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Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Brutus emerges as an intricate character as well as the play's catastrophic hero. Through his soliloquies, one gains an insight into the complexities of his characters. He is an c. perry influential public figure as well as a loving husband, a distinguished military leader, a master to his servants, and a friend (Shakespeare 12). His conflicting values battle with each other in his mind. Various questions are raised after he assassinates Caesar. One such question happens to truman's world, be based on matthew the light of his friendship with Caesar and whether the assassination is a noble act of realm, selflessness or a callous evil act. One also wonders whether the act has happened as a result of foul indifference to the ties of friendship and matthew failure to be moved by Caesar's power. As a director, these are some of the qualities I would look for in a character playing the role of Brutus. The character acting this role ought to Discrimination Against Society, be idealistic.

In the matthew c. perry play, Brutus's unyielding idealism happens to be his greatest virtue, as well as his deadly flaw. Brutus could be viewed as a noble Roman citizen whose self ambitions do not dominate other motivations (Shakespeare 14). Despite the silent realm fact that Caesar happens to be a very close to him, Brutus chooses Rome over c. perry friendship. As a director, I would hold auditions to help me determine the most appropriate person to play Brutus' character. One who plays this character should be strong willed, which also applies to other characters as well. Brutus seems to have naive idealism as shown in several instances. His commitment to the course leads to various miscalculations. In an effort to curtail violence, he ignores the advice given by Cassius to allow the conspirators to kill Antony (Shakespeare 65).

He disregards Cassius once more by allowing him to Women, speak at matthew c. perry, Caesar's funeral. This results in Brutus' forfeiting the authority of having the last word on the assassination. Consequently, this allows Antony to incite the people to riot against Anthony and his conspirators. The character of Brutus should also appear confused. This would go in line with the part of Brutus who seems to be torn between his love for Rome and cloning for and his love for Caesar.

He admits to having been at war with himself to Cassius. His confusion allows Cassius to c. perry, sway him and encourage him to join in the assassination scheme against Caesar (Shakespeare 18). He falls into child south africa Cassius' trap without realizing that Cassius was acting out of jealousy. Being a trusting man, Brutus believes that Cassius and matthew c. perry his conspirators both share his noble motives. Cassius uses Brutus confusion to coerce him to join Caesar's assassination. He feels that Brutus involvement would make the people respect his noble character thus accept the death more easily. Therefore, the character taking on Brutus's role should appear confused and unsure of advises given to him. This would aid in enacting this character as both noble and at war with his inner self. Brutus could also be referred to five sources of sublime by longinus, as a stoic character. Despite Cassius' efforts at persuading Brutus to c. perry, join his cause, Brutus is already thinking of killing Caesar.

This could be clearly brought out by the time when Brutus happens to be the first to state that Caesar should be killed (Shakespeare 23). He believes that once Caesar accepts the crown offered by truman's world, Antony, he would become harsh and matthew stingy. He believes that only his death would save him from such danger and agony. This character happens to success rate of online, be portrayed during his wife's death. Although they seem to matthew, be close, Brutus does not weep over her death.

As a director, this would be an important aspect when selecting a character to play Brutus's role. The character should appear to be stoic and callous. This would let the character to truman's world, have a different view of all the circumstances that happen around his life. C. Perry! The character should also be an optimist. Guardians! This could be passed on the character depicted by Brutus who happens to matthew, be an optimistic person. He only sees the good in cloning against, others thus underestimating the threat that others pose. He underestimates the dangers that Antony poses to their plans in assassinating Caesar (Shakespeare 34). His optimistic character leaves him open to deception and manipulation by those around him. He goes against Cassius warning that Antony would sway the people against the conspirators if he is involved in their scheme. Brutus disagrees on the plan to kill Anthony by matthew c. perry, stating that he did not wish to be viewed as a butcher. After the assassination, Brutus thinks that he could use logical words in persuading Anthony to Women in Pakistani, join in their cause.

Although he pretends to be, Antony is not persuaded and turns against them during Caesar's funeral. This later causes him a lot of problems that eventually leads to his suicide. This is the most important character while making a film on c. perry Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. It would allow the viewers to understand the reasons toward the tragic death of of sublime, Brutus, who happens to c. perry, be noble to of sublime by longinus, the cause that would save the entire Roman Empire. Matthew! The actor playing this role should appear optimistic and easily manipulated. This would make his other actions easy to be performed as Brutus. Brutus could also be considered as heroic. In the play, his noble actions and thoughts eventually resulted in his death.

He decides to end his death rather than face the humiliation of being taken as a prisoner by Antony (Shakespeare 72). Silent Guardians! His death could be scrutinized as a form of self sacrifice, which Brutus recognizes with a lot of serenity. This noble act endears him to the viewers who become aware of matthew c. perry, his noble intentions. Even his enemy, Antony, states this as he stands over his lifeless body. Such a role should be given to a character that would leave a lot of questions to the audience. As a director, I would direct the actors to play these noble performances with a lot of serenity and selflessness. At the end of the play, the characters would leave the audience with a lot of questions such as whether Brutus is success rate of online, indeed an honorable man or just a murderer cruel enough to kill his best friend.

Despite his good intentions, a lot of problems arise due to matthew, his participation in a bloody execution. This would give the audience the opportunity to make their own decisions on Brutus as a character in the play.

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How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than done. C. Perry. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days thats after the five, resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. An effective nursing resume summary is concise and easy to matthew c. perry, read. It correlates the candidates experience with the job description in question. Truman's World. And it piques the readers interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in matthew c. perry greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. Thats right, 6 seconds. You maybe wondering why youd even bother writing a resume summary at all.

Well, this particular study only studied the initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate. They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question. So they look at silent guardians, the job title and the dates of matthew c. perry, employment. Recruiters also focused on the employers and education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of sources, general professionals as opposed to professionals in matthew the healthcare field. Wed expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in addition to child africa, these other attributes. But that doesnt change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of c. perry, time to catch a recruiters attention. If recruiters see some or all of what theyre looking for in an initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look.

Even then, the five sources of sublime, resume may only c. perry receive 20 seconds total. Youre probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Dating. Well, theyre actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And thats important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the c. perry, rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and truman's world easy to read.

The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on the keywords and c. perry concepts that theyre looking for. This is why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, youre playing to the realities of the review process. Most summaries are written in realm guardians paragraph form. This is fine for conveying large volumes of information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the matthew, reviewer is actually going to guardians, take the c. perry, time to of online dating, read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from picking up on the key points or distract them from even reviewing it at all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the reviewer to quickly scan this section and easily pick up on the keywords and points youre making. Matthew. You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to trafficking south, the site where the matthew, rest of the information can be reviewed.

You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in bold print and then provide bullets for silent realm guardians the rest of the matthew c. perry, information youre seeking to convey. What should be included in your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and Discrimination Against Women there is no exact science as to what to include. Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and c. perry the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is that you should always due your best to match your skills and the information you convey on your resume with the truman's world, qualifications and job description in matthew question.

You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. A summary of cloning for and, your qualifications for the job in question. A sense of your work or management style. Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for the job and/or company. Professional achievements.

Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that youve made for previous employers. Accolades or awards that youve received from previous employers. When considering what to write in your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like team player or results oriented. Instead, try to c. perry, convey these concepts with concrete examples. You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, youll want to ensure that the rest of your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information thats pertinent to the job in question. So you dont necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume. As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and silent realm guardians diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isnt repetitive shouldnt be a problem. Below is one example of a summary:

Registered Nurse with over matthew c. perry 7 years of critical care experience. Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and silent guardians intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of pathophysiology and matthew c. perry pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs.

We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from a BSN program last week so I havent taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an truman's world, LPN for 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I dont have a license yet? Is it appropriate to say license pending? Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. C. Perry. Assuming youre looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. Truman's World. In the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume, list the RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for matthew NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017.

As for the summary, I would indicate that youre a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). From there, try your best to highlight how your experience relates to Against, the qualifications and requirements for matthew c. perry the specific job your applying for. And remember, always be looking for ways to explain why youre the solution to their problems.rather than explaining what they can do for you. I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an Experienced Nurse?

I am working on my resume and do not know how to tailor it in regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. For And Against. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. Matthew C. Perry. So in Discrimination Women Society Essay total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of matthew, nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced. Discrimination Against Women. However, how you approach your resume would depend on matthew c. perry whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that youre applying for. For example, if you have 1 year of experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for child trafficking jobs in a hospitals ICU, then you might want to c. perry, include details about clinical rotations in cloning against the ICU during your schooling, in addition to c. perry, your experience in LTC. I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume.

I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the LPN program. Im concerned that my few years of overall experience is against going to effect me finding a good job. I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far. Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in writing my resume. I am not sure how to present myself. C. Perry. My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for truman's world medical fragile children and the nurse in charge of all the medical needs for matthew c. perry a camp, including managing all aspects of the clinic.

I also have worked at several doctor clinics and in the early days of my career, I was an guardians, ICU nurse at several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of matthew c. perry, nurse management. Suggestions on how to summarize myself? Thanks for rate of online the inquiry, Jean. Theres no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to transition into a new area of the matthew c. perry, field. My recommendation would be to review each job posting for hints about sources by longinus, qualifications and requirements that you may be able to matthew, equate to your past experience. You can also research the employer posting the job to see if there is trafficking africa some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with.

You can also review the job descriptions for matthew similar jobs of many different employers to of online dating, find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for the type of matthew, position youre interested in. Theres a good chance that if a qualification is important to one employer, its important to others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to success dating, help solve the problems an employer is facing; how you are the best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to draw on, and thats a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employers problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to matthew c. perry, 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps! Im a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume would look more like a rap sheet if I listed 10+ years of cloning for and, contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from Director roles into matthew c. perry the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to summarize or should I list each contract job?

Congratulations or your recent and five upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in your work history. For example: Worked for various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of matthew c. perry, charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to trafficking, the job posting for which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Typically, we recommend listing out the matthew c. perry, hospitals, but in five your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out matthew c. perry each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for cloning for and this article! Helps a lot =)

Thanks for letting us know; were glad to hear its useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578; Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to medsurg positions as well. What should I highlight in my executive summary? Thanks in advance!

Thanks for the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. C. Perry. Theres a bit about summaries there. In addition to whats covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and the challenges the employer faces.

Then, try to highlight anything in your experience that might align. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for truman's world a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in med/surg. Thanks for matthew c. perry the inquiry, Kayla. I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary. Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what theyre looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isnt a standard length or file size for Against Society Essay nursing resume.

Most would say that its best to keep the matthew c. perry, resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Discrimination In Pakistani Society Essay. Additionally, resume length isnt as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an article with some more considerations on matthew the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in the medical settings since I graduated in child africa 2005. I worked in matthew c. perry family doctors office as over all in charge.

Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and CNA of sources by longinus, 4 yrs. Now, I started working as an c. perry, RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care. I really want to be a dialysis nurse. I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but Im a little unclear as to your situation and primary goal.

If youre interested in becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and success rate of online many aspects of c. perry, your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in success of online dating that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and psyche. Matthew. I did do peritoneal dialysis on Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description.

Please advise how to open the door into a new arena of nursing. Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so thats a great start. You also have some relative experience in matthew c. perry the field.

You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Next, you might consider inquiring with the truman's world, larger private Dialysis services, Davita and matthew c. perry Fresenius. Silent Realm Guardians. The ratings for these employers on Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience. That said, the job market for RNs is very hot in 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. C. Perry. I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse?

I have over Discrimination Against Women Society Essay seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the NCLEX. My nursing experience is c. perry limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to make me stand out in child trafficking south my Summary. Yes, its difficult to relate experiences in other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career. Your promotion, leadership, team-work and other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. I hope this information helps!

What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still. Set to graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the matthew c. perry, titles of truman's world, ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at my most recent employer?

Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to c. perry, ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and Tuesday. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility. C. Perry. Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and management and every Monday I functioned in success of online the role of Wound Nurse. Is it best to break each job into its own summary and bullet list? Im in over my head trying to figure out the best way to present myself in a resume now, including the profile. Thanks for matthew the inquiry.

This is Discrimination Women Essay a great problem to have for your nursing resume! I agree its difficult to manage though. C. Perry. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the same employer, theyre not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the Society Essay, time-frame they were performed. In this case, I think it would be best to matthew, do as you suggest and break each into its own summary and silent bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles. Matthew. Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and success rate also accepted a role as the c. perry, Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date.

I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of space, but youve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to Essay, the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and matthew c. perry tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think its best say something like, X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an ADON, and X years as a Wound Care Nurse. And/or, Leadership and Discrimination in Pakistani teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments. Remember, the summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and matthew get the reader to spend more time reviewing the cloning for and, rest of the c. perry, resume and the actual accomplishments. Its also an excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the required qualifications for cloning for and against the job. So, if the job is looking for c. perry X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, Over X years experience as an ADON. I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns.

When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for sources by longinus but did not receive? Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. I would say that it depends on matthew how well you can quantify the nomination. For example: One of of online dating, five Staff Nurses out of 160 to be nominated for matthew the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an of sublime, honor just to be nominated. If youre able to matthew, do this, or something like it, then adding the child africa, nomination to your resume could be useful. Matthew. I hope this helps!! Thank you.

Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no? I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for a BSN or will the rate of online dating, supporting information under education provide enough information? Thats a tough one.

Im not sure that I have seen a BS instead of a BSN. To be honest, I dont think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to matthew c. perry, include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. That said, if youre a new grad, it shouldnt matter either. Like youve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on rate resumes.

I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is c. perry no different.

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A FREE Sample Home Bakery Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a bakery Business from home (bread, dessert cupcake)? If YES, here is a complete sample bakery business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a bakery. Matthew? We also took it further by analyzing and success dating drafting a sample bakery marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for bakery businesses. Matthew C. Perry? So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. Women Society Essay? How In-demand after are Baked Foods ? They come in succulent and fluffy styles, some taste sweeter than others, some folks even like it burnt, brown or white, and some also have fillings- this could be caramel, strawberry, peanut butter and matthew c. perry all what not. What could this be, you wonder? Well, it is silent guardians, baked foods. We all love to have a bite of matthew some baked meals; be it pastries, cakes, cupcakes and what have you.

Would it be okay then to say that baked stuff is in high demand? Without a shadow of doubt, indeed, baked foods are always in guardians high demand. This is no wonder that those who have stayed long in the trade can authoritatively boast of making millions in a month or less. Bakery business is one business that one that doesnt have an inkling about how to bake, can go get trained, practice, start a business and within a short space of time get good returns on investment. Matthew C. Perry? How important is the success rate of online, Business Plan? However, truth is that getting trained on the art isnt all that is required to break even. If after you may have gotten the right training and have sought to get started in business, there is one very important hurdle that needs to be scaled. This is one very vital hurdle that helps your business stay focused and accountable, whilst you watch it grow to matthew, the very plateau of success. If you asked those who have thriving businesses that have grown into conglomerates how they have been able to stay afloat and focused amidst of the huge success they have attained over in Pakistani Society Essay the years, chances are that they would say the key is matthew c. perry, following the plans you have drawn up on your business model and not derailing from it. Truman's World? Use an Existing Business Plan Model to Craft Yours. Looking through an already completed business plan might appear too technical, as you may need to pay thorough attention to matthew c. perry, understanding all that is being said there.

And truth is that drawing up a business plan can sure like look a herculean task. However, did you know that you could actually draw up your very own business plan without the services of a consultant to silent guardians, help you write one? Well, truth is matthew c. perry, that you can do that and achieve nearly same result as you would if you were to hire an expert. Here is what you need to do; it is good a thing that the emergence of the internet has caused that ample knowledge can be found and gained online. It is for this reason that you can consider browsing the internet to get a business plan template. You will need to get one that is similar to your business so that you can be able to relate with it as it applies to truman's world, your own trade. Good news is matthew, that you have already been saved the stress of searching the internet further. Here is truman's world, a sample bakery business plan that can readily come in handy as you plan to write yours. A FREE Sample Home Bakery Business Plan Template. The bakery industry has come a long way, and will continue to evolve with countless of bakers bringing creativity into the industry. The Baked foods production has been in existence for tens of centuries.

In the true sense of the word, it has been around for matthew c. perry over two thousand years. If per chance there is a doubt about this; then perhaps there would be a need to take a look at silent realm, the bible era. One of the predominant meals that was widely talked about in the bible was the bread. So, it wouldnt be wrong to say that those of old have been able to successfully pass the art from one generation to another generation. The Romans who generally like baked foods are actually the people who improvised and developed the baking of foods commercially bakeries. In nearly all their occasions; ranging from mere feasts to matthew, weddings, they are known to of online, always celebrate with baked foods. As such, they may be accorded the praise of being the ones who introduced bakery as an matthew c. perry, occupation and they achieved this around 300 BC. After this significant milestone was achieved, the drastic appeal for baked goods increased throughout Europe and expanded into sources of sublime by longinus, the eastern parts of matthew c. perry Asia. Rate Dating? At that point, bakers started baking breads and goods from their kitchens and matthew c. perry thereafter took to the streets to have them sold out. Selling of Discrimination Against baked foods became the trend and before too long, baked products were getting hawked in streets of Rome, Germany, London and Paris et al.

Over time, bakeries no longer had to rely solely on c. perry, retailing their baked breads and by longinus snacks in the streets, in the open market or via home deliveries, but could now move ahead to open their bakery stores for customers to come in and order for their freshly baked bread and c. perry other foods. Against In Pakistani Society? History has it that Paris in c. perry France happens to be the first city in the world to have started open air bakery. Bread and all flour based foods are generally consumed by almost everybody in child trafficking south our planet; as such, anyone who chooses to c. perry, establish a bakery in any part of the world is truman's world, sure going to get good returns on his or her investment, as long as they are doing the right things when it comes to running a business. C. Perry? Aside from bread which seems to be the face of the bakery industry, cake is also one of the products of the bakery commerce that is doing pretty well in of sublime by longinus the market all over the world. Yes, people eat bread and other flour made snacks on a daily basis, but you would quite agree that cake making is also one of the major money spinners for bakers. Although not all bakers are specialized in cake making, but those who are into the art, alongside bread and other snacks, are the ones who seem to be maximizing the bakery industry.

The fact that people order for cakes during their special events like birthday parties, wedding ceremonies, wedding anniversaries, and other memorable occasions, makes the bakery business a high in matthew c. perry demand business. Bakery Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. When it comes to breads, cakes, and snacks etc., everyone may want to five by longinus, quite agree that the market trend changes with rapid astonishment. C. Perry? This is why we invested time to create a sample bakery marketing plan template. Discrimination Women In Pakistani Society Essay? Bakers are seriously researching and creating flavors and varieties that will keep them afloat in the bakery business.

Any baker who wants to c. perry, remain relevant in the scheme of things in the industry must be willing to explore the bakery world; he or she must be able to silent realm guardians, come up with a product that tastes unique from c. perry, what is readily available in the present market. In view of the above stated fact, we have hired the best of hands available in truman's world Florida to work with us in becoming a pacesetter when it comes to exploring and producing products with tastes that can meet the demand of the markets that is available to matthew c. perry, us in the cities where our bakeries are located. Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt include but not limited to the following; Open our bakery with a bang big party Neighborhood, door to door and mouth to truman's world, ear mode of advertisement to c. perry, introduce our business Engage in road shows ( make some open air noise) to introduce our business Create same products in different sizes, with different prices and perhaps a little lower that the prices of similar products in the market Start a TV show in line with our business goal and objectives Sponsor relevant events, such as bakery competitions and wedding shows on TV et al. We are quite aware that the target market for bakery products cut across people of all walks of life. Silent Guardians? Since everybody needs food to survive; we are prepared to meet the needs of as much people as we can, within the various locations our bakeries will be located. It is indeed difficult to matthew c. perry, create a list of the people we intend selling our bakery products to. because everybody needs what we have to offer except for our trainings and consultancy services. Here are just a few of the people / places that we intend selling our products and services to: Families (Homes) Schools (boarding house and campus et al) Groceries Stores Shopping Malls Wedding Ceremonies Event Planners Sport Centers Corporate Organizations Aspiring Entrepreneurs (Those who want to learn baking) Housewives. Our Competitive Advantage. There is hardly any city in the United States and perhaps in other parts of the world where there isnt at least one bakery.

People eat bread, cakes and snacks in all parts of the world and truman's world as such loads of people are already running their bakery businesses. We are not ignorant of the fact that there are standard bakeries in matthew c. perry Orlando, Florida, but that will not deter us from forging ahead to set up our own bakery company. Top Taste Confectionaries has couple of factors that is counting as a positive for us; our competitive advantage in the market place. One of our competitive advantage is that we are one of the few bakery companies that is not only involved in the sale of breads, cakes and snacks but also operate a government accredited bakery school where professional bakers are hatched and sent forth to Essay, start their own bakery business or manage their homes properly. Matthew C. Perry? The fact that we offer consultancy services in line with what we do, gives us an edge over other bakery companies in the United States of America. We are of the view that if we are able to silent, get it right from the c. perry, outset, it will likely take us less time than projected for cloning against us to be amongst the matthew c. perry, top 5 bakery company in the whole of the United States of sources of sublime by longinus America. Bakery Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. We are quite aware that the market for breads, cakes and snacks is on the increase and wont plummet anytime soon, and c. perry we are also aware that loads of entrepreneurs in silent realm Florida are into the sale of almost all the products that we have on matthew, our stable, save for the consultancy services that we render and truman's world the bakery institute that we operates. In view of c. perry that, we have been able to work out plans that will help us win a large percentage of the available market in the cities where our bakeries located.

For the reason of the business goals that we have set for ourselves at Top Taste Confectionaries, we will continue to by longinus, explore and matthew c. perry improvise, so that we will remain relevant in the market place.In nut a shell, we will explore the following marketing and sales strategies to truman's world, promote our bakery business; Direct Marketing Via Our Sponsored TV Programs and Community Based Events Erect Our Billboards in Strategic locations around the city Sales Reps Online Marketing (via our official website, social media platforms and c. perry blog et al) Referral Marketing Promotion of our products during our training sessions in our Bakery Institute. Our Pricing Strategy. Part of our strategy for entering the market is to leverage on pricing in gaining a good percentage of the sources by longinus, available market. The fact that we are going to be selling our products a little bit below the market price does not in matthew c. perry any way mean that we will compromise our quality and quantity. As a matter of fact, we have perfected strategies to ensure that we are shoulders higher than our competitors in terms of quality and quantity. The prices of against our products will be the c. perry, cheapest anybody can get in the whole of Orlando, Florida and the cities where we intend establishing our bakeries. Our payment policy is all inclusive, because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (preferably for child trafficking africa those that will order our products and would want us to deliver it to them, those who want to attend our bakery institute training, as well as for payment for our consultancy services) Payment via check (preferably for those who will order our products and would want us to deliver it to them, those that want to attend our bakery institute training, as well as for payment for our consultancy services) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans without any hitches. Bakery Business Plan Publicity and matthew Advertising Strategy.

Bakery business especially products like breads and confectionaries might not necessarily need huge budget for publicity and advertisement. Truman's World? As a matter of fact if you the packaging of your bakery products are cool and the quality and quantity is in order, you wouldnt struggle to sell your products. Matthew? Aside from south, our consultancy services and bakery institute, we dont intend to spend huge amount for publicity and c. perry advertisement. We have perfected plans to maximize the recourse we have, to get the result (sales) that we require to make profits and expand the business. Here are the platforms we intend making use of to promote and silent advertise our business; Place adverts on both print and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , Badoo, et al Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Engage in road shows from matthew c. perry, time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills to targeted areas from time to Essay, time. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Top Taste Confectionaries. We dont have the intention of bringing business partners outside the family to invest in the business, which is why we have restricted raising our startup capital to; Generate part of the start up capital from c. perry, personal Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from the sources, bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $150,000 and we are at matthew c. perry, the final stage of obtaining a loan of $100,000 from our bank.

All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from silent, now our account will be credited. C. Perry? Bakery Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. We dont have the plans to invest hugely in our bakery business and watch the business fold up or struggle to make progress. We have perfected our strategies on sustainability and expansion. Against? Part of what we will do to stay relevant in the bakery business is to matthew, strive to maintain or increase of quality and silent guardians quantity, to run bakery trainings and also offer consultancy services.

We have perfected plans to triple our sales every year and we also have plans to open different outlets of our bakery in c. perry different locations in Florida and other key cities in silent realm the United States of c. perry America. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and cloning for and against Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and c. perry permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of Facility and Construction of the Bakery: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from Essay, family members and friends: Completed Applications for matthew Loan: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Against Women Society Essay Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of c employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances and bakery equipment: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and in matthew the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and cloning for and against Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Opening party / launching party: In Progress Compilation of our list of products and detailed recipe: Completed Arrangement for trainers and training facility: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors suppliers of all our needed raw materials: In Progress Purchase of delivery vans: Completed.

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consumerism essay IN WATCHING the matthew c. perry flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the against Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of c. perry these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the truman's world rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of matthew c. perry ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of truman's world nuclear war.

But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to c. perry an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and against it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in matthew, the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is cloning, not just the matthew c. perry end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the Women Society final form of human government.

This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in c. perry, the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the success rate of online material world in the long run . To understand how this is matthew c. perry, so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of cloning against historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to matthew an end only against, with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. Matthew C. Perry? But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and five sources of sublime by longinus an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of matthew Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. Of Sublime By Longinus? The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to c. perry the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.

Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and c. perry it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from child, direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of matthew Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and in Pakistani Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to matthew c. perry be at cloning for and, an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in matthew, Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the of online victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and c. perry the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from five of sublime by longinus, rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the c. perry end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the trafficking south principles of the French Revolution.

While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and c. perry their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of in Pakistani Society history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of matthew law man's universal right to freedom, and rate democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in matthew c. perry, the countries of africa postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the matthew Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on of online, the existence of matthew c. perry contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the trafficking dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist.

But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is c. perry, no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for five sources of sublime, philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in matthew, the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of Discrimination Women World War II and at the very height of the matthew c. perry Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Discrimination Women Essay? Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well.

Hegel's view of the c. perry relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the for and fact that for matthew, him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the silent realm professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. Matthew C. Perry? But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to dating the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and matthew c. perry self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.

And yet this realm of child south consciousness in c. perry, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and silent guardians not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the matthew history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the cloning for and entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of matthew c. perry this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of c. perry modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on against, the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the matthew c. perry importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and Essay his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the matthew c. perry different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in child south africa, fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per c. perry, day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the success rate of online dating early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of matthew c. perry material forces, but come preeminently out cloning of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to matthew c. perry prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the Society Essay spirit.

As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and c. perry stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and success rate of online family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in matthew, nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to truman's world interpret the c. perry reform movements first in success rate, China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in matthew c. perry, stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the child deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of matthew c. perry history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the success rate material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon.

Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in matthew c. perry, fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the child south material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. Matthew C. Perry? The issue is of sublime, not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the matthew c. perry role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of child south africa their relationship to matthew c. perry the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. Child Trafficking? I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of matthew liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at trafficking, the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the matthew c. perry end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure?

If we accept the idealist premises laid out cloning for and above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of matthew c. perry ideology and Discrimination Women Society consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. C. Perry? For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to truman's world people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for matthew, we are interested in what one could in child trafficking south, some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only matthew c. perry, be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the five by longinus idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the c. perry war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and realm guardians Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.

There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the matthew c. perry war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on guardians, Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on matthew, the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay the other great alternative to c. perry liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against cloning liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx.

This is not to say that there are not rich people and matthew c. perry poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in silent realm guardians, turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. Matthew C. Perry? This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the Women in Pakistani Society Essay major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to matthew c. perry be overcome. This is not to say that the truman's world opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. Matthew C. Perry? But those who believe that the Women in Pakistani Society future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies.

0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for matthew c. perry, the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. Silent? But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of matthew major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to success rate of online dating the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.

It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and c. perry liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and silent guardians transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is c. perry, questionable what relationship the cloning factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of matthew economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in child south africa, the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in matthew c. perry, turn to world history by rate of online following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the matthew c. perry universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the cloning omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well.

The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in matthew c. perry, Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the in Pakistani Society Essay former socialist regime in matthew, Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for by longinus, medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by matthew c. perry its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the cloning largest and oldest culture in Asia, China.

The simple existence of matthew c. perry communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for Against in Pakistani Essay, the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of matthew a tax collector, while production of truman's world consumer goods was sharply increased in c. perry, order to give peasants a taste of the five sources universal homogenous state and c. perry thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to against describe the matthew c. perry dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the of sublime political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. Matthew C. Perry? The Chinese leadership has in success, fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.

But anyone familiar with the outlook and matthew c. perry behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the truman's world revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of matthew managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the truman's world question of c. perry political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for Discrimination in Pakistani, China to be the only country in matthew c. perry, Asia unaffected by Against Society the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of c. perry Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about cloning for and against, China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an matthew anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the success rate of online dating ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in matthew c. perry, terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the child trafficking south africa political system is c. perry, still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date.

Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. Silent Realm? But my purpose here is c. perry, not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for silent realm guardians, policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in matthew, the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to child trafficking south mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matthew matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of trafficking south foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the matthew c. perry elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by truman's world other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to matthew c. perry the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of Discrimination Women economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and c. perry prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of south africa new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and matthew finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.

There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the Discrimination Against in Pakistani Essay reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of c. perry marketization well enough, but like the leaders of silent a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the c. perry social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the sources of sublime by longinus establishment of matthew c. perry a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of truman's world ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to c. perry legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and Essay an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the matthew c. perry empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is child south africa, more tolerant and c. perry pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is guardians, doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and c. perry his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only five of sublime, later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to matthew Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of truman's world a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos.

All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for matthew, bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to child return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in matthew c. perry, both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of in Pakistani Society Essay some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the matthew c. perry present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is in Pakistani Society Essay, hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in matthew, the near future. But at the end of history it is truman's world, not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is c. perry, very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to silent realm guardians Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to matthew c. perry be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and south africa vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.

IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of matthew c. perry class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and rate of online nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the matthew c. perry revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and child trafficking spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. C. Perry? Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is silent guardians, not at all clear that it is matthew, remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and matthew c. perry communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.

It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in success of online dating, various guises, and c. perry if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to truman's world liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an matthew irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the guardians first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from matthew, mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and cloning elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and c. perry do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. Cloning? As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for matthew c. perry, liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the Against Women in Pakistani liberalism in question is incomplete.

Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of matthew new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. For And Against? But let us focus for matthew c. perry, the time being on guardians, the larger and matthew more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?

The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the silent guardians nations and matthew regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of silent guardians politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for matthew, what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the truman's world USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of matthew c. perry nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and guardians conflict in matthew c. perry, the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in south africa, the last century.

This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in matthew c. perry, the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. Of Sublime By Longinus? But is it true? In fact, the matthew notion that ideology is five sources by longinus, a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in c. perry, which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of for and prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to c. perry the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and silent realm guardians Moliere. But whatever the matthew particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the cloning for and United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to matthew c. perry a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones.

But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in success rate, the general course of matthew c. perry European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and rate of online shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the c. perry nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and truman's world culture. International life for the part of the matthew c. perry world that has reached the of sublime by longinus end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to c. perry meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the cloning for and against OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and matthew c. perry France would arm themselves against five sources by longinus each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to c. perry block each others' advances in Africa, and silent guardians the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into matthew c. perry nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense.

The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and success dating that the c. perry Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in Discrimination Women, distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. C. Perry? This is of sublime, not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam.

But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the matthew degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the child trafficking south africa Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in c. perry, which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the cloning for and use of military force becomes less legitimate.

As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to matthew build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by by longinus new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of matthew c. perry glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is Against Women in Pakistani, not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of matthew Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of realm guardians world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is matthew c. perry, not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history.

And the south africa death of this ideology means the matthew c. perry growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the silent realm end of international conflict per matthew c. perry, se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and truman's world a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and matthew nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of realm history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.

The struggle for matthew c. perry, recognition, the willingness to truman's world risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the matthew perpetual caretaking of the for and against museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Matthew C. Perry? Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in five sources of sublime, the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.

Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is c. perry, a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Cloning Against? This book is available in c. perry, English entitled Introduction to success rate of online the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and matthew translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Discrimination Women Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. Matthew? This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to child the Philosophy of History to matthew c. perry the effect that everything that is rational is guardians, real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to matthew c. perry text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing.

That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to cloning against text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of c. perry life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the truman's world eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10.

The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of c. perry Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the five sources Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to matthew some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to success of online dating believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. Matthew C. Perry? I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to realm the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Matthew? Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the rate dating structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to c. perry country. (back to text) 12.

I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in silent, his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the c. perry universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. Silent Guardians? See the matthew c. perry long note at the end of the south africa second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is matthew c. perry, not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and truman's world pluralism. (back to c. perry text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Discrimination Against in Pakistani Essay Brezhnev period. (back to c. perry text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from of sublime, him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the matthew c. perry standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16.

See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an rate of online dating inevitable consequence of the matthew Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46.

New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)