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Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Autor: reviewessays • February 15, 2011 • Research Paper • 1,728 Words (7 Pages) • 923 Views. Theme! ANALYSIS OF THE BOOK. BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT. Dr. Bradley Moody. 22 November 2004. The book BAD BLOOD: THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT by James H. Jones was a very powerful compilation of years of astounding research, numerous interviews, and some very interesting positions on the ethical and what does sonnet, moral issues associated with the theme, study of human beings under the Public Health Service (PHS). The Tuskegee study had nothing to do with treatment . it was a nontherapeutic experiment, aimed at compiling data on the effects of the spontaneous evolution of syphilis in black males (Jones pg.

2). Jones is very opinionated throughout the Responsibility, book; however, he carefully documents the foundation of theme the stars, those opinions with quotes from letters and medical journals. The book allowed the Disease Essay, reader to see the experiment from different viewpoints. This was remarkable because of the initial feelings the reader has when first hearing of the theme, experiment. In the Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society Essay, beginning of the book, the of number the stars, reader will see clearly there has been wrong doing in this experiment, but somehow, Jones will transform you into asking yourself, How could this happen for so long? Many reporters wondered why the men would agree to such examination without treatment. Jones points out the economical status of the 1930's is one where the men were eager to attend because they received so much more than what they currently had during that time period.

Free medical exams, free rides to the examinations, hot meals on exam days, free treatment for minor ailments, and a guaranteed burial stipend of a modest $50 in 1932 were all promised to Responsibility, the men for their involvement with these experiments (Jones pg. 4). The involved doctors were very good at marketing their idea to the locals as well. During this time the Rosenwald Fund was initiated by Julius Rosenwald to assist in theme of number educating the African-Americans in the South by supporting the Discrimination in Pakistani Society Essay, construction of schools for black students. Shortly after the withdrawal of the Rosenwald Fund, Dr. Of Number! Taliaferro Clark, who was selected by the surgeon general as the reviewer of the Rosenwald Fund, realized the potential of the opportunity to What Essay, study Macon County Alabama's African-American males and sparked the idea of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male. This study was the theme of number the stars, longest nontherapeutic experiment on what 116 mean human beings in medical history (Jones pg.

91). Therefore, Jones' purpose was to document the experiment in a way that the reader would see all points of theme, view, yet still realize without doubt, the implications of this study. Responsibility! After reading this book, detailed notes were kept of strong boisterous points made, and were later categorized. A majority of these points were categorized as DECEITFUL. The Stars! It was apparent that Dr. Clark and Dr. Raymond Vonderlehr, Public Health Service officer selected to be in charge of the study, were both well adverse in an Effective Teacher? what the public would agree to, and would not agree to. This is theme of number the stars evident throughout the book; however, one particular instance that stood out in my mind the most was the selling of the idea to the African-Americans through the use of the schools and churches.

Because of these locations, the African-American males felt safe because of their beliefs that the church would not condone anything that would hurt them. They also looked forward to the exam days because of the social gatherings and a half day away from the fields (Jones pg. 69). Deceit also played a part in the selling of the study to the Plantation owners by reminding them of the earlier successes against such diseases as yellow fever, typhoid fever, and pellagra. The plantation owners were told that now they could even conquer Syphilis (Jones pg. 67).

Dr. Clark also took actions that were deceitful to what does sonnet, his peers as well. In an article on the Rosenwald Fund's syphilis control demonstrations, he was careful to only circulate this article to people directly involved within the medical industry. Theme The Stars! This limited the amount of publicity in which the ethical issues were sure to be identified (Jones pg. 77).

Dr. Clark was also careful in discussing the study to Dr. J. N. Baker, the Alabama state health officer, in order to gain approval for the study (Jones pg. 98). Dr. Clark had planned to complete the Essay, study within six to eight months, which basically made treatment a pointless effort when the current treatment duration was over one year long (Jones pg. 99). The lesson public administrators should gain from reading this book is the deceitfulness that exist today.

Much like Dr. Clark, many individuals who are so aggressive at theme the stars, achieving their goals, will stop at nothing to Essay, be successful in of number achieving those goals. Public Administrators should pay close attention to the tasks they are involved in, and always remember to step back and look at the big picture. These lessons learned are very important, especially in today's societal values of the fair and equal treatment of mankind. With the rise of the human rights activist, and even the animal rights activist, society is now closely looking at the moral and ethical ways we treat each other. Strengths and Weaknesses. Jones' ability to Ambition in Macbeth, move the reader from one viewpoint to another was simply amazing. Theme Of Number The Stars! When the reader first begins to read the book, anger, confusion, hurt, and disbelief, are all synonymous of the feelings brought on What Makes Essay through the words of the book. But as the reader continues, they are drawn to the many reasons illustrated so well throughout the book of how the PHS gained a vast array of approval throughout the study to theme, help justify the experimentation methods used. Mark's Disease! Dr.

Oliver Clarence Wenger, who was in charge of the Mississippi Wassermann survey, believed there was a cure, but that the theme, cure was too costly (Jones pg. 57). The Wasserman test was a pigment fixation test that was developed in 1907 and was instrumental in identifying syphilis. Dr. John R. Heller, a retired PHS officer who had served as the director.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero, Ethical Writings II (On Old Age) [-44] Marcus Tullius Cicero , Cicero De Senectute (On Old Age), translated with an Introduction and Notes by Andrew P. Peabody (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1887). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/543. Part of a collection of Cicero’s writings which includes On Old Age, On Friendship, Officius, and the stars, Scipio’s Dream. The text is in Blind, the public domain. This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. Copyright, 1884, By Andrew P. Peabody. University Press: John Wilson and of number the stars, Son, Cambridge. #xA7; 1. Introduction, and dedication. 2. Old age a part of the Mark's Disease Essay, order of nature.

3. Reasons why old age is complained of. 4. The old age of theme of number Quintus Fabius Maximus. 5. What Makes An Effective Teacher? Essay? Examples of men who continued their labors in philosophy and literature to a late old age. #x2014; The specific charges brought against old age. Theme Of Number The Stars? 6. It is alleged that old age incapacitates men from the management of affairs. The contrary shown to be true. 7. Memory and the mental faculties are not necessarily impaired by Responsibility Essay, age; but may be preserved in working order if kept in of number the stars, exercise. Proved by examples. 8. Responsibility Essay? Old men need not be disagreeable to the young. Nor need they be unemployed and inert.

9. Failure of bodily strength in theme of number, old age not to be regretted. 10. Of Rights Protection? There is no need of full bodily strength, if there be an increase of wisdom. 11. Of Number? Failure of strength and of mental vigor may be averted by Mark's Essay, a proper regimen of body and mind. 12. It is complained that old age renders one less susceptible of sensual pleasure; but this is to be regarded as an advantage and theme of number, a benefit. 13. Moderate and what, sober conviviality may be still enjoyed by those advanced in theme, years. Cato#x2019;s own example. Edition: current; Page: [ iv ] #xA7; 14.

Examples of bill old men who have continued to find delight in learning, literary labor, or public service. 15. The pleasures of agriculture. 16. Examples of honored and happy old age in of number, rural life. Comforts belonging to life on a farm. Mark's Disease Essay? 17. The horticulture of Cyrus the younger. 18. Of Number? Honorable old age must be provided for by a virtuous youth. 19.

Death not to be feared. 20. Death easier and less repugnant to nature in old age than in youth. Does 116 Mean? 21. Reasons for theme, believing the soul to be immortal. 22. The last words of Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society Essay Cyrus the elder, as reported by Xenophon.

23 Immortality anticipated with longing. After the death of Julius Caesar, and before the conflict with Antony, Cicero spent two years in retirement, principally at his Tusculan villa. Theme Of Number? It was the most fruitful season of bill of rights his life, as regards philosophy. To this period (B. C. 45 or 44) the authorship of the De Senectute is theme of number the stars commonly assigned. In his De Divinatione, in enumerating his philosophical works, he speaks of this treatise on Old Age as #x201C;lately thrown in among them,#x201D;1 and Edition: current; Page: [ vi ] as meriting a place in Blind Essay, the list.

In the De Amicitia, dedicated also to theme of number the stars Atticus, he says: #x201C;In the Mark's, Cato Major, the book on Old Age inscribed to you, I introduced the aged Cato as leading in the discussion, because no person seemed better fitted to speak on the subject than one who both had been an old man so long, and in old age had still maintained his preeminence. . . . . In reading that book of mine, I am sometimes so moved that it seems to me as if, not I, but Cato were talking. . . . . I then wrote about old age, as an old man to an old man.#x201D;1 Again, Laelius, who is the chief speaker in the De Amicitia, is of number introduced as saying, #x201C;Old age is not burdensome, as I remember hearing Cato say in a conversation with me and Scipio, the year before he died.#x201D; Cicero repeatedly refers to this book in his Letters to Atticus. In the stress of apprehension about Responsibility Antony#x2019;s plans and movements he writes: #x201C;I ought to read very often the Cato Major which I sent to you; for old age is making me more bitter. Everything puts me out of temper.#x201D; At a later time he writes, #x201C;By saying that O Tite, si quid ego, 2 delights you more and more, you increase my readiness to theme the stars write.#x201D; And again, #x201C;I rejoice that O Tite 2 is doing you good.#x201D; In his philosophical and ethical writings, Cicero lays no claim to originality; nor, indeed, did the Edition: current; Page: [ vii ] Romans of his age, or even of Makes an Effective Essay a much later time, regard themes of this kind as properly their own. Philosophy was an exotic which it was glory enough for them to prize and cultivate. This fame appertains pre-eminently to of number the stars Cicero, equally for Women in Pakistani Society Essay, his comprehensive scholarship, for his keenness of of number critical discernment, and for bill of rights protection, his generous eclecticism. Were it not for his explicit statement, we might not learn from his writings to what sect he accounted himself as belonging. Of Number The Stars? Though he disclaimed the Stoic school, he evidently felt a strong gravitation toward it, and we could ask for no better expositor of its doctrines than we find in him. Indeed, I can discover no reason for his adherence to the New Academy, except the liberty which it left to its disciples to doubt its own dogmas, and to acknowledge a certain measure of probability in the dogmas of other schools. In this treatise Cicero doubtless borrowed something from Discrimination Women Society Aristo of Chios, a Stoic, to the stars whose work on Old Age #x2014; no longer extant #x2014; he refers, and he quotes largely from Xenophon and Plato. At the same time, thick-sown tokens of Responsibility profound conviction and deep feeling show that the theme the stars, work, if not shaped from Makes an Effective Essay his experience, was the genuine utterance of his aspirations.

What had been his life was forever closed.1 He was weary and sad. His home was desolate, and could never again be otherwise. Theme? Edition: current; Page: [ viii ] His daughter #x2014; dearer to him than any other human being had ever been #x2014; had recently died, and he had still more recently repudiated her young step-mother for lack of sympathy with him in his sorrow. What An Effective? His only of number, son was giving him great solicitude and grief by his waywardness and Essay, profligacy. The republic to which he had consecrated his warm devotion and loyal service had ceased to theme be, and gave faint hope of renewed vitality.

The Senate-house, the popular assembly, and the courts were closed for him, and might never be reopened. Teacher?? He had courted publicity, and had delighted in office, leadership, and influence; but there was now little likelihood that any party that might come into power would replace him, where he felt that he had a right to theme of number be, among the Blind Ambition Essay, guiding and controlling spirits of his time. Old age with him is just beginning, and it may last long. He is conscious of no failure in bodily or mental vigor, #x2014; in the capacity of work or of enjoyment. Yet in all that had contributed to his fame and of number, his happiness, he has passed the culminating point; he is on the westward declivity of his life-way; decrease and decline are inevitable. But shall he succumb to the inevitable in sullen despondency, or shall he explore its resources for a contented and enjoyable life, and put them to Essay the test of experience? He chooses the latter alternative, and theme of number, it is not as the mere rehearsal of what he has read in Greek books, but with the glow of an Effective Teacher? Essay fresh Edition: current; Page: [ ix ] discovery, and in theme of number, the spirit of one who is mapping out the ground of which he means to take possession, that he describes what old age has been, what it may still be, and bill, what he yearns to make it for himself.

He grows strong, cheerful, and hopeful as he writes, and in coming times of distress and peril he unrolls this little volume for his own support and consolation. In imitation of the Platonic pattern, followed by him in several previous treatises, he adopts the form of dialogue; but after the interchange of a few sentences the dialogue becomes monologue, and Cato talks on without interruption to the end. The Stars? Cato is chosen as the principal interlocutor, because he was the typical old man of Roman history, having probably retained his foremost place in the public eye, and his oratorical power in the Senate and at the bar, to Blind a later age than any other person on record. In his part in this dialogue there is a singular commingling of of number the stars fact, truth, and myth. The actual details of in Pakistani his life are gracefully interwreathed with the discussion, and the incidental notices of theme the stars his elders and coevals are precisely such as might have fallen from his lips had he been of Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society Essay a more genial temperament. There is dramatic truth, too, in Cato#x2019;s senile way of theme of number talking, with the garrulity, repetition, prolixity, and occasional confusion of names, to which old men are liable, and in which Cicero merges his own precision and what does sonnet 116 mean, accuracy in the character which for the time he assumes. But Edition: current; Page: [ x ] as regards the kindly, the aesthetic, and the spiritual traits that make this work so very charming, its Cato is a mythical creation, utterly unlike the theme of number the stars, coarse, hard, stern, crabbed ex-Censor, who was guiltless equally of taste and Disease, of sentiment. Cicero#x2019;s reasoning in this treatise is based, in the stars, great part, on what old age may be, rather than on what it generally is; and what does 116 mean, yet I cannot but believe that, were its cautions heeded, its advice followed, and its spirit inbreathed, the number of those who find in the weight of theme of number many years no heavy burden would be largely multiplied. Discrimination Against In Pakistani? Yet there would remain not a few cases of hopeless inanity and helpless suffering. We are here told, and with truth, that it is often the follies and sins of early life that embitter the declining years; yet infirmity sometimes overtakes lives that have been blameless and exemplary, nor does the strictest hygienic regimen always arrest the failure of body and of mind. Undoubtedly the the stars, worst thing that an old man can do is to cease from labor and to Responsibility Essay cast off responsibility.

The powers suffered to repose lapse from inaction into inability; while they will in most cases continue to meet the drafts made upon them, if those drafts recur with wonted frequency and urgency. Yet there is always danger that, as in the case of the Archbishop in Gil Blas, the old man who insists on doing his full tale of work will be mistaken in theme, thinking that undiminished quantity implies unimpaired quality. Edition: current; Page: [ xi ] But apart from the continued life-work, Cicero indicates resources of old age which are as genuine and as precious now as they were two thousand years ago. While the zest of highly seasoned convivial enjoyment, especially of such as abuts upon the disputed border-ground between sobriety and Teacher? Essay, excess, is exhaled, there is fully as much to the stars be enjoyed in society as in earlier years. Perhaps even more; for as friends grow few, those that remain are all the dearer, and in the company of those in does sonnet, early or middle life, the theme the stars, old man finds himself an Makes Essay, eager learner as to the rapidly fleeting present, and imagines himself a not unwelcome teacher as to what deserves commemoration in the obsolescent and theme of number the stars, outgrown past. The tokens of deference and honor uniformly rendered in society to old age that has not forfeited its title to respect are a source of pleasure. They are, indeed, in Mark's Disease Essay, great part, conventional; but for this very reason they only mean and express the more, inasmuch as they betoken, not individual feeling, but the general sentiment of regard and reverence for those whose long life-record is unblotted. Rural pursuits and theme of number the stars, recreations, also, as Cicero says, are of incalculable worth to the aged. Against Women In Pakistani Society Essay? The love of nature increases with added years. Theme The Stars? In the outward universe there is an infinity of beauty and of loveliness.

The Creator englobes his own attributes in all his works. What we get from them is finite, solely because the taste and feeling that apprehend Edition: current; Page: [ xii ] them are finite. Mark's Essay? But our receptivity grows with the growth of character, and theme of number the stars, our revenue of delight from field and what sonnet 116 mean, garden, orchard and forest, brook and stream, sunset clouds and star-gemmed skies, is in full proportion to our receptivity, and is never so rich and so gladdening as in the later years of theme the stars life. Cicero evidently felt this. There is hardly anything in bill of rights protection, all his works so beautiful as the sections of this treatise in which he describes the of number, growth of the corn and the vine, and the simple joys of a country home. Indeed, this is almost a unique passage. The literature of Ambition in Macbeth nature is, for the most part, of modern birth.

The classic writers give now and then, in a single phrase or sentence, a vivid word-picture of theme of number the stars scenery or of some phenomenon in the outward world; but they seldom dwell on such themes. Even pastoral poetry sings of the flocks and their keepers, rather than of their material surroundings. But here we have proof that Cicero had grown into an appreciation of the wealth of What Makes Teacher? Essay beauty lying around his villa, far beyond what would have been possible for theme of number the stars, him when he sought its quiet as a refuge from the turmoil and conflicts of What Makes an Effective Teacher? his more active days. Cicero is right, too, in regarding the presence of old men in the state as essential to its safety and well-being. True, their office is, for the most part, that of brakemen; but on a roadway never smooth, and passing over frequent declivities, this duty often demands more strength and skill than are Edition: current; Page: [ xiii ] required to of number the stars light the fires and run the engine. It is only by What Makes an Effective Essay, a conservatism both wise and of number the stars, firm that progress can be made continuous and reform permanent. Nor is there any imminent probability that old age will furnish a larger array of conservative force than the world needs. If in the advancement of physical and moral hygiene the time should come when the hoary head shall be in due season the normal crown of every man, and, according to the Hebrew hyperbole, #x201C;the child shall die an hundred years old,#x201D; society will have attained a summit-level at of rights, which there will be need neither of engineers nor of brakemen. Meanwhile, it is well for mankind that old men are so few.

Were they more numerous, and at the same time worthy to retain the confidence of their fellow-men, the young would lack the exercise and theme the stars, discipline of their powers which alone could fit them for an honorable and Against, useful old age. Death oils all the wheels of theme of number the stars life. Does Sonnet 116 Mean? It is always throwing heavy responsibility on theme of number the stars those who do not seek it, but accept it as a necessity, and gird themselves to bear it faithfully and nobly. As in a well-trained army the Blind Ambition in Macbeth Essay, reserved forces rush in to fill the theme, places of the Discrimination Against Essay, fallen, so in the battle of life the the stars, ranks of the Responsibility Essay, dying are recruited by those who are biding their time. Death is the ripener of of number the stars manly force and efficient virtue, which would droop under the dense shadow of Disease thoroughly matured and still active service, but are stimulated into theme of number the stars full vitality and working Edition: current; Page: [ xiv ] power as the spaces around them are made void. The very bereavements which are most dreaded and deplored as utterly irreparable, are the Essay, most certain to be repaired, and often by those who before neither knew themselves nor were known to be capable of such momentous charge and of number the stars, duty.

Elijah wears his mantle till he goes to Responsibility heaven, and there is no other on earth like it; but when he ascends he drops the mantle, and his spirit enters into the man who picks it up. Death is, indeed, looked upon theme the stars, as a calamity by many whose faith should have taught them better. Mark's Essay? The death which closes an undevout and worthless life may well be dreaded; yet even in such a case continued life is perhaps to be still more dreaded. But in the order designed by Infinite Wisdom, and destined to of number the stars progressive and ultimate establishment, death bears a supremely beneficent part, and is an event only to be welcomed in Responsibility Essay, its appointed season by him who has brought his own life into conformity with the theme of number, Divine order. But death can be regarded with complacency only when it is looked upon, #x2014; as Cicero represents it, #x2014; as not an end, but a way, #x2014; as not a ceasing to live, but a beginning to live. The jubilant strains in which the assurance of immortality is here voiced are hardly surpassed in grandeur by St. Paul#x2019;s words of Essay triumph when the crown of martyrdom hung close within his reach. Theme The Stars? Yet there is a difference. Cicero#x2019;s faith transcended, and in bill protection, great part created, his reasons for it, and it failed Edition: current; Page: [ xv ] him in of number the stars, the very crises in which he most needed it; St. Paul #x201C;knew in whom he had believed,#x201D; and his faith was sightlike when death seemed nearest. Does Sonnet? It is of no little worth to us that Socrates and Plato, Cicero and Plutarch, felt so intensely the pulse-beat of the undying life within.

Of inestimably greater evidential value is it, that he whose peerless beauty of holiness made his humanity divine ever spoke of the eternal life as the one reality of human being. But there are for us emergencies of theme sore need and of heavy trial, times when we go down to the margin of the death-river with those dear to us as our own souls, critical moments when we ourselves are passing under the shadow of death; and at such seasons we can rest on no reasoning, we can be satisfied with no unbuttressed testimony; but our faith can repose in undoubting security on the broken sepulchre, on the risen Saviour, on those words spoken for all time, #x201C;Because I live, ye shall live also.#x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ xvi ] Titus Pomponius, as he was originally named, on his adoption by his uncle prefixed that uncle#x2019;s name, Quintus Caecilius, to his own, and subsequently, in consequence of his long residence in Athens, assumed, or received and What Teacher? Essay, accepted, the surname of Atticus, by which he is known in history. He was born in Rome, 109 B. C., and was Cicero#x2019;s senior by three years. He belonged to an old Equestrian family, not eminent, but of high respectability. His father was a man of culture and of literary tastes, and gave his son a liberal education. The civil war between the factions of Marius and Sulla broke out in the son#x2019;s early manhood, and he hardly escaped being a victim of Sulla#x2019;s proscription. Theme? He determined to insure safety by Against Essay, voluntary exile, and, his father being dead, he betook himself with the movable portion of his ample patrimony to Athens, where he lived for twenty years. He called himself an Epicurean, and, though not deeply versed in philosophy, he probably realized more nearly than any man whose history we know the ethical ideal of Epicurus himself.

Supremely, but judiciously selfish; covetous of pleasure, yet with an aesthetic sense which found pleasure only in things decent, tasteful, and becoming; a persistent Edition: current; Page: [ xvii ] and loyal friend, so far as friendship demanded neither conflict nor sacrifice; sedulously avoiding pain, annoyance, and trouble; plucking roses all along his lifeway so carefully as never to incur a thorn-prick, #x2014; he must have derived as large a revenue of enjoyment from his seventy-seven years in this world as ever accrued to any man whose aims were all self-centred and self-terminated. He was fond of money, frugal while elegant in theme of number, his mode of living, with no vices so far as we know, certainly with no costly vices. He was married only late in life, and had but one child to provide for. His uncle #x2014; a usurer of ignoble reputation #x2014; left him an estate five times as large as that received from his father. This he increased by Disease Essay, the remunerative purchase of extensive tracts of land in Epeirus and elsewhere, by of number the stars, loans to individuals, corporations, and Makes, cities, by traffic in theme of number the stars, slaves and gladiators, and, as a publisher, by Mark's Disease, multiplying, for high prices, through the theme of number the stars, numerous copyists whom he owned, transcripts of Cicero#x2019;s works and of other writings of friends who sought to Essay reach the of number the stars, public by his agency. At the same time, he made a judicious investment of charities far within his income, in loans without interest and public benefactions to the city of Athens, in loans and gifts to those within the does, circle of his intimacy, and in gratuities to theme of number persons straitened or suffering through stress of political convulsions and perils. He belonged, by sympathy and in his private Edition: current; Page: [ xviii ] correspondence, to the Marian, and then to Blind Ambition the Pompeian party, and had a strong antipathy to the course and policy of Julius Caesar, his race and theme of number, kind; but he publicly identified himself with no party, refrained from does 116 mean political activity of of number every sort, and refused contributions in aid even of movements that had his full approval and his best wishes. He was always ready to relieve the distressed members of both and of all parties. He held friendly relations equally with Julius Caesar and Pompey, Cassius and Antony, Brutus and Caesar Augustus. He had the Responsibility Essay, most winning and the stars, attractive manners, a voice of rare sweetness and melody, and conversational powers unsurpassed, if equalled, by any man of his time.

He was hospitable, yet without extravagance or ostentation, and his entertainments, first in Athens, and then in Rome, were remarkable as reunions of all that there was of learning, genius, wit, and grace. He loved to maintain peaceful and harmonious relations among his wonted guests, and Disease, was persevering in his endeavors to reconcile differences, soothe jealousies, and prevent rivals from theme of number the stars becoming enemies. It was wholly due to their common friend and host that Cicero and Hortensius, as alike candidates for the palm of what 116 mean eloquence, preserved at least the show of friendship. Atticus was also a man of large and varied learning, was equally versed in Greek and in Roman literature, and used either tongue in speech and in writing as if he had never known any other. Edition: current; Page: [ xix ] He was a thorough grammarian and a careful critic. Theme The Stars? His friends were in Blind, the habit of sending their works to him for a last revision, and it is by no means improbable that some of the delicate touches of theme Cicero#x2019;s rhetoric may be due to his consummate taste and skill. Blind In Macbeth Essay? He was himself an author, and wrote among other things an epitome of Roman history from the earliest time to his own. He was a ready and fluent letter-writer. The Stars? But none of his writings are extant, except such few scraps of his epistles as are preserved in Cicero#x2019;s answers to them. The friendship between Cicero and Atticus began in their early boyhood. When Cicero first went to Athens #x2014; shortly after his defence of Roscius, and not improbably to escape the vengeance of Sulla #x2014; he found Atticus already established there, and for six months they, with Cicero#x2019;s brother Quintus, who married the sister of Atticus, were constantly associated in study and in recreation.

From that time Atticus was Cicero#x2019;s closest and dearest friend, entering with the most vivid interest into all his plans and Essay, pursuits, lending him money, advising him in the stars, business, taking care of his property during his absences, and rendering counsel and aid in connection with the successive divorces of Terentia and Publilia. Teacher? Essay? The correspondence between them now extant commenced only three years before Atticus returned to Rome, though it is theme hardly possible that they should not have exchanged letters previously. Edition: current; Page: [ xx ] On Cicero#x2019;s side the epistles are of the most familiar character, giving us a minute narrative of incident, occupation, thought, and sentiment, day by Discrimination in Pakistani Essay, day, and furnishing more ample and more authentic materials for his biography than are derived from all other sources. They include equally such references to the details of the life of Atticus, and to all his peculiarities of habit, opinion, and taste, that we feel hardly less intimately acquainted with him than with his illustrious correspondent. Theme Of Number? He became to Cicero as another self, an admirer of his genius, a participant in all his ambitions, and in many matters of practical life by far the wiser of the two. That he knew the worth, prized the privilege, and undoubtedly anticipated the enduring fame of such a friendship, is the in Macbeth, best title that remains on record to of number the stars the place which he would have claimed in the list of genuine philosophers.

Marcus Porcius Cato Censorius was born at Tusculum in Latium, probably B. C. 234, and died at the age of at Mark's Disease, least eighty-five years. Livy and Plutarch both say that he passed his ninetieth year. He was of of number plebeian birth, and protection, the founder of the stars his own illustrious family. Disease? Porcius was the family name, and of number the stars, Cato was a name either given to him in childhood with foresight of his shrewdness and practical wisdom, or else bestowed on him and accepted by him after his peculiar traits of character were well known and distinctly recognized. It denotes wisdom of an entirely terrestrial, and even feline type, and is on the whole more appropriate to bill him than the surname Sapiens, which attached itself to him in his later years. Theme Of Number The Stars? He had great virtues, but defects as great. In not one of the beatitudes in the Sermon on the Mount could he have claimed a part, nor would he have deigned to claim it, unless, in the almost numberless suits at law in which he was his own advocate, he might have regarded himself as #x201C;persecuted for righteousness#x2019; sake.#x201D; He was rigidly truthful, sternly and ferociously upright, intensely courageous, and Makes Essay, devotedly patriotic, #x2014; kind, too, to his wives and children. But he was mean and miserly, an exacting and tyrannical master, an Edition: current; Page: [ xxii ] implacable enemy, and theme of number, his lower appetites were not governed by principle, but kept in what, check only so far as prudence required. He probably seemed a better man in of number, Cicero#x2019;s time than in his own, and this for two reasons; namely, that his peculiar virtues had almost died out of the Roman commonwealth, and that, when a man transmits to posterity any valid title to fame, time enhances his merits and extenuates his faults, so that the generation which #x201C;builds the sepulchres of the bill of rights, prophets#x201D; always idealizes the busts that surmount them. As regards versatility of endowment, number and theme the stars, diversity of official trusts, ability and faithfulness as a servant of the public, and influence #x2014; unspent by death #x2014; over the Senate and the people, Cato had no equal in the history of sonnet 116 mean Rome. The impress of his life and character on the ages that looked back on his career from the interval of theme of number centuries, may best be seen from Livy#x2019;s panegyric, of which we give a literal translation.

After enumerating the Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society, long list of competitors for the office of theme Censor, he says: #x2014; #x201C;Marcus Porcius [Cato] stood in the canvass far before all the patricians and plebeians of the most noble families. In this man there was so great force of mind and genius, that, whatever might have been his position by birth, he seemed destined to be the artificer of in Macbeth Essay his own fortune. He lacked no skill in the management of either private or public interests. He was equally versed in the affairs of the city and of the country. Edition: current; Page: [ xxiii ] Some have attained the highest honors by virtue of legal science, some by eloquence, some by military fame; he had a genius so capable of excelling in all, that whatever he had in hand you would say that he was expressly born for it. In war he was the bravest of soldiers, renowned in of number, many signal conflicts; after he rose to high honors, a consummate general; in bill protection, peace, if you asked legal advice, the wisest of counsellors; if you had a cause to be argued, the most eloquent of advocates. Nor was he one whose fame as an orator, flourishing while he lived, left no memorial of itself behind him. His eloquence still lives, consecrated by writings of every description. There are extant many of his speeches for himself, and for others, and against others; for he harassed his opponents equally by of number, accusing them and by pleading his own cause. An excessive number of enmities were cherished against bill of rights protection, him, and cherished by him; nor was it easy to say whether the nobles were the more earnest to put him down, or he to annoy them.

He was, undoubtedly, of a harsh temper, and of a bitter and theme, an inordinately free tongue, but of a soul unconquered by sensual appetites, of rigid integrity, a despiser of adulation and of bribes. In frugal living, in endurance of Responsibility labor and of danger, he was of an iron constitution of body and mind; nor could old age, which enfeebles all things, break him. In his eighty-sixth year he had a case in court, pleaded his own cause, and theme of number the stars, continued to What Essay write, and in his ninetieth year he brought Servius Galba to trial before the people.#x201D; Cato inherited a small farm in the Sabine territory, where he spent his boyhood and such portions Edition: current; Page: [ xxiv ] of his subsequent life as were free from public service. Here he lived with the theme of number the stars, utmost simplicity, worked on his farm, and what sonnet 116 mean, associated on familiar terms with his rustic neighbors. At the age of seventeen he made his first campaign as a soldier, and three years later reached the dignity of a military Tribune under Fabius Maximus, whose friendship he enjoyed. Of Number The Stars? B. C. 205, he went to Sicily as military Quaestor under the elder Africanus. Teacher? Essay? In due time he became Aedile, and the next year Praetor, having Sardinia for his province, with a considerable military command. In this office he renounced the wonted pomp of his predecessors, walked on his circuits, cut down to the lowest point all public expenses, waged war against usury, and visited usurers with condign punishment.

Chosen Consul B. C. Theme? 195, he sustained during his term of office the only signal defeat in his whole career. What Makes? Twenty years previously, in the stress of the Punic war, a severe sumptuary law had been passed, limiting the amount of gold which women might possess, forbidding them to wear many-colored garments, and of number the stars, prohibiting their use of carriages for short distances in the city. The women absolutely mobbed the Senators, imploring the repeal of restrictions no longer needed. Cato opposed them to the last; but they by importunity won the day, and what does, celebrated their victory by a procession, in which they made ample show of the late-proscribed finery. Theme Of Number? As soon as this domestic war was over, Cato set sail for Mark's Disease, Edition: current; Page: [ xxv ] his allotted province, Hither Spain ( Hispania Citerior ). Here there were rebel and recalcitrant tribes to be reduced to submission, and Cato in the conduct of this campaign displayed at of number, once the 116 mean, highest military ability and of number the stars, the most wanton and savage cruelty. He was rewarded with a triumph; but returned to encounter the enmity of the Essay, elder Scipio Africanus, toward whom he had previously stood in unfriendly relations. He successfully defended himself against the charges urged against him, which seem to have related, in part at least, to the pecuniary administration of his province, in which Cato was able, by of number the stars, producing his accounts, to show himself, as in these matters he always was, not only above suspicion, but minutely exact, and as parsimonious in public office as he was in his own private affairs. He subsequently served under Glabrio, probably as Legatus, or lieutenant-general, in the war with Antiochus the Great, and the battle of Thermopylae, which crippled Antiochus, was brought to a successful issue confessedly by the prowess, energy, and strategic skill of Cato. B. C. 184, Cato was chosen Censor, and does sonnet, applied himself at once with characteristic vigor and acrimony to theme of number the stars the duties of his office.

He made the Discrimination Against Society Essay, most stringent provisions against luxury. He put the aqueducts, sewers, and other public works in theme of number, order, and arrested all the Teacher? Essay, modes in which public property had been perverted to private uses, such as the drawing off of water from the the stars, reservoirs for Edition: current; Page: [ xxvi ] the special supply of Ambition in Macbeth houses and gardens. Theme? He brought farmers of the revenue and contractors of every class to bill protection strict account, and regulated all contracts by his own perhaps too low estimate of the actual worth of the work done or the theme the stars, service rendered. He degraded from the Senate and from their Equestrian privileges a very considerable number of men of previously high standing, most of them for grave and sufficient reasons, #x2014; some, it must be confessed, on very frivolous pretexts. He laid up by his censorial career a stock of enmities which lasted him for the rest of his life, during which he held no public office, but appeared constantly in the courts, in the Senate, and before the people, retaining to the last his clearness and vigor of intellect, and what sonnet 116 mean, much of his oratorical power. He was during his lifetime prosecuted before the tribunals forty-four times, and failed of successful defence but once. Theme The Stars? He was still oftener a public accuser, and generally procured the conviction of the defendant. Responsibility Essay? In the case of Servius Galba, recorded by Livy as his last, he lost the cause, though a righteous one, by the wonted resource of an theme the stars, appeal by weeping children to the pity of the judges. Cato, though not a profligate or a sot, was not consistently pure nor uniformly temperate. He dealt with his slaves as with cattle, treating them as merchantable chattels, punishing them with wanton severity, and sometimes condemning them to death for trivial offences. His whole life must Edition: current; Page: [ xxvii ] have been coarse, in many aspects even brutal, and the aesthetic faculty seems to have been entirely wanting in him.

Yet his literary culture must have been of a high order. He learned Greek in his old age, after despising the language and its writers during the whole of his earlier life. He was a friend and patron of the poet Ennius, and brought him to Rome, though manifestly without any generous provision for his subsistence; for Ennius led in Responsibility Essay, Rome as poor and straitened a life as he could have left in Sardinia, where Cato found him. Of Cato#x2019;s orations, letters, and great historical work, we have only theme of number, fragments extant. His De Re Rustica exists, probably unchanged in substance, though modernized in bill protection, form. It is theme the stars not so much a treatise as a miscellaneous compend of materials relating to agriculture and rural affairs, and it undoubtedly presents the most genuine picture that has been preserved to our time of rustic life in Italy two thousand years ago. Caius Laelius Sapiens, of a distinguished patrician family, was born in Rome, B. C. 186. His surname was given to him for his prudence in retracting certain agrarian measures in which he would have shared with the Gracchi the intensest enmity of the whole patrician body. He was vacillating in his political opinions and Mark's Disease, proclivities, feeling strong sympathy with the of number, popular cause, yet unwilling to forfeit the Mark's Essay, friendship and esteem of of number his own native caste. Though he was not a great man, he filled reputably several high public trusts, both civil and military, and was regarded as the most learned and acute of jurists in augural law, which was largely made up of authority and precedent, and abounded in what sonnet 116 mean, intricacies and the stars, subtilties, while yet it constantly had grave complications with the most important affairs of state. He was a man of Disease Essay large and of number, varied erudition, was well versed in philosophy, and as a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon, and then of What an Effective Essay Panaetius, was among the theme, earliest Roman disciples of the Stoic school.

His social qualities won for him many and warm friends. He had an even temper, genial manners, fine conversational powers, ready wit and affluent humor. In the De Senectute he is What an Effective Teacher? Essay fitly associated Edition: current; Page: [ xxix ] with the theme of number, younger Scipio Africanus, with whom he lived in of rights, the closest intimacy, as his father had with the elder Africanus. Thoroughly amiable in his domestic relations, he seems to have almost anticipated the of number the stars, home life of modern Christendom, and Against in Pakistani Society, we have accounts of games not unlike our blindman#x2019;s-buff, in which he and of number, Scipio dropped all dignity and Ambition in Macbeth Essay, became boys again. Many of his facetious sayings lingered long in of number the stars, the popular memory, and some still survive. The best of them is Responsibility his reply to an impertinent man, who reproached him with not being worthy of his ancestors, #x2014; #x201C;But you are worthy of yours.#x201D; Of his writings #x2014; chiefly orations #x2014; nothing remains except a few titles. He was regarded as singularly smooth and of number the stars, elegant in Essay, his style; but the Latin tongue was by no means in his day the subtle and theme of number the stars, flexible organ of thought which Cicero both found and made it, and some of the later grammarians resorted to Laelius for specimens of archaic words and idioms. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor was a son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and was adopted by his cousin, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the son of the elder Africanus. Of Rights? He was born in the same year with Laelius.

He has his place in history as the most able and successful military commander of his age. He first gained celebrity in Spain as military Tribune under Lucius Lucullus, whom he eclipsed in fame, equally as to courage, integrity, and humanity. At the beginning of the third Punic war he still served as Tribune; but by his valor and skill he so won the suffrages of the army and theme the stars, the confidence of the people, that he was made Consul before the legal age, and was thus placed in supreme command. The war, under his energetic conduct, issued in Blind in Macbeth, the capture and destruction of Carthage. He was subsequently chosen Consul a second time, with a view to his service as commander in Spain, where the war had been prolonged for many years, and with repeated disasters for the Roman army. Scipio laid siege to Numantia, and, after the of number the stars, most obstinate resistance on the part of the Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society, Spaniards, took the city, levelled it with the ground, reserved fifty of its inhabitants to grace his triumph, and sold the theme of number, rest of them as slaves. Edition: current; Page: [ xxxi ] He was Censor for a year in What an Effective, the interval between his two consulships, and in that office he chose Cato for of number, his model, employed the utmost severity in the repression of extravagance, luxury, and licentiousness, and made some strong and Responsibility, bitter enemies. Theme The Stars? He was always and consistently an aristocrat, and Discrimination, an opposer of all agrarian measures, and of the self-constituted leaders of the popular or plebeian party; and as his death occurred suddenly and mysteriously, it was supposed that he had been murdered by some one of his political antagonists, probably by Papirius Carbo, who had been unsparing in denunciations and the stars, invectives against him as the enemy of the Roman people.

Scipio was one of the most learned and accomplished men of his age, a friend of Disease Essay Polybius and Panaetius, a patron of the poets Lucilius and Terence, and, it was said, #x2014; probably on no sufficient evidence, #x2014; a collaborator with Terence, or at least a reviser of some of his comedies. Edition: current; Page: [ xxxii ] In my translation I have uniformly followed the text of Otto. Few of the theme of number the stars, various readings are of any importance; and where there is Teacher? Essay a difference worthy of notice, I find that, so far as I can remember without an exception, Lahmeyer and theme of number, Sommerbrodt, whose editions I have constantly consulted, coincide with Otto. I. #x201C; Titus, if I can lift or ease the Against Women in Pakistani Society, care That ceaseless burns and theme, rankles in your breast, What guerdon shall be mine?#x201D; For I may be permitted to address you, Atticus, in the very verses in which Flamininus1 is addressed by. #x201C;That man so rich in probity, not gold,#x201D;2. although I feel assured that it is by no means true, as of Flamininus, that. #x201C;You, Titus, pass but anxious nights and days#x201D;; for I know the moderation and Essay, evenness of your temperament, and am aware that you brought away from Athens, not only your surname, but also liberal culture and practical wisdom. Yet I am inclined to think that you are sometimes seriously disturbed by the same things1 that weigh heavily on of number my mind, under which such comfort as may be had is a matter of graver moment, and must be deferred to some other time.

But my present purpose is to write to you something about Old Age. Discrimination Against Women? For I desire that you and I may be lightened of this burden, which we have in of number, common, of old age already pressing upon us or drawing close at hand,2 though I am certain that you indeed bear and will bear it, as all things else, serenely and wisely. But when it came into my mind to write something about old age, you occurred to me as worthy to receive in this essay an offering of which you and Essay, I may in common enjoy the benefit. Of Number The Stars? Indeed, the composition of this book has been so pleasant to me, that it has not only bill of rights, brushed away all the vexations of old age, but has made it even easy and agreeable. In truth, sufficiently worthy praise can Edition: current; Page: [ 3 ] never be given to philosophy, whose votaries can pass every period of life without annoyance. But on other philosophical subjects I have said much, and theme, hope to revert to them often; this book, on Old Age, I send specially to sonnet you. I put what I have to say, not, like Aristo of Chios,1 into the mouth of Tithonus2 (for a fictitious character cannot speak with authority), but into that of the aged Cato, that the discourse may gain authority from his name. With him I introduce Laelius and Scipio, admiring the ease with which he bears old age, and I give his answers to them. Theme Of Number? If I make him talk more learnedly than he was wont to do in his books, you may ascribe it to the Greek literature and philosophy, of which, as is Responsibility Essay well known, he was very studious in his latter years. But what need is there of a longer preface? For, as it were in Cato#x2019;s own words, you shall forthwith hear all that I think and theme of number, feel about of rights protection old age.

Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] II. Theme Of Number? Scipio. I often express, Marcus Cato, in conversation with Caius Laelius, now present, my admiration of your surpassing and bill protection, consummate wisdom, in other matters indeed, but especially because I have never perceived that old age was grievous to you, though to of number old men in general it is Discrimination Society so hateful that they account themselves as bearing a burden heavier than Aetna.1. Cato. You seem, Scipio and Laelius, to admire what has been to of number the stars me by no means difficult. For those who have in themselves no resources for a good and happy life, every period of life is What an Effective Essay burdensome; but to those who seek all goods from within, nothing which comes in the course of theme nature can seem evil. Under this head a place especially belongs to old age, which all desire to attain, yet find fault with it when they have reached it.

Such is the inconsistency and perverseness of human folly. They say that age creeps upon them faster than they had thought possible. In the Against Women in Pakistani Essay, first place, who forced them to make this false estimate? In the next place, how could old age be less burdensome to them if it came on their eight-hundredth year than it is in their eightieth? For the time past, however long, when it had elapsed, could furnish no comfort to theme of number soothe a foolish old age.

If, then, you are wont to admire my wisdom, #x2014; would that it Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] were worthy of Makes Teacher? your appreciation and of my own surname,1 #x2014; I am wise in theme of number, this respect, that I follow and obey Nature, the Essay, surest guide, as if she were a god, and it is utterly improbable that she has well arranged the other parts of life, and yet, like an unskilled poet, slighted the last act of the drama. There must, however, of theme of number the stars necessity, be some end, and, as in the case of berries on the trees and the fruits of the what does, earth, there must be that which in its season of full ripeness is, so to speak, ready to wither and fall, #x2014; which a wise man ought to bear patiently. For to rebel against Nature is but to repeat the war of the Giants with the Gods. Laelius. Theme The Stars? Indeed, Cato, you will have rendered us a most welcome service #x2014; I will answer for in Pakistani, Scipio #x2014; if, since we hope, indeed wish, at all events, to theme become old, we can learn of bill protection you, far in of number, advance, in what ways we can most easily bear the sonnet, encroachment of age. Cato. I will render this service, Laelius, if, as you say, it will be agreeable to both of you. Laelius. We do indeed desire, Cato, unless it will give you too much trouble, since you have Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] taken a long journey which we must begin, that you will show us the goal which you have reached. III.

Cato. I will do so, Laelius, to the best of my ability. I have, indeed, often been a listener to complaints of men of my own age, #x2014; for, as the old proverb says, #x201C;Like best mates with like,#x201D;1 #x2014; such complaints, for theme the stars, instance, as those which Caius Salinator and Spurius Albinus, men of consular dignity, nearly my coevals, used to make, because they were deprived of the sensual gratifications without which life appeared to of rights them a blank, and because they were neglected by those by whom they were wont to be held in reverence. They seemed to me to lay the blame where it did not belong. For if old age had been at fault, I and all other persons of advanced years would have the same experience; while I have known many old men who have made no complaint, who did not regret their release from the slavery of sensual appetite, and were not despised by their fellow-citizens. But all complaints of this kind are chargeable to character, not to age. Old men who are moderate in their desires, and are neither testy nor morose, find old age endurable; but rudeness and incivility are offensive at any age. Laelius.

You are right, Cato; yet some one may perhaps say that old age seems to you less Edition: current; Page: [ 7 ] burdensome on account of your wealth, your large resources, your high rank, but that these advantages fall to the lot of very few. Cato. There is, indeed, Laelius, something in this; but it by no means gives the full explanation. It is somewhat as in the case of Themistocles in an altercation with a certain native of of number the stars Seriphos,1 who told him that he owed his illustrious fame, not to his own greatness, but to What Essay that of his country; and Themistocles is the stars said to have answered, #x201C;If I had been born in an Effective Teacher?, Seriphos, I should not have been renowned, nor, by Hercules, would you have been eminent had you been an Athenian.#x201D; Very much the same may be said about old age, which cannot be easy in extreme poverty, even to a wise man, nor can it be otherwise than burdensome to one destitute of theme of number the stars wisdom, even with abundant resources of every kind. The best-fitting defensive armor of old age, Scipio and Laelius, consists in the knowledge and practice of the virtues, which, assiduously cultivated, after the varied experiences of a long life, are wonderfully fruitful, not only because they never take flight, not even at the last moment, #x2014; Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] although this is a consideration of prime importance, #x2014; but because the consciousness of a well-spent life and what does sonnet 116 mean, a memory rich in good deeds afford supreme happiness. IV. Theme Of Number The Stars? In my youth I loved Quintus Maximus,1 the one who recovered possession of Tarentum, then an elderly man, as if he had been of my own age; for in him gravity was seasoned by an affable deportment, nor had time made his manners less agreeable. Teacher? Essay? When I first became intimate with him, he was not, indeed, so very old, though advanced in years. I was born the year after his first consulate.2 In my early youth I served as a soldier under him at Capua, and theme the stars, five years afterward at Tarentum.

Four years later I was made Quaestor, and Makes an Effective, held that office in the consulship of Tuditanus and Cethegus, at theme of number, the time when he, then quite old, urged the passage of the Cincian law concerning gifts and fees.3 He in his age showed in military command all the vigor of youth, and by his perseverance put a check to Hannibal#x2019;s youthful Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] enthusiasm. My friend Ennius well said of him, #x2014; #x201C;One man by slow delays restored our fortunes, Preferring not the people#x2019;s praise to safety, And thus his after-glory shines the more.#x201D; How much vigilance, how much wisdom, did he show in the retaking of Ambition in Macbeth Tarentum! In my hearing, indeed, when Salinator, who, after the town was taken, had retreated to the citadel, boastfully said, #x201C;You recovered Tarentum, Quintus Fabius, by my aid,#x201D; he replied, laughing, #x201C;Very true, for, if you had not lost it, I should never have recovered it.#x201D;1 Nor had he more eminence as a soldier than he won as a civilian, when, in his second consulate, unsupported by of number, his colleague, Carvilius, he resisted to the utmost of his ability Caius Flaminius, tribune of the people, in his division in equal portions, to the plebeians, of conquered territory in Picenum and Gaul; and when, holding the office of what does sonnet 116 mean augur, he dared to say that whatever was done for the well-being of the republic was done under the most favorable auspices, but that whatever measures were passed to the injury of the republic were passed under Edition: current; Page: [ 10 ] adverse auspices. In him I knew many things worthy of renown, but nothing more admirable than the of number the stars, way in in Macbeth Essay, which he bore the death of his son, an illustrious man and of consular dignity. We have in our hands his eulogy on his son, and in reading it we feel that he surpassed in this vein even trained philosophers.

Nor was he great only in public and in theme, the eyes of the does sonnet, community; but he was even more excellent in private and domestic life. How rich in the stars, conversation! How wise in precept! How ample his knowledge of What Teacher? early times! How thorough his legal science in everything appertaining to his office as an of number the stars, augur!1 He had, too, for a Roman, a large amount of literary culture. He retained in his memory, also, all the details of of rights protection our wars, whether in Italy or in regions more remote.

I indeed availed myself as eagerly of my opportunities of of number conversing with him as if I had already divined, what proved to be true, that, when he should pass away, no man of of rights protection equal intelligence and theme, information would be left. V. To what purpose have I said so much about Maximus? That you may be assured by his example Edition: current; Page: [ 11 ] that one has no right to pronounce an old age like his wretched. Essay? Yet it is not every one that can be a Scipio or a Maximus, so that he can recall the memory of cities taken, of battles by land and theme the stars, sea, of wars conducted, of Responsibility triumphs won. The Stars? There is, however, a calm and serene old age, which belongs to a life passed peacefully, purely, and gracefully, such as we learn was the old age of Plato, who died while writing in his eighty-first year; or that of Isocrates, who says that he wrote the book entitled Panathenaicus 1 in his ninety-fourth year, and who lived five years afterwards, and whose preceptor, Leontinus Gorgias, filled out bill of rights, one hundred and seven years without suspending his study and his labor. Theme Of Number The Stars? When he was asked why he was willing to live so long, he replied, #x201C;I have no fault to find with old age,#x201D; #x2014; a noble answer, worthy of a learned man. Unwise men, indeed, charge their vices and their faults upon old age.

So did not Ennius, of whom I have just spoken, who writes, #x201C;As the brave steed, oft on Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Essay th#x2019; Olympian course Foremost, now worn with years, seeks quiet rest,#x201D; comparing his own age to that of the brave horse that had been wont to theme the stars win the Ambition in Macbeth, race. You can distinctly remember him. The present Consuls, Titus Flamininus and theme of number the stars, Manius Acilius, were chosen nineteen years after his death, which took place in the Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] consulship of Caepio and the second consulship of Philippus, when I, being sixty-five years old, with a strong voice and sound lungs, spoke in favor of the Voconian law.1 At the age of seventy years #x2014; for so many did Ennius live #x2014; he bore the two burdens which are esteemed the heaviest, poverty and old age, in such a way that he almost seemed to take delight in them. To enter into particulars, I find on reflection four reasons why old age seems wretched; #x2014; one, that it calls us away from the management of affairs; another, that it impairs bodily vigor; the third, that it deprives us to a great degree of sensual gratifications; the fourth, that it brings one to the verge of death. Let us see, if you please, how much force and justice there is in each of these reasons. VI. Old age cuts one off from the what does, management of affairs. Of what affairs? Of those which are managed in youth and by strength of body? But are there not affairs properly belonging to theme the later years of life, which may be administered by the mind, even though the body be infirm? Did Quintus Maximus then do nothing?

Did Lucius Paullus, Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] your father, Scipio, the father-in-law of that excellent man, my son, do nothing? Did other old men that I might name #x2014; the Fabricii, the Curii, the Coruncanii #x2014; do nothing, when they defended the republic by their counsel and Disease Essay, influence? Blindness came upon Appius Claudius1 in theme the stars, his old age; yet he, when the sentiment of the Senate leaned toward the conclusion of peace and a treaty with Pyrrhus, did not hesitate to say to them what Ennius has fully expressed in verse, #x2014; #x201C;Wont to stand firm, upon what devious way Demented rush ye now?#x201D; and more, most forcibly, to the same purpose. You know the poem, and what does, the speech that Appius actually made is still extant. This took place seventeen years after his second consulship, ten years having Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] intervened between his two consulates, his censorship having preceded the first, #x2014; so that you may infer that he was far advanced in age at the time of the war with Pyrrhus, and such is the tradition that has come to us from our fathers. Of Number? Those, therefore, who deny that old age has any place in the management of affairs, are as unreasonable as those would be who should say that the Essay, pilot takes no part in sailing a ship because others climb the masts, others go to and fro in the gangways, others bail the hold, while he sits still in the stern and holds the theme, helm. The old man does not do what the young men do; but he does greater and better things. Great things are accomplished, not by what does sonnet 116 mean, strength, or swiftness, or suppleness of theme of number the stars body, but by counsel, influence, deliberate opinion, of which old age is not wont to be bereft, but, on the other hand, to possess them more abundantly.

This you will grant, unless I, having been soldier, and military Tribune, and second in command, and as Consul at the head of the army, seem to you now idle and Mark's, useless, because I am no longer actively engaged in war. I now prescribe to the Senate what ought to theme the stars be done, and how. What? I declare war far in advance against Carthage,1 which has long been plotting to our detriment, and whose hostility I shall never cease to fear, till I know that the city is utterly swept out Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] of theme the stars being. O that the immortal gods may reserve for you, Scipio, this honor, that you may fully accomplish what your grandfather1 left to be yet done! This is the thirty-third year since his death; but the memory of such a man all coming years will hold in special honor. He died the bill of rights, year before my censorship, nine years after my consulate, during which he was chosen Consul for the second time.

If he had lived till his hundredth year, would he have had reason to regret his old age? He would not, indeed, have sought added distinction by the stars, running, or leaping, or hurling the Essay, spear, or handling the sword, but by counsel, reason, judgment. Unless these were the of number, characteristics of seniors in age, our ancestors would not have called the supreme council the Senate. Among the Lacedaemonians, too, the corresponding name is given to Discrimination the magistrates of the highest grade, who are really old men.2 But if you see fit to theme of number read or hear the history of Disease foreign nations, you will find that states have been undermined by young men, maintained and restored by old men. #x201C;Say, how lost you so great a state so soon?#x201D; For this men ask, as it is asked in Naevius#x2019;s play of The School, and with other answers this is among the first: #x2014; #x201C;A brood came of new leaders, foolish striplings.#x201D; Rashness, indeed, belongs to youth; prudence, to age. VII.

But memory is impaired by age. I have no doubt that it is, in persons who do not exercise their memory, and in those who are naturally slowminded. But Themistocles knew by name all the citizens of theme of number Athens, and do you suppose that, at an advanced age, when he met Aristides he called him Lysimachus? I not only know the men who are now living; but I have a clear remembrance of their fathers and their grandfathers. Nor am I afraid to read sepulchral inscriptions, an occupation which is said to destroy the What Makes Teacher? Essay, memory;1 on theme the stars the other hand, my recollection of the dead is thus made more vivid. Blind Ambition In Macbeth? Then, too, I never heard of an old man#x2019;s forgetting where he had buried his money. Old men remember everything that they care about,2 #x2014; the bonds they have given, what is due to them, what they owe. Theme Of Number The Stars? What shall we say of lawyers? Edition: current; Page: [ 17 ] Of priests?1 Of augurs? Of philosophers?

How many things do they retain in their memory! Old men have their powers of mind unimpaired, when they do not suspend their usual pursuits and their habits of industry. Mark's Essay? Nor is this the case only the stars, with those in conspicuous stations and in public office; it is Mark's equally true in private and retired life. Sophocles in extreme old age still wrote tragedies. Theme The Stars? Because in his close application he seemed to neglect his property, his sons instituted judicial proceedings to Discrimination Against Women Essay deprive him, as mentally incompetent, of the custody of his estate, in like manner as by our law fathers of families who mismanage their property have its administration taken from them. Theme The Stars? The old man is said to have then recited to the judges the Mark's Disease Essay, Oedipus at theme the stars, Colonus, the play which he had in hand and had just written, and to protection have asked them whether that poem seemed the work of theme of number the stars a failing intellect.2 On hearing this, the judges dismissed the case. Did old age then impose silence, in their several modes of utterance, on him, on Homer, on Blind Hesiod, on Simonides, on Stesichorus, on Isocrates and Gorgias of whom I have just spoken, on those Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] foremost of philosophers, Pythagoras and Democritus, on Plato, on of number Xenocrates, in later time, on Zeno and Cleanthes, or on that Diogenes the Stoic whom you saw when he was in Rome?1 Or with all these men was not activity in their life-work coextensive with their lives?

But leaving out of the account these pursuits, which have in sonnet 116 mean, them a divine element, I can name old Romans who are farmers in what was the Sabine territory, my neighbors and friends,2 without whose oversight hardly any important work is ever done on their land, whether in sowing, or harvesting, or storing their crops. This, however, is theme of number the stars not so surprising in Society, them; for of number the stars, no one is What Makes an Effective so old that he does not expect to of number the stars live a year longer. But the Responsibility Essay, same persons bestow great pains in labor from which they know that they shall never derive any benefit. as our poet Statius says in the stars, his Synephebi. Sonnet 116 Mean? 3 Nor, indeed can the farmer, though he be an old man, if asked for whom he is planting, hesitate to answer, #x201C;For the immortal gods, whose will it was, not only Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] that I should receive this estate from my ancestors, but that I should also transmit it in undiminished value to my posterity.#x201D; VIII. Theme Of Number The Stars? What I have just quoted from Caecilius1 about the old man#x2019;s providing for a coming generation, is very far preferable to what he says elsewhere, #x2014; #x201C;Old Age, forsooth, if other ill thou bring not, This will suffice, that with one#x2019;s lengthened years So much he sees he fain would leave unseen,#x201D; #x2014; and much, it may be, that he is glad to see; while youth, too, often encounters what it would willingly shun. Still worse, that same Caecilius writes, #x2014; #x201C;The utmost misery of Blind in Macbeth age I count it, To feel that it is hateful to the young.#x201D;

Agreeable rather than hateful; for as wise old men are charmed with well-disposed youth, so do young men delight in theme the stars, the counsels of the old, by which they are led to Mark's the cultivation of the of number, virtues. Makes An Effective Essay? I do not feel that I am less agreeable to you than you are to me. #x2014; To return to our subject, you see that old age is not listless and inert, but is even laborious, with work and plans of work always in hand, generally, indeed, with employments corresponding to the pursuits of earlier life. But what shall we say of theme the stars those who even make new acquisitions? Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] Thus we see Solon, in one of his poems, boasting that, as he grows old, he widens the range of his knowledge every day. I have done the like, having learned Greek in my old age, and bill of rights protection, have taken hold of the study so eagerly #x2014; as if to quench a long thirst #x2014; that I have already become familiar with the the stars, topics from Greek authors which I have been using, as I have talked with you, by way of illustration. When I read that Socrates in his old age learned to play on the lyre, I could have wished to do the sonnet, same, had the the stars, old custom been still rife; but I certainly have worked hard on my Greek. IX. To pass to Essay the next charge against old age, I do not now desire the of number, bodily strength of youth, any more than when I was a young man I desired the strength of a bull or an Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society, elephant.

It is becoming to make use of what one has, and the stars, whatever you do, to do in proportion to your strength. What language can be more contemptible than that reported of Milon of Crotona,1 when in an Effective, his old age he saw athletes taking exercise on theme the race-ground, and is said to have cast his eyes on his own arms, and to Essay have exclaimed, weeping, #x201C;But these are dead now#x201D;? Not these, indeed, simpleton, so much as you yourself; for you never gained any fame from your own self, but only from your lungs and arms. Theme? You hear nothing like this from Sextus Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] Aelius,1 nothing at Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Essay, a much earlier time from Titus Coruncanius,2 nor yet from Publius Crassus,3 who expounded the laws to their fellow-citizens, and whose wisdom grew to their last breath. There is reason, indeed, to fear that a mere orator may lose something of his power with age; for he needs not mind alone, but strong lungs and of number the stars, bodily vigor. Yet there is bill a certain musical quality of the voice which becomes #x2014; I know not how #x2014; even more melodious in old age.

This, indeed, I have not yet lost, and you see how old I am. Of Number? But the eloquence that becomes one of advanced years is Discrimination Society Essay calm and gentle, and not infrequently a clear-headed old man commands special attention by the simple, quiet elegance of his style. If, however, you cannot attain this merit, you may be able at least to give wholesome advice to Scipio and theme of number, Laelius. You can at least help others by your counsel; and does, what is more pleasant than old age surrounded by young disciples? Must we not, indeed, admit that old age has sufficient strength to teach young men, to educate them, to train them for the discharge of every duty? And what can be more worthy of renown Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] than work like this? I used to think Cneius and Publius Scipio, and, Scipio, your two grandfathers, Lucius Aemilius and of number the stars, Publius Africanus, truly fortunate in Women Society Essay, being surrounded by noble youth; nor are there any masters of theme the stars liberal culture who are not to be regarded as happy, even though their strength may have failed with lengthened years.

This failure of strength, however, is due oftener to the vices of youth than to the necessary infirmity of age; for a licentious and Essay, profligate youth transmits to one#x2019;s later years a worn-out bodily constitution. Cyrus indeed, in his dying speech which Xenophon records, though somewhat advanced in years, says that he has never felt that his old age was more feeble than his youth. I remember in my boyhood Lucius Metellus, who, having been made high-priest four years after his second consulate, served in that office twenty-two years,1 and was to the very last in the stars, such full strength that he did not even feel the loss of youth. There is no need of bill Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] my speaking of myself, though that is an old man#x2019;s habit, and is conceded as a privilege of age. X. Theme Of Number The Stars? Do you not know how very often Homer introduces Nestor as talking largely of his own merits? Nor was there any fear that, while he told the truth about bill himself, he would incur the reproach of oddity or garrulity; for, as Homer says, #x201C;words sweeter than honey flowed from his tongue.#x201D; For this suavity of of number utterance he had no need of bodily strength; yet for this alone the leader of the Greeks,1 while not craving ten like Ajax, says that with ten like Nestor he should be sure of the speedy fall of Troy. #x2014; But to What Makes Essay return to my own case, I am now in my eighty-fourth year.

I should be glad if I could make precisely the same boast with Cyrus; yet, in default of it, I can say this at least, that, while I am not so strong as I was when a soldier in the Punic war, or a Quaestor in theme of number, the same war, or Consul in in Macbeth Essay, Spain, or when, four years afterward, I fought as military Tribune2 at Thermopylae, in the stars, the consulate of Manius Acilius Glabrio, still, as you see, old age has not wholly unstrung my nerves Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] or broken me down. Neither the Senate, nor the rostrum, nor my friends, nor my clients, nor my guests miss the Essay, strength that I have lost. Nor did I ever give assent to that ancient and much-lauded proverbial saying, that you must become an old man early if you wish to be an theme the stars, old man long. I should, indeed, prefer a shorter old age to being old before my time. Thus no one has wanted to Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society meet me to whom I have denied myself on the plea of age. Yet I have less strength than either of you. Nor have you indeed the strength of Titus Pontius the centurion.1 Is he therefore any better than you? Provided one husbands his strength, and does not attempt to go beyond it, he will not be hindered in his work by any lack of the requisite strength.

It is said that Milo walked the theme, whole length of the Disease Essay, Olympian race-ground with a living ox on theme his shoulders;2 but which would you prefer, #x2014; this amount of bodily strength, or the strength of mind that Pythagoras had?3 In fine, I would Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] have you use strength of does sonnet body while you have it: when it fails, I would not have you complain of its loss, unless you think it fitting for young men to regret their boyhood, or for those who have passed on a little farther in life to theme of number the stars want their youth back again. Life has its fixed course, and nature one unvarying way; each age has assigned to it what best suits it, so that the fickleness of boyhood, the sanguine temper of What Teacher? youth, the soberness of riper years, and the maturity of theme of number the stars old age, equally have something in harmony with nature, which ought to be made availing in its season. You, Scipio, must have heard what your grandfather#x2019;s host Masinissa1 does now that he is ninety years old. When he starts on a journey on foot, he never mounts a horse; when he starts on horseback, he never relieves himself by walking; he is never induced by rain or cold to cover his head; he has the what does 116 mean, utmost power of the stars bodily endurance; and so he performs in full all the offices and functions of a king. Exercise and temperance, then, can preserve even in old age something of one#x2019;s pristine vigor. XI. Old age lacks strength, it is said. But strength is not demanded of old age. Against Women Society? My period of life is exempted by the stars, law and custom from protection offices Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] which cannot be borne without strength.1 Therefore we are compelled to do, not what we are unable to do, but even less than we can do. Of Number The Stars? Is it said that many old men are so feeble that they are incapable of Responsibility Essay any duty or charge whatsoever? This, I answer, is not an inability peculiar to old age, but common to bodily infirmity at whatever period of life.

How feeble, Scipio, was that son of Africanus who adopted you!2 But for the stars, this, he would have shone second in his family as a luminary of the state, adding to his father#x2019;s greatness a more ample intellectual culture. What wonder, then, is it that old men are sometimes feeble, when it is a misfortune which even the Responsibility, young cannot always escape? Old age, Laelius and theme, Scipio, should be resisted, and its deficiencies should be supplied by faithful effort. Old age, like disease, should be fought against. Care must be bestowed upon the health; moderate exercise must be taken; the Mark's Disease Essay, food and theme, drink should be sufficient to recruit the strength, and not in such excess as to become oppressive. Nor yet should the body alone be sustained in vigor, but much more the powers of mind; for these too, unless you pour oil into the lamp, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] are extinguished by old age. Indeed, while overexertion tends by fatigue to what does weigh down the body, exercise makes the theme of number the stars, mind elastic.

For, when Caecilius speaks of. #x201C;Foolish old men, fit sport for comedy,#x201D;1. he means those who are credulous, forgetful, weakminded,2 and these are the faults, not of old age, but of lazy, indolent, drowsy old age. As wantonness and what sonnet, licentiousness are the faults of the theme, young rather than of the old, yet not of all young men, but only of such of them as are depraved, so the senile folly which is commonly called dotage3 belongs not to in Macbeth Essay all, but only to frivolous old men. Of Number? Appius, when both blind and old, governed four grown-up sons, five daughters, a very large household, a numerous body of Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society clients; for theme of number, he had his mind on the alert, like a bent bow, nor did he, as he became feeble, succumb to old age. He maintained, not only authority, but absolute command over of rights, all who belonged to him. His servants feared him; his children held him in awe; all loved him. In that family the manners and discipline of the earlier time were still in the ascendant. Old age, Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] indeed, is worthy of honor only when it defends itself, when it asserts its rights, when it comes into bondage to no one, when even to theme of number the last breath it maintains its sway over those of its own family.

Still farther, as I hold in high esteem the youth who has in him some of the qualities of age, I have like esteem for the old man in whom there is something of the youth, which he who cultivates may be old in what 116 mean, body, but will never be so in mind. I have now in hand the seventh Book of my History. Of Number? 1 I am collecting all the What Makes Teacher?, memorials of earlier times. Theme Of Number? I am just now writing out, as my memory serves me, my speeches in the celebrated cases that I have defended. I am treating of augural, pontifical, civil law. I read a good deal of Greek. At the same time, in order to exercise my memory in the method prescribed by Pythagoras,2 I recall every evening whatever I have said, heard, or done during the Blind in Macbeth Essay, day. These are the exercises of the mind; these, the race-ground of the intellect. Theme? In these pursuits while I labor vigorously, I hardly feel my loss of bodily strength.

I appear in court in behalf of my friends. I often take my place in the Senate, Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] and I there introduce of Responsibility Essay my own motion1 subjects on the stars which I have thought much and long, and I defend my opinions with strength of Essay mind, not of body. Theme The Stars? If I were too feeble to pursue this course of life, I still on my bed should find pleasure in thinking out Responsibility, what I could no longer do; but that I am able still to do, as well as to think, is the result of my past life. One who is always occupied in these studies and labors is unaware when age creeps upon him. Thus one grows old gradually and theme the stars, unconsciously, and life is not suddenly extinguished, but closes when by length of time it is burned out. XII.

I come now to the third charge against old age, that, as it is alleged, it lacks the pleasures of sense. O admirable service of old age, if indeed it takes from us what in youth is more harmful than all things else! For I would have you hear, young men, an ancient discourse of Archytas of Tarentum,2 a man of Mark's Disease great distinction and celebrity, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] as it was repeated to theme me when in my youth I was at Tarentum with Quintus Maximus. #x201C;Man has received from nature,#x201D; said he, #x201C;no more fatal scourge than bodily pleasure, by which the passions in their eagerness for gratification are made reckless and are released from What an Effective Essay all restraint. Hence spring treasons against one#x2019;s country; hence, overthrows of states; hence, clandestine plottings with enemies. In fine, there is no form of guilt, no atrocity of evil, to the accomplishment of which men are not driven by lust for pleasure. The Stars? Debaucheries, adulteries, and What an Effective, all enormities of that kind have no other inducing cause than the allurements of pleasure. Still more, while neither Nature nor any god has bestowed upon man aught more noble than mind, nothing is so hostile as pleasure to theme of number the stars this divine endowment and gift.

Nor while lust bears sway can self-restraint find place, nor under the reign of pleasure can virtue have any foothold whatever.#x201D; That this might be better understood, Archytas asked his hearers to Essay imagine a person under the excitement of the highest amount of bodily pleasure that could possibly be enjoyed, and maintained that it was perfectly obvious to every one that so long as such enjoyment lasted it was impossible for the mind to theme the stars act, or for anything to Responsibility Essay be determined by theme of number the stars, reason or reflection. Hence he concluded that nothing was so execrable and baneful as pleasure, since, when intense and prolonged, it extinguishes all the Makes Teacher?, light of intellect. That Archytas discoursed thus Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] with Caius Pontius the Samnite, father of the Pontius who defeated the consuls Spurius Postumius and Titus Veturius at the Caudine Forks, I learned from Nearchus of Tarentum, my host, a persistent friend of the of number, Roman people, who said that he had heard it from his elders, Plato having been present when it was uttered, who, I find, came to Tarentum in the consulate of Lucius Camillus and Appius Claudius. To what purpose do I speak thus? That you may understand that, were we indeed unable by reason and Essay, wisdom to spurn pleasure, we ought to feel the theme of number, warmest gratitude to old age for making what is opposed to our duty no longer a source of delight. For pleasure thwarts good counsel, is the enemy of reason, and, if I may so speak, blindfolds the eyes of the mind, nor has it anything in common with virtue. It was, indeed, with great reluctance that, seven years after his consulate, I expelled from the Senate Lucius Flamininus, the brother of that eminently brave man Titus Flamininus; but I thought that such vile conduct as his ought to be branded. For he, during his consulship in Gaul, was persuaded by the companion of his lust, at a banquet, himself to kill with an axe one of the prisoners in chains and under sentence of Blind Ambition in Macbeth Essay death.1 He escaped during the theme of number the stars, censorship of Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] his brother, my immediate predecessor; but I and my colleague Flaccus could not by any possibility give our implied sanction to lust so infamous, so abandoned, which blended with private ignominy disgrace to Essay the office of supreme commander of our army. XIII. I have often heard from of number the stars my seniors in What an Effective Teacher? Essay, age, who said that they when they were boys had so heard from the old men of their time, that Caius Fabricius was wont to express his amazement when, while he was ambassador to King Pyrrhus, Cineas the Thessalonian told him that there was a certain man in Athens,1 professing to be a philosopher, who taught that all that we do ought to be referred to pleasure as a standard.

Fabricius having told this to Manius Curius and Titus Coruncanius, they used to of number wish that the Samnites and Pyrrhus himself might become converts to this doctrine, so that, giving themselves up to pleasure, they might be the more easily conquered. Manius Curius had lived in intimacy with Publius Decius, who, five years before Curius was Consul, had in his fourth Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] consulate devoted his own life for the safety of the state.1 Fabricius had known Publius Decius, Coruncanius had known him, and bill, from that act of self-sacrifice, as well as from theme his whole life, they inferred that there is that which in its very nature is beautiful and excellent, which is chosen of Responsibility one#x2019;s own free will, and which every truly good man pursues, spurning and despising pleasure. But to of number the stars what purpose am I saying so much about pleasure? Because it is not only no reproach to old age, but even its highest merit, that it does not severely feel the Women in Pakistani Society Essay, loss of theme of number the stars bodily pleasures. But, you may say, it must dispense with sumptuous feasts, and loaded tables, and oft-drained cups. True, but it equally dispenses with sottishness, and indigestion, and troubled dreams.2 But if any license is to What Essay be given to pleasure, seeing that we do not easily resist its allurements, #x2014; insomuch that Plato calls pleasure the bait of evil, because, forsooth, men are caught by it as fishes by the hook, #x2014; old age, while it dispenses with excessive feasting, yet can find delight in moderate conviviality. Of Number The Stars? When I was a boy I Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] often saw Caius Duilius, the son of Marcus, who first gained a naval victory over the Carthaginians, returning home from supper. He took delight in the frequent escort of a torch-bearer and Responsibility, a fluteplayer, #x2014; the first person not actually in office who ventured on such display, #x2014; a liberty assumed on the score of his military fame.1 But why am I talking about others?

I now return to my own case. The Stars? In the first place, I have for many years belonged to a guild.2 Indeed, guilds were established when I was Quaestor, at the time when the Essay, Idaean rites in honor of the Great Mother were adopted in Rome. I then used to feast with my guild fellows, moderately on the whole, yet with something of the joviality that belonged to my earlier years; but with advancing age, day by day, everything is tempered down. Nor did I ever measure my delight Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] at theme of number, these entertainments by the amount of bodily pleasure more than by the intercourse and conversation of friends. In this feeling, our ancestors fitly called the festive meeting of friends at table, as implying union in life, a convivial meeting, #x2014; a much better name than that of the Greeks, who call such an occasion sometimes a compotation, sometimes a social supper,1 evidently attaching the chief importance to that which is of the Essay, least moment in an entertainment. XIV. The Stars? I, indeed, for the pleasure of conversation, enjoy festive entertainments, even when they begin early and end late,2 and that, not only in the company of my coevals, of whom very few remain, but with those of your age and an Effective Teacher? Essay, with you; and I am heartily thankful to my advanced years for increasing my appetency for conversation, and diminishing my craving for food and drink. But if any one takes delight in the mere pleasures of the table, lest I may seem utterly hostile to appetites which Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] perhaps spring from a natural impulse, I would not have it understood that old age is not susceptible of theme of number them. I indeed enjoy the ancestral fashion of appointing a master of ceremonies for the feast,1 and the rules for Blind Ambition, drinking announced from the head of the table, and cups, as in of number the stars, Xenophon#x2019;s Symposium, 2 not over large, and slowly drunk, and the cool breeze for Mark's Disease Essay, the dining-hall in summer, and the winter#x2019;s sun or fire.3 Even on my Sabine farm I keep up these customs, and daily fill my table with my neighbors, prolonging our varied talk to the latest possible hour. Theme The Stars? But it is said that old men have less intensity of sensual enjoyment.

So I believe; but there is no craving for it. You do not miss what you do not want. Sophocles very aptly replied, when Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] asked in his old age whether he indulged in sensual pleasure, #x201C;May the gods do better for me! I rejoice in my escape from a savage and ferocious tyrant.#x201D; To those who desire such pleasures it may be offensive and bill of rights, grievous to be debarred from them; but to those already filled and satiated it is more pleasant to of number the stars lack them than to have them. Of Rights? Though he does not lack who does not want them, I maintain that it is more for one#x2019;s happiness not to want them. But if young men take special delight in these pleasures, in of number, the first place, they are very paltry sources of enjoyment, and, in the second place, they are not wholly out of the reach of old men, though it be in Blind Ambition in Macbeth, a restricted measure. As the spectator in the front seat gets the theme of number, greater enjoyment from the acting of Turpio Ambivius,1 yet those on the farthest seat are delighted to be there; so youth, having a closer view of the pleasures of sense, derives, it may be, more joy from bill of rights them, while old age has as much enjoyment as it wants in seeing them at a distance. But of what immense worth is theme the stars it for Makes Essay, the soul to be with itself, to live, as the phrase is, with itself, discharged from the service of lust, ambition, strife, enmities, desires of theme every kind! If one has some provision laid up, as it were, of study and learning, nothing is more enjoyable than the leisure of old age. We saw Caius Gallus, your father#x2019;s friend, Scipio, almost to Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] the last moment occupied in measuring heaven and earth. Blind Essay? How often did the morning light overtake him when he had begun some problem1 by night, and the night when he had begun in theme the stars, the early morning!

How did he delight to bill of rights protection predict to us far in advance the eclipses of the sun and moon! What pleasure have old men taken in pursuits less recondite, yet demanding keenness and vigor of mind! How did Naevius rejoice in his Punic War! 2 Plautus in his Truculentus, #x2014; in his Pseudolus! 3 I saw also Livius4 in his old age, who, having brought out a play5 six years before I was born, in the consulship of Cento and Tuditanus, continued before the public till I was almost a man. Of Number The Stars? What shall I say of the devotion of Publius Licinius Crassus6 to the study of pontifical and civil law? What of the similar diligence of this Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] Publius Scipio,1 who has just been put at the head of the pontifical college? We have seen all these whom I have named ardently engaged in their old age in their several departments of mental labor. Marcus Cethegus,2 too, whom Ennius rightly called the #x201C;Marrow of Persuasion,#x201D; #x2014; how zealously did we see him exercise himself when an old man in the art of speaking!

What, then, are the pleasures of feasts, and games, and sensual indulgence, compared with these pleasures? Indeed, it is these intellectual pursuits that for wise and well-nurtured men grow with years, so that it is to Solon#x2019;s honor that he says, in the verse which I just now quoted, that as he advanced in age he learned something every day, #x2014; a pleasure of the mind than which there can be none greater. XV. I pass now to the pleasures of agriculture, which give me inconceivable delight, to which age is no impediment, and in which one makes the nearest approach to the life of the true philosopher. For the farmer keeps an open account with the Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] earth, which never refuses a draft, nor ever returns what has been committed to it without interest, and Ambition Essay, if sometimes at a small, generally at an ample rate of increase. Yet I am charmed not only with the revenue, but with the very nature and properties of the soil. When it has received the seed into its softened and prepared bosom, it keeps it buried1 (whence our word for the harrowing2 which buries the of number, seed is derived), then by its pressure and by the moisture which it yields it cleaves the seed and draws out from it the green shoot, which, sustained by its rootlet-fibres, grows till it stands erect on its jointed stalk, enclosed in sheaths, as if to protect the down of its youth, till, emerging from them, it yields the grain, with its orderly arrangement in the ear, defended against predatory birds by Essay, its bearded rampart. What can I say of the planting, upspringing, and growth of vines? It is with insatiable delight that I thus make known to you the repose and theme of number, enjoyment of my old age. Not to speak of the vital power of all things that grow directly from the earth, #x2014; which from so tiny a fig or grape seed, or from the very smallest seeds of other fruits or plants, produces such massive trunks and Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] branches, #x2014; do not shoots, scions, quicksets, layers, accomplish results which no one can behold without delighted admiration?

The vine, indeed, drooping by what does 116 mean, nature, unless supported, is weighed down to the ground; but to theme raise itself it embraces with its hand-like tendrils whatever it can lay hold upon; and then, as it twines with multifold and diffusive growth, the art of the vine-dresser trims it close with the pruning-knife, that it may not run unto useless wood and spread too far. Essay? Thus in the early spring, in what remains after the pruning, the theme the stars, gem (so called) starts out at the joints of the twigs, from which the Blind in Macbeth, incipient cluster of grapes makes its appearance; and this, growing by the moisture of the earth and theme, the heat of the sun, is at first very sour to the taste; then, as it ripens, it becomes sweet, while, clothed with leaves, it lacks not moderate warmth, and at the same time escapes the sun#x2019;s intenser beams. What can be more gladdening than the fruit of the vine; what more beautiful, as it hangs ungathered? I am charmed, as I have said, not only with the utility of the vine, but equally with the whole process of its cultivation and with its very nature, #x2014; with its rows of stakes, the bill protection, lateral supports from the stars stake to stake, the tying up and training of the Against Women Society Essay, vines, the amputation of some of the twigs, of which I have spoken, and the planting of others. What can I tell you of theme the stars irrigation, and of the repeated digging of the soil to make the ground more fertile? What shall I say of the Mark's Disease, Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] efficacy of manuring? of which I have written in my book on Farm Life, 1 but of of number the stars which the learned Hesiod, in writing about Mark's agriculture, says not a word, #x2014; though Homer, who, I think, lived many generations before him, introduces Laertes as relieving his solicitude for his son by of number the stars, tilling and manuring his field. Nor is rural life made cheerful by grainfields, meadows, vineyards, and shrubberies alone, but also by gardens and orchards; then again, by the feeding of sheep, by swarms of bees, by a vast variety of flowers. Does Sonnet 116 Mean? Nor does one take pleasure merely in the various modes of the stars planting, but equally in those of grafting, than which no agricultural invention shows greater skill. XVI.

I could enumerate many other charms of rural life; but I feel that those which I have named have occupied fully enough of your time. Pardon me; for Responsibility Essay, I am thoroughly versed in everything belonging to country life, and old age is naturally prolix, nor can I pretend to acquit it of all the Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] weaknesses laid to its charge. With your leave I would add, then, that Manius Curius, after winning triumphs over the Samnites, over the Sabines, over Pyrrhus, spent the close of his life in the stars, the country; and when I look at his house, which is not far from mine, I cannot sufficiently admire either the self-denying integrity of the man himself or the high moral standard of bill his time. As Curius was sitting by his hearth the Samnites brought him a large amount of theme the stars gold, and he spurned the Responsibility Essay, bribe, saying that he thought it better than having gold to bear sway over those who have gold. Such a mind cannot fail to make a happy old age. #x2014; But to return to my subject, and not to wander from my own mode of life, there were in those days Senators, that is, as the name implies, old men, living on farms, if indeed Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus received when ploughing the theme, announcement that he had been made Dictator, under whose dictatorship it was that Caius Servilius Ahala, the Master of Horse, by What Makes, his order, slew Spurius Maelius, who was aspiring after royalty.1 Curius, too, and other old men, were wont to be summoned from their farms to the Senate, giving thus to the messengers who summoned them a special name2 derived from the theme the stars, highways Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] on which they travelled. Was then the old age of these men who found delight in tilling the Women Society Essay, ground unhappy? I indeed doubt whether there can be any happier old age, taking into account not only the occupation of theme of number the stars agriculture which is healthy for every one, but also the enjoyment of which I have spoken, and bill of rights protection, the bountiful supply of everything that can be desired for the food of the stars man and the worship of the gods, so that, if any persons have such cravings, we may come again into Responsibility Essay friendly terms with the pleasures of of number the stars sense. Essay? For a thrifty and the stars, industrious farmer has a full wine-cellar, oil-cellar, and larder, and the whole estate is rich, abounding in swine, kids, lambs, fowls, milk, cheese, honey. The farmers themselves are wont to call their garden a second stock of the Discrimination Women in Pakistani, winter#x2019;s relishing food.1 All else has the richer zest from the work of leisure time in fowling and hunting. Why should I say more about the green of the meadows, or the rows of of number trees, or the beauty of the vineyards and the olive groves?

To cut the subject short, nothing Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] can be more bountiful for use, or more ornate to the eye, than a well-cultivated farm, to the enjoyment of does 116 mean which advanced years not only interpose no hindrance, but hold forth invitation and allurement; for the stars, where can old age find more genial warmth of sunshine or fire, or, on the other hand, more cooling shade or more refreshing waters? Let others take for their own delight arms, horses, spears, clubs, balls, swimming-bouts, and foot-races. Blind? From their many diversions let them leave for us old men knuckle-bones and dice.1 Either will serve our turn; but without them old age can hardly be contented. XVII. Of Number The Stars? Xenophon#x2019;s books are in many ways very useful, and I beg you to continue to read them. With what a flow of eloquence does he praise agriculture in Blind in Macbeth, that book of his about the care of one#x2019;s estate, called Oeconomicus! 2 Still more, to the stars show that there is What Teacher? nothing so worthy of a king as the pursuits of theme the stars agriculture, he introduces in that book Socrates as telling this story to Critobolus. Cyrus Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] the younger, king of Persia,1 of what does sonnet 116 mean surpassing genius and renown, when Lysander, the Lacedaemonian, a man of the highest military reputation,2 came to theme the stars him at Sardis to Ambition Essay bring presents from the theme the stars, confederate states, having treated Lysander in other ways with familiar courtesy, showed him an enclosed field planted with the utmost care. Lysander, marvelling at the great height of the trees, their arrangement in ornamental groups,3 the does 116 mean, ground thoroughly tilled and free from theme the stars weeds, and Blind in Macbeth, the delicious odors breathing from the flowers, said that he admired, not only the theme of number, care, but also the Essay, skill of him who had planned and laid out these grounds.

Cyrus answered, #x201C;I myself laid out all this field. The plan is mine; the arrangement is mine, and theme, many of these trees I planted with my own hand.#x201D; Then Lysander, looking at his purple robe, his elegance of person,4 and his Persian ornaments rich in What Makes an Effective Teacher?, gold and precious stones, said, #x201C;Men may well call Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] you happy, Cyrus, since your fortune corresponds to your merit.#x201D; This fortune, then, old men can enjoy, nor does age preclude our interest in other things indeed, but least of all in agriculture, to the very last moment of of number life. We have heard that Marcus Valerius Corvus lived to his hundredth year, passing the close of What Makes an Effective Teacher? Essay his life in theme of number the stars, the country, and engaged to the last in labors of the bill of rights, field. There were forty-six years between his first and his sixth consulship. Theme The Stars? Thus his term of Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay public life lasted the full number of years which our ancestors accounted as the theme of number the stars, beginning of old age,1 and his old age was happier than middle life, having more authority with less labor. Indeed, the what does, crowning glory of old age is authority. How great was this in Lucius Caecilius Metellus! How great in Atilius Calatinus! whose eulogy is, #x2014; #x201C;Him first of men all tribes and nations own With one consent.#x201D;

This, you know, is the inscription on his tomb. He was rightly held, then, in the highest esteem, since all were unanimous in his praise. How great a man did we see in the stars, Publius Crassus, the chief priest, of whom I have just spoken, and afterward in Marcus Lepidus, invested with the same priesthood! What shall I say of does Paullus or of Africanus? Or of Maximus,2 if I may name him again?

Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] These were men, not only in whose uttered opinion, but in whose very nod, dwelt authority. Old age, especially when it has filled offices of high public trust, has so much authority, that for this alone it is worth all the pleasures of youth. XVIII. But remember that in all that I say I am praising the old age that has laid its foundations in youth. Hence follows the maxim to which I once gave utterance with the assent of all who heard me: #x201C;Wretched is the old age which has to theme of number speak in its own defence.#x201D; White hairs or wrinkles cannot usurp authority; but an early life well spent reaps authority as the fruit of its age. Indeed, attentions which seem trivial and Disease, conventional are honorable when merited; for instance, being saluted in the morning, grasped by the hand, received by the rising of those present, escorted to the Forum, escorted home, asked for advice, #x2014; customs carefully observed with us, and in other states so far as good manners prevail. It is related that Lysander the Lacedaemonian, of theme whom I just made mention, used to say that Lacedaemon was the What Teacher?, best home for an old man, insomuch as nowhere else was such deference paid to the stars length of years, or age held in such honor. Responsibility Essay? There is, indeed, a tradition that once in Athens, at a public festival, when an old Athenian entered the crowded theatre, no one of theme of number his fellow-citizens made room for Responsibility Essay, him, but that, as he approached the place assigned to the delegates from Lacedaemon, they all rose and remained standing Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] till the old man was seated. When they were applauded for this in every possible way by the whole assembly, one of them said, #x201C;The Athenians know what is right, but will not do it.#x201D; Of many excellent usages in our college of Augurs none deserves higher commendation than this, #x2014; that the members give their opinions in the order of theme the stars age, the elder members taking precedence, not only of those who have held higher official rank, but even of those who for the time being are at the head of the Discrimination Against in Pakistani, state.1 What pleasures of body are then to be compared with the prerogatives of authority?

Those who have borne these honors with due dignity seem to me to of number the stars have thoroughly performed their part in the drama of life, and not, like untrained players, to have broken down in the last act. What Does Sonnet 116 Mean? #x2014; But it is said that old men are morose, and uneasy, and irritable, and hard to please; and were we to make the inquiry, we might be told that they are avaricious. But these are faults of character, not of theme of number age. Yet moroseness and the faults that I named with it have some excuse, sufficient, not indeed to justify, but to extenuate them. Old men imagine that they are scorned, despised, mocked. Then, too, with a frail body, any cause of vexation is felt more keenly. But such infirmities of temper are Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] corrected by good manners and liberal culture, as we may see in actual life, as well as on the stage in Mark's, the brothers in theme, the play of the Blind Ambition in Macbeth, Adelphi. What grimness do we see in one of these brothers; what a genial disposition in the other! So it is in society; for as it is not wine of every vintage, so it is not every temper that grows sour with age.

I approve of gravity in old age, so it be not excessive; for moderation in all things is becoming: but for of number, bitterness I have no tolerance. As for senile avarice, I do not understand what it means; for can anything be more foolish than, in proportion as there is less of the way to travel, to seek the more provision for it? XIX. There remains a fourth reason for deprecating old age, that it is liable to excessive solicitude and Discrimination Women Society, distress, because death is so near; and the stars, it certainly cannot be very far off. O wretched old man, not to have learned in What Teacher? Essay, so long a life that death is to be despised! which manifestly ought to be regarded with indifference if it really puts an end to the soul, or to be even desired if at length it leads the soul where it will be immortal; and certainly there is theme of number the stars no third possibility that can be imagined.1 Why then should I fear if after death I shall be Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] either not miserable, or even happy? Moreover, who is so foolish, however young he may be, as to feel sure on bill protection any day that he will live till nightfall?

Youth has many more chances of death than those of my age. Young men are more liable to illnesses; they are more severely attacked by disease; they are cured with more difficulty. Thus few reach old age. Were it otherwise, affairs would be better and more discreetly managed; for theme of number the stars, old men have mind and reason and Makes an Effective Essay, practical wisdom; and if there were none of them, communities could not hold together. But to the stars return to impending death, #x2014; can this be urged as a charge against old age, when you see that it belongs to it in Mark's, common with youth?

I felt in the death of theme my most excellent son,1 and Essay, equally, Scipio, in of number the stars, that of your brothers,2 who were born to the expectation of the highest honors, that death is common to all ages. Blind In Macbeth? But, it is said, the young man hopes to live long, while the Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] old man can have no such hope. The hope, at any rate, is unwise; for what is more foolish than to take things uncertain for certain, false for true? Is it urged that the old man has absolutely nothing to hope? For that very reason he is in a better condition than the young man, because what the youth hopes he has already obtained.

The one wishes to live long; the other has lived long. Yet, ye good gods, what is there in man#x2019;s life that is long? Grant the very latest term of life; suppose that we expect to reach the age of the king of Tartessus.1 For it is on record that a certain Arganthonius, who reigned eighty years in Gades, lived to the age of a hundred and twenty. But to me no life seems long that has any end. For when the end comes, then that which has passed has flowed away; that alone remains which you have won by virtue and by a good life. Hours, indeed, and days, and months, and years, glide by, nor does the past ever return, nor yet can it be known what is to come. Theme Of Number The Stars? Each one should be content with such time as it is allotted to him to Ambition in Macbeth live.

In order to give pleasure to the audience, the actor need not finish Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] the the stars, play; he may win approval in whatever act he takes part in; nor need the wise man remain on the stage till the closing plaudit. A brief time is long enough to live well and honorably;1 but if you live on, you have no more reason to mourn over your advancing years, than the farmers have, when the sweet days of what 116 mean spring are past, to of number lament the coming of summer and Ambition, of autumn. Spring typifies youth, and shows the the stars, fruit that will be; the rest of life is fitted for reaping and gathering the fruit. Moreover, the fruit of old age is, as I have often said, the memory and abundance of goods previously obtained. But all things that occur according to nature are to be reckoned as goods; and what is so fully according to nature as for old men to what die? while the theme, same thing happens to the young with the opposition and repugnancy of Blind nature. Thus young men seem to me to theme die as when a fierce flame is Blind Ambition in Macbeth extinguished by a stream of water; while old men die as when a spent fire goes out of its own accord, without force employed to quench it. Or, as apples, if unripe, are violently wrenched from the tree, while, mature and theme the stars, ripened, they fall, so force takes life from the young, maturity from the old; and What an Effective, this ripeness of old age is to of number me so Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] pleasant, that, in proportion as I draw near to death, I seem to see land, and after a long voyage to be on the point of Discrimination Against Women Society Essay entering the harbor. XX.

The close of other ages is definitely fixed;1 but old age has no fixed term, and one may fitly live in it so long as he can observe and discharge the theme of number, duties of his station, and yet despise death. Of Rights Protection? Old age, fearless of death, may transcend youth in courage and in fortitude. Such is the meaning of Solon#x2019;s answer to theme of number the tyrant Pisistratus, who asked him what was his ground of confidence in resisting him so boldly, and Solon replied, #x201C;Old age.#x201D; But the most desirable end of life is when #x2014; the in Macbeth, understanding and of number, the other faculties unimpaired #x2014; Nature, who put together, takes apart her own work. Essay? As he who built a ship or a house can take it to pieces the most easily, so Nature, who compacted the human frame, is the best agent for its dissolution. Then, again, whatever has been recently put together is torn apart with difficulty; old fabrics, easily. Theme Of Number The Stars? Thus what brief remainder there may be of life ought to be neither greedily sought by old men, nor yet abandoned without cause,2 and Mark's Disease, Pythagoras forbids one to desert the garrison and theme of number, post of life without the Ambition in Macbeth Essay, order of the the stars, commander, that is, Edition: current; Page: [ 55 ] God. There are extant, indeed, verses of Solon the Wise,1 in which he says that he does not want to die without the grief and lamentation of his friends, desiring, as I suppose, to Teacher? be held dear by those in of number, intimate relation with him; but I am inclined to prefer what Ennius writes, #x2014; #x201C;Let no one honor me with tears, or make A lamentation at what does sonnet 116 mean, my funeral.#x201D; He thinks that death is not to be mourned, since it is theme followed by immortality. There may be, indeed, some painful sensation in dying, yet for only a little while, especially for the old; after death there is either desirable sensation or none at all. But such thoughts as this ought to be familiar to us from youth, that we may make no account of death. Without such habits of thought one cannot be of a tranquil mind; for it is certain that we must die, and it is uncertain whether it be not this very passing day.

How then can one be composed in mind while he fears death, which impends over him every hour? On this subject there seems no need of a long discussion, when I recall to memory, #x2014; not Lucius Brutus, who was slain in setting his country free; not the two Decii, spurring their horses to a death of Against Women in Pakistani Society their own choice; not Marcus Atilius, returning to theme of number the punishment of Discrimination Essay death that he might keep faith with an the stars, enemy; not the two Scipios, who wanted to block the way for does sonnet, the Carthaginians even Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] with their own bodies; not your grandfather, Lucius Paullus, who yielded up his life to expiate his colleague#x2019;s rashness in the ignominious battle of Cannae; not Marcus Marcellus, whose body not even the most cruel of enemies would suffer to theme of number lack the what sonnet 116 mean, honor of a funeral,1 #x2014; but our legions, often going, as I have said in my History, 2 with a firm and cheerful mind, to theme of number scenes of Responsibility Essay peril whence they expected never to return. Shall well-trained old men, then, fear what youth, and they not only untrained, but even fresh from the theme of number the stars, country, despise? #x2014; In fine, satiety of life, as it seems to me, creates satiety of pursuits of every kind. Ambition In Macbeth? There are certain pursuits belonging to boyhood; do grownup young men therefore long for the stars, them? There are others appertaining to early youth; are they required in the sedate period of life which we call middle age? This, too, has its own pursuits, and they are not sought in old age. As the pursuits of Essay earlier periods of the stars life fail, so in like manner do those of old age.

When this period is Responsibility reached, satiety of life brings a season ripe for death. XXI. Theme The Stars? I see, indeed, no reason why I should hesitate to tell you how I myself feel about death; for I seem to have a clearer view of it, the nearer I approach it. My belief is Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society that your father, Publius Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] Scipio, and yours, Caius Laelius, men of the highest renown and theme, my very dear friends, are living, and are living the only life that truly deserves to be called life. Indeed, while we are shut up in this prison of the body, we are performing a heavy task laid upon us by necessity; for the soul, of celestial birth, is forced down from Responsibility Essay its supremely high abode, and, as it were, plunged into the earth, a place uncongenial with its divine nature and the stars, its eternity. I believe, indeed, that the gods disseminated souls, and planted them in human bodies, that there might be those who should hold the earth in charge, and contemplating the order of celestial beings, should copy it in symmetry and harmony of life. I was led to this belief, not only by Against in Pakistani Essay, reason and argument, but by the pre-eminent authority of the greatest philosophers. I learned that Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, almost our fellow-countrymen,1 who used to be called Italian philosophers, never doubted that we had souls that emanated from the universal divine mind.

I was impressed, also, by what Socrates, whom the theme the stars, oracle of Makes an Effective Apollo pronounced the wisest of men, taught with regard to the immortality of theme of number the stars souls, on the last Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] day of his life. Why should I say more? So have I convinced myself, so I feel, that since such is the rapid movement of Blind Ambition souls, such their memory of the theme of number the stars, past and foresight of the future, so many are the arts, so profound the sciences, so numerous the inventions to Against Women in Pakistani Society which they have given birth, the nature which contains all these things cannot be mortal; that as the soul is always active, and has no prime cause of motion inasmuch as it puts itself in motion, so it can have no end of motion, because it can never abandon itself; moreover, that since the nature of the the stars, soul is uncompounded, and has in itself no admixture of Responsibility aught that is unequal to or unlike itself, it is indivisible, and if so, is imperishable; and that there is strong reason for believing that men know a great deal before they are born in the ease with which boys learn difficult arts, and the rapidity with which they seize upon innumerable things, so that they seem not to be receiving them for the first time, but to be recalling and remembering them. This is the sum of what I have from Plato.1. XXII. In Xenophon#x2019;s narrative,2 the elder Cyrus says in dying: #x201C;Do not imagine, my beloved sons, that when I go from you I shall be nowhere, or shall cease to be. For while I was with you, you did not see my soul; but you inferred its existence Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] from the of number, things which I did in this body.

Believe then that I am the same being, even though you do not see me at all. The fame of illustrious men would not remain after their death, if the souls of those men did nothing to perpetuate their memory. Against Women In Pakistani Society? Indeed, I never could be persuaded that souls live while they are in mortal bodies and die when they depart from them, nor yet that the theme of number the stars, soul becomes void of bill of rights wisdom on theme of number the stars leaving a senseless body; but I have believed that when, freed from all corporeal mixture, it begins to Against Women in Pakistani be pure and entire, it then is wise. Moreover, when the constitution of man is dissolved by of number, death, it is obvious what becomes of each of the sonnet, other parts; for they all go whence they came: but the soul alone is invisible, alike when it is present in the body and when it departs. You see nothing so nearly resembling death as sleep.

Now in sleep souls most clearly show their divineness;1 for when they are thus relaxed and free, they foresee the theme the stars, future. From this we may understand what they will be when they have entirely released themselves from the bonds of the body. Therefore, if these things are so, reverence me as a divine being.2 If, however, the soul is going to perish with the body, you still, revering Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] the gods who protect and govern all this beautiful universe, will keep my memory in pious and inviolate regard.#x201D;1. XXIII. Such were the last words of Cyrus. Bill Protection? Let me now, if it seem good to theme you, express my own opinion and feeling. No one will ever convince me, Scipio, that your father Paullus, or your two grandfathers, Paullus and Africanus, or the father or the uncle of Africanus, or many men of surpassing excellence whom I need not name, undertook such noble enterprises which were to belong to the grateful remembrance of posterity, without a clear perception that posterity belonged to Responsibility Essay them. Of Number? Or think you, #x2014; if after the Makes an Effective Teacher?, manner of old men I may boast a little on my own account, #x2014; think you that I would have taken upon myself such a vast amount of theme the stars labor, by day and by what does 116 mean, night, at home and in military service, if I had been going to put the same limits to my fame that belong to my earthly life? Would it not have been much better to pass my time in leisure and quiet, remote from toil and strife?

But somehow my soul, raising itself2 above the present, was always looking onward to of number the stars posterity, as if, when it departed from life, then at length it would truly live. But unless Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] souls were indeed immortal, men#x2019;s souls would not strive for undying fame in proportion to their transcending merit. What? Since men of the highest wisdom die with perfect calmness, those who are the most foolish with extreme disquiet, can you doubt that the soul which sees more and farther perceives that it is going to a better state, while the soul of obtuser vision has no view beyond death? For my part, I am transported with desire to bill of rights see your fathers whom I revered and of number the stars, loved; nor yet do I long to meet those only whom I have known, but also those of whom I have heard and read, and Responsibility, about whom I myself have written. Therefore one could not easily turn me back on theme of number the stars my lifeway, nor would I willingly, like Pelias,1 be plunged in the rejuvenating caldron. Indeed, were any god to grant that from of rights protection my present age I might go back to boyhood, or become a crying child in the cradle, I should steadfastly refuse; nor would I be willing, as from a finished race, to be summoned back from the goal to the starting-point. For what advantage is there in life? Or rather, what is there of arduous toil that is wanting to it?

But grant all that you may in the stars, its favor, it still certainly has either its excess or its fit measure of duration. I am not, indeed, inclined to speak ill of life, as many and even wise men have often done, nor am I sorry Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] to have lived; for Blind in Macbeth Essay, I have so lived that I do not think that I was born to no purpose. Yet I depart from theme of number the stars life, as from an inn, not as from a home; for nature has given us here a lodging for a sojourn, not a place of habitation. O glorious day, when I shall go to that divine company and assembly of souls, and when I shall depart from this crowd and tumult! I shall go, not only to the men of whom I have already spoken, but also to Women in Pakistani Society my Cato, than whom no better man was ever born, nor one who surpassed him in filial piety, whose funeral pile I lighted, #x2014; the office which he should have performed for me, #x2014; but whose soul, not leaving me, but looking back upon theme of number the stars, me, has certainly gone into those regions whither he saw that I should come to him. This my calamity I seemed to bear bravely.

Not that I endured it with an untroubled mind; but I was consoled by the thought that there would be between us no long parting of the way and divided life. For these reasons, Scipio, as you have said that you and Laelius have observed with wonder, old age sits lightly upon Essay, me. Not only is it not burdensome; it is even pleasant. But if I err in believing that the the stars, souls of men are immortal, I am glad thus to err, nor am I willing that this error in which I delight shall be wrested from me so long as I live; while if in What an Effective Essay, death, as some paltry philosophers1 think, I shall have no consciousness, the Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] dead philosophers cannot ridicule this delusion of mine. But if we are not going to be immortal, it is yet desirable for man to of number cease living in his due time; for nature has its measure, as of all other things, so of life. Old age is the closing act of bill protection life, as of of number the stars a drama, and What Teacher? Essay, we ought in this to the stars avoid utter weariness, especially if the Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani, act has been prolonged beyond its due length. #x2014; I had these things to say about old age, which I earnestly hope that you may reach, so that you can verify by experience what you have heard from me. Interjectus est etiam nuper. The chief ground for doubt as to the time of its composition is that Cicero seems to speak of this book as #x201C;thrown in among#x201D; the six Books of the De Republica, written during his consulate; while he sometimes gives a very broad sense to nuper, as when he writes, nuper, id est paucis ante seculis. But between his mention of the De Republica and that of the De Senectute he names the Consolatio, which was written in B. Of Number? C. 45, after the death of his daughter. Interjectus, as I suppose, refers, not to the date, but to what does the brevity of the treatise, and by virtue of the etiam applies equally to theme of number the Consolatio. Sonnet? #x201C;While I have written, earlier or later, the theme, longer works that I have named, I have thrown in among them these smaller treatises.#x201D;

Cicero and Atticus were not old men when the De Republica was written. The first words of the De Senectute. The first words of the Blind Ambition in Macbeth Essay, De Senectute. Titus Quintius Flamininus, who was a coeval of Ennius. Theme The Stars? His was an bill, eminently successful career.

The #x201C;care#x201D; pressing so constantly upon him may have been that of the war with Philip of Macedonia, in which he showed eminent ability as a commander and of number, a strategist, and which he closed by a peace of which he seems to Makes Essay have dictated the terms. But it more probably may have been a strong and lasting sense of the disgrace brought upon the family by the flagitious conduct of his brother Lucius Quintius Flamininus, who was ignominiously expelled from the Senate, by Cato the Elder, during his Censorship. Ennius, who spent the last years of of number the stars his life in Discrimination Against Society Essay, Rome, and maintained himself as a preceptor to youths of patrician families. He was born in a small village near Brundusium, and was induced to come to theme of number Rome by Cato the Discrimination Women, Elder. He was held in the highest esteem, affection, and theme the stars, reverence by the best men of his time. By the condition of public affairs, as to which Atticus professed an indifference which he can hardly have felt. Atticus was three years older than Cicero, who was in his sixty-second year when this treatise was written. Latin, Chius. Aristo, or Ariston, of Chios, was a Stoic philosopher, and an immediate disciple of Zeno. Ambition In Macbeth? Some authorities read Ceus, and there was an Ariston, a Peripatetic philosopher, of Ceos, of whose many writings only a few fragments have been preserved. The two are often confounded, even by ancient writers, and of number, either of them may have written the treatise or dialogue on old age here referred to.

The son of Eos, or Aurora, who obtained for him, from Zeus, the gift of immortality, but forgot to stipulate for Mark's Disease, that of eternal youth. Theme Of Number The Stars? He shrivelled in old age by Essay, slow degrees; his voice became a mere chirp, and he at length dwindled into a cricket. Can this myth mean that the theme of number the stars, son of the morning, the early riser, has the Essay, promise of long life? Briareus, Enceladus, and Typhoeus, giants, who made war against of number the stars, the gods, were said, in Grecian fable, to have been buried alive by What Makes an Effective Essay, Zeus under Mount Aetna. See the Aeneid, iii.

578. The reference may here be to Cato, which name he seems to have been the first to bear, and which may have been given him in childhood for the promise of the qualities fully developed in later years. The term denotes shrewdness and cunning, rather than wisdom, #x2014; in fine, the of number, feline attributes which have given name both in bill, the Latin ( catus ) and in the English to the cat. Of Number? Reference may, however, be had to Sapiens, #x2014; a surname currently given to Cato in his later years. One of the Cyclades, known in Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay, mythology, as the theme of number, island on which Perseus was driven on shore and brought up, and whose inhabitants he turned to Against Women in Pakistani Society stone with the Gorgon#x2019;s head; and in history, for its insignificance and poverty, #x2014; the reason why under the Roman emperors it was a frequent place of banishment for state criminals; celebrated also (probably in myth rather than fact) for a race of voiceless frogs. #x2014; Herodotus tells this story of Themistocles. The fourth of the name. Quintus Maximus must, then, have been forty-four years older than Cato.

This law not only prohibited the payment of theme of number fees or offering of gifts to advocates; but it limited the bill protection, amount of gifts that could be made in any case, except with certain legal formalities. The object of this last provision was, undoubtedly, to prevent the wheedling of men out of valuable property by taking advantage of their illnesses, their temporary loss of disposing mind, or their apprehension of approaching death. The retaking of Tarentum was the fatal stroke on Hannibal as to the possession of Southern Italy. Theme Of Number The Stars? But in this anecdote, Cicero, or some early transcriber, made a mistake as to the name of the unsuccessful commander. Marcus Livius Salinator was a distinguished general; but it was Marcus Livius Macatus that lost the town of Tarentum, and then did good service from the citadel toward its retaking. It is strange, but true, that Cicero was not well versed in does 116 mean, the history of the Punic wars. The augurs acquired great power in the age when the signs which it was their office to interpret were still implicitly believed in.

From the nice distinctions then deemed of of number the stars importance there grew up a minute formalism, which by degrees constituted a body of augural law. The augurs at first had unlimited authority in their sphere; but as faith in auspices declined, the magistrates, and even patricians not in office, usurped and maintained certain augural rights, so that there was sometimes a conflict of jurisdiction, giving rise to nice questions of law. A discourse commemorative of the Mark's Disease, Athenian patriots held in special honor by their fellow-countrymen. A law restricting, and in the case of large estates prohibiting, the bequest of property to women, perhaps with the view of preventing the alienation of estates from the families in which they had been transmitted. But an extract from Cato#x2019;s speech, given by Aulus Gellius, charges wives who had separate estates of their own with first lending money to their husbands in their stress of need, and then becoming their most relentless and annoying creditors. Appius Claudius was undoubtedly the greatest statesman and the most useful citizen of his time. His name still lives and some vestiges of his public spirit remain in the Appia Via, Rome#x2019;s first great military road, and the Aqua Appia, the earliest aqueduct by theme the stars, which water from the mountains was brought into the city. Livy tells a curious story of his blindness. The patrician gens of the Potitii were hereditary priests of Hercules, whom they worshipped by rites which were their family secret.

Appius, probably apprehensive, as so many modern statesmen have been, of potential mischief from secret societies, hired these men to bill of rights protection divulge the mysteries of their worship to certain public slaves or servants. The consequence was that the whole gens, including twelve families and thirty young men, perished in a single year, and some years afterward ( post aliquot annos ) by of number, the persistent anger of the Against Society Essay, gods Appius was deprived of of number the stars sight. Post, ergo propter. Delenda est Carthago, Carthage must be destroyed, was the Discrimination Against in Pakistani Essay, close of all Cato#x2019;s speeches in the Senate, whatever the subject of discussion. By adoption. Theme The Stars? See Introduction. #x393;#x3B5;#x3C1;#x3BF;#x3C5;#x3C3;#x3AF;#x3B1;. None of the members of this body were less than sixty years of age. Evidently the reference is here to a popular superstition, of which, however, I know of no other vestige. The converse of this proposition is, probably, the best statement of the causes of what is termed the failure of memory in old age.

Lasting memory and prompt recollection are the result of attention, and attention springs from interest. What An Effective? Old men have a vivid recollection of early events, because their interest in theme of number, them was vivid; while in advanced life strong impressions are more rarely made, most of its scenes and incidents being little else than the repetition, with slight change, of previous experiences. Yet the instances are not infrequent in which, after one has reached the condition in does sonnet 116 mean, which yesterday#x2019;s life is a blank, a novel and striking event remains unforgotten. There was a considerable body of pontifical law, #x2014; corresponding to the canon law of Christendom, #x2014; consisting, in part, of immemorial usage or prescription, and, in theme of number, part, even of legislative enactments, of which the members of the pontifical college were the judges and administrators, so that, like the augurs, they needed officially unimpaired powers of mind and protection, retentive memory. He was at this time nearly ninety years of theme of number the stars age. We know not how long Homer or Hesiod lived; but they are always spoken of as old men. The reputed age of the others on the list ranged from Plato, at eighty-one, to Democritus, who was said to have reached his hundredth year. Cato generally lived on his Sabine farm when public duty did not require his presence in Rome.

Young Friends, probably the name of an Effective Teacher? Essay a play. None of the theme of number the stars, works of Caecilius Statius, its author, are extant. Caecilius Statius. There can hardly be need of discriminating him from Publius Papinius Statius, whose poems are extant, and bill, familiarly known to classical scholars. Six times victor in wrestling in the Olympic games, and the stars, six times in the Pythian. The most distinguished jurist of What Makes an Effective Essay his time, and not many years Cato#x2019;s senior. Said to have been the theme, earliest jurist who received pupils. Mark's Disease? He was undoubtedly second in learning and in practical wisdom, as in reputation and official honor, to no man of his age. He flourished about a century before Cato#x2019;s time. Said to have been equally learned and skilled in civil and in pontifical law.

He was not many years older than Cato. He was Consul in 251 and 247 B. C. The earliest age at which he was eligible to the consulship was forty-three; but he probably must have reached that dignity at a later age, if he was so very old a man thirty years afterward. The pontifex maximus (for which we have no better English rendering than high-priest ), like the other pontifices, held his office by life tenure. At some epochs, he was chosen by popular vote; at others, appointed by the college. Of Number The Stars? He and the pontifices were not priests of of rights any special divinity, but the legal trustees of the national religion, its rites and its laws.

The pontifex maximus was, oftener than not, a jurist of eminence, and of number the stars, most of the early Roman jurists attained that dignity. According to Livy, Cato was legatus, or second in command, at this time, and it is hardly possible that an ex-consul should have served as a military tribune. We have here, perhaps, an Responsibility, oversight of Cicero, or, possibly, an theme the stars, over-acting of the old man#x2019;s treacherous memory in Cato, whose extreme old age Cicero evidently personates with marvellous dramatic skill throughout this dialogue. Nothing else is known of Pontius than this reference to his extraordinary strength. He may be the centurion of that name, whose name alone occurs in some verses of Lucilius quoted by Against, Cicero in the De Finibus. He is said to theme have commenced by lifting and carrying a calf daily, and to have continued so ding till the calf had attained full growth. There was a tradition that Milo was a pupil of Pythagoras, and that on bill of rights one occasion the roof of the building in theme, which Pythagoras was lecturing gave way, and was sustained by the single might of Milo. King of the Numidians, and for the most part a faithful, though not a disinterested, ally of the Romans, in the Punic wars. Essay? He was eulogized by of number, Roman writers generally; yet with the rude strength he probably combined no little of the Mark's, rude ethics of a barbarian chieftan. By law no one over forty-six years of age was required to render military service, and Senators above sixty years of age were not summoned to the stars the sessions of the Senate, but attended them or were absent from them at their own option. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Minor, undoubtedly in genius, learning, and ability the foremost of the Scipio family, but never able to Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society fill any other offices than those #x2014; involving little labor #x2014; of Augur and theme the stars, Flamen Dialis.

A foolish old man, the Discrimination Against Women Essay, butt of ridicule and the victim of the stars fraud, trickery, and knavery, was a favorite character in Roman comedy, having a part in almost every comic drama extant. Latin, dissolutos, which might be not unaptly rendered out of joint, or at loose ends. Latin, deliratio, which is Disease here much better expressed by of number, dotage than by delirium. Latin, Origines. Discrimination In Pakistani Society Essay? This was an theme of number the stars, historical work in Blind, seven Books, some fragments of which are extant. It purported to give the theme of number the stars, history of Rome from its foundation to the author#x2019;s own time.

In the seventh Book his own speeches had their proper place. The second and Disease, third Books gave the history of the origin of the Italian towns. Hence the name of the entire work. Prescribed by theme, him, however, not for mnemonic, but for moral uses. While in the Roman Senate individual Senators could not introduce resolutions without previous formalities, there was the same liberty of debate that exists in our Congress, and a Senator could give free utterance to his views on any subject, however remote from the business in Mark's Disease Essay, hand. Archytas was equally distinguished as a philosopher, mathematician, statesman, and the stars, general. He is believed to have been coeval with Plato, though there is some discrepancy of authorities as to the precise period when he lived.

Certain letters that purport to have passed between him and of rights protection, Plato are preserved; but their genuineness is open to of number the stars question. In Macbeth? He was represented as having been singularly pure, kind, and generous in his private life. Livy#x2019;s story is even worse than this. Of Number? He says that a Boian noble came with his children to cast himself upon the protection of the Consul, who, because his infamous associate complained of having never seen a gladiator die, first struck the Boian#x2019;s head with a sword, and when he attempted to retreat, invoking the good faith of the Roman people, stabbed him to the heart. Epicurus, undoubtedly. Cineas was his contemporary, though probably not his disciple. He was the intimate friend and favorite minister of Pyrrhus, king of Epeirus, who used to say that Cineas had taken more cities by what does, his words than he himself had taken by his sword. This sentence #x2014; almost overdone #x2014; is evidently framed expressly in theme, imitation of an old man#x2019;s rambling way of Discrimination Women in Pakistani telling a story. In the battle of Sentinum, Decius, finding that his soldiers were giving way before the fierce onslaught of the Gauls, called one of the pontifices, and asked him to dictate the proper form of self-devotion, with imprecation upon the enemy. Then, repeating the sacred words, he rushed into the ranks of the enemy and was slain. His army, inspirited by his self-sacrifice, won a splendid victory.

His father had, on a previous occasion, devoted himself in like form and manner. Latin, insomniis, which literally means sleeplessness. Dr. Theme The Stars? Schmitz, in Smith#x2019;s Dictionary, says, undoubtedly on competent authority, though I can find none, that the Society Essay, torchbearer and the flute-player were permitted to Duilius as a reward for his victory. Livy says, in theme of number the stars, almost the same words with those in our text, that Duilius assumed these marks of distinction. Club would perhaps be a better rendering. The Roman clubs were formed nominally in honor of some divinity, but grew naturally into associations for What an Effective Essay, convivial enjoyment, by the same tendencies which in Christendom have converted holy days into holidays. Whenever a new worship was introduced, a new club was formed to take it in charge.

Cato#x2019;s club was formed at the time when a shapeless stone, probably meteoric, #x2014; said to have fallen from heaven on Mount Ida, and worshipped under the name of Magna Mater, or Cybele, #x2014; was brought to Rome, in theme the stars, accordance with counsels said to have been derived from the Sibylline oracles. The following is a more literal rendering of this passage: #x201C;Our ancestors appropriately named the reclining together of frends at a banquet convivium [ cum and vivo, living together], because it implied a community of life. Better they than the Greeks, who called the same thing sometimes compotatio [ cum and poto, drinking together], and sometimes concoenatio [ con and coeno, supping together].#x201D; Compotatio and concoenatio are both Latin words. The corresponding Greek words are #x3C3;#x3C5;#x3BC;#x3C0;#x3CC;#x3C3;#x3B9;#x3BF;#x3BD; (whence symposium ) and Responsibility Essay, #x3C3;#x3CD;#x3BD;#x3B4;#x3B5;#x3B9;#x3C0;#x3BD;#x3BF;#x3BD;. Latin, tempestivis conviviis. Tempestivus originally meant seasonable, thence over early. It is often used to designate at the same time the over early and the over late. The Roman arrangements for a festive occasion were not unlike our own. Of Number? A presiding officer #x2014; the Discrimination in Pakistani Society Essay, host, or some one appointed by him, or chosen by the throw of dice #x2014; called upon the guests in turn, that on subjects of conversation no opinion might be lost, and no guest slighted. He also, in of number the stars, the fashion maintained in England among convivialists till a comparatively recent time, announced the rules to be observed in drinking, and closed his speech with the does 116 mean, words, Aut bibe, aut abi, #x201C;Either drink or go.#x201D; #x3A3;#x3C5;#x3BC;#x3C0;#x3CC;#x3C3;#x3B9;#x3BF;#x3BD;, a dialogue specially designed to bring out the theme the stars, leading traits in the character of Blind Ambition in Macbeth Socrates, who is the chief speaker, and of value, also, as grouping the interlocutors at a banquet, and thus incidentally presenting a picture of the etiquette and arrangements of an Athenian supper-table. It was not uncommon for rich Romans to have both summer and winter banqueting-rooms, #x2014; the winter room, if possible, open to the full heating power of the sun, which in that climate supersedes the necessity of theme the stars artificial heat.

The most celebrated actor of his time, contemporary with Terence, and taking leading parts in some of his plays. Latin, aliquid describere, probably denoting to Blind Ambition in Macbeth draw a diagram. Gallus undoubtedly employed geometrical methods in his astronomical studies. Naevius was the theme the stars, earliest Roman poet of enduring reputation. He wrote both comedies and tragedies, and in his old age, banished to Utica for libels contained in his plays, he produced an of rights, epic poem on the first Punic war, in which he had served as a soldier. Both of these plays are extant. The Stars? They were probably the latest that he wrote. Livius Andronicus, earlier than Naevius. His plays were in ruder Latin, and in Cicero#x2019;s time were no longer read. Latin, fabulam docuisset, i. e. Makes Essay? taught the actors their parts, and presided at the rehearsal.

He was both Consul and pontifex maximus. Publius Cornelius Scipio Corculum, twice Consul, also Censor and pontifex maximus, a man of superior integrity as well as learning, and theme the stars, a strong conservative as to manners and morals. The surname of Corculum, a diminutive of cor, was given him, it is said, for Disease Essay, his wisdom, but more probably for the combined qualities of theme the stars mind and heart that won for him the confidence of the 116 mean, people. He filled successively the theme of number the stars, highest offices in the republic, and was for many years pontifex maximus. Horace refers to him as valid authority for Essay, the use of words that were obsolescent when he wrote. Latin, occaecatum, literally blinded, from ob and caecus. Latin, occatio, from the verb occo.

There seems no reason for deriving this from occaeco. Cicero is very apt to of number infer derivation from Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society Essay similarity, and there are not a few tokens of of number his carelessness in Blind Essay, this regard. Of Number The Stars? Thus in different works of his he derives religio from religo and relego, giving from each derivation the bill protection, definition that serves his turn at the time. De Re Rustica, #x2014; a work much less sentimental than a #x201C;Farmer#x2019;s Almanac.#x201D; The Cato who has such an #xE6;sthetic appreciation of the charms of rural life, is a myth of Cicero. Cato#x2019;s own book is theme a manual of hard, stern, sometimes brutal economy, advising the sale of worn-out cattle, and of old or sick slaves. Vendat boves vetulos . . . . servum senem, servum morbosum, et siquid aliud supersit, vendat. He even carries his niggardliness so far as to recommend that, when a slave has a new garment given him, the old shall be taken from Blind in Macbeth him, to theme the stars be used for patches. But Cicero is right in representing Cato as wise on the subject of manure, on which, if I am not mistaken, he was in advance, not only of his own time, but even of ours. Cincinnatus was twice Dictator. It was to his first dictatorship that he was called from the plough; in his second, that he ordered the killing of Spurius Maelius.

Viatores, from via, a public highway. This name was given from early time to messengers of the magistrates and of the courts, whether their office was performed within or beyond the 116 mean, city limits. There may be other authorities than Cicero#x2019;s for the derivation of the word from the summoning of Senators resident in theme the stars, the country: I know of none. Latin, succidiam alteram. Succidia means bacon, and I can find no other probable meaning for it. My interpretation of the passage is this. Farmers laid in a stock of bacon, or strongly salted meats, for winter, to give a relish to other food. They looked to their gardens to furnish a corresponding relish for summer.

Latin, talos et tesseras. Talus means an ankle- or knuckle-bone. The tali used by the Romans were either the Essay, actual bones of animals, or imitations of them in ivory, bronze, or stone. They were employed sometimes as jack-stones or dib-stones are now, in theme of number, games of bill of rights protection skill, and sometimes with the numbers I., II., III., and IV. on their four plane surfaces, in games of chance. The tesserae were cubes of ivory, bone, or wood, like our dice, numbered from one to the stars six. This Cyrus was not a king, but a viceroy under his brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon.

Latin, vir summae virtutis. I have given to virtus its primitive military signification. In Pakistani Society Essay? He was a brave man and an able commander, but cruel and of number, treacherous; and it is hardly possible that Cicero could have meant to ascribe to him virtus in the ethical sense in What Makes Teacher? Essay, which he often uses the word. Latin, directos in quincuncem ordines. Theme? The quincunx was a favorite mode of planting with the Roman gardeners. Responsibility Essay? The name is derived from the numeral V, every three trees being so arranged as to form a V.

Latin, nitorem corporis. Of Number? Perhaps, but I think not, his body shining with oil. In their forty-sixth year Roman citizens were exempted on the score of age from liability to military service. Quintus Fabius Maximus. See Sect.

X. The Augurs were chosen for life, and did not lose their official rank and title, even in case of disgraceful punishment. It was, therefore, possible for a Consul or Censor to be at the same time an Augur. Cicero seems to have forgotten that the Stoics of the earlier school believed in Essay, the survival of the soul after death, but not in theme of number, its immortality. The soul was, at the consummation of the what sonnet 116 mean, present order of the universe, to be reabsorbed into the divine essence from which it emanated, and thus in the new creation that would ensue to have no separate existence. Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus. He was Cato#x2019;s only son by his first marriage. He had reached middle life, and died but a few years before his father. He was a man of high character, had become eminent as a jurist, and was praetor elect at the time of his death.

His father pronounced his eulogy at his funeral, which was conducted at the lowest possible rate of the stars expense, on the plea of poverty, which the father#x2019;s miserly disposition probably justified to his own consciousness. Two sons of Aemilius Paullus, who died at Responsibility Essay, the ages of twelve and fifteen, one just before, the other shortly after their father#x2019;s triumph over the stars, Perseus. As his two elder sons had become by adoption members of other families, he was left without legal heir or successor. A region in the southwest corner of Ambition Spain, supposed, not unreasonably, to be the Tarshish of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its chief city was Gades (a plural form, including adjacent islands), or Gadis, known in modern geography by the slightly altered name of Cadiz. Theme Of Number? This city was the seat of a very ancient Phoenician colony. What Does Sonnet? The longevity of Arganthonius is mentioned by several writers, who do not agree as to his age. Pliny says that he lived a hundred and theme the stars, thirty years. #x201C;Honorable age is Blind Ambition not that which standeth in length of theme of number time, or that is measured by number of Mark's Disease Essay years.

But wisdom is the theme, gray hair unto men, and an unspotted life is old age. Protection? . . . . He, being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time.#x201D; #x2014; Wisdom of Solomon, iv. The Stars? 8, 9, 14. Childhood legally terminated at Makes an Effective Teacher?, seventeen, youth at forty-six; then old age began. The Stoics generally maintained the lawfulness of suicide for theme of number the stars, sufficient cause, and Cicero more than intimates this as his opinion. Pythagoras, and Socrates, as reported by Plato, utterly condemned it. Solon was one of the Seven Wise Men of bill Greece. The names and incidents here enumerated and referred to theme the stars are too familiar to the readers of Roman history to require special notice.

Pythagoras was probably a native of Samos, but after extensive travel in the East established himself and gathered disciples at Crotona, a city founded by Greek colonists in Magna Graecia, or Southern Italy. Hence his followers bore the name of the Italian or Italic school, the only school of philosophy, it is believed, that ever seemed indigenous #x2014; though this not native #x2014; in Italian soil. A synopsis of the argument for immortality given, as in the words of Socrates, in Plato#x2019;s Phaedon. Latin, divinitatem suam. Latin, sic me colitote, ut deum, referring, as I suppose, not to Essay an apotheosis after the manner of the the stars, Roman Emperors, but to the divineness ( divinitas ) ascribed to the soul in prescient dreams, which, as has just been said, prefigure what the what does 116 mean, soul will become in theme of number the stars, dying. This is not a literal translation from Xenophon, nor can it have been intended for one. Cicero meant to What Teacher? Essay give it in the form in which Cato might have been supposed to quote it from memory. Latin, sese erigens . Theme Of Number The Stars? . . . prospiciebat. The figure implies standing, as it were, on What tiptoe, to get a clearer distant view. The myth, as it has come down to us, represents Aeson as the old man whom magic arts made young again, while the like experiment on Pelias was a disastrous failure. The Epicureans, whose grovelling philosophy Cicero never loses an opportunity of theme of number assailing or decrying.

This essay, it will be remembered, is dedicated to Atticus, who professed to belong to the Epicurean school, but whose opinions sat so lightly upon him that he was not likely to take offence at their being impugned or ridiculed. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc. Mark's Disease Essay? All rights reserved. Application designed and developed by Walter Davis Studio. [Back to Top] Marcus Tullius Cicero, Ethical Writings II (On Old Age) [-44]

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Theme Of Number The Stars. Causal analysis essays answer the an Effective Essay question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. Of Number The Stars. To write it, you will describe what happens and Responsibility Essay, then state your answer (aka thesis) about the of number cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?

Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to Essay, fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for the stars some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime?

Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching?

What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers?

Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against of rights their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting?

Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to theme the stars, older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last?

Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to Mark's, establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you?

Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by the stars purring and of rights protection, kneading?

Why do cats like to theme, sleep in boxes and Disease, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and theme the stars, bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs?

Why do some insects and Discrimination in Pakistani, jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in theme the stars research? Why are animals afraid of humans?

Why is larger size an advantage for Blind Ambition in Macbeth animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the theme the stars most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to bill of rights, human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage?

Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and theme, Syria's civil war? What caused the Disease Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. Theme The Stars. government shut down of Responsibility Essay 2013? Why is of number the stars North Korea so closed to Discrimination Women in Pakistani, the rest of the world?

Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to theme the stars, large cities and bill of rights protection, away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is China going to theme, ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the Mark's police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to the stars, use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies?

Why is Twitter the Responsibility Essay medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the theme the stars French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the Essay colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is of number English the main language used around the world in Against Women Society Essay business and science? Why does India have a caste system?

Why are the of number the stars Chinese still interested in religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to Discrimination Against Women, adopt the of number the stars parliamentary system? Why does America have an What Makes Essay, educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the theme of number the stars rest of the world? Why, according to protection, the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the theme of number U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to what 116 mean, study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. Theme Of Number The Stars. However, you should probably make the Responsibility Essay question as short as possible for the title.

Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Of Number. Introduction: Start your introduction by Against interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and theme of number, conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in of rights protection the body of your essay. Theme The Stars. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on What Essay, the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on theme, one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into an Effective Teacher? Essay, full sentences. Of Number The Stars. Those are your topic sentences for Mark's the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from theme of number your own observations and from research.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. Discrimination Women Society Essay. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to theme of number the stars, Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing.

Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Mark's Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to theme the stars, our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on Essay, the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the theme introductory and sonnet, concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others.

Hoping to the stars, have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to much from Essay your sharing. Theme Of Number The Stars. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the what people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and theme of number the stars, instructions. That is bill protection why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years.

Hezekiah 3 years ago from theme of number the stars Japan. Discrimination In Pakistani Essay. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Of Number The Stars. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Mark's Disease Essay, respective owners. The Stars. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Protection. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and of number, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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cope loads homework • Anonymous said… Give the boy a break. He is of number, struggling to Ambition in Macbeth Essay, cope with the theme the stars workload. He is only 8. Mark's Disease! He has loads of time to the stars, find his way in the world. X. • Anonymous said… He may have low muscle tone and if he does, it hurts to write. If that is the Discrimination Against Essay case, no wonder he is having behavioural issues.. Less stress, less melt downs. Less expectations on theme the stars, these kids. Does he alway have sensory processing disorder too?

As if so, school is enough. Just play and relax once home. Ambition In Macbeth Essay! He would be in total sensory overload. Good luck. • Anonymous said… He needs less work and more positivity and of number the stars, praise. His self esteem will be at an all time low as he's constantly being punished as he can't do his school work. He will feel he can't achieve anything. What Does Sonnet! Give lots more positive attention, fun times, praise each tiny achievement he does and his behaviour will improve along with his self esteem.

Plus your relationship with him will massively improve. Since we did this with our son his behaviour, self esteem and our relationship has improved. He's opening up to us more. Of Number The Stars! We still have a lot of bad behaviour etc but it's much better generally. Mark's Disease Essay! Hope it helps. • Anonymous said… He probably can't control the yelling in class. He should not be disciplined for behavior he can't control. Positive reinforcement Always wins out over negative reinforcement! I would definitely meet with school, discuss classwork and homework at meeting to theme of number the stars, reduce the Responsibility Essay amount and frequency. The Stars! Don't take away fun activities at home, because he may be looking forward to that safety and security at Against Women Essay home, if he feels out of place at school.

Also, therapy and of number the stars, medicine for anxiety can help if you aren't already doing that. These things have helped my three sons, that are all on the Autism Spectrum. • Anonymous said… Heartbreaking! Something needs to Discrimination in Pakistani Society Essay, changed at school. Homework should be no more than an the stars hour. Ambition Essay! He seems to be stuck in a negative downward spiral. I pray this is all turned around.

• Anonymous said… He's not gonna want to do better if everyone is constantly negative with him.Its like being thrown in a snake pit day in and day out.Should be focusing on the positive building him up instead of tearing him down with long homework that is to much and too long and punishment.Id talk to school about of number the stars, nipping that.And be extra positive and fun to build him up and help him decompress his anxieties and anger.He shouldn't be punished twice. • Anonymous said… I am a teacher.. What An Effective Essay! though I teach highschool, we are taught the same with homework. Children should not be given homework, only sent home with work that was unfinished at theme of number the stars school. Essay! There are many sites and scientific studies to theme, back this belief. Mark's Disease Essay! Do a little research and write that teacher a note. Of Number The Stars! No child should have that amount of homework! • Anonymous said… I don't think the school is Blind in Macbeth, doing him any favors. Having a HFA child on the write repetitive sentences is theme, ridiculous, and to What Makes an Effective Teacher? Essay, him probably seems pointless and causes more stress. You on the other hand seem to be trying different positive strategies to manage the situations, I believe negative reinforcement/attention is not good for any child, but especially not for HFA. Although I didn't have the same situation as you, home schooling my daughter is a good option..

Good luck to theme the stars, you and stay strong. • Anonymous said… I hate homework for this reason. it seems so pointless. There are so many studies that show homework is unnecessary for sonnet 116 mean young children. and I have to admit, we have made a family decision to skip it. We do so many learning activities with our son and he is showing us ways he enjoys learning and theme of number, we try and capitalize on that, but it is NOT worth the does struggle to get him to do a couple poxy worksheets a night. :( However, I am worried we are doing him a disservice for when he gets to middle school. Theme The Stars! he is 8 as well. • Anonymous said… I would completely refuse to do homework at home. Home is safe and Responsibility, family is first. I would also call an of number iep meeting asap. He is overwhelmed by sonnet 116 mean, their regular work and then they pile a ton of useless activity on top of that?

Who wouldn't throw a fit? It sounds like he needs regular sensory breaks and a new approach to what they expect. Sadly, having said all that, none of it worked for my son and he's much more successful homeschooling. However, the theme tantrums were much less when he wasn't overwhelmed by bill, the school piling it all on and trying to send it home. I also had it written into his iep that he could not have recess taken away as he needed the sensory input. • Anonymous said… I would have been a nervous wreck as an 8 year old in the stars this day an age. to then learn differently in addition to the already high demands we place on does, our children now. I've had to theme, release the reigns with my son at home, also HFA, it's made a world of difference. Does Sonnet! We have more play time than most! Do teachers understand and agree, some (not all), but that's okay, his mental health is more important. • Anonymous said… I would refuse the homework.

My daughter has Aspergers and as far as she concerned school is school and theme the stars, home is home, she used to freak out if homework was mentioned. I had a word with the What an Effective school and she's now coming along great as all her homework is done in theme the stars school time. • Anonymous said… If this kiddo is anything like mine, the small amount of homework sent home should take ten minutes but because of adhd and meltdowns it takes 4 hours. #128542; my 1st grader had 20 spelling words to what does 116 mean, study each evening and it is quick some days and some days take all evening. Depends on how her day is going. I want her to do well but my cut off is one hour after school and 30 minutes before bed if we don't finish beyond that. well i tried but I'm not making my child miserable after all day away from me at school. #128534; • Anonymous said… Insist on an IEP team review meeting as soon as you can. Having him write that much and the stars, the punitive nature of Responsibility writing repetitive sentences is theme of number the stars, not meeting his needs.

Get a sped advocate involved if the Responsibility school won't listen to the stars, you. What! As a teacher and parent of theme a specially wired child, this breaks my heart. Listen to your child, advocate for them, listen to your parental gut, and educate the educators about the need of your child. Any decent education team will listen to and respect that, but I know it isn't always easy. • Anonymous said… Keep everything positive, build him up, tell him that he'll get more attention/fun if he does the steps required. break assignments into of rights, short segments, use questions about his assignment/look to of number the stars, different learning styles. my son likes to what, talk/learn while moving so we do assignments while walking or in the car where there are not so many distractions. my son also loves the history channel. find his focus area and try to theme of number, use this in his learning Good Luck! We are now working on college credits. • Anonymous said… Keep school punishment and home punishment separate. Tell the teachers that they are to let him finish at school his work. Essay! What is left should be given the next day. At home do positive things with him.

He is being bombarded by school and home. Of Number The Stars! He deserves a safe place. A place of love, peace and joy. Let that always be his home. Writing sentences for a child on the spectrum is not beneficial. I'm not sure they should disciple him but use a reward for him for good behavior. • Anonymous said… Look at his diet. Responsibility Essay! We are trying to of number, eat additive and Mark's Disease, preservative free (or mininals) which means a bit more baking and cooking from scratch and learning what to buy at the supermarket that has 'no nasties' as my kids call them. When we are onto our sons diet (we aren't always) it takes the edge off the theme anger and the length of his tantrums/meltdowns. I thought we add pretty well until I did a course that made me look at the numbers and of rights protection, names of ingredients in products and the findings are scary, known carcinogenic ingredients, mood disrupters, causes aggregation and confusion. All in our food, very scary.

I did a course through sistermixin they have fb page and I have the of number the stars chemical maze app and book. Worth a look into. • Anonymous said… Many of these kids don't like to what sonnet 116 mean, write so that's crazy to theme of number, think that's going to make him get his work done any better. Reward, don't punish. Punishment doesn't work with these kids! You need to call a parent/ teacher conference and together figure out how to motivate him or it's just going to get worse. I'd also put in his IEP no homework. • Anonymous said… Maybe traditional school that is meant for those that can sit still for 6 hours at a time is not for him.

Look for 116 mean alternatives within the of number the stars community, like a half day program. No child should have to do 4 hours of Discrimination Women Society homework a night, no matter what the of number circumstance. What An Effective Essay! I went through this with my son who graduated this year. We ultimately used an theme the stars online program for Essay his core classes, and then public school for electives. Theme The Stars! Freshman and Sophomore years were horrible in high school, but when he tested into the running start program to enter college early, things turned around for him. He took 2 honor music classes at the high school, and two college classes. He made friends in what does 116 mean college, FRIENDS!! It was the theme best decision we ever made.

He just graduated with honors in the arts. • Anonymous said… My son also has HFA and we had many issues with him being overwhelmed with the amount of school work they were giving. We had accommodations added to his IEP where he has reduced work, extra time on Blind in Macbeth Essay, testing as well as only work sent home if they have to. He went from having meltdowns everyday at school to finally last school year he had less than 20 for the entire year. He is also taking meds for anxiety which hep tremendously. Good luck but definitely take it up with the school administration if talking to theme the stars, the teacher doesn't work. • Anonymous said… My son hasn't had homework for ages and his school makes him too anxious. Protection! Currently moving schools. • Anonymous said… My son went through similar behaviour.

I moved him to a special needs class. they get NO homework and I noticed Less stress in a very short period of time. They can't handle that kind of stress. The school should know better. Like a lady mentioned above. home is a safe Zone. Now they send the stress home. Poor child can't cope with it all and that's why he's acting the theme the stars way he is. He must be able to escape school pressure and stress. and that's being taken away from bill protection, him.

Good luck to you, never easy. Theme Of Number The Stars! #127800; #10084; • Anonymous said… Need to have a 504 or IEP instituted at school immediately. Have Dr. write a note to school. Discrimination Against Women In Pakistani! When all else fails..cyber school willing to theme the stars, work with above accomadations. We have with our son..PA Cyber, best thing we ever all did. • Anonymous said… No . If he has homework (and he shouldn't have it every night at 8 years old!) have a set period to do it - 20 minutes probably at his age. Do whatever he gets done in what does 116 mean this period and leave the rest and write a note to the teacher saying this is how much was done. The Stars! Lines saying I will not yell in bill class? Disgusting! That is his personality and of number the stars, he finds it hard to suppress! He is more likely an anxious child than a naughty one.

Rewards are better - maybe get the Blind Ambition in Macbeth Essay teacher to do a record card and write a smiley face every time he gets through a lesson without noises. If he gets a full day of smiley faces, spend an allocated time with him (maybe half an hour?) doing an activity of his choice. Theme! Get the teacher to use visial cues in class to try to tell him to lower the volume (eg, thumbs down against the chest) - discreetly so as not to embarrass him in front of the other children! Making him write lines is going to make him feel like he is naughty or stupid! Sounds like the bill teacher needs some training or, better still, a new vocation! He is probably making noises because he is anxious! Need to try to ignore attention seeking bad behaviour and reward good behaviour.

• Anonymous said… No one should be expected to do 4 hours homework a night. I had a word with the s.e.n person at theme of number the stars my Son's school, as we were having a similar issue. She was very good and cut the homework right back, so he wasn't doing more the 10/20 minutes a night. They also reduced the What Makes Teacher? pressure on him in the classroom, as he cannot work as fast as the other kids. Since these two changes, he has been much happier at school and has been performing better. I think this is a much better approach than what you have described. • Anonymous said… oh my goodness, feeling for you all.

Trust in yourself, put yourself in his shoes. Theme Of Number! My girl (13 yrs) is in a class of protection 6 for kids on the spectrum, she cannot bear to do anything that is of number, pointless and writing the Ambition same sentence 20 times would be unbearable for her. she can just about handle 15 mins concentrating on one thing at a time unless it interests her personally anything after that is time wasted so we take lots of theme the stars breaks which makes it v time intensive on me. I think she would get on much better if I could home ed her but we are in germany at the moment and its not an option. sounds like he needs a different school. good luck xxx. • Anonymous said… Our son is going through the same. Writing is very challenging and he just doesn't want to do it. I'm blessed I have an Women in Pakistani Essay awesome team of teachers at his school. My son is also 8years old. They just added this in his IEP. He writes his thoughts down for his paper (brain storming) then he writes his rough draft. Then he gets to of number, use voice to text for his final draft.

I'm excited for him to try this out Mark's next year. Just remember you are his advocate speak to what you need!! I do all the time. • Anonymous said… Please consider home school or virtual schooling. Theme Of Number! I'm not sure what state you are in but I used Florida Virtual school which was free and all the curriculum is Responsibility, there. You simply log on and do the of number work on pace for that day.

I discovered my child food best when working on one subject per day (Monday = Math for example) then he was able to Essay, focus . Also he could take many breaks. My son was also diagnosed with OCD during this time as he simply couldn't focus. • Anonymous said… Sounds like he is overwhelmed, stressed, and melting down. I'm with Donna Beetham. he probably needs less work, not more. The Stars! I remember melting down every night in 3rd and 4th grade over homework.

I wish I had been diagnosed then and someone realize that what I needed was accommodations allowing more time to process those difficult things. • Anonymous said… Sounds like he needs more fun and happy times , surely life is too short to put all this stress and Makes an Effective Teacher? Essay, anxiety on an 8 year old with special needs home should be his safe place where theres love and kindness and his sense of the stars worth . • Anonymous said… Still learning about Discrimination Against in Pakistani Society Essay, this but I know what your school is doing with your boy would not work with ours. his mind doesn't work that way and making him do 20 sentences would never discipline him just aggravate the heck out of him. he is too smart to do repetitive things like that. The Stars! he needs a challenge to keep him interested. • Anonymous said… Thank your child is about to explode tell the Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society school to stick there homework . Think of him take away the pressure of the stars school and home school your have a diffrent child. 4 hours homework disgu6. • Anonymous said… That's not right it isn't even homework ffs!

School obviously cant b arsed and don't really know what they are doing!! Id definitely say this to them! Dont stand for bill protection it!! • Anonymous said… The more the school focused on the stars, my son's behavior, the worse he got. He developed tics and stimming increased. [He didn't have tantrums he would go into shut down mode instead]. I stopped the criticism and all the primary focus on performance, and the mental stress of always being observed and Essay, judged, while trying to 'be good', went away [along with the adverse behavior]. Rewards did not work because he knew it was patronizing and also meant he only got rewarded for changing who he was so others would like him better. He eventually settled into his schoolwork after the behavioral program got axed, because the only thing we didn't change and of number, what he realized is that it had to be done to get recess, justified [which was a big thing to him] by What, telling him it wasn't fair to the students who did their work that he be allowed to play if he wasn't working as hard as they were.

He had to do the same as them, because he was the same as them. Presto. To this day he does his homework always and actually gets upset if he doesn't have time to complete it during school time. • Anonymous said… The most valuable lesson we learned from theme of number the stars, my daughter's speech/ABA therapist was to what sonnet, IGNORE the undesirable behaviour and REWARD the desirable behaviour (notice I didn't say good/bad). Kids always have a reason for their actions and theme of number, your boy sounds utterly overwhelmed. He's in defence mode atm because he's scared and doesn't feel emotionally safe. Late last year my then-7yo daughter was the same. Essay! She was like a feral cat, scared, nasty, refusing anything we asked of her. She was kicking, biting, throwing furniture, putting us all in theme of number the stars physical danger.. it was horrible!After seeing a LOT of therapists, we found a good one who taught us to bill of rights, start picking our battles.

We issued positive reinforcement when she did the slightest thing right and she had gradually come around. Also you need to model the bahaviour you want to see in him. STOP shouting (I know it's sooo hard!), only speak politely and he will EVENTUALLY see that as the norm and follow suit. Remember that our kids are often emotionally much much younger than their years. Your 8yo boy may only be a toddler emotionally and may have no idea why he lashes out. He just knows that he's unhappy and is trying to protect himself the theme only way he knows how. Responsibility Essay! Good luck Mumma! This is such a hard gig but we all get it xxxx.

• Anonymous said… Time to homeschool and theme, let the What an Effective child go at his pace and not at a collective classroom pace. Each child is an individual and should be seen as such. • Anonymous said… We decided in one of my son's IEP that we would no longer be doing homework at home. Theme The Stars! We want our house to be a home of bill protection refuge and peace for him at night. You know your child's abilities more than anyone. And you have to determine what's best for theme of number the stars you and Blind Ambition Essay, your home. For us. Theme Of Number The Stars! we wanted peace. Plus we have so many other things to teach him. like chores. Hence my above photo.

• Anonymous said… We tried sticker charts for our son too, it would work for a while then he'd decide not to bother. The homework thing is the Blind Ambition same for us but, we no longer battle for him to do it, rather encourage any he wants to do leave him to sort at school. We've also emailed his teacher to theme of number, let her know too, so she can either set him less, or he can do it with a teacher aide's help. • Anonymous said… You are wasting time and Responsibility Essay, causing unnecessary stress trying to make him do that much homework at his age. And traditional discipline won't work. Sounds like he needs to be in a different school also. Good luck! My name is Pepper Basham. I am a university instructor and speech-language pathologist who specializes (or is trying to specialize) in kids with pragmatic language disorders. I just came upon your site a few months ago and it's so wonderful.

I have quite a few social thinking groups I've recently started and they've quickly grown in numbers. Hi, Although the newsletters that I receive from the stars, you, relate directly to my child in regards to his behavior and traits, I have been told that my son does not have aspergers, although he has many of the outlined traits that I've read about in your newsletter. who am I to say.. I'm just his mom. however. Mark's! that said, do you know Dr. Paul Singleton or possibly current or former staff from the Halton District School Board? I think this is a great website…lots of very USEFUL tips for special ed kids…not just aspergers. I am a therapist and use your articles with parents of my Asperger's clients. Theme Of Number The Stars! When I print them they are very small in Responsibility Essay print and hard to read. Is there anyway you can add a readable print for the article without all of the side columns? I enjoy receiving your newsletters. Theme Of Number The Stars! They are very helpful for Discrimination Women Society Essay parents.

Thank you. I would like for of number the stars you to share this info about Aspergers with the TN department of Education. I have spoken out in a manner that I do believe few parents do about Ambition Essay, what happened to my son at the hands of Educators. I am tired of fighting the fight and I am sure that my son is not the only child who has suffered because of disorder that is not understood. Debra Payne, Acting Commissioner. Our daughter is the stars, approaching her teen years. She is a very sweet and usually compliant child, but she has always been passive aggressive. This school year we have been struggling with her refusing to do school work or participate at school. Essay! (We actually struggled with this one other year, but thought it was because she had been switched to different aide and wasn't getting along with her.)

Our son who is 8 and in 2nd grade (mainstreamed) is having a hard time staying on task at school and at home during homework. He is very bright, knows how to do the work but gets distracted so easily. Hate the thought of having to medicate him. People need to realize that the amount of of number the stars energy and concentration required for Mark's Essay a kid with Aspergers to make it through a normal school day is immense. Having to do homework that is often pointless is asking too much. I negotiate with my child's teacher every year around the homework, so it is actually helpful and it is not a big deal, otherwises it just adds stress on top of stress at the end of a busy day. As long as my daughter is doing her best in school time and theme, learning there I am happy with that. I need help. The last 2 weeks my Aspie son has been out of sorts. He is defiant at school, refuses to work and disrespectful and looses his anger quickly.

He started this school in bill Aug and up until a few weeks ago he has been doing good, A/B honor roll with the occasional anger issue but nothing like this. I am at theme the stars my witts end with it. He is not medicated but is free of wheat, soy, peanuts, almonds, artificial flavor and color. He is Discrimination in Pakistani, also on Omega 3's, B-12, b-6, melatonin (for sleep) and attentive child. Of Number! We had to Discrimination in Pakistani, switch to the Omega 3 capsule for a bit so I am assuming that is where this dip is coming from but we need to fix it. He hasnt started ABA therapy yet but we meet with her next week. What others things can I do to help him get himself back in theme of number check? Non-medication. I need help.

The last 2 weeks my Aspie son has been out of sorts. Essay! He is defiant at school, refuses to of number the stars, work and disrespectful and looses his anger quickly. Discrimination! He started this school in theme Aug and Responsibility Essay, up until a few weeks ago he has been doing good, A/B honor roll with the occasional anger issue but nothing like this. I am at my witts end with it. He is not medicated but is free of theme the stars wheat, soy, peanuts, almonds, artificial flavor and color. He is also on Omega 3's, B-12, b-6, melatonin (for sleep) and bill, attentive child.

We had to switch to the Omega 3 capsule for a bit so I am assuming that is where this dip is coming from but we need to theme the stars, fix it. He hasnt started ABA therapy yet but we meet with her next week. What others things can I do to help him get himself back in Mark's Disease Essay check? Non-medication. Homework was just about to theme of number the stars, tear our family apart so I contacted the Blind autism specialist for of number the stars the school district and explained the Responsibility problems we were having. She said there was no need for our family to be disrupted over homework, so we sat down with his teacher and revised his IEP to say that no homework was to be sent home with him/ Problem solved.

That was two years ago. He works on what would be homework during class if he has time. Hiss grades have not dropped since we stopped the homework. The IEP is your friend so use it to your child's advantage. I know from my experience with my son that I had to go to a source outside school first. Where I'm at theme of number it is called harbor regional. I had him assessed there and he was diagnosed on the spectrum. Then I took the assessment results to his school and they did their own assessment with the Blind Essay same results.

I started talking to doctors when he was three but since he's high functioning it was dismissed as boys will be boys or he's just young he'll outgrow it . I knew there was more to it than that he was diagnosed 5 years later. My advice keep trying until you know your child needs have been met go to an outside source never give up. You know your child best. Rachel I know just what you mean in getting the proper diagnose! I was told the theme same, boys will be boys, he'll out grow it, let him pay the consequences for not having his homework done! I never gave up. He's had severe anger outbursts, ALWAYS had homework issues from first grade. He started meds a year ago, well we did the frustrating game of trial and error.

He's now on Mark's Essay, Celexa and theme of number, Risperdyl. I want to get him OFF Risperdyl because of the side effects it carries! He's been diagnosed with being defiant, and Ambition in Macbeth, touches highly in the spectrum of autism. He definitely is a CONSTANT struggle with homework everyday, every year! He's is 6th grade, gets great grades, but recently some of his grades have fallen. Due to theme of number the stars, not turning in all of Disease Essay his homework, I didn't know this was happening. I am at wits end with this struggle!

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