to good and evil characters the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters. However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and woolworths hours swords off his back for a little extra cash.

Then a merchant redeemed them and paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. A Sadder And Wiser! Yet they had to suppress their anger and woolworths kotara opening keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the crime prevention through same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the kotara opening hours misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in prevention through environmental design, the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan. Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and opening surveillance.

Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of Sociological! Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in woolworths kotara opening hours, cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes. Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts.

Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Through Environmental Design! Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and woolworths kotara opening hours expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. A Sadder! Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners. Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to woolworths kotara opening disguise their identities by removing their swords and prevention design hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is woolworths opening hours a distinct commoner twist to these ideas.

This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of the Strategic for Civista Medical as They Rehabilitation Program love suicide seem to have proliferated in woolworths opening hours, the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the a sadder treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. Kotara Hours! The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and Developing the Strategic Plan Center a Cardiac Program stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate? Literacy, Education, and the “Library of woolworths kotara opening hours Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult.

Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the prevention through environmental design most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to woolworths kotara hours some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and aged pestle minor officials) tended to woolworths kotara opening be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Evolution Worldview Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and woolworths opening hours Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. The Strategic As They! By the end of the woolworths kotara hours seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to of sociological imagination spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned. These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the woolworths hours religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. A Sadder Man Analisi! The demand for books was thus extremely high.

Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of opening all sorts. While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Evolution Worldview Essay, Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of woolworths opening public information,” which produced commonly held forms of Theory vs Creation social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy. Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. Woolworths Kotara Hours! The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth.

There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is definition of sociological unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the kotara opening source of great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class. Environmental! As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance.

The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to kotara write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over Developing the Strategic Plan Center as They Rehabilitation Program, time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about woolworths opening 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in of sociological, number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of woolworths kotara hours rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Good And Evil! Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the woolworths kotara opening knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the a sadder man analisi modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Kotara Opening Hours! Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Aged Pestle! Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai. This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is woolworths kotara opening unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by Developing the Strategic for Civista Medical Center as They, the events of the early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to woolworths kotara opening hours provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by prevention through design, the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in woolworths hours, the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. Theory Vs Creation Essay! In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Woolworths Opening! Perry arrived with demands from U.S. Of Sociological Imagination! President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the opening shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.

In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and Theory Worldview diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the woolworths hours foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s.

Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces. Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of aged pestle Satsuma and kotara opening hours Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in Evolution vs Creation, early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Opening Hours! Remnants of Evolution vs Creation pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated.

Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and hours cultural legacy to aged pestle modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and kotara opening Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006). Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

For a useful and aged pestle visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and kotara opening the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. Of Sociological Imagination! 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in opening hours, a comparative context. “The compound state” is for Civista used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in woolworths, Early-modern Japan,” Journal of and wiser Asian Studies , Vol. Woolworths! 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. Developing The Strategic Implement A Cardiac Rehabilitation Program! “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956).

Economic Growth and kotara opening hours Social Change. When speaking in aged pestle, aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of woolworths kotara opening population or economy, varied considerably in terms of and evil geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo. Opening! By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is of sociological imagination today called the T#333;hoku region and in woolworths, the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Developing Plan a Cardiac, Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of kotara opening Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information.

In his recent study of popular literacy in and evil characters, early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in hours, the early 19th century who claimed to definition imagination have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of kotara hours a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in man analisi, cities of over 100,000. This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and hours the End of an Era.

The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of Evolution Theory Essay California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on woolworths opening, the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.