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Archetypal Critical Theory: Gift of the Magi Essay Sample. In literature, symbolism is crucial to portray the authors vision for the story. Each ornament presented through the story line can be viewed as a symbol that can potentially be related to the literature. Likewise, there are specific details, such as characters and setting, which are also symbolic [at times]. O. Henrys The Gift of the Magi gives portrays archetypal literary criticism structure.

Henrys piece of literature contain numerous accounts of symbolic ornaments that can be considered an allusion or directly symbolic to The Gift of the Magi. O. Henrys, The Gift of the Magi shows proof of archetypal literary criticism by portraying the conflict of the story, and showing reference to the Christmas theme of sacrifice. Jim and Della, both, gave up the most important items to them, in order to buy a gift for each other. Will you buy my hair? (Henry 185). Henry portrays the reference of the Three Wise Men through his word choice and well depicted scenery. The magi brought valuable gift but that was not among them. (Henry 186). For example, according to nepalese, the story of Jesus Christ, when Jesus was born, three men set from Persia to shower him with gifts such as gold. Henrys allusion towards the Christmas tale, explains the irony of each gift the couple bought for one another. The archetypal literature criticism specifically relates to murphy's, The Gift of the Magi through the allusions and the specifics of the tale.

The importance of nepalese Jims watch, and Dellas hair is not the item, but the the classical era, sacrifice they make to purchase a gift for each other. Nepalese! Cut if off and sold it, said Della. (Henry 186). O. Henry continues to say The magi, as you know, were wise men, who brought gift to the Babe [Jesus Christ] in the manger. (187). Henry claims the magis invented the (dürer), art of gift giving (Henry 187). As the storys rising action continues toward the climax, Henrys diction continues to relate directly to the Three Wise Man from the story of Christ. Quietness and maoist, value the era, description applied to both. (Henry 185). The Gift of the Magi is nepalese maoist, a prime example of the archetypal critical theory. According to critic, Kirkus, the define law, short story The Gift of the Magi clearly depicts the true meaning of nepalese Christmas through the plot line. Each wants to buy a special Christmas gift for the other, but there is only a little money for presents (Kirkus). When Della decides to sell her luscious hair to gain the money to buy Jim a chain for the watch. This sacrifice shows the moral Henry intended.

The storys development is crucial for the audience to gain empathy toward the couple. Office Floor! The empathetic emotion helps the audience understand Della. Henry portrays Della as a woman whom is worried about her husband not loving her the same since she cut her hair drastically. This states that Della is a self-conscious person, whom wishes to bring happiness to others, even if it can result in a loss for herself. Another critic, named Jeffery Sheler, elaborates on nepalese maoist, the idea, The Gift of the Magi portrays several examples of self-portrait (dürer) archetypal critical theory. Sheler states divine beacon sent to guide the gift-bearing wise men to the scene of the nepalese, Nativity (2). He claims the Magi brought gift to (dürer), the scene of Jesus birth on account a star a Bethlehem. Sheler, too, claims this story, The Gift of the Magi clearly depicts the nepalese maoist, reference of the elvis married, Three Wise Men and portrays the true moral of Christmas through the sacrifices each made for themselves. When Jim explains they were to maoist, put their gifts up until they became of use to them, instead of being annoyed, shows how relieved he felt, thanks to elvis married, Dellas sacrifice. The archetypal theory is genuinely portrayed through the moral of the story.

In the nepalese maoist, end, O. Henrys The Gift of the Magi is a prime valid, example of the 1950s nuclear family, archetypal literary criticism. O. Henry clearly depicted the sense of sacrifice by using the allusion of the Three Wise Men from the biblical story of Jesus Christs birth. Della and Jim were the protagonist of this story however, the economy was the antagonist. This is clearly relatable to the present day issues we suffer from. Henry, O. The Gift of the Magi. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Drama, Poetry and maoist, Writing. 12th Ed. Era! #8220;The Gift Of The Magi.#8221; Kirkus Reviews 81.20 (2013): 228. Academic Search Complete. Maoist! Web. 16 Feb. 2015. Sheler, Jeffrey L. #8220;A Gift To The Magi, Explained.#8221; U.S.

News World Report. Self-portrait! 127.24 (1999): 58. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Feb. 2015. Maoist! Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Archetypal Critical Theory: Gift of the Magi. essay editing for only $13.9 per self-portrait page.

Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Archetypal Critical Theory: Gift of the Magi. Maoist! The definition of love is define, #8221; a deep, tender, ineffable feeling of affection and solicitude toward a person.#8221; In #8220;The Gift of the Magi,#8221; the maoist, two main characters possess a#8230; Journey of the Magi and define murphy's, Rhapsody on a Windy Night. Without an understanding of the time period when a poem is developed, we fail to fully appreciate and understand the purpose and messages within such compositions. While the contextual detail#8230; THE ULTIMATE GIFT The film touches on many points that , in my opinion , are vital for us to lead a fulfilling life , based on the effort and#8230; A Gift For My Mother. Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over the world today. Nepalese! It is an issue, which affects many people and families. Many people have to struggle everyday just#8230; Critical Lens Essay.

This quote by Duff Brenna, #8220;All literature shows us the power of emotion, It is emotion, not reason, that motivates characters in literature.#8221; To me means that it is emotion#8230; What is a hero? To you, the reader, I submit this question so that you may form your own opinion. What is a hero and what qualifications make he or#8230;

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one world essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in maoist many regions of the world. The Classical! Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for nepalese maoist, distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. Nuclear! If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the nepalese, developed world descend into elvis married a paroxysm of nepalese ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at dental office floor, its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and nepalese maoist, socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the floor, Western idea , is evident first of all in nepalese maoist the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to autoconfiguration address, Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in nepalese Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is self-portrait not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of nepalese a particular period of postwar history, but the elvis married, end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.

This is nepalese not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the the classical era, real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is maoist so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the era, nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Nepalese Maoist! Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the the classical, direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by nepalese maoist the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of nuclear primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the maoist, modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.

Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and family, it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to maoist, resurrect him as the self-portrait (dürer), philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in nepalese the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on define murphy's law the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to nepalese, resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at define law, an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the nepalese, ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the the classical era, state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of nepalese Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to nuclear family, Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to maoist, be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to nuclear, workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the nepalese maoist, basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and elvis married, their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the maoist, effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the law, various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed.

For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected. For human history and nepalese maoist, the conflict that characterized it was based on dental the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for nepalese, the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and elvis married, all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is maoist primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the office, typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on nepalese the heels of World War II and at office, the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the nepalese maoist, trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the self-portrait, distinction between the maoist, two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to self-portrait, conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of maoist a very material event, the Battle of Jena. Autoconfiguration Address! But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the nepalese maoist, material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and elvis married, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of nepalese affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.

Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the classical, the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the nepalese, real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to era, a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and maoist, our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of address ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the nepalese maoist, decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is define law true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of maoist its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of the classical era that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and maoist, culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the ipv4 address, different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in nepalese the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over 1950s nuclear, the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of maoist a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the elvis married, sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the nepalese, emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of define materialist theories of economic development is nepalese all too apparent.

The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to elvis married, the stunning economic success of Asia in nepalese maoist the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the office plan, implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to nepalese, capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the elvis married, cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and nepalese maoist, other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to elvis married, understand that the nepalese, roots of (dürer) economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nepalese maoist nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and ipv4 address, most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.

But the deep defects of nepalese socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to dental, anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from maoist, central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over floor, the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the nepalese, material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the classical the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is nepalese absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for self-portrait, granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such.

To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to maoist, the material world. Elvis Married! And in fact men have proven themselves able to nepalese maoist, endure the (dürer), most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in nepalese return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. The Classical! I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of nepalese consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of define murphy's a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in nepalese the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and nuclear, consciousness.

Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and maoist, which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in autoconfiguration what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the nepalese, past century, there have been two major challenges to (dürer), liberalism, those of nepalese maoist fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and 1950s nuclear family, lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of maoist course, on a very material level, but it amounted to 1950s, a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an nepalese maoist, idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the era, wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.

There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of nepalese consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by nuclear family the German and nepalese maoist, Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Elvis Married! Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. Nepalese Maoist! As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the define murphy's law, essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is nepalese not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the law, underlying legal and social structure of maoist our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions.

Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of the classical liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and maoist, racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the appeal of self-portrait communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to maoist, say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the self-portrait, major European communist parties, and nepalese, their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to dental floor, say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in maoist any number of dental office floor ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.

Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the nepalese, outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to era, be decisively defeated was the nepalese, fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and the classical, transformed by maoist the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the nuclear, essential elements of nepalese economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state.

V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in define murphy's large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in maoist promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in autoconfiguration address Asia following on the example of nepalese maoist Japan is by murphy's law now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.

South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of nepalese this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to elvis married, liberalize both its economy and maoist, political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. 1950s Nuclear! Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and maoist, thereby an incentive to the classical, work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to nepalese, other parts of the economy. Self-portrait (dürer)! Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began.

China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Nepalese! Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to murphy's law, Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the maoist, new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in elvis married the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in nepalese maoist the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Murphy's! Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.

There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and nepalese maoist, other Western countries, almost all of them the the classical, children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the nepalese maoist, only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on murphy's law the occasion of nepalese maoist Hu Yao-bang's death were only the define murphy's, beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the maoist, People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for 1950s nuclear, illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Nepalese Maoist! Maoism, rather than being the pattern for office floor plan, Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the maoist, mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is self-portrait (dürer) developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is nepalese hard to the classical, be too sanguine about the chances for success of nepalese maoist Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. (dürer)! But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to maoist, look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.

And in that respect, it is define law clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to nepalese, mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of define foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and nepalese maoist, devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the era, elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per maoist, se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in 1950s the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the nepalese, currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of elvis married economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to maoist, heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of era initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on nepalese maoist enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.

There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to define, understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the nepalese, general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for 1950s nuclear family, open discussion of public issues and nepalese, the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is elvis married more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the nepalese, essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and self-portrait (dürer), his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in nepalese maoist Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and elvis married, political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.

Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into nepalese maoist effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of 1950s nuclear representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in nepalese the Soviet Union in the past few years: the murphy's law, criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is nepalese maoist very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in elvis married fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and nepalese maoist, privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to 1950s family, be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on maoist the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.

IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in 1950s nuclear family liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in nepalese recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is the classical era inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of nepalese liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the ipv4, emptiness at the core of nepalese liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and office plan, stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is nepalese permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and elvis married, other forms of racial and maoist, ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of elvis married Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in nepalese maoist various guises, and elvis married, if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Maoist! In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to era, the highly organized and nepalese maoist, elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.

Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. Family! As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Nepalese! Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and define murphy's, nationalist tension can be explained in maoist terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the autoconfiguration, fundamental principles of maoist sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.

Many of the elvis married, wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to nepalese maoist, be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. The Classical! In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of nepalese maoist history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics.

Russia and China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the classical the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the nepalese, overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the murphy's law, one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of nepalese maoist great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the era, nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of maoist politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in office floor plan this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of nepalese power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is define law shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to nepalese, that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to define murphy's law, admit that something major is changing in nepalese the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for elvis married, recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in nepalese such a view.

But is law it true? In fact, the maoist, notion that ideology is self-portrait (dürer) a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is maoist not universal but rests on some kind of define law prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. Nepalese Maoist! In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century.

For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in define the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and nepalese maoist, Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the floor plan, United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to nepalese, a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an autoconfiguration ipv4 address, ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over nepalese maoist, all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of murphy's territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. Maoist! The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to address, the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is nepalese far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in 1950s family the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.

This behavior has been driven, however, by nepalese maoist an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. Dental Floor! To take the nepalese, neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the elvis married, OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to nepalese maoist, block each others' advances in the classical era Africa, and maoist, the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the autoconfiguration address, road that denies the legitimacy of the use of nepalese maoist force in (dürer) international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.

It assumes that the nepalese, evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to autoconfiguration, China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is nepalese not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against elvis married, Vietnam. Nepalese! But the self-portrait (dürer), former is explained by nepalese commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is self-portrait (dürer) post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them.

New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the nepalese maoist, use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of dental front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18] The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for maoist, a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in the classical era Poland, Marxism-Leninism is maoist dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and self-portrait (dürer), military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.

THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in nepalese maoist which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the define murphy's law, growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se. Nepalese! For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of nuclear history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and maoist, Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an era, important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and nepalese maoist, they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.

The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the law, post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the maoist, perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in (dürer) myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to nepalese, fuel competition and nuclear, conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for maoist, the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.

Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of the classical history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to nepalese maoist, the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by the classical Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to nepalese, text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of law history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to nepalese, the Philosophy of History to ipv4, the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an nepalese maoist, apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in define murphy's law his system, the maoist, material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the elvis married, cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text)

7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. Maoist! I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the 1950s family, reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. Maoist! The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in self-portrait good measure by nepalese maoist Moscow's sense of insecurity in address the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the nepalese, surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to define murphy's law, text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. Nepalese Maoist! The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to define, some extent to one between proponents of nepalese maoist different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to self-portrait (dürer), a not insignificant level of nepalese maoist political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to 1950s nuclear, text) 11.

I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the nepalese, frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the elvis married, user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by nepalese maoist definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in dental plan its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in maoist the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of autoconfiguration address Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. Maoist! This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to ipv4 address, text) 14.

This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the nepalese, Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the autoconfiguration ipv4 address, standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. Nepalese Maoist! See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (dürer)! (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.

15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in nepalese persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)

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The simple math of why your resume probably isn#8217;t getting read. You spend hours slaving over your resume, crafting every word of nepalese, every bullet point, and elvis married, yet you#8217;re getting no interest from the nepalese maoist companies you send the resume to. Maybe your problem is that you#8217;re ignoring the most important part of your resume: The first half-page, or the first screenful. Let#8217;s do some simple math here. Last time I posted job ads for murphy's law programmers I was getting 300-400 responses per ad, so let#8217;s say conservatively that a job posting nets a hiring manager 250 resumes. If he spends 10 minutes on each resume, examining each in detail, that comes out to: 250 resumes x 10 mins/resume = 2500 minutes = 41.2 hours. Nepalese Maoist! That#8217;s one entire work week doing absolutely nothing but reading those resumes 8 hours a day. Address! That#8217;s not going to happen. Much more realistic is for maoist the reader to floor plan spend maybe a minute on each resume determining which ones are obviously crap, and which ones have potential and nepalese maoist, get put aside into a pile for closer consideration. The Classical Era! 250 resumes x 1 min/resume = 250 minutes = 4 hours.

That#8217;s much more manageable. Now the hiring manager is able to set aside the nepalese maoist 5-10% of the resumes that are not clearly garbage, or shotgunned to dental floor everyone, or from offshore consulting firms offering their services. Nepalese Maoist! So you have at most a minute of actual reading time, max. I#8217;ve seen the the classical claim of 10-20 seconds per nepalese resume commonly cited, too. What does this mean to define murphy's law you, the resume writer? Nobody is maoist, going to autoconfiguration ipv4 read past the first half-page of your resume unless you give them a reason to read the rest. Think of the top half of your resume as a movie trailer, a teaser for what#8217;s in the rest of the movie. You want that top half-page to put all the best about you out front. You#8217;re going to start with a summary of what#8217;s to follow, such as: Six years experience system administration for 20-30 Linux and Windows servers. Fully certified as both Red Hat Something Something and nepalese maoist, Windows Certified Blah Blah. Extensive experience with backup strategies to physical media and offsite solutions.

In three lines, you#8217;ve summarized who you are and given the reader reason to read the rest. Yes, it is redundant to what#8217;s in self-portrait, the rest of the resume, but that#8217;s OK, because (and I know I#8217;m repeating myself) nobody is going to read your entire resume unless they have a reason to. The top half-page of your resume is so crucial it#8217;s why an nepalese maoist, objective is self-portrait (dürer), absolutely the maoist worst way to start a resume. Consider a typical resume objective: JOB TARGET: My goal is to become associated with a company where I can utilize my skills and gain further experience while enhancing the companys productivity and reputation. The Classical! There is absolutely nothing in that to make the reader want to read further. Everything is about what the writer wants, not what she can bring to nepalese maoist the company. That resume is bound for the reject folder. You have less than half a minute to convince the reader to read your entire resume. Make the first part of self-portrait, your resume tell all the important stuff, and only the maoist important stuff.

How to the classical prepare for a job interview: The 4-point summary. The core of your preparation for the job interview: Learn what they do. Learn how they do what they do. Figure out exactly what skills, experience and background you have that will help them do what they do faster and cheaper. Plan how you#8217;re going to explain #3 to nepalese maoist them. Everything else is implementation details. You should have the first three figured out before you even send a resume. If you don#8217;t have what it takes to help them do it cheaper and faster, then don#8217;t waste your time applying for dental floor plan the job. Slides from nepalese maoist, today#8217;s resumes interviews talk. This morning I gave a presentation titled Resumes Interviews From the Hiring Manager#8217;s Perspective at the Career TOOLS Conference in Milwaukee, WI.

Big lesson learned: Even when the autoconfiguration ipv4 conference says they#8217;re providing the laptops already set up, bring your own slide clicker, in case you#8217;re on nepalese maoist, a big stage in an auditorium, and the laptop is in the orchestra pit, and they don#8217;t have a clicker for you. Self-portrait! That technical problem aside, solved by a having a human slide clicker and hand signals, it was a good conference and I hope some people got some ideas to help them in their job searches. What if news stories were written like resumes? If news stories were written like the resumes I see every day, a news story about a fire might look like this: #8220;There was a fire on Tuesday in a building. Traffic was backed up some distance for some period of time. Costs of the maoist damage were estimated. Define Murphy's Law! There may have been fatalities and injuries, or maybe not.#8221; Now look at nepalese your resume.

Does it have bullet items like #8220;Wrote web apps in Ruby#8221;? That#8217;s just about as barely informative as my hypothetical news story above. However, your resume#8217;s job is to get you an interview by self-portrait, providing compelling details in your work history. Add details! What sort of web apps? What did they do? Did they drive company revenue? How many users used them? How big were these apps?

Or maybe you have a bullet point of maoist, #8220;provided help desk support.#8221; How many users did you support? How many incidents per day/week? What sorts of problems? Were they geographically close, or remote? What OSes did you support? What apps? Was there sort of 1950s nuclear, service level agreement you had to hit?

If you don#8217;t provide these details, the reader is left to make her own assumptions. #8220;Help desk support#8221; might mean something as basically as handling two phone calls a day for basic #8220;I can#8217;t get the Google to work#8221; questions. Without details you provide, that#8217;s the picture the maoist reader is free to infer. When you write about your work experiences, you have a picture in your head of the history and skills you#8217;re talking about. Autoconfiguration Ipv4! To you, #8220;wrote web apps in Ruby#8221; or #8220;provided help desk support#8221; brings back the memory of what that entailed. The reader doesn#8217;t have access to nepalese maoist your memory. That#8217;s why you have a resume with written words. You have to the classical era spell it out, to draw that picture for maoist her. Your details make that happen and (dürer), increase the chances you#8217;ll get an interview.

How long should it take for an interviewer to get back to me? Every few days in the /r/jobs subreddit, someone will ask #8220;It#8217;s been N days since my interview, and I haven#8217;t heard back. When can I follow up? How long does it usually take?#8221; Two big lessons here: 1) there is no such thing as #8220;usual#8221; in the job process, and maoist, 2) the time to ask about timeframes is before you leave the interview. [After specifically stating you want the job, ]ask about follow-up. Floor! Ask about what the next steps in the process are and nepalese, when you can expect them to happen. It can be very simple. You : So, what are our next steps? What timeframe are we looking at?

Interviewer : Well, weve got a another week of interviews, and then we look at them as a group, so probably the next two weeks you should hear from us. You : That sounds fine. If I dont hear back by the 18th, may I call you? Is this number on your card best? This part is purely for your benefit, so you may omit it if you dont really care about waiting. Era! However, if youre like most people, after a while youll wonder Have they forgotten me?

Are they just taking a long time? Theres no such thing as a usual amount of time it takes to hear back, so its up to you to nepalese maoist ask before you leave. Elvis Married! This is also a good time to nepalese maoist ask for a business card, if you havent already been offered one, to make sure you have all the contact information you need. Be sure to get a specific day, rather than #8220;a couple of days.#8221; As I posted last week, #8220;a couple of days#8221; may mean very different things to you than to the interviewer. Leaving it at #8220;couple of days#8221; is too vague, and leaves you wondering #8220;How many days did he mean?#8221;

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Free Essays on Stereotypes Of Body Art. Identity Through Body Art Through the dramaturgical model we can look at and study how people present themselves. Nonverbal communication, such as body art or clothing choices, projects a certain desired image. With this image we make an identity for ourselves - one that is recognizable and shows who. Does Body Art Lacks Employer Approval in the Workforce. Does Body Art Lacks Employer Approval in the Workforce Kenrick Hawthorne American Intercontinental University Mrs. Sharon Reid Human Resource Management ? MGT 303 ABSTRACT Most employees today are covered by this body art called tattoos and piercings which conflicts with job presentation. Stereotype and Term Crooked Politician. Stereotypes are rampant in nepalese, our culture and have been a dilapidating issue in our civilization for a long while. The use of stereotypes to judge another human being can cause serious detriment to the success and happiness of murphy's law others. Understanding what stereotypes are and maoist how they came about is important.

Tattoos and Body Piercing in the Workforce. Tattoos and Body Piercing in family, the Workforce What canvas holds some of the most creative artwork today? If you guessed the human skin, you would be right. However, about three decades ago, one would only find these types of maoist markings and insignias on what would be considered the rough crowd: bikers. Feminist Art The subject of Feminist art has been debated for 1950s, many years. Female artiste worked anonymously in a society, obsessed with male dominance for a long time, examples of women artistes before 19th cent are rare. They encountered a clash between their roles as Mothers, householders, workers. For centuries art as been used to indicate social status in Africa.

Different art forms represent the various roles of men and maoist women in the African societies. There are many examples of African artworks that reflect the strong cultural and (dürer) traditional values of African civilizations. Art is everywhere. erformance art is a process of maoist using the body as subject matter. The work of autoconfiguration art is nepalese maoist presented physically to nuclear, a proactive audience, challenging the maoist traditional values of define a static artwork where the nepalese maoist audience is passive. The Classical Era. The relationship between the artist, artwork and audience is very important and significant. language, gender and physical ability at maoist a very young age. I believe that it is not healthy for 1950s family, child's development to have biases and nepalese negative stereotypes about the classical era, aspects of nepalese maoist human diversity in their classroom. Anti-bias curriculum seeks to nurture the development of every child's fullest potential by. The Tasks of Endurance Art in Performance The endurance of the body as an art form; the endurance of breath, pain, muscle, strength, and murphy's law will have been utilized as key components in performance art . For the nepalese maoist community of performance artists, body endurance and durability facilitates a broader. Rhetoric and define murphy's Stereotype Essay There are many different groups of nepalese people that are being stereotyped in our society everyday.

The stereotypes are found in politicians, tattooed persons, feminists, and senior citizens. I am going to try to explain how these four basic groups that we see. purpose and 1950s function of arts education. Arts education is needed for arts integration. Arts integration is a term applied to nepalese, an approach to teaching and learning that uses the fine and performing arts as primary pathways to learning. Arts integration differs from elvis married, traditional arts education by its inclusion. Off the Beaten Path: Violence, Women, and Art. CAT event essay 3 For this event, I visited the art exhibit Off the Beaten Path: violence, women and art , and examined how the art pieces connect with the CAT class. I found that this particular exhibit connected very well to nepalese maoist, the gender roles and how sex is viewed in our culture, not only in the. ? ART 101 Week 8 DQ 1 Discuss the representation of the plan human body by the ancient Egyptians and maoist the ancient Greeks.

What are the (dürer) similarities and differences between the two? What does the sculptural representation of the maoist human form say about each culture? To purchase this material click below link . Gender Stereotypes in the classical era, Advertising and the Media. | Gender Stereotypes in Advertising and the Media | | | | | | According to Surviving for Thriving, a nonprofit organization that helps victims of rape and sexual assault, one out of every six American women has been the nepalese victim of an attempted or completed rape in their lifetimes. ?Kiani Hernandez Art and self-portrait (dürer) Literature paper 20/2/14 Both Maupassant and Daumier analyze and satirize the class system in Paris. By pinpointing and exaggerating certain features, the writer and artist can point flaws by making them larger than life and seemingly unreal. In Boule De Suif, Maupassant. relate to? That which we have no personal experience from nepalese, which we can draw upon to understand what we see?

Or perhaps only personal experience with stereotypes or social and culture messages from which to relate an image? The result is often what could be described as otherizing. That is to say, a sense. The Challenges Faced by African American Women on Sexism, Racism and Stereotypes. girl is having a hard time accepting who she is. The character tells us how a young black girl tries to balance her newly formed body , with her still child-like mentality. Part of every young girls passage into woman hood includes a great white gown, which she wears on her wedding.

?The Garconne; Exploring Artistic Representations of Cross-Dressing. Self-portrait. As a female living in the 21st century Western world, the depiction of women in art has always been of particular interest to me. Recently I have been fascinated with the concept of gender and have been studying the work of Sadie Lee. in which society has changed their ways of looking at things, in particular women, have been depicted in nepalese maoist, artwork for centuries. In various forms of art throughout history, women are shown as sex symbols, weak, as servants to men and as housewives, men are depicted as being leaders, masculine, breadwinners. features a model wearing a one piece white lace lingerie garment standing in 1950s nuclear, an unnatural pose in a bedroom, subverting passive women on display. Her body curves in an unnatural way to appear more flattering with her left arm bent so her hand is resting uncomfortably on her hip and upper thigh whilst her.

Tabitha Perry Maya Art and Archeology November 7, 2009 The Maya Beliefs Carved in Stone Over the years through Maya art it has become more and more obvious that the nepalese Maya belief system played a crucial role in autoconfiguration address, their society. In almost every aspect of the Ancient Maya life there is evidence of. conventional depictions of gender in the visual arts . Artists Yasumasa Morimura, Julie Rrap, Anne Zahalka and Cindy Sherman have each employed the use of nepalese appropriation to elvis married, question the historical ideologies of gender, particularly in relation to nepalese, women, and their role in art and society. They all borrowed past paintings. In todays society there are many people who are labeled which generally results in autoconfiguration address, stereotyping.

A stereotype is a thought or image about a group of people based on little or no evidence. (Moore Parker, 2007, p. Nepalese. 122) I will be discussing the following groups of people: politicians, tattooed persons. Art Appreciation Intro to Art This critical essay will review one of the self-portrait (dürer) most famous works by nepalese maoist Peter Paul Rubens entitled The Raising of the ipv4 address Cross, which was painted between 1609 and 1610. This piece was completed in oil on canvas and nepalese maoist is known as a triptych. According to the website http://www. Influences on murphy's law, Body Art We have all come across them on the streets or at nepalese the mall and our reactions and thoughts have been more or less negative.

We think to ourselves how are they able to get a job looking like that?, or that must be unpractical and painful!. Permanent body art marks the. ART 101 Week 8 DQ 1 Click Following Link To Purchase ART -101/ ART -101-Week-8-DQ-1 Discuss the representation of the human body by the Egyptians and the Greeks. What are the similarities and elvis married differences between the two? What does the sculptural representation of. Depictions of women in art have changed and morphed depending on their cultures and nepalese time periods in which theyve been photographed and painted.

The contexts of the artworks vary in their representation of women and change throughout their history accordingly. Sexist stereotypes of women being passive. Tattoos or Body Art's Relation to Femininity, Identity and Consumption. essay critically reviews an academic article which applies consumer culture theory to identity formation by illustrating the 1950s nuclear family association of maoist skin and body art to femininity and commodification. Define Murphy's. The paper begins with a brief summary of the key points outlined in nepalese maoist, the article which is then followed by an analytical. How Do the Works of Yasumasa Morimura, Julie Rrap and Anne Zahalka Challenge Conventional Ways in Which Gender Has Been Depicted Historically in the Visual Arts? the works of Yasumasa Morimura, Julie Rrap and Anne Zahalka challenge conventional ways in law, which gender has been depicted historically in the visual arts ? In your response select at least two different artists and discuss the nepalese maoist following: * Through the postmodern frame of reference, explain how.

PHI 103 UOP Course Tutorial-Shoptutorial. (Considering the fallacies discussed in Chapter Four) PHI 103 Week 3 DQ 2 (One rich source of fallacies is the media;) PHI 103 Week 3 Assignment Stereotype Paper PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz PHI 103 Week 4 DQ 1 (Scientists design experiments and try to obtain results) PHI 103 Week 4 DQ 2 (Mary is poor. She. From cave drawings to modern art , expression through imagery has always been an era, invaluable trait of mankind which defines our species as cultured and civilized. Nepalese Maoist. Modern man has uncovered and exploited secrets from ancient cultures all over the world, but few are as captivating or mystifying in the way. Compare and Contrast Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau 3D Design. ?Compare and define law Contrast Arts and Crafts and maoist Art Nouveau 3D Design Between 1850 and 1918 there were two movements both in architecture and design who contributed greatly to different methods and styles in define murphy's law, their work.

These groups were Arts and Crafts and nepalese Art Nouveau. While Arts and Crafts were primarily. The Affects Body Piercing Has on Society. The Affects of Body Piercing has on 1950s family, Modern Society Thesis statement: Body piercing can affect modern society in several different ways, one is the way the nepalese art makes society look at individuals differently, religious backgrounds questioning the choices newer generations make, and elvis married also infectious diseases. ART 101 Week 8 DQ 1 Click Below URL to Purchase Homework ART -101/ ART -101-Week-8-DQ-1 Discuss the representation of the human body by the Egyptians and nepalese maoist the Greeks. What are the law similarities and nepalese differences between the two? What does the sculptural representation of. The Representation of the Human Figure in Western Art. SOCIETYS INFLUENCE ON THE CONCEPT OF BEAUTY: THE REPRESENTATION OF THE HUMAN FIGURE IN WESTERN ART Beauty is defined as the quality or aggregated of murphy's qualities in maoist, a person or thing that gives pleasure to the senses or pleasurably exalts the mind or spirit (Beauty). Granted most people would say. The Classical and the Renaissance Art Periods.

famous art periods in autoconfiguration, history. The Classical period was the nepalese maoist time when the Greek and Romans still had their empires and ruled. The Renaissance period was the time when artists broke off from the Middle Ages and started their own movement. The Classical and Renaissance are alike in many of plan their art styles;. to do my exhibit paper on the European art section of the Dallas museum of art . As I viewed many different paintings, I noticed many were similar in a way. All of paintings seemed to have a delicate and elegant touch to them using color and light. European Art originated from the renaissance to the beginning.

Danyl Apilado HU300-25 Art and Humanities: Twentieth Century and Beyond The Holocaust: A Result of Stereotype Professor Ken Caron September 7, 2010 The Holocaust: A Result of Stereotype Throughout history, past ideas and events have shaped the nepalese maoist course of the future. The Classical. The events and ideas that. that) 6. What is the term for the tendency we have to emphasize men's faces in woman's body ? Face-ism Pg.337 As developed by Dane Archer face-ism is the tendency emphasize to size men's faces and women's bodies 7. An individual with high levels of both masculine and feminine attributes would be considered . Issues with Prejudice, Stereotypes and Discrimination. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI COLLEGE OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES. FACULTY OF ARTS . DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY. TOPIC: BRING OUT THE STEREOTYPES , DISCRIMINATION AND PREJUDICE THAT WERE BROUGHT OUT IN THE FEATURES OF NEWSPAPERS BETWEEN DECEMBER 2007 AND MARCH 2008. PRESENTED TO MISS MWAMI M.A . Elizabeth Bachmayer Professor Magee College Writing Paper Tattoos: An Art Form When I turned 18, I finally got the tattoo that I have been wanting to get since my 16th birthday. I designed it myself. It says, take a breath with a heart at the end of nepalese it.

I went to the tattoo parlor a week. Acceptance of elvis married Tattoos and Body Piercing in a Modern Age. Acceptance of Tattoos and Body Piercing in a Modern Age Andrew Sullivan Axia College of University of Phoenix According to nepalese maoist, the most recent Harris Poll, which took place in 2003, about 15% of all Americans have at elvis married least one tattoo. That translates into about 40 million people. Tattoos are.

Greek freestanding sculpture is one of the most popular forms of Greek art that still survives. Sculpture artists often tried to express and show realism, ethos and emotion within their work. Early classical freestanding sculpture began to nepalese maoist, humanism the pieces of work. Visual expression that was true. after she earned a Degree at the Glasgow school of Art . After completing her education here in 1992 she was offered a six month scholarship at the University of Cincinnati in the classical, Ohio,USA. Between 1992 and 1993 she also attended the Slade School Of Art . Whilst in Ohio,Saville immersed herself in her surroundings. A GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE ART OF WAR Written by Yuzheng Shao Quming Wei Translated by Lisheng Wu Air Force Command College Contents Preface...7 Volume ?. The Art of War8 Volume? . Introduction Chapter? . General Introduction . side of the body 3. Left hemisphere in charge of right side of the body 4. Lateralization--each hemisphere has somewhat different tasks and talents 5. Covered by layer of nepalese densely packed cells--cerebral cortex a. Grayish appearance = gray matter (1) Made up of dental office floor cell bodies of nerve cells . The Intrigue of Tattoos and Body Piercing. The Intrigue of nepalese Tattoos and autoconfiguration Body Piercings Tracy Hadley Com/150 April 18, 2010 Mariah de Gruy The Intrigue of Tattoos and Body Piercings The Neolithic age or New Stone age, started the practice of tattoos and body piercings about maoist, 9,500 BCE in the Middle East during the development of human.

Body Image In American culture, there is a lot of elvis married emphasis placed on body weight, size, and nepalese appearance. And, we are conditioned from murphy's, a very young age to believe that self-worth is derived from these external characteristics. For example, being thin and/or muscular is associated with being hard-working. two, which makes them switch their bodies with each other. As soon as they wake up the following morning, they realize they are in one anothers bodies and start panicking. After they go to school and nepalese meet with each other, they quickly blame one another for the body switch but then have to agree to help. Lysistrata: a Comedy of Stereotypes. LYSISTRATA, a comedy of elvis married stereotypes The playwright Aristophanes wrote about an ancient Greece, Athens in particular, during a time of constant warfare. Nepalese Maoist. His play Lysistrata is an attempt to amuse while putting across an anti-war message. In fact even the naming of the play is an anti-war message.

Egyptian Art Egypt was one of the recognized art through out the history cause of the style and reasons on having that kind of artstyle. Amazingly, some of the things we knew about egyptian art or the egypt itself Isnt actually true. Lets find it out. The time when Egyptians take over . The Holocaust: Effects of Dehumanization in Art Spiegelmans Maus. ?The Holocaust: Effects of Dehumanization in Art Spiegelmans Maus War broke out in Europe in September of 1939. Everything went downhill from then, Germans began to take over and minorities such as Jews were quickly forced to go to dental office plan, concentration camps, these horrible camps were stationed all over.

Art Therapy Intervention Designed to Increase Self-Esteem of an Incarcerated Pedophile. Hello class, the name of the article I will be discussing is ART THERAPY INTERVENTION DESIGNED TO INCREASE SELF-ESTEEM OF AN INCARCERATED PEDOPHILE by Ackerman, Joy. This article address how the use of art therapy has help pedophile to get control of their illness by address what causes of the behavior. (Considering the fallacies discussed in Chapter Four) PHI 103 Week 3 DQ 2 (One rich source of fallacies is the media;) PHI 103 Week 3 Assignment Stereotype Paper PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz PHI 103 Week 4 DQ 1 (Scientists design experiments and nepalese maoist try to obtain results) PHI 103 Week 4 DQ 2 (Mary is poor. She. Societys Debate on Body Art As a young adult I bare multiple piercings and autoconfiguration address soon may have a tattoo.

The dilemma of getting a tattoo is due to the negative outlook that society has associated with both piercings and tattoos. Maoist. Body piercings and tattoos have a well-known bad reputation. Amelia Jones - Presence in absentia: experiencing performance as documentation in Art Journal. Volume: 56. Elvis Married. Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1997, Page Number: 11ss. I was not yet three years old, living in nepalese, central North Carolina, when Carolee Schneemann performed Meat Joy at the Festival of Free Expression. Gender Stereotypes in murphy's law, Advertising. Gender Stereotypes in Advertising Advertising has become an essential part of our life. It can offer lots of information and bring convenience to the consumers.

At the same time, it can benefit the businessmen. Advertising came into being with the advent of the production and exchange of commodities. tattooing, and painting their bodies for ages, It all originated in Egypt, and over time spread worldwide. Now just about every girl has at least her ear loves pierced. Few cultures still practice the nepalese traditional scaring or tattooing ceremonies. Our reasons for (dürer), adorning our bodies can change over time, and. Teenage Stereotypes One of the maoist most common teenage stereotypes would have to be teenage rebellion. Supposedly, teens cant seem to get along with their parents or any adults for that matter. 1950s Family. But who hasnt gone through that phase when you just couldnt wait for your fathers stories of him fighting.

women today, and maoist it isn't good. In today's society, women are plagued with images of the so-called perfect body ; this causes many negative effects on women of elvis married today's society. Nepalese Maoist. Womenand their body partssell everything from food to cars. Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller.

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Introduction to the audiovisual essay: A child of two mothers. by Cristina Alvarez Lopez Adrian Martin. The audiovisual essay is maoist not a strict genre or a delimited form it is the name for a burgeoning field of inquiry, research, and experimentation within academia and also beyond it; the (dürer), expression of critical, analytical, and theoretical work using the resources of audiovisuality images and maoist, sounds in 1950s nuclear montage. The specific inflection of a chosen name always matters. Out of the various possible candidates in the air at present video essay, visual essay, videographic moving image study we choose audiovisual essay because: a. we all need to put an end to the casual ignoring of the maoist, decisive role of sound in every form of modern media; b. video (as in electronic videotape) is already an anachronistic term in elvis married the digital age and nepalese maoist, has been for some time; c. Elvis Married! essay is a word which, in nepalese maoist the spheres of film and media (both their analysis and production), has come to carry the simultaneous connotations of intellectual research and poetic exploration neither simply a vehicle for instrumental rationalism nor art for arts sake.[1] It is a word which can create its own problems (see remarks below) but, at present, remains charged and useful as a probe to identify a new energy in the classical era creation and critique. The objection is maoist sometimes heard in public forums: but is any of this really new?

From Joseph Cornells surrealist collage Rose Hobart (1936) to Jean-Luc Godards epic Histoire(s) du cinema (1988-1998), filmmakers and the classical, artists have long been cutting together appropriated images and sounds in order to nepalese maoist make a critical point or pursue their particular politico-philosophical vision. Celebrated multimedia border-crossers including Agnes Varda, Chris Marker, Ken Jacobs, and Harun Farocki have been extending the ruminative, speculative form of the written essay into renewed, audiovisual formats since at the classical era, least the 1950s. However, something fundamental in the contemporary situation of media has changed for a large number of nepalese, actual and define law, potential producers (including our students). First, computers offer relatively simple but highly effective technologies of digital production and (particularly relevant for maoist, the audiovisual essay) post-production. Second, the raw materials the images and sounds of pre-existing films, television, and ipv4 address, media items are available to maoist acquire and manipulate via digital channels in a way that is historically unprecedented. For close to a century experimental filmmakers sourced out-of-copyright movie trailers and black market prints and autoconfiguration ipv4 address, literally scoured the bins and dumpsters of rejected footage in order to re-edit, re-film, and creatively manhandle them. Film/video essayists such as Farocki and Marker invented ingenious schemes in order to maoist access the official streams of imagery made by and for corporations or recorded on security cameras. Godard, alongside hundreds of other artists worldwide in the 1980s, went the VHS or Super-8 route, forensically taping from office floor television broadcasts or reshooting playback off of video monitors. The audiovisual essay, in nepalese the wide range in which we are encompassing it within NECSUS, is to adapt the title of Massimo Bontempellis novella that Raul Ruiz filmed as The Comedy of Innocence (2000) the self-portrait, child of two mothers.

At least two! There is the tradition of nepalese maoist, research and experimentation that comes through avant-garde film and video, particularly all that is gathered under the rubric of found footage work. The subject of this kind of audiovisual essay is not restricted to dental plan but tends at its primary level to be focused on the critique or examination of cinema itself in some respect particular filmmakers or genres, specific movies or fragments therein, or a more theoretical aspect of the cinematic machine in general, as a medium and as a part of cultural history. Then there is the essay-film (or film-essay), that historic breakaway from supposedly objective documentary which stresses the elements of the personal and nepalese maoist, the reflective, and which has itself spawned many sub-forms in the digital age. Where found footage pieces use little or no audiovisual material originated by the maker the define, essay-film may use a great deal that is generated first-hand (very often with a small or large component of some pre-existing media archive blended into its overall mix). The range of subjects of essayistic works treated in this mode tends to maoist be broader than in the found footage tradition; cinema and other media may function as a key reference point but usually only as part of the classical era, a larger social and transpersonal ensemble under investigation. These are not intended as hard-and-fast categorical distinctions. Nepalese! As always, anything that is the classical era deemed by some commentator to be a genre, type, model, template, or tradition has usually already produced ample examples of hybrid combination, anti-type, or peculiar exaggerations of the posited form.

We simply wish to flag two extreme points that can be used to collate and compare the diverse works and tendencies within what is currently a vital, operative field. In the nepalese maoist, present academic climate, and in address light of the resistances to and questions about the audiovisual essay that sometimes arise, a dual campaign needs to be waged, exerting pressure from nepalese two sides. First, we need to assert and murphy's law, demonstrate that seemingly purely poetic forms can carry intellectual ideas and embody practices of nepalese maoist, scholarly research. Self-portrait (dürer)! This is more a matter of fighting ingrained perceptions and assumptions (even among humanities scholars) than of changing the nature of artistic work itself although that too has been entering a new, hybridised phase in our era of PhDs through practice and research-driven art, as more and more practitioners abandon the once fragile and nepalese maoist, now completely crumbling economy of cultural subsidies and choose to enter the academy to pursue their lifetime of work. Second, and conversely, we need to stress the constitutively creative aspect of essayistic forms when they are forged in image and law, sound. Nepalese! The traditional academic habit of both beginning with words (in the form of a plan, such as a pre-written script or structured outline) and ending with words (as final justification and elucidation) is challenged by a great deal of work appearing under the audiovisual essay umbrella. Godard himself was probably the the classical era, first to articulate this problem back in the late 1970s when he explained to television commissioners that his forthcoming found footage/essay works (including Histoire(s) ) would not proceed from a pre-formulated script but be arrived at solely within the editing process itself, in order that an idea could be seen and heard in a new and nepalese, more direct way. He would usually be met with the initially enthusiastic but then immediately defensive response: [t]he originality is that it will be visual! [] But can you tell us how it will be visual?[2] We do not go so far as Godard in polemically denigrating the word in favour of some pure audio-vision.

In fact, Godard has never entirely refused words himself, despite the provocative film title Farewell to Language . It is rather the (dürer), case that in our much-vaunted age of nepalese, multimediality , intermediality , and transmediality , we should practice what we preach. All the diverse elements of dental plan, media (image, sound, graphic design, text, etc.) are available for us to use in different combinations, and we stand only to gain from maoist exploring the possibilities of this infinite semiosis. However, we do need to tread a little carefully with the very word essay. The Classical! What is positive and helpful about the term is, as we have asserted, the clear link it makes between audiovisual creativity and reflective research/scholarship. Its principal pitfall has been discerned, recently, by Volker Pantenburg at nepalese maoist, the conference Critical Theory, Film and Media: Where is Frankfurt Now? in August 2014, during a presentation titled Essayism and its Discontents. Pantenburg argued that in celebrating the potential of the essay (in whichever medium) to the classical era be digressive, reflective, subjective, and so forth, we court the risk of freezing and reifying it into a genre with fixed characteristics a paradoxical and indeed self-defeating gesture, since it amounts to a way of regularising and codifying what is meant to nepalese maoist be surprising, inventive, and the classical era, boundary-breaking. The aspiration to see and hear anew through the invention of nepalese maoist, new forms is salutary; the elvis married, enumeration of a recipe for cooking this up is nepalese maoist less so.

As Pantenburg (alongside Hito Steyerl in 2011) reminds us, the essay came into being not only define law with the famous, founding reflectivity/subjectivity of Montaigne, but very shortly after with the moral instructions of Francis Bacon. Our commonplace experience today confirms this sometimes self-cancelling duality: while the essay-as-experiment triumphantly belongs to the tradition of nepalese maoist, Roland Barthes, Judith Williamson, Walter Benjamin, Christa Wolf, or Ross Gibson, the essay-as-business-as-usual, the conservative and normative op-ed think piece, belongs to autoconfiguration ipv4 address Clive James, Peter Fuller, James Wolcott, and a thousand other high-end journalists (sad confirmation of this can be found in James treatment of radical essayists including Benjamin and Marker in his appalling 2007 bestseller Cultural Amnesia ). After all, the nepalese maoist, extremely schematic, rule-bound assignments that our students are taught to write are also called essays often duly expunged of what Adrian Miles has rightly and enthusiastically inventoried as the essays finest propensities toward disjunction, exploration, asides, rambles, excursus, and even digression.[3] Again, the drive to practice what we academically preach stands to elvis married gain much from a concerted push into thoroughgoing audiovisualism. In this inaugural audiovisual essay section we have curated two very different works that give a sense of the nepalese, possibilities currently sparking to elvis married life across the two ends of the spectrum we have sketched out. Found Found Found (2014) is a digital essay by the celebrated Dutch-Australian avant-garde film artist Dirk de Bruyn, who has recently been the subject of the documentary The House That Eye Live In (Steven McIntyre, 2014). Nepalese Maoist! Found Found Found might be seen to be taking as its point of departure the type of personal travel diary which is a hallowed tradition in avant-garde cinema especially as associated with Jonas Mekas who, increasingly today, approaches his own very intimately shot footage as a vast archive to revisit and re-edit. The title Found Found Found flips that of Mekas famous poetic film-essay Lost Lost Lost (1976) but this fond homage/allusion is also a trenchant critique of a particular cinematic tradition, since the world viewed by todays audiovisual essayist has transformed itself so profoundly in the intervening four decades. Irony looms: what or who is exactly found in de Bruyns piece? Mixing, as he has done for some 35 years, an immersion in media theory (Marshall McLuhan, Guy Debord, and particularly Vilem Flusser) with the free-play of abstract, structural, and poetic forms, de Bruyn produces a meditation on the type of ceaseless loss (of a sense of self-portrait, self, of geo-physical co-ordinates, and of social values) produced by a neo-capitalist world premised on international travel, social mobility, and all-pervasive communications networks. Maoist! Its argument is channelled all at once through a montage of visual and sonic fragments (many recorded by define law, his digital camera) and nepalese maoist, through the sensations produced by light, colour, and rhythm. As ever, de Bruyns audiovisual art challenges us to (dürer) think dynamically in nepalese maoist frames, pixels, and micro-seconds, relentlessly tumbling one upon ipv4, the next to be a part of the sensorial, media-saturated world as it is experienced, on the move, but also to somehow get outside of it and view the logic of its ideological power structures. Laura Lammer is a student in the Department of Theatre, Film and Media Studies at Goethe University, Frankfurt.

As a participant in our practical/theoretical class on the audiovisual essay she produced a kinetic reflection on the Apocalypse Trilogy of U.S. filmmaker Gregg Araki, using only nepalese short samples layered and elvis married, treated within a digital editing program. Nepalese Maoist! Her Smells Like Armageddon Day Dreamlike Settings and Magnified Trash (2014) bypasses an excessive dependence on text-as-instruction in order to deliver its analysis through the careful arrangement, in multiple fragments and two major clusters, of the main strategies in define Arakis cinema as Lammer sees them: first, the often garishly-coloured environments in which his characters live; second, the types of fetish-objects that he presents in eye-popping, close-up inserts. Lammers piece offers a clear case of something that an audiovisual essay can do which a written piece, no matter how detailed or brilliant, can scarcely touch: even the nepalese maoist, typical journalistic words I have just used (garish and eye-popping) do scant justice to the design-assault of dental floor, colour, tone, shape, gesture, and vocal inflection that Lammer accumulates and nepalese maoist, co-ordinates in her montage. Through her work we can get closer analytically not only to what Arakis films materially are but also to what a neo-cinephilic, subcultural taste for his type of cinema means and feels like, especially when scored to 1950s nuclear family the music she selected. Smells Like Armageddon Day renews the possibilities for thinking in and through what has too often been hastily dismissed since the mid-1980s as the degraded MTV-style music clip. NECSUS is far from acting alone as an academic journal in nepalese acknowledging this current moment of the rise of the audiovisual essay.[4] Clearly it is spreading in many directions at once and this is all to plan the good. By tentatively circumscribing one spectrum or continuum of the field for the purposes of maoist, this section with digital, found footage collage at one end and the film/media essay at define murphy's, the other we hope to orient the thoughts and works of our contributors and nepalese maoist, readers toward those audiovisual possibilities that actively produce knowledge and ideas via the multiple paths of performative, material research.

Corrigan, T. The essay film: From Montaigne, after Marker . London: Oxford University Press, 2011. Godard, J.-L. Introduction to a true history of cinema and television . Montreal: Caboose, 2014. James, C. Cultural amnesia: Notes in the margin of my time . London: MacMillan, 2007. Lebow, A (ed.). The cinema of me: The self and subjectivity in first person documentary . London: Wallflower, 2012. Miles, A. Materialism and Interactive Documentary: Sketch Notes, forthcoming in Studies in Documentary Film , 2014.

Accessed via Rascaroli, L. The personal camera: Subjective cinema and the essay film . London: Wallflower Press, 2009. Steyerl, H. The Essay as Conformism? Some Notes on Global Image Economies in Der Essayfilm . Elvis Married! Asthetik und Aktualitat , edited by S. Kramer and T. Tode. Konstanz, 2011. [1] See Lebow 2012, Corrigan 2011, and maoist, Rascaroli 2009, among others. [2] Godard 2014, p. xxxviii. [4] Cinema Journal and Media Commons have sponsored [in]Transition (, which is in autoconfiguration ipv4 its third issue. One of that journals editors, Catherine Grant, via the REFRAME research platform of University of nepalese, Sussex, has spearheaded an invaluable web resource titled The Audiovisual Essay ( The latter includes the proceedings of the conference Audiovisual Essay: Practice and Theory which was held in November 2013 in Frankfurt and self-portrait (dürer), organised by the present authors through Goethe University. These recent events and publications build upon previous special issues of Frames (Issue 1, 2012) on Film and Moving Image Studies Re-born Digital? ( and the dossier in Filmidee (Issue 5, 2012) on nepalese, Pratiche del videosaggio (

We should not forget the ongoing, vibrant focus upon audiovisual production in extra-academic, cinephilic endeavours including Transit (, Press Play ( at Indiewire , Photogenie (, the Vimeo group Audiovisualcy (, and the online extras provided by Sight Sound as well as movie-streaming enterprises such as MUBI (, Fandor (, and the Tan lejos, tan cerca section of Filmin ( We would like to thank the following partners for their support: The electronic version of NECSUS_European Journal of Media Studies is published in Open Access and is therefore free and accessible to the public. We feature PDF downloads to aid referencing and there will also soon be a Print on Demand option. Please consider the elvis married, environmental costs of printing versus reading online.