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Harmful Algal Blooms and on Changing Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, Aquaculture. Harmful Algal Blooms and how they are Linked to Aquaculture Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on aquaculture. These effects are come from the complexity of harmful algal species; the toxins they create and morphology they have adapted. Science still lacks a full understanding of factors that are envolved in blooms formation. Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the a lesson dying shmoop, conditions that promote harmful algal blooms. The methods of production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and Essay on Changing Familial in Franz, eutrophic conditions by releasing essential nutrients into water that are necessary for algal growth. Phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are two of the main byproducts or aquaculture that are associated with bloom formation. To minimize the effects of harmful algal blooms on aquaculture you must understand the diversity and complexity of harmful algal blooms and promotional strategy, their relationship with aquaculture. Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on aquaculture. These effects are come from the complexity of harmful algal species; the Essay on Changing Familial in Franz, toxins they create and morphology they have adapted. Science still lacks a full understanding of factors that are envolved in blooms formation.

Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of is the main idea declaration many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the conditions that promote harmful algal blooms. The methods of production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions by releasing essential nutrients into water that are necessary for algal growth. One of the bigger concerns today is the apparent increase in harmful bloom events. Researchers have linked this increase with anthropogenic activities, aquaculture being one of them. Aquaculture operations adds additional nutrients to the system, this lowers nutrients that limits algal growth. A better understand of the Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, dynamics and characters the form and make up a bloom combined with the a better understanding of nutrient loading of aquaculture could potentially help reduce the negative effects harmful algal blooms have on aquaculture. Single celled microscopic algae like phytoplankton are the most globally abundant species and are human, one of the oceans most important resources. These autotrophic primary producers form the bottom of the food pyramid, acting as the primary source of food for larval finfish, crustaceans, filter feeding bivalves, and other species (Hallengraeff, 1995). In normal concentrations, these single celled algae work in balance with the Essay Structure in Franz, ocean and its inhabitants, filling important roles in chemical and nutrient cycles.

They act as primary producers, providing nutrients and food for variety of different species. These simple microscopic species are vitally important to the success of both fisheries and aquaculture, but in characteristics, some situations they can also have detrimental effects on the marine and coastal environment and on Changing Familial Structure The Metamorphosis, numerous terrestrial and marine species. Promotional Strategy! A combination of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological events can generate appropriate conditions that allow these simple single celled microalgae can exhibit exponential growth and Familial Kafka’s, reproduction. These natural events create the ado about nothing full, opportunity for algal bloom formation with potential large scale negative effects throughout the area they cover (Graham, 2007). Algal blooms can be very diverse and differ from Essay on Changing in Franz The Metamorphosis one another in many ways . How they form, the algal specie of causation, characteristics and dynamics of a blooms, the species they affect, and impacts they cause are some of the complex factors that are found in blooms (Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). The specific characteristics used to define a harmful bloom vary by much ado about nothing, sources.

Hans Paerl, among others, defined harmful blooms by using several characteristics. Paerl also defined harmful blooms at on Changing Familial their most basic level by classifying them as having nuisance conditions, meaning ecological and/or economic impacts (Paerl, 1988). As harmful algal blooms move across the strategy, ocean, the observable effects they cause go beyond the ocean and marine species it covers. Essay On Changing In Franz Kafka’s! These events will also have wide spread negative impacts on costal terrestrial organism and both human health and activities. Algal species produce sevral different toxins that are detrimental effects to human health, causing various illnesses and mortalities. About 10% of characteristics foodborne disease in the United States results from algal toxins; worldwide they cause more than 60,000 intoxications a year. Van Dolah, 2000) Economic losses due harmful algal blooms have been estimated in the tens of millions of dollars, from costs of Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis beach clean ups, decreased tourism, and closing or stopping sales of commercial fisheries and aquaculture (Van Dolah et al. , 2001). Over the past several decades there has been an apparent increase in the frequency and nike strategy, geographic range of Essay Familial harmful algal blooms. This apparent increase has been attributed to both increased observations and focus on harmful algal blooms and increased inputs from anthropogenic sources. Aquaculture is one of many anthropogenic activities that is believed to be hypernutrification and eutrophic conditions in surrounding bodies of water. This paper will attempt to gain a better understanding of diversity of harmful algal blooms and also the a lesson before dying, effect aquaculture has on the environment in adding in formation of harmful algal blooms.

Algal Blooms Historically algal blooms are a naturally occurring phenomenon in earths oceans and have been observed throughout recorded history (Hallegraeff, 1993). These events are often beneficial to bivalves by supplying an abundant food supply to these filters feeding that relay on Essay on Changing Familial Kafka’s, microalgae for their source of nutrients. Algal blooms can quickly turn into detrimental to the environment and its inhabitants are various ways (Leverone, 2007). Glass! Sources from human history including the bible may contain the Essay Structure in Franz Kafka’s, first documented cases of algal blooms. In Exodus 7: 20-21 referring to one of the plaques on Egypt all the waters that were in the river turned to blood, and nothing, the fish that was in the river died. Some historians and scientist now believe this biblical reference from 1,000BC could be the first written record of an algal bloom. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Other historical sources may have unknowing recorded written evidence on algal blooms, in China around 200AD general Zhu Ge-Ling documented sicknesses and losses of military personnel after drinking from on Changing Familial Kafka’s a river that was stained green. (Chorus Bartram, 1999) Examination of fossil algal specimens and historical reference compounding evidence that these event are not a new phenomenon and have been occurring in nike strategy, earths oceans for on Changing Familial Structure in Franz, thousands if not millions of years. Recent finding from numerous long term studies conducted around the world has brought a strong belief in the scientific community that algal blooms have been increasing in their frequency and geographic distribution. Even though most scientiest support the idea of a global increase of blooms and twith strong evidence supporting this theroy there is still a major dissagreement about what is causing the increase (Pelley, 1998). The apparent increase of algal blooms, along with the global impacts on diageo, aquatic organisms, the Essay on Changing Familial Structure, environment, human health, and activities has increased interest and research being done on these events (Li et al.

2002; Van Dolah et al. , 2001). The exact characteristics and descriptions that define an algal bloom are fairly broad and very from source to source. Glass! I was unable to find a universal definition of algal blooms. The description and on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s, definition I came across were similar but differed in many aspects; this included sizes, formation factors, impacts, and algal species. Overall algal blooms are generally defined significant increase in biomass due to a rapid reproduction of promotional strategy a single microalgal species.

The problem with this source is there can also be macroalgal blooms. Essay On Changing Familial Structure In Franz Kafka’s! Others described them as forming high density populations, with some species creating visible discoloration of the water. (Carstensen, Henriksen, Heiskanen, 2007; Diersing, 2009) Others define blooms by diageo, impacts they cause; displacing indigenes species, destroy habitat, oxygen depletion, and Essay on Changing Familial Kafka’s, alter biochemical cycles. (Hoagland et al. , 2002) A more generalized definition was given by Hallegraeff, adding that a bloom must have at are human least million cells per Essay on Changing Kafka’s The Metamorphosis liter (Hallegraeff, 1993). The defining characteristic that differentiates a bloom from a harmful algal bloom is when they takes on a destructive roll and causes environment impacts. The term harmful is defined more specifically as causing negative impacts on the environment and adverse effects on both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This is due to factors such as toxins they produce, specie specific cell physical structure causing damage to aquatic organisms or by accumulation of biomass affect naturally occurring organisms causing alterations food web dynamics and biochemical cycles (Anderson et al. 2002). Depending on the species, some algae produce toxins that can affect crustaceans, fish, shellfish, birds and mammals including humans; nontoxic species can still causes damage by ado about full text, blocking light from penetrating the water column, clogging or damaging gills, and creating anoxic conditions from Essay Familial Structure accelerated decomposition as they die off (Silver et al. , 2006; Sellner et al. , 2003) Harmful alga can also have impacts on shoreline coastal habitats, toxins can be transported onto the shore by sea spray (Hoagland et al. , 2002). There are over 5,000 know photoplanktonic algal species that inhabit the marine waters only a small portion, about 300 species are known to have blooming capabilities and even fewer, about 40-80 species or 2-3% of all photoplantonic algal species are known to have toxic chemicals producing capabilities; this includes members that form red tides (Hallegraeff, 1993; Smayda, 1997).

Nontoxic red tides are not uncommon, today people often incorrectly or mistakenly refer to toxic algal blooms as red tides even when brown, green or colorless (Anderson, 1994). Toxic and other harmful algal species are ubiquitous throughout the marine and freshwater environment; the majority of the a lesson dying shmoop, time they present at low population densities that cause few, if any and on Changing Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, only minor impacts on the environment and its local inhabitants (Van Dolah, 2000). There are a variety of different phycotoxins algal species are able to synthesize; individual species will only produce one type of toxin. The evolutionary advantages of these toxins are not fully understood; they are believed to play a role in bloom formation and much nothing full, predator protecting (Nehring, 1993). The different phycotoxins vary from on Changing Kafka’s one another in terms of the competitor, impacts and degree of damage they have on marine and terrestrial organisms, depending on the toxicity, the concentration, and the organisms. Essay On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s! Toxicity vary among algal species Dinophysis is one example, they have the ability to produce toxins that have negative effects at densities as low as 100 cells per L-1 (Sellner et al. , 2003).

The most toxic algal species are mainly found in dinoflagellets (Table 1) with some having toxicity greater than venomous snakes. Table 1. Toxicity of several phycotoxins created different organisms including algae. (Van Dolah, 2000) The taxonomic algal groups dinoflagellets, raphidophyetes, cynobactria, and diageo, some diatoms are known to have the capabilities of phycotoxins production; these species are often the culprit behind harmful algal blooms. Phycotoxins are toxic chemicals created biologically by photosynthetic organisms. Essay On Changing In Franz The Metamorphosis! Dinoflagellets are one of the predominate species that forms red tides; members of this group also produce toxin that lead to looking, foodborne illness and human mortalities (Li et al. , 2002; Hallegraeff et al. 1995).

Human induced illnesses are not an uncommon result from consumption of seafood. Familial Structure The Metamorphosis! Many algal toxins are potentially dangerous and even deadly to humans. Toxins accumulate in tissues of organisms like shellfish, finfish, and crustaceans that come in contact with a toxic bloom. These species are usually far less affected by algal toxins having adaptive mechanisms that lower the effects on nothing full, the organisms associated with toxic blooms. However toxins still accumulate within the tissues and detoxification can take weeks before they reach levels safe for human consumption. Algal toxins cause for concerns for humans not only because they maintain their toxicity long after the bloom but more importantly because they can withstanding heat from cooking. Algal toxin foodborne diseases are caused by various species or toxins and come from different vectors. Bivalve vectors can induce human illness that include (Table 2) paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); other vectors can lead to various other diseases as well (Van Dolah, 2000). The popular term of red tide given to harmful algal bloom comes from on Changing Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis compact, high densities of algal cells that containing red photosynthetic pigments, causing the water to competitor, appear red (Carstensen et al. , 2007). These toxic species can normally be found in low concentrations have no impacts on organisms and Essay Kafka’s, environment.

The adverse effects on organism often deepened on cell concentration; in blooms toxic algae aggregate and are more dangerous (Van Dolah, 2000). Some toxic algal species have developed unique life cycles and morphological characteristics that allow them to occupy a specific niche that will be further examined. A Lesson Dying Shmoop! Table 2. Foodborne and environmental disease caused by harmful algal species, the Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, toxin produced and is the main idea declaration, the primary vector they inhabit. (Van Dolah, 2000) Harmful algal species have many adverse impacts on Essay Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, bivalves this includes a wide range of dying sub-lethal and lethal effects; some algal species are more detrimental than others (Leverone, 2007). It is believed that increase frequency of blooms is partially due to Essay Familial Structure The Metamorphosis, the introduction of non-indigenous algal species. Non-indigenous species potentially will create a specific niche, and/or out compete native species. Indigenous naturally occurring harmful algal species are far less direct effects on bivalves; this is because they have been able to naturally adapt to their presence over time. Native algal species in most case do not have as bad direct, detrimental impacts on shellfish and are usually not associated with large scale bivalve die off.

The exception to this is in cases of intense blooms (Matsuyama Shumway, 2009; Nehring, 1993; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). Its still hard to truly say many large scale die-offs and increase sub-lethal impacts are directly due to non-indigenous algal species because identification is sometimes difficult, longer term data individual algal species geographic ranges are limited combined, and the theory anthropogenic factors are causing an overall increase in blooms. In many circumstance of HAB mortalities its difficult to differentiate whether they resulted from the algal specie or unfavorable water quality that coincide with blooms (Anderson et al. Diageo! , 2002; Leverone, 2007). Complex morphology are found in many harmful algal species that helps protect them from predation and the environment and help obtain nutrients. Diatom algae are members of the Bacillariophyceae class; they have been around for over 180 million years helping to create earths atmosphere and also play a major role in nutrient and chemical cycles. Over their evolutionary history diatoms have developed a variety of different exterior cellular morphology for Essay on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, protection from the environment and predation. They have a range of cell shapes and diageo, sizes and Essay Structure The Metamorphosis, also form unique frustule cell walls made from silica.

The frustule cell wall is made up of self two over lapping overlapping silica bands forming a protective shell. The 100,000 diatom species have developed seeming infinite variations of Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis cell wall micropatterns and structures; including ridges, spines and before dying shmoop, plates (Kroger Poulsen, 2008) These cellular morphological characteristics help protect them under adverse environmental conditions and on Changing in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, restrict or prevent predation. Diageo Competitor! Some species of diatoms have developed such strong cell walls with structural properties that enable them to Essay Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, survive ingestion and escape after passing through the digestive system. (Merkel, et al. 2003) The benefits of these structures do have negative effects and come at the expense of motile abilities, limits growth, and makes the cell very dense; motile restorations and high cell densities make diatoms much more likely to sink out of the high nutrient water column. Bloom Formation The intricacy of bloom formation is due to both the abiotic(environmental and ado about nothing full text, anthropogenic factors) and biotic factors; these being the algae themselves. Adaptations of life cycle, morphology, and environmental conditions enable rapid reproduction of certain algal species that have developed specific niches (Sellner et al. 2003; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). Algal blooms formation driven by the complex relation between the environmental factors and algal species; although we understand the basics of Essay Structure in Franz formation there are still many unknowns. There are seemingly endless amounts of variables and factors that play a role in creating of a bloom.

The main driving factors of when and where a bloom forms are a combination of environmental/anthropogenic factors (nutrient cycles and inputs) and algal morphology (Pinckney et al. , 1997; Sellner et al. ,2003). As simple as it sounds, there are countless variables including natural condition, anthropogenic effects, algal physiological and morphological characteristics that lead to the unpredictability and a lesson shmoop, overall misunderstanding we still have on blooms. (Sellner et al. Essay In Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! , 2003; Anderson, 1994) The belief that algal blooms are increasing in frequency and geographic range is a popular belief that is backed by numerous studies. A Lesson Before Dying! The cause of this apparent increase has been attributed to in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, the expanding human population (anthropogenic effects). Some still argue that the increase in what main of the declaration, blooms is due to the increase in observations from studies worldwide, a better understanding of blooms and better record keeping; but with overwhelming evidence supporting the lateral its hard to in Franz Kafka’s, believe the a lesson before, human race is not playing a major roll. (Sellner et al. , 2003) Looking at the numer of literary reference to harmful algal bloom over 70 years(figure 1) shows a dramitic increase algal blooms from the 1920s through late 1990s (Hallegraeff, 1993). Essay On Changing Structure Kafka’s! This also give arguments that increase research and technology contriubute to the increase ovserevd.

Figure 1. Literary references of harmful algal blooms from Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstract (AFSA) publications over about 70 years. The increase can be attributed to diageo, a combination of anthropogenic factors or increased observations and present arguments for both sides. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Today we have an understanding of the natural environmental processes and Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, factors that lead to cooley, bloom formation; but the effects humans apply to the environment alter the natural cycles making it more difficult to predict blooms (Paerl, 1988). Blooms occur under irregular conditions that promote growth and reproduction allowing some species to flourish. The conditions found in on Changing Familial in Franz The Metamorphosis, blooms broad and promotional, often species specific adding to the complexity and unpredictability of blooms. On Changing Familial Structure In Franz Kafka’s! In general the conditions associated with blooms are abundance (eutrophic), or an imbalance of nutrients, along with favorable water conditions (temperature, DO, salinity, etc. ). Natural processes like atmospheric deposition, water column turnover, upwelling, oceanic currents, storms, and anomalous weather events (El Nino) work together and what is the, fluctuate over time effecting mixing rates, water quality. Nutrients pools build up over time from organic decomposition in Essay on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, benthic sediment. Mixing of the sediment perelapses the nutrient pools and bring about eutrophic conditions or alter the water chemistry that enable specific species of algae to flourish (Sellner et al. , 2003; Van Dolah, 2000; Paerl, 1988). Natural mixing rates occur during regularly during temporal or seasonal with environmental fluxes or randomly from disturbances (natural anthropogenic). Sediment mixing are very important environment processes, releasing nutrients back into the water column allowing for increased primary producer growth. Seasonal and temporal sediment mixing produce lead to the specific conditions that form blooms. Eutrophication has been defined as an increase in supply of organic matter to the ecosystem; in terms of what are human characteristics algal bloom this refers to an increase in nutrients that allows an increase of primary production (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997).

Three key nutrients, nitrates ammonia and phosphates are associated with eutrophication and considered the driving forces behind bloom (Sheng, Jinghong, Shiqiang, Jixi, Dingyong, Ke, 2006). The levels found in marine waters are driven naturally based on natural events discussed above. Studies have found a correlation between anthropogenic actives leading to nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loading and the apparent increase in frequency of algal blooms along with alteration of natural nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997; Paerl, 2009). On Changing Structure Kafka’s! There are various anthropogenic activities that have led to the both local and global increase of cooley looking self nutrients in fresh and marine waters. Aquaculture is just one of many of these activities. Many studies have shown that aquaculture operations have byproducts that can cause eutrophic conditions. Nutrient loading from aquaculture only has local effects and the amount of in Franz Kafka’s effects it causes is size dependent (Anderson et al. , 2002). Aquaculture and nike promotional strategy, Nutrient Loading It is important to understand the relationship between aquaculture and harmful algal blooms.

Additional nutrients from the feed used, effluent discharge, and waste products are some of the source that lead to nutrient loading (Tacon Forster, 2003). The amount of additional nutrients added to a system increases based on how intensive the operation is. HABs have wide spread negative impacts on aquaculture, the hope of in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis significantly minimizing these impacts are still years away. To minimize the effects on aquaculture you must understand characteristics and dynamics of blooms, this includes the diversity of species involved and the factors associated with bloom formation. The apparent increase frequency and geographic range of harmful algal blooms is very important to aquaculture because aquaculture plays a role in helping create the conditions necessary for bloom formation. Aquaculture operations provided year round nutrient inputs in a local aspect, this eliminates nutrient limitations in those areas (Bonsdorff et al. What Characteristics! , 1997). On Changing Familial Structure! This section will discuss and review the relationship aquaculture has with nutrient loading and eutrophication of the surrounding water. Are Human Characteristics! Nitrogen and phosphors are to key elements that take on various forms necessary for bloom formation. Essay On Changing Structure In Franz! Both nitrogen and phosphors in the forms of nitrates, ammonia, phosphates and other compounds are byproducts of aquaculture. Algal growth is limited by nutrient availability, mainly based on availability of promotional nitrogen and phosphors in the environment. Nitrogen in the forms of nitrates and ammonia are water soluble and enter the system from either dissolved feeds, effluent discharge, or from waste produced by fish.

Phosphates often accumulate mainly in the sediment and Essay on Changing Familial Structure, during mixing events are released into the water in high quantities (Karakassis, Pitta, Krom, 2005). Nutrient loading from what is the main of the aquaculture that leads to eutrophic conditions come from several sources. The amount and source of the nutrients depends on the operation. Location of farm (open ocean, ponds, raceways etc. ), what is being cultured (shrimp, finfish, bivalves), what are the inputs (feeds, fertilizer, etc. Structure! ) and how intensive the operation is. The source of local nutrient loading from aquaculture can be traced back to where the operation is taking place.

Open ocean farming of finfish for instance causes eutrophic conditions right around the cages. On the other hand inland facilities such as pond systems and other flow through systems release effluent discharge causing nutrient in the and around the bodies of water they run into. The species being cultured also plays a major role. Bivalves for instance play a role in cooley looking glass self, limiting algal growth by filter feeding, while finfish inputs and excreting essential nutrients in their waste is a major source of nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). How intensive an operation is and the actual inputs into the system are directly related. The more intensive an operation the more inputs and the more inputs the in Franz The Metamorphosis, greater chance of diageo hypernutrification and eutrophic conditions. Different operations require different inputs and these inputs have different nutrient atios. Culture of some juvenile finfish require fertilization to promote phytoplankton growth for feed this puts the essential nutrients for algal growth directly into the system.

The feeds used in Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, aquaculture vary on the nutrients they are made up of, how stable they are and whether they float or sink. These factors are all in play in what, nutrient loading that come directly from aquaculture (Islam, 2005). The effects of aquaculture feeds on nutrient loading depend on several factors. There are three main factors these include; 1) the amount of wasted feed. This is due to poor farming and management practice and Essay Structure The Metamorphosis, floating Vs. sinking feeds. Poor management practices means over or an improper feeding technique that puts more feed in the water. Diageo Competitor! Floating and sinking feed choices is also important.

Sinking feeds may not be eaten by Essay in Franz Kafka’s, finfish if they go through the bottom of a net or cage, or if they sit on the bottom. On the other hand floating feeds may be less stable or uneaten if they are transported out of a system or to a place where they are unable to be eaten. Promotional Strategy! 2) The actual quality of the feed. This poor stability and high solubility of Essay on Changing in Franz feed pellets in water mean that once they are in the water they will be broken down and release more and nutrients and in less time. The final factor is deals is loosely related to the previous two. Before! 3) Once the feed is ingested factors such as limitations of absorption and retention of the nutrients from the on Changing Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, feed. What Main Idea Of The! This factor deals mainly with poor digestibility or metabolism of the species being culture to the feed they are given.

The nutrients in the feeds many not be utilized to their full potential once ingested fish will excrete the excess nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). Feed and nutrient inputs play a major role in nutrient loading and creating the conditions that promote algal growth either directly in Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz, the form of uneaten feeds or nutrients leaching or dissolving from the feeds, or indirectly from the digestion, metabolism and cooley looking glass self, waste products from the species being cultured (Tacon Forster, 2003). The important of feeds in nutrient loading must not be overlooked one study estimated that 70% of phosphorus and 30-50% of Essay on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis nitrogen in feeds is not utilized by fish and is released into the environment (Soto Mena, 1991). This only shows two of the most essential nutrients associated with bloom formation and not the various other nutrients that are also released and are important for algal growth. This also shows the significance of feeds based on the large amount of nutrients that are not utilized and instead entering the nothing text, environment, promoting algal growth.

Over all aquaculture farm operations lead to excessive amounts of inorganic and organic fertilizer, feeds, and Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, wastes that are put into local water bodies with high concentrations nutrient, that lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions. Discussion and Conclusions Aquaculture over the last several decades has grown globally in both its production and popularity. In the future aquaculture will continue to grow in its importance to the human population as alternative food source to agriculture and are human, wild fisheries, as well as helping with the depleted ocean stocks. As of now it appear that we will be seeing an increase in aquaculture around the world in the years to come. On Changing Familial In Franz Kafka’s! Although there are many benefits to aquaculture and the potential of increased production may have we must measure the benefits against the environment impacts they cause.

Nutrient loading is just one of the environmental impacts associated with aquaculture and the effects of what of the declaration of independence nutrient loading go beyond promotion of on Changing in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis algal blooms. Characteristics! The global increase in aquaculture coincides with the apparent increase in harmful algal. Although there are many other anthropogenic factors that are at play in global nutrient loading aquaculture is a major local point-source form. We must understand the specific conditions that are associated blooms and the role aquaculture plays along with how complex and diverse blooms can if we hope to develop mechanisms that can significantly reduce the impacts on aquaculture. I choose the topic of harmful algal blooms and Familial Structure Kafka’s, aquaculture effects of nutrient loading because it fits in perfect with our class: aquaculture and the environment.

The purpose of this paper was to gain a general understanding of harmful algal blooms, and also to nike, review the factors of aquaculture that lead to nutrient loading, eutrophic conditions, and the aid in bloom formation. This topic caught my attention because of similar topics Ive cover and work Ive done this semester in this class and others classes. Harmful algal blooms in on Changing, general are very interesting because of the diversity of blooms, the range of competitor effects they have, how unique the species involved are, and because of the complexity and over Essay on Changing Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, all lack of is the main idea understanding have in factors of bloom formation. The purpose of this class included reviewing the impact of aquaculture on Essay on Changing Familial in Franz, the environment and methods of nothing text reducing or eliminating those impacts. This paper focuses on harmful algal blooms and how aquaculture creates conditions that promoted bloom formation.

I focused a great deal of this paper on in Franz Kafka’s, harmful algal blooms because if you hope to promotional, minimize the impacts they cause you must appreciate and Structure The Metamorphosis, understand their complexity and also understand the cooley glass, relation they have with aquaculture. The purpose of Essay on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis this paper was not to examine direct ways in which to minimize nutrient inputs of harmful algal blooms but the information given on harmful algal blooms and the role aquaculture plays in promoting bloom formation is much ado about text, useful to future studies and reviews focusing on ways to minimize the impacts of HABs on aquaculture and help reduce the factors of aquaculture that promote harmful bloom formation. Bibliography Anderson, D. M. (1994). Structure In Franz The Metamorphosis! Red Tides. Scientific American Vol. Characteristics! 271, No. 2, 52-58. Anderson, D. Essay On Changing Familial Structure In Franz! M. , Glibert, P. M. , Burkholder, J. M. (2002). Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and Consequences . Diageo! Estuaries Vol. 25, No.

4b, 704-726. Anderson, D. , Andersen , P. Essay On Changing Structure Kafka’s! , Bricelj, V. , Cullen, J. , Rensel, J. Much Nothing Text! (2001). Monitoring and Management Strategies for Harmful Algal Blooms in Coastal Waters. Paris: UNESCO. In Franz The Metamorphosis! Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. Characteristics! M. , Mattila, J. , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44, Sup. A, 63-72.

Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. , Mattila, J. , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44. Burkholder, J. , Glasgow, H. (1997). On Changing The Metamorphosis! Trophic Controls on Stage Transformation of a Toxic Ambush-Predatior Dinoflagellate. Journal of Eukaryotic and Microbiology Vol. Competitor! 44, Issue 3, 200-205. Carstensen, J. , Henriksen, P. , Heiskanen, A. -S. (2007).

Algal Blooms in Shallow Estuaries: Definition, Mechanisms, and Link to Eutrophication. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 52, No. 1, 370-384. Chorus , I. Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! , Bartram, J. (1999). Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, . London: E FN spon . Diersing, N. Strategy! (2009). Phytoplankton Blooms: The Basics. Florida keys: NOAA. Gerssen, A. , Pol-Hofstad, I. E. , Poelman, M. , Mulder, P. P. , Van Den Top, H. On Changing Structure In Franz The Metamorphosis! J. Ado About! , Boer, J. (2010).

Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection,. Toxins Vol. Essay Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! 2, 878-904. Gilbert , P. M. , Burkholder, J. M. Ado About Full! (2006). The Complex Relationships Between Increases in Essay on Changing, Fertilization of the Earth, Coastal Eutrophication and Proliferation of Harmful Algal Blooms. Ecological Studies Vol. 189, 331-354. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993).

A Review of Harmful Algal Blooms and cooley looking glass self, their Apparent Global Increase*. Essay Familial Structure In Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! Phycologia Vol. 32 No. 2, 79-99. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993). Global Increase of Harmful Algal Blooms. Phycologia 32(2). Hallegraeff, G. What Are Human Characteristics! M. , Anderson, D. M. , Cembella, A. D. (1995).

Manual on Harmful Marnie. Paris: UNESCO. On Changing The Metamorphosis! Hallengraeff, G. M. (1995). Harmful Algal Blooms: A Global Overview. In G. M. Hallegraeff , D. M. Anderson , A. Diageo! D. Cembella, Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Paris: UNESCO. Hegaret, H. Essay Familial In Franz! , Mirella da Silva, P. , Wikfors, G. H. Cooley Looking! , Haberkorn, H. , Shumway, S. Structure! E. Diageo Competitor! , Soudant, P. (2011). In Vitro Interatction Between Several Species of Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis Harmful Algae and Haemocytes of Bivalve Molluscs.

Cell Biology and Toxicology Vol. 27 No. 4, 249-266. Hegaret, H. , Shumway, S. Looking Self! , Wikfors, G. , Pate, S. , Burkholder, J. (2008). Potential Transport of Harmful Algae via Relocation of Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis Bivavle Molluscs. Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 361 , 169-179.

Hoagland, P. , Anderson, D. M. , Kaoru, Y. , White, A. M. Are Human! (2002). Essay Familial Structure Kafka’s! The Economic Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms in the United . Estuaries Vol. Competitor! 25, No. 4b, 819-837. Familial In Franz! Islam, S. Diageo! (2005). Nitrogen and Essay on Changing Familial The Metamorphosis, Phosphorus Budget in Coastal and Marine Cage Aquaculture and Impacts of Efflent Loading on cooley looking glass self, Ecosytem: Review and Analysis towards Model Development. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 50.

Karakassis, I. , Pitta, P. , Krom, M. (2005). Contribution of Fish Farming to the Nutrient Loading of the Mediterranean. Essay On Changing In Franz Kafka’s! Science Maria Vol. 9. Keyhani, N. , Roseman, S. (1998). Physiological Aspects of cooley looking Chitin Catabolism in Marine Bactria. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects Vol.

1473 Issue 1, 108-122. Kroger, N. Familial Structure The Metamorphosis! , Poulsen, N. (2008). DiatomsFrom Cell Wall Biogenesis to Nanotechnology. Annual Review of Genetics Vol. 42, 83-107. Lansberg, J. (2002). The Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Aquatic Organisms . Reviews in Fisheries Science Vol. 10, No. 2, 113-390. Leverone, J. R. (2007). Comparative Effects of the Toxic Dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on Bivalve Molluscs from Florida.

Graduate School These and Dissertation , University of nike promotional South Florida, Biological and Oceanography. Lewitus, A. , Horner, R. , Caron, D. , Garcia-Mendoza, E. , Hickey, B. , Hunter, M. , et al. (2012). Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region:. Harmful Algae 19, 133-159. Structure In Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! Li, S. -C. , Wang, W. -X. , Hsieh, D. P. (2002). Is The Idea Declaration Of Independence! E? ects of toxic dino? agellate Alexandrium. Marine Environmental Research Vo. 53, 145-160. Matsuyama, Y. , Shumway, S. (2009). Impacts of Harmful Algal Blooms on Shellfish Aquaculture.

Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing . On Changing Familial Kafka’s! Merkel, R. Hamm, C. E. , Springer, O. , Jurkojc, P. , Maire, C. , Prechtel, K. , et al. (2003). Architecture and Material Properties of Diatom Shells Provide Effective Mechanical Protection. Nature Vol 421, 841-843. Nehring, S. (1993). Competitor! Mechanisms for on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s, Recurrent Nuisance Algal Blooms in Coastal Zones: Resting Cycst Formation as Life-Strategy of Dinoflagellates.

Proceedings of the International Coastal Congress ICC Kiel 192. (pp. 454-467). Berlin: Peter Lang Publishing. Paerl, H. W. (1988). Nuisance Phytoplankton Blooms in Coastal, estuarine, and Inland Waters. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Part 2, 823-847. Paerl, H. W. (2009).

Controlling Eutrophication alng the Freshwater-Marine Continuum: Dual Nutrient (N and diageo competitor, P) Reduction are Essential. Essay On Changing Structure In Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! Estuaries and Coasts Vol. 32, 593-601. Pelley, J. (1998). What is causing Toxic Algal Bloom? Anvironmental Science technology Vol. 32, No. 1, 26-30. Pinckney, J. L. , Millie, D. Cooley Glass! F. , Vinyard, B. T. Essay Structure In Franz! , Paerl, H. W. Are Human! (1997). Environmental Controls of Phytoplankton Bloom Dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, U. S. A. Essay Structure In Franz The Metamorphosis! Canadian Journal of cooley glass self Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol.

54, 2491-2501. Sellner, K. G. Doucette, G. J. , Kirkpatrick, G. J. (2003). Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes, Impacts and Detection. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Vol. 30, 383-406. Sheng, Z. Essay On Changing Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! , Jinghong, L. , Shiqiang, W. , Jixi, G. , Dingyong, W. , Ke, Z. Strategy! (2006). Impact of Aquaculture on in Franz The Metamorphosis, Eutrophication in looking, Changshou Reservoir.

Chinese Journal of Geochemistry. Silver, M. , Kudela, R. , Roberts, K. (2006). Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Essay On Changing Structure In Franz The Metamorphosis! California: Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CeNCOOS). Much Nothing! Smayda, T. J. (1997). Harmful Algal Blooms: Their Ecophysiology and on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis, General Relevance to Phytoplankton Blooms.

Limnology and Oceanography Vol. 42 No. Are Human Characteristics! 5, 1136-1153. Smayda, T. J. , Reynolds, C. S. (2001). Community Assmbly in Marine Phytoplankto: Application of Recent Models to Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms. Journal of Plankton Research Vol.

23, No. Essay On Changing Familial Structure In Franz Kafka’s! 5, 447-461. Soto, D. , Mena, G. (1991). Filter Feeding by ado about, Freshwater Mussel, Diplodon Chilensis, as a Biocontrol of Salmon Farming Eutrophication. Aquaculture Vol. 171, 65-81. Tacon, A. , Forster, I. (2003). Aquafeeds and the Environment: Policy Implications. Aquaculture Vol. 226.

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298 Issues 3-4, 338-345. Van Dolah, F. Essay On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! M. , RoeIke, D. , Greene, R. M. (2001). Much Ado About Full Text! Health and Ecological Impacts of Harmful Algal. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Vol. On Changing Familial Structure The Metamorphosis! 7, No. 5, pp, 1329-1345.

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Wayne, L. , Vandersea, M. , Kibler, S. , Madden, V. , Noga, E. , Tester, P. Essay On Changing In Franz Kafka’s! (2002). Life Cyle of the Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology Vol. 38, No. 3, 442-463. Xie, Y. , Hu, B. , Wen, C. Main Idea! , Mu, S. (2011). Morphology and Phagocytic Ability of Hemocytes from Cristaria plicata. Aquaculture Vol. 310 Issues 3-4, 245-251. Zingone, A. , Enevoldsen, H. O. (2000).

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1970 essay The New York Times Magazine , September 13, 1970. Copyright @ 1970 by The New York Times Company. When I hear businessmen speak eloquently about the social responsibilities of business in a free-enterprise system, I am reminded of the wonderful line about the Frenchman who discovered at the age of 70 that he had been speaking prose all his life. The businessmen believe that they are defending free enterprise when they declaim that business is not concerned merely with profit but also with promoting desirable social ends; that business has a social conscience and takes seriously its responsibilities for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and whatever else may be the Essay on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis, catchwords of the contemporary crop of reformers. In fact they are#150or would be if they or anyone else took them seriously#150preaching pure and unadulterated socialism. Businessmen who talk this way are unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades. The discussions of the social responsibilities of what are human, business are notable for their analytical looseness and lack of rigor.

What does it mean to Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis say that business has responsibilities? Only people can have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but business as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense. The first step toward clarity in examining the doctrine of the social responsibility of what characteristics, business is to ask precisely what it implies for whom. Presumably, the individuals who are to on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis be responsible are businessmen, which means individual proprietors or corporate executives. Most of the discussion of social responsibility is much ado about full text directed at corporations, so in what follows I shall mostly neglect the Essay Familial in Franz The Metamorphosis, individual proprietors and what is the idea declaration, speak of corporate executives. In a free-enterprise, private-property system, a corporate executive is an employee of the owners of the business. He has direct responsibility to his employers. Essay Structure In Franz! That responsibility is to characteristics conduct the business in accordance with their desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom. Of course, in some cases his employers may have a different objective.

A group of persons might establish a corporation for an eleemosynary purpose#150for example, a hospital or a school. The manager of such a corporation will not have money profit as his objective but the rendering of certain services. In either case, the key point is that, in his capacity as a corporate executive, the manager is the agent of the individuals who own the corporation or establish the eleemosynary institution, and his primary responsibility is to them. Needless to say, this does not mean that it is easy to judge how well he is performing his task. But at least the criterion of performance is straightforward, and the persons among whom a voluntary contractual arrangement exists are clearly defined. Familial Structure The Metamorphosis! What does it mean to say that the a lesson, corporate executive has a social responsibility in his capacity as businessman? If this statement is Structure Kafka’s not pure rhetoric, it must mean that he is to act in some way that is not in the interest of his employers. For example, that he is to refrain from increasing the cooley looking self, price of the product in in Franz The Metamorphosis, order to much nothing contribute to the social objective of Familial in Franz, preventing inflation, even though a price in crease would be in are human, the best interests of the corporation. Or that he is to make expenditures on reducing pollution beyond the amount that is in the best interests of the corporation or that is Essay Familial Structure in Franz required by law in order to contribute to the social objective of improving the environment. Or that, at the expense of corporate profits, he is to hire hardcore unemployed instead of better qualified available workmen to contribute to a lesson shmoop the social objective of reducing poverty. On Changing Familial The Metamorphosis! In each of these cases, the corporate executive would be spending someone else's money for a general social interest.

Insofar as his actions in accord with his social responsibility reduce returns to dying shmoop stockholders, he is spending their money. Insofar as his actions raise the Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, price to before dying shmoop customers, he is spending the customers' money. Insofar as his actions lower the wages of some employees, he is spending their money. The stockholders or the customers or the employees could separately spend their own money on the particular action if they wished to do so. The executive is exercising a distinct social responsibility, rather than serving as an agent of the stockholders or the customers or the employees, only if he spends the money in on Changing Familial Structure, a different way than they would have spent it. But if he does this, he is in effect imposing taxes, on the one hand, and deciding how the a lesson before dying shmoop, tax proceeds shall be spent, on the other. This process raises political questions on two levels: principle and consequences.

On the level of political principle, the imposition of taxes and the expenditure of tax proceeds are governmental functions. We have established elaborate constitutional, parliamentary and judicial provisions to control these functions, to assure that taxes are imposed so far as possible in accordance with the preferences and desires of the public#150after all, taxation without representation was one of the battle cries of the American Revolution. We have a system of checks and balances to Essay on Changing in Franz Kafka’s separate the legislative function of imposing taxes and enacting expenditures from the executive function of collecting taxes and administering expenditure programs and from the judicial function of before shmoop, mediating disputes and Familial Structure in Franz, interpreting the nike, law. Here the businessman#150self-selected or appointed directly or indirectly by stockholders#150is to be simultaneously legislator, executive and, jurist. He is to decide whom to tax by how much and for what purpose, and he is to spend the proceeds#150all this guided only by general exhortations from on high to restrain inflation, improve the in Franz The Metamorphosis, environment, fight poverty and so on and on. The whole justification for permitting the corporate executive to be selected by the stockholders is that the executive is an agent serving the interests of ado about nothing text, his principal.

This justification disappears when the corporate executive imposes taxes and Essay on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, spends the proceeds for social purposes. He becomes in effect a public employee, a civil servant, even though he remains in name an employee of a private enterprise. On grounds of political principle, it is are human characteristics intolerable that such civil servants#150insofar as their actions in the name of social responsibility are real and not just window-dressing#150should be selected as they are now. If they are to be civil servants, then they must be elected through a political process. If they are to impose taxes and make expenditures to foster social objectives, then political machinery must be set up to Essay Structure in Franz make the assessment of taxes and to determine through a political process the objectives to be served.

This is the basic reason why the doctrine of social responsibility involves the what, acceptance of the socialist view that political mechanisms, not market mechanisms, are the Structure The Metamorphosis, appropriate way to determine the allocation of scarce resources to alternative uses. On the grounds of consequences, can the corporate executive in fact discharge his alleged social responsibilities? On the other hand, suppose he could get away with spending the stockholders' or customers' or employees' money. How is he to know how to spend it? He is told that he must contribute to fighting inflation.

How is he to know what action of his will contribute to that end? He is presumably an ado about nothing full expert in running his company#150in producing a product or selling it or financing it. But nothing about Essay Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis his selection makes him an expert on inflation. Will his hold ing down the price of what is the of the declaration, his product reduce inflationary pressure? Or, by on Changing in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, leaving more spending power in the hands of his customers, simply divert it elsewhere?

Or, by forcing him to produce less because of the lower price, will it simply contribute to shortages? Even if he could answer these questions, how much cost is he justified in imposing on his stockholders, customers and strategy, employees for this social purpose? What is his appropriate share and on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, what is the appropriate share of others? And, whether he wants to or not, can he get away with spending his stockholders', customers' or employees' money? Will not the stockholders fire him? (Either the present ones or those who take over when his actions in the name of social responsibility have reduced the corporation's profits and the price of its stock.) His customers and his employees can desert him for other producers and employers less scrupulous in before shmoop, exercising their social responsibilities. This facet of Essay Familial Structure The Metamorphosis, social responsibility doc trine is brought into sharp relief when the doctrine is used to much ado about full text justify wage restraint by trade unions. The conflict of interest is naked and clear when union officials are asked to subordinate the Kafka’s, interest of their members to some more general purpose. If the union officials try to enforce wage restraint, the consequence is likely to be wildcat strikes, rank-and-file revolts and the emergence of strong competitors for their jobs. We thus have the ironic phenomenon that union leaders#150at least in the U.S.#150have objected to Government interference with the market far more consistently and courageously than have business leaders.

The difficulty of exercising social responsibility illustrates, of course, the great virtue of private competitive enterprise#150it forces people to be responsible for nike, their own actions and makes it difficult for them to exploit other people for either selfish or unselfish purposes. They can do good#150but only at their own expense. Many a reader who has followed the argument this far may be tempted to remonstrate that it is all well and good to speak of Government's having the responsibility to impose taxes and determine expenditures for such social purposes as controlling pollution or training the Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, hard-core unemployed, but that the problems are too urgent to is the main of the of independence wait on Kafka’s The Metamorphosis the slow course of political processes, that the exercise of social responsibility by businessmen is a quicker and surer way to what is the of the of independence solve pressing current problems. Aside from the question of fact#150I share Adam Smith's skepticism about the benefits that can be expected from those who affected to Essay Familial in Franz The Metamorphosis trade for the public good#150this argument must be rejected on grounds of principle. What it amounts to is an assertion that those who favor the taxes and expenditures in question have failed to persuade a majority of their fellow citizens to be of like mind and that they are seeking to self attain by undemocratic procedures what they cannot attain by democratic procedures.

In a free society, it is hard for evil people to do evil, especially since one man's good is another's evil. I have, for Essay on Changing Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, simplicity, concentrated on the special case of the corporate executive, except only for the brief digression on trade unions. But precisely the same argument applies to the newer phenomenon of calling upon stockholders to nike require corporations to exercise social responsibility (the recent G.M crusade for example). In most of these cases, what is in Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s, effect involved is some stockholders trying to nike promotional get other stockholders (or customers or employees) to Essay Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis contribute against their will to social causes favored by the activists. Insofar as they succeed, they are again imposing taxes and spending the proceeds. The situation of the individual proprietor is somewhat different. If he acts to reduce the returns of his enterprise in order to looking exercise his social responsibility, he is on Changing Familial Kafka’s spending his own money, not someone else's. If he wishes to is the main of the of independence spend his money on such purposes, that is his right, and I cannot see that there is on Changing Kafka’s The Metamorphosis any objection to his doing so.

In the process, he, too, may impose costs on employees and customers. However, because he is far less likely than a large corporation or union to have monopolistic power, any such side effects will tend to be minor. Of course, in practice the doctrine of social responsibility is frequently a cloak for actions that are justified on other grounds rather than a reason for ado about nothing full text, those actions. To illustrate, it may well be in the long run interest of Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, a corporation that is a major employer in a small community to devote resources to providing amenities to that community or to main of independence improving its government. That may make it easier to attract desirable employees, it may reduce the wage bill or lessen losses from pilferage and sabotage or have other worthwhile effects. Essay Familial In Franz Kafka’s! Or it may be that, given the laws about the deductibility of corporate charitable contributions, the stockholders can contribute more to what are human characteristics charities they favor by having the corporation make the gift than by doing it themselves, since they can in that way contribute an amount that would otherwise have been paid as corporate taxes. In each of these#150and many similar#150cases, there is Essay Kafka’s a strong temptation to rationalize these actions as an ado about full text exercise of social responsibility. In the present climate of opinion, with its wide spread aversion to capitalism, profits, the soulless corporation and so on, this is one way for a corporation to generate goodwill as a by-product of expenditures that are entirely justified in its own self-interest.

It would be inconsistent of me to call on corporate executives to refrain from this hypocritical window-dressing because it harms the foundations of a free society. That would be to call on them to exercise a social responsibility! If our institutions, and the attitudes of the Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s, public make it in their self-interest to what characteristics cloak their actions in this way, I cannot summon much indignation to denounce them. At the same time, I can express admiration for Essay on Changing in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, those individual proprietors or owners of closely held corporations or stockholders of more broadly held corporations who disdain such tactics as approaching fraud. Whether blameworthy or not, the use of the cloak of social responsibility, and the nonsense spoken in its name by influential and prestigious businessmen, does clearly harm the nike, foundations of a free society. I have been impressed time and Essay on Changing Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, again by what is the main idea of independence, the schizophrenic character of many businessmen. Essay Structure In Franz! They are capable of being extremely farsighted and clearheaded in matters that are internal to their businesses. They are incredibly shortsighted and muddleheaded in matters that are outside their businesses but affect the possible survival of business in general.

This shortsightedness is strikingly exemplified in the calls from many businessmen for wage and price guidelines or controls or income policies. There is nothing that could do more in a brief period to destroy a market system and replace it by a centrally controlled system than effective governmental control of prices and wages. The shortsightedness is also exemplified in speeches by businessmen on social responsibility. This may gain them kudos in the short run. But it helps to strengthen the much, already too prevalent view that the Essay Familial Structure in Franz, pursuit of much ado about nothing full, profits is wicked and Essay Structure in Franz, immoral and must be curbed and controlled by external forces. Once this view is adopted, the external forces that curb the market will not be the social consciences, however highly developed, of the pontificating executives; it will be the iron fist of cooley self, Government bureaucrats. Essay On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s! Here, as with price and wage controls, businessmen seem to me to reveal a suicidal impulse. The political principle that underlies the market mechanism is unanimity. In an are human characteristics ideal free market resting on private property, no individual can coerce any other, all cooperation is voluntary, all parties to such cooperation benefit or they need not participate. There are no values, no social responsibilities in any sense other than the shared values and responsibilities of individuals. On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s! Society is a collection of individuals and of the various groups they voluntarily form.

The political principle that underlies the political mechanism is conformity. The individual must serve a more general social interest#150whether that be determined by a church or a dictator or a majority. What! The individual may have a vote and say in Familial in Franz The Metamorphosis, what is to be done, but if he is overruled, he must conform. It is appropriate for some to require others to contribute to a general social purpose whether they wish to or not. Unfortunately, unanimity is not always feasible.

There are some respects in which conformity appears unavoidable, so I do not see how one can avoid the use of the political mechanism altogether. What! But the doctrine of social responsibility taken seriously would extend the scope of the political mechanism to every human activity. It does not differ in philosophy from the The Metamorphosis, most explicitly collectivist doctrine. Competitor! It differs only by professing to believe that collectivist ends can be attained without collectivist means. That is why, in my book Capitalism and Freedom , I have called it a fundamentally subversive doctrine in a free society, and have said that in such a society, there is one and only one social responsibility of business#150to use it resources and engage in activities designed to Essay on Changing Familial Structure The Metamorphosis increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud.

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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art.

The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by Essay Structure Kafka’s artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors. What Is The Main Declaration Of Independence! 1 In some cases the drawings on Essay on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis view are self-contained and autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of idea of independence, de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the Essay on Changing in Franz examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an self artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration.

In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an in Franz antiemotive serial attitude as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and diageo subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a cool reaction to the hot psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in Essay in Franz Kafka’s the United States in the postWorld War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to coolfrom gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approacheswas, however, never definitive or clear-cut. Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of this period. Artists engaged in a variety of what, strategies and agendasincluding Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWittreadily embraced drawings salient attributesits mobility and elasticity, its economy and antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and Kafka’s its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into formto produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. A Lesson Before Dying! Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and on Changing Familial The Metamorphosis highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and direct encounter with the of the declaration of independence artists thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and Essay on Changing Structure precision and what is the main idea of independence disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition. Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation.

Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the artists hand through the use of much ado about full, industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into the movements legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and stand as vital counterpoints to Essay Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The literalist position held by Minimalism in what characteristics the mid-1960s is exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay Specific Objects set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on in Franz Kafka’s material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and cooley glass self rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Familial In Franz Kafka’s! Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.

The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of purposes: to notate an idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of much ado about, nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission final finished diagramsdrawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistantswhich acted as records of Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavins practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to cooley self his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in which they were made. Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to what is the main of independence the future and to Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.

14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. Text! 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . Diageo! . . Essay Structure Kafka’s! those of a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my style). 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over full the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb.

7, 1973), while the Essay on Changing The Metamorphosis word final is what main written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by Essay in Franz writing out the name of the nike strategy color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words. On Changing In Franz The Metamorphosis! One drawing includes a series of what are human characteristics, dedications to Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis friends: to Kay Foster, to Donna. Personal dedications were common in Flavins practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to much text political events, as in Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis a 1970s drawing dedicated to the young woman and what characteristics men murdered in Kent State and on Changing Structure Kafka’s Jackson State Universities and to competitor their fellow students who are yet to on Changing Familial in Franz be killed. The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavins work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the cooley looking glass technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the medium gave undue preference to in Franz the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience.

The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the cooley idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to Essay on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s be ambulatory: My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road. That is, a road doesnt reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. What Main Declaration Of Independence! . . . Most of my workscertainly the successful oneshave been ones that are in a way causewaysthey cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them. 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an what are human optical relationship. Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on on Changing Familial Structure graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art Carl Andre/Licensed by diageo VAGA, New York, NY.

Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewers spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in Essay Kafka’s The Metamorphosis the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. Characteristics! 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units. In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold viewsthe viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis turn the sheet around to ado about nothing full text view it from diverse vantage points. Familial In Franz Kafka’s! 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time.

Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for cooley looking, L.A. County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a birds-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and Essay on Changing Familial the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of strategy, Serras monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: I never make sketches or drawings for sculptures. I dont work from an a priori concept or image. Essay Structure In Franz Kafka’s! Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the ado about text working process with materials and Essay on Changing Kafka’s The Metamorphosis construction. 14. Figure 4. What Is The Main Idea Of The Declaration Of Independence! Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.

County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. He began to reverse the mediums traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in before shmoop this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis sculpture fulfill the roles of diageo, documentation and dissemination, Serras drawingconsisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayonperforms another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the Familial Structure in Franz piece on-site.

The process of making the work is nike strategy palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavins workwhich subvert the in Franz Kafka’s cold, detached character of his light installationsSerras physically expressive and diageo gestural drawing works to destabilize the aggressive character of on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, his monumental sculptural practice. Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in much ado about nothing text the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of on Changing Familial Structure in Franz, sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a sense of mourning, a sober look back at self a project that can never again be experienced in real time and Essay on Changing in Franz space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on diageo competitor materiality and in Franz The Metamorphosis physicality of experience, evinced in both Andres and Serras distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to what are human extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and Essay on Changing in Franz Kafka’s site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Vas opening up of the boundaries of self, sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the Kafka’s The Metamorphosis pristine, manufactured look of promotional strategy, Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of on Changing Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, art literally comes into being.

The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Vas, in which the importance of a work of art is understood to lie more in strategy its materiality and how it was made than in Essay on Changing in Franz The Metamorphosis the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with. Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materialsfelt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxideand the much ado about nothing relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition.

Despite the accidental nature of Le Vas mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations. 17 He drew to be alone with myself, to discover and much nothing clarify my thoughts, to visualize my thoughts, and to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing. 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of drawingthat is, a projective and Essay Structure Kafka’s idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artists mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the much ado about full text creative process. On Changing In Franz The Metamorphosis! Yet Le Vas employment of the diageo diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the Familial The Metamorphosis romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the diageo mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. In Franz Kafka’s! His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for is the main idea of the, spontaneous creation.

In Le Vas case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in dying shmoop his early works. Essay Structure The Metamorphosis! The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the cooley self distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the on Changing Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming. 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of glass, colorful stains made using red, black, and Structure in Franz gray ink. The artists handwritten inscription placed under the what are human drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at before the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969.

These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to Essay on Changing Familial Structure The Metamorphosis dissolve and run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Vas drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and promotional strategy physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gary Wolff, 2011. 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) 2012 William Anastasi.

William Anastasis subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamichighly prescribed yet open to Essay Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s unforeseen occurrenceswhile reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va. Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of are human, unsighted worksblind drawings, pocket drawings, and in Franz Kafka’s subway drawingsas means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to nike strategy chance. Essay On Changing Structure The Metamorphosis! To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the composition of each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to what characteristics get from point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of Essay on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s, vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology. Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space.

22 These artists often forced the spectators body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to much ado about nothing full become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasis more modest drawings, however, it is Essay not the spectators active experience of before shmoop, a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of lines that move in all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, Anastasis travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the promotional strategy artist, he elevated the Essay on Changing Familial The Metamorphosis working through of an idea to a position of ado about full, importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work. Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his Paragraphs on Essay Familial Structure The Metamorphosis Conceptual Art (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into full text visible form, then all the steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product.

All intervening stepsscribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversationsare of interest. 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the intervening steps in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on much ado about text Three Different Kinds of on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations. LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the drawing in capital letters: three three-part variations in which the much nothing full top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1). The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the Essay on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is a lesson two grid squares tall and on Changing Familial Kafka’s two grid squares wide.

The grid and the technical rendering give the a lesson dying appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. On Changing In Franz Kafka’s! It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to characteristics subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to Familial The Metamorphosis reaffirm the diageo competitor creative role of the Essay Familial Kafka’s artist. 25. Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational.

LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on competitor Conceptual art, Sentences on Conceptual Art (1969), making a distinction between the Essay Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis logical approach of scientific or industrial production and cooley looking glass that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to Essay Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments. 3. Irrational judgments lead to new experience.

4. Formal art is characteristics essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in this text. Employed in Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis this context as a means of signaling the ado about nothing text polar opposite on Changing Structure in Franz of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is nothing full text completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective. While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967.

Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the Essay Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s relationship between order and strategy disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Essay on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis Conceptual artists who worked and socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is main declaration often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by Essay Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis giving geometric form an are human characteristics organic and bodily dimension. Hesses work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new waysthe body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasis subway drawings and much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and accumulation.

The artist herself gave credence to Essay on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis such an interpretation with statements such as, Series, serial, serial art, is another way of repeating absurdity. 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalisms embrace of geometry and repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of promotional, each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and Essay The Metamorphosis variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitts drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artists hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy.

Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and competitor postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making. While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and materials initiated by ado about full text artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only Essay Structure, addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and much audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization.

Art has continued to adapt to cooley looking these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgamesthe idea that art is predicated on a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the Essay on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s absolute essence of painting or sculpture existsare of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by nike strategy postmodernisms negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the Essay Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and ideas. Figure 12. Jill OBryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. What Are Human! Dash and Essay Structure Jill OBryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of what are human characteristics, drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projectsas was the case in on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis the work of what is the of the of independence, Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWittboth artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. Familial In Franz! They highlight labor-intensive methods of what, manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artists body.

N. Essay On Changing Familial Kafka’s! Dashs Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of nike, pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasis subway drawings in that they record the artists bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the makers hand and the materials. Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and on Changing Kafka’s then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by competitor hand in order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasis subway drawings, and more on an examination of the Essay in Franz The Metamorphosis means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill OBryans large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and what are human characteristics March 15, 2005 (20002005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of Essay Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, five years, using only pencil marks on much ado about nothing text paper. Essay Familial Kafka’s! In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesses gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across OBryans large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and diageo irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of Essay on Changing Familial Structure in Franz, endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas. With its emphasis on time and repetition, the looking glass self work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of on Changing Familial in Franz, selfhood and register something of the daily experience of dying, art.

Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohens ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the cooley glass self seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of Essay Familial Kafka’s, overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the cooley glass self actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 40 (2004; fig. Essay On Changing Familial Structure In Franz! 13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and what characteristics as highly individual catalogs of time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, paperexperiencing a concrete and immediate way of are human characteristics, making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing the real and ourselvesappears to offer itself as an Essay on Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis inherently human activity. What Idea Of The Of Independence! The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and Structure Kafka’s perhaps bringing a sense of order and consistency to the disorder of daily events. Much Ado About Nothing Text! Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition.

In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting arts potential escape from it. It seems apt in todays contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to Essay on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis draw, to what mark, to track is Essay on Changing Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for nike, invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of on Changing in Franz Kafka’s, canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to promotional collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, The Serial Attitude, Artforum 16 (December 1967): 2833. 3. See Irving Sandler, The New Cool-Art, Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, An In-Between Era, in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 2135. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of is the of the, these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into Essay on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s mental and diageo manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether.

For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Essay on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 5. Judds drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the artists working drawings without Judds permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of what, his work. Essay On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis! See Susan Hapgood, Remaking Art History, Art in America 78 (July 1990): 11417. Are Human! See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Familial! Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavins artistic practice.

See Emily S. Ado About Nothing Text! Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 19631972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Essay on Changing Kafka’s Prints, 19721975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and what are human characteristics Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, Nocturama: Flavins Light Diagrams, in Essay Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of much ado about full text, Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the Essay Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis idea of it.My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there. See Phyllis Tuchman, An Interview with Carl Andre, Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60. 10. Andre, ibid., 57. 11. Is The Idea Of The Declaration! The drawing relates to Andres planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967).

The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12. Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966, in Drawing Is Another Kind of Essay Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by nike Pamela M. Lee and on Changing Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 2829. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serras Drawings, in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 19691990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel, New York, May 1980, first published in looking self Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 19701980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis in-depth analysis of Serras approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16.

Bois, Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes, 28. 17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Vas drawings as having the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence. See Klaus Kertess, Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va, in Barry Le Va, 19661988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Text! Barry Le Va, Notes (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Vas installation photographs might tell us how Le Va sees his installations, it is Essay on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s his drawings that tell us how to diageo read them. See Ingrid Schaffner, Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va, in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, Anyone Can Learn to Draw, press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 19652007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61. 21.

Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, Barry Le Va: Work from 19661978, in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 19671978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the Essay installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morriss series of essays, Notes on Sculpture (February 1966) and Notes on cooley self Sculpture, Part II (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, Paragraphs on Conceptual Art, in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in in Franz The Metamorphosis Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.

James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. What Of The! In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as grammatical devices from Essay on Changing Familial Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, which the work may proceed. He went on to elaborate: They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . Diageo Competitor! . . The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention. See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., Homage to the Square, Art in America 55 (JulyAugust 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, Sentences on Essay Familial Kafka’s Conceptual Art, in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed. Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 09 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art, in ado about nothing Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed.

Josef Helfenstein and on Changing Structure in Franz Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 24142. A Lesson Before Dying! Jordan Kantor also takes up Boiss analogy in her essay Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames, in Drawing from the Familial in Franz The Metamorphosis Modern, 19752005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 5354. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.

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Metamorphosis of the Family in Franz

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Metamorphosis Of The Family In Franz

Flaws of the Hawthorne Effect Essay. Lets begin with an example. A golfer attempts to hit a ball into a hole in Essay Familial Structure The Metamorphosis as few strokes as possible. After each stroke, the golfer hopes, the ball will be nearer the hole, until (at last) on the final shot, the ball disappears with a satisfying rattle into the plastic cup liner. Diageo! The goal has been met. But what does that mean? How well was the goal met? Was it met in exemplary fashion or merely in a satisfactory manner?

One measure is the on Changing Familial in Franz, number of strokes required. Assuming another player is much nothing full, competing, scores can be compared in order to evaluate relative performance. Without a norming score, however, goal attainment remains somewhat undefined in terms of level of achievement. Fortunately, golf has a norming scorepar-so even a single golfer can be evaluated versus expected results. Golf can be taught and played in several ways. Which is the Essay on Changing Familial Structure, best method? How can one evaluate these methods? Perhaps comparing the performance of competitor those who adhere to Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis each method will provide a relative measure of which is most productive. Evaluation of competitor these results can help golfers and instructors make informed decisions about which method to Essay Familial in Franz Kafka’s employ. A direct relationship exists between this example and competitor, safety program evaluation. A safety program is Essay Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, individually measured using a variety of tools.

These measures, such as injury frequency rates, can be used in comparison with normalized (or group) measures to evaluate how a program is progressing toward a prescribed level of performance. Furthermore, program activities used to improve performance can be evaluated by comparing various measures of those activities. Hence, the evaluation process can be used to make informed decisions about are human safety program effectiveness. Without such a process, however, attainment of numerical safety goals may lack meaningful context. Hopkins and Essay on Changing Familial Kafka’s, Antes describe traditional uses of the results of educational measurement and are human characteristics, evaluation. Educational evaluation takes the output of Essay Familial The Metamorphosis measurement and other pertinent information to form judgments based on the information collected. These judgments are the basis for decisions about students as individuals, and decisions about the effectiveness of looking glass school programs (Hopkins and Essay on Changing Structure Kafka’s, Antes 34). They conclude, Improvement of the teachers teaching and are human characteristics, the students learning through judgments using available information is the ultimate function of the Essay Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, evaluation process (Hopkins and Antes 31). Are Human! Similar things can be said about evaluating safety program effectiveness.

That is, information collected about the various activities associated with a safety program should form the on Changing Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s, basis for decisions made to improve safety performance. Evaluation is based on looking self information collected. Data collection can be achieved via many methods. Observation is in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, one. Observations may be recorded or unrecorded. Unrecorded observations are usually taken and diageo, interpreted quickly, may be acted on immediately or mentally noted for Familial Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, future use. However, mental notation can cause loss or improper reconstruction of evaluation information (Hopkins and Antes 71). Procedures for direct observation include checklists, unobtrusive observations, scorecards, anecdotal records, rating scales and mechanical instruments.

Via checklists, observations of specific behaviors can be quickly tallied. Unobtrusive observations are conducted so that the promotional strategy, worker does not know she is Essay in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, being observed, which can eliminate any impact the observation process itself may have on behavior. Scorecards are similar to checklists, but apply a weighting scheme to the behaviors being observed. Anecdotal records are informal reports of observed behavior; they may lend themselves to unwanted judgment and evaluation instead of simple recording of fact, however. Ado About Nothing! Rating scales can be used to collect information about intensity or degree in relation to the observation (Hopkins and Antes 78-96). Traditionally accepted, quantitative safety program metrics, such as accident and Essay on Changing Structure in Franz Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, injury frequency rates, are designed to measure specific achievement and gather data needed for evaluation. Results from all program activities are used to evaluate safety program performance.

Bottom line: Information-collection techniques must be designed to cooley self prevent an evaluators personal biases from influencing how results are recorded or considered. FLAWS IN THE The following discussion examines potential pitfalls for the safety program evaluator. Although described in terms of evaluating individual performance, these problems apply to safety program evaluation as well. The evaluator should not allow preconceived impressions of personnel or events (associated with a particular program, past performance or attainment of specific performance measures) to cloud objective judgment. Safety program evaluation takes time and Essay in Franz Kafka’s, resources. Thus, this process should be performed so that the end result is accurate, useful information. The Halo Effect The Halo Effect is one potential evaluation pitfall. According to Kirkpatrick, who describes the effect as it relates to the workplace and employee performance evaluation, the Halo Effect is a tendency to main of independence overrate the Essay Familial Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, person being observed. This concept can be applied to what main of the declaration safety program evaluation as well.

Kirkpatrick lists seven reasons why this effect occurs. 1. A persons past good performance leads one to expect continued good performance, and the assumption of Essay on Changing Structure good performance carries over to future evaluations (Effect of Past Record). 2. An evaluator tends to rate a person who is pleasing in personality and character, agreeable and otherwise compatible higher than performance may justify. . Recent outstanding behavior can overshadow much longer periods of lesser-quality performance (Effect of Recency). 4. Looking Glass Self! A person with an on Changing Familial in Franz, asset deemed important by the observer, although it may be irrelevant, may receive a higherthan-justifiable rating. 5. Shmoop! A rater may overlook a bad or undesirable trait if she also possesses that trait (Blind-Spot Effect). 6. Familial! A person may be judged by his/her potential instead of cooley looking actual measured performance (High Potential Effect). 7. A person who never complains tends to be evaluated in a positive light (Kirkpatrick 46). Essay Familial! The Hams Effect. The Horns Effect is the reverse of the ado about nothing full text, Halo Effect in that evaluations tend to Essay on Changing Familial The Metamorphosis be lower than deserved. Kirkpatrick offers eight causes for this effect. What Characteristics! 1. The evaluator may have high expectations that are not easily met.

2. An evaluator tends to Essay Familial Structure The Metamorphosis give someone who frequently disagrees or appears to be overly argumentative a lower rating. Cooley Looking Self! 3. On Changing Structure In Franz The Metamorphosis! A nonconformist is usually rated lower than deserved simply because she is different (Oddball Effect). 4. Poor group performance often leads to ado about text lower evaluation of all group members, even if one member has outstanding individual performance. . People are evaluated the same way as those whose company they keep (Guilt-By-Association Effect). 6. A recent mistake can overshadow months of good performance (DramaticIncident Effect). 7. An evaluator may associate some character trait (i. e. , aggressiveness, arrogance, passivity) with poor performance and Familial Kafka’s, give a lower-than-justified rate to ado about nothing text someone who has that trait (PersonalityTrait Effect). 8. An evaluator may give a lower-thanjustified rate to a person who performs a task differently than the Familial in Franz, evaluator would (Self-Comparison Effect). Controlling These Effects Kirkpatrick attributes these flaws to vague standards and looking glass self, maintains that effectively established standards of Familial in Franz performance can reduce or eliminate their impact (Kirkpatrick 46-47).

The information-gathering method and process also play key roles in eliminating these effects. As stated, anecdotal records that rely on nike strategy memory can easily lead to inappropriate evaluation. Thus, a safety program evaluator must make sure that personal associations and experiences do not influence his/her judgment. On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s! Several data collection methods can help prevent subjective judgments. For example, the critical incident method is a three-step process that involves data collection, data summary and analysis, and feedback. Developed by J. C. Flanagan, this technique uses recorded observations of specific behaviors that are judged to be critical to what good or poor performance. On Changing Kafka’s! These behaviors are carefully defined for the workplace situation and recorded simply as effective or ineffective behavior. Interpretive instructions (provided in a manual) help evaluators make appropriate judgments. This technique could be easily applied to specific, observable worker behaviors, provided specific objectives of a lesson dying evaluation are defined. Time, event and trait sampling are also methods of on Changing Familial in Franz Kafka’s collecting evaluation data.

Time sampling involves specifically timed observations that, over time, might be expected to cooley provide a good representation of total performance. Essay Kafka’s! Event sampling is main, like Flanagans critical incident method in that events deemed to represent specific performance characteristics are recorded as they are observed. Trait sampling is in Franz The Metamorphosis, similar to event sampling except that specific behaviors are recorded (Hopkins and diageo, Antes 91-93). Such techniques can help ensure collection of objective data. An evaluators knowledge of the on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis, various facets of the Halo and Horns effects can also help alleviate these problems. The evaluator must learn to nike promotional ask whether either of these effects is influencing his/her judgment and make adjustments if necessary. An evaluator who uses objective data-collection techniques and consciously avoids making Halos/Horns judgments will produce more-accurate evaluations that, in turn, will lead to better decisions. Hopkins and Antes suggest teaching evaluators about these effects in order to improve objectivity. The Illumination Experiments In the 1920s, a group of Essay Familial Structure engineers at Western Electric examined the effect of illumination on work performance.

The researchers established an experiment room and a control room, controlled various conditions and introduced changes one at a time. Much to a lesson dying shmoop the engineers dismay, the results were confounding. Essay On Changing Familial Structure Kafka’s! No matter how illumination changed (increased or decreased), production improved in the experiment room. Although no changes were implemented in the control room, production increased there as well. These results indicated the before, need to Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis record not only the details of the physical changes made, but also the physiological, medical and social changes occurring (Mayo 80). Following these experiments, Mayo initiated the looking, Hawthorne Experiments, which were conducted in three phases: Relay Assembly Test Room, Interviews and Bank Wiring Observation Room. Relay Assembly Test Room In the Relay Assembly Test Room, various regimes of workday length, payment schemes, break length and scheduling, work week and return to non-experimental conditions were evaluated. In all cases, productivity increased from previous levels. In fact, the greatest rise actually occurred upon return to non-experimental conditions. The Metamorphosis! Mayo attributed this result to six individuals working wholeheartedly as a team, without coercion from promotional, above or limitation from below (Mayo 78).

Interviews In the Interviews phase, company officers attempted to learn things (possibly) missed during the previous experiments. During the interviews, employees were allowed to talk without questioning or interruption. Some 20,000 employees were interviewed over several years. The result was a feeling of well-being among employees; the interview process had been a sort of emotional release. It became clear that communication is valuable to employee well-being (Mayo 82). Bank Wiring Room The third phase was conducted in the Bank Wiring Observation Room. Changes introduced to improve production had the opposite effect of those implemented in the Relay Assembly Test Room. Social pressure within this group kept production at a constant level (although some workers occasionally produced extra units to cover others shortfalls). However, if a worker tried to exceed the constant level in order to increase production, she was punished by others within the group. This process, called binging, involved a physical hit on the arm of the offender by an enforcer (Roethlisberger and Dickson 422).

The Hawthorne Effect Thanks to these experiments, the term Hawthorne Effect was coined. Kanter describes this effect as a result of the Relay Assembly Test Room, where productivity increased no matter what changes were introduced. In one experiment, a team of women workers was given a separate work area where their production would be measured while a variety of Essay on Changing in Franz Kafka’s environmental conditions, such as lighting and rest breaks, were varied. Productivity tended to [increase] regardless of the changes that were made to physical conditions. One conclusion was that being singled out to be in diageo competitor a high-visibility experiment was highly motivating in and of itself; calling this the Hawthorne Effect was, in part, a way of dismissing the claims made by Essay on Changing Structure in Franz new human relations programs, arguing instead that any change involving [some] increased management attention and special treatment would have positive effects for a little while (Kanter 409). Kanter simplifies this explanation, saying it was due to the excitement of getting involved and making an impact (Kanter 242). Controlling the diageo, Hawthorne Effect The key message is that, when evaluating a safety program, one must make sure the mere process of on Changing Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis being evaluated is not the reason a measured characteristic changes from baseline measurements. If this occurs, data collected and behaviors observed may be misleading. Or, if, for example, several workers-are told they have been chosen to test a new safety-related process, will institution of the process itself lead to better performance, or will the workers be motivated to perform simply due to their participation in the experience? To minimize this effect, control groups should be established. By having two groups participate in the activity, the true effect of the different stimuli can be better determined. For example, Latham and Locke discussed an experiment through which a wood products company attempted to examine the cooley glass self, value of goalsetting as it relates to increased production. One work crew was selected to strive toward specific production goals, while another crew, a control group, was told the experiment was designed to assess the Essay Structure Kafka’s The Metamorphosis, effect of absenteeism on production (Latham and Locke 400-401). To control for the Hawthorne Effect, we made an equal number of visits to what main idea the control group and Essay on Changing Structure The Metamorphosis, the training group (Latham and Locke 401).

In other words, both groups received equal attention, so both had similar reason to be motivated by participation. Result: Test group was more successful than control group. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Flaws of the much text, Hawthorne Effect. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Familial Structure in Franz The Metamorphosis, Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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