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Better leadership in the Civil Service: a statement of intent. The Civil Service has achieved a huge amount in this Parliament, helping the Essay on The Government to design and deliver its programme, and operating services that affect the lives of millions of people. This reflects the 2pac death hard work, and discretionary effort, of civil servants up and down the country and changes to the way we work as a result of the Civil Service Reform Plan. Overall, the Essay on The Political Parties Civil Service is becoming more innovative, more digital, more open and more responsive to the needs of service users. Productivity is rising, performance is improving and trust in the Civil Service is at Kurt Cobain Essay, record levels. In one sense, this is not surprising. We know that much of the impetus for change in recent years has come from civil servants themselves - dissatisfied with the outdated, inflexible structures, processes and technologies that prevent them from reaching their potential and doing the best for the country. To ensure that the changes now underway become deeply ingrained in Political Parties the culture of the Civil Service of the future, our leaders must become role models for 2pac death, the new ways of working. They must challenge themselves and each other to improve how the Essay on The Parties Civil Service operates, and important, the way we act together to ensure the Essay Civil Service provides the best service it can - to Ministers and the public. There is a real desire for greater clarity about what is stephens expected of all leaders: all the empirical evidence, independent reports and best practice from the private sector show that strong leadership is critical to the culture of high-performing organisations, and Essay on The Political Parties, the Civil Service is no exception. So, we made a clear commitment in Octobers Progress Report on Civil Service Reform, to write down the behaviours that we expect all leaders across Civil Service grades to exemplify, and ensure that reality matches rhetoric.

Over the past 4 months, you were invited to contribute your opinions on Cultural Intelligence Assessment Essay what good leadership looks like, what you value in your leaders and Essay on The First Political, what behaviours need to change. Now, acting on the results of this consultation, in stephens which literally thousands of civil servants across the country took part, alongside the views reflected in the People Survey and other feedback, we have issued a single, clear statement of what you can expect of Civil Service leaders at all levels. It responds directly to your comments about the positive attributes you are proud of, and to the persistent messages about what elements of our culture need to change. This statement of intent takes as its starting point the responsibility of the Civil Service for Essay on The Parties, the effective delivery of the Governments programme and Ministers priorities, living its values and serving the public. It then highlights the 3 key characteristics that you have indicated you expect from effective leaders, and 2pac death, that Civil Service leaders promise to live up to. They will be: inspiring - about Essay on The First, their work and its future confident - in their engagement empowering - their teams to deliver. Why is this statement more than the sum of its parts? In drafting this statement, we have listened to mummification important, what you are saying needs to change. We expect leaders at all levels to hold the Leadership Statement up as a mirror to their own behaviours in a challenging and Political Parties, constructive way, and to be honest about may and stephens, where they are falling short and take appropriate action to address it. They will be given the support, tools and training they need to do so.

But we are going further than this. We expect you to follow closely how the on The Political Parties statement translates into real and Intelligence Essay example, observable behaviour change in your leaders. So, meeting the substance behind the spirit of the headline themes will be embedded in the performance agreements and objectives of all leaders. Further still, the Statement will be supported by a new 360-degree reporting mechanism. For the first time, staff will have the Political Parties opportunity to assess their leaders and measure their performance against Memorable Essay the values set out in the Leadership Statement. Initially, this will apply to the 150 or so leaders in the Senior Leadership Group, but for the 2015/16 appraisal year the entire SCS community will be assessed against a single, robust 360-degree feedback tool, aligned to the Leadership Statement. The impact of the statement will also be continuously monitored, including through hard data - how it is reflected in on The Political recruitment, promotion and talent management practices, for Memorable Super Bowl Season, example - and feedback from civil servants through our regular surveys and communications channels. First Political Parties? We want you to see that progress and reward will be dependent on showing the leadership behaviours expected. Lined up behind the Leadership Statement are the critical elements for developing the Civil Service - increased capability in key areas, smarter working, greater transparency, a truly diverse workforce and talent that is properly harnessed and given the Cultural opportunity to shine, wherever we find it.

Better leaders will make for First Political, a more capable, collaborative, confident, efficient and fulfilled Civil Service, delivering better public services. If you want to 2pac death, know more about the Leadership Statement, what it means for you and your managers, and Essay First Political Parties, how it will be implemented, Civil Service leaders will be talking about different aspects of the Statement in the coming weeks, and a series of events and communications will be run within departments. Kurt Example? Follow Sir Jeremy on Twitter: @HeadUKCivServ. You may also be interested in: Comment by Richard Bolton posted on on 13 February 2015. Can#039;t help but be a bit cynical about Essay on The, this I#039;m afraid. I appreciate the intent to improve leadership capability (which has got worse and worse over the last few years). We#039;ve got a decent statement of this sort of #039;stuff#039; in 2pac death the core competence framework that describes the #039;how#039; people should be operating. Why spend more and more time creating different variations on the same thing that people are probably really pleased with themselves for producing but is going to be put on a wall and not adhered to Political, in most places? Use the Cultural Intelligence one we#039;ve got but actually do something to on The First Political Parties, manage people#039;s performance against Memorable Season it please!

Comment by Paul Hardacre posted on on 13 February 2015. I think consistency should have been in the Leadership statement somewhere. First Political? Comment by Paul posted on on 13 February 2015. Nothing new in there and all good as an important, aim for Parties, leaders. However, whilst I am proud of what DWP does, it is sometimes a bit tricky being inspiring and showing #039;pride in, and Super Bowl Essay, passion for, public service#039; when all one hears from this administration is the demonisation of the public sector and civil servants. Comment by Anthony Getgood posted on on 13 February 2015.

I#039;m assuming the 360 degree reporting mehanism will be developed to manage performance against leadership (in whichever variation leadership is defined). I agree with Paul; perhaps replace confidence with consistency in Essay Political our engagement, which the bullet points support well. Comment by Oliver Robbins, Cabinet Office posted on on 13 February 2015. Thanks Anthony, and Paul, for the comments on the importance of consistency. One of the things we found civil servants overwhelmingly cared about was clear, honest, two-way engagement with their leaders. Civil servants seem to accept that we#039;re working in rapidly changing times, but want to feel part of the discussion with their leaders about where we#039;re going. Confidence seemed to Essay, be the quality that leaders need for this clear, consistent two-way engagement. Essay On The First Parties? But Jeremy and the rest of the Civil Service senior leadership do want to be highly consistent about the way we implement and hold ourselves to Intelligence Essay example, the values in the Statement. That#039;s why you#039;ll see quite a lot more by way of support to Civil Service leaders at every level in how to develop as leaders, and a real focus on great leadership qualities in the way we appoint and appraise leaders. Thank you for your thoughts and engagement.

Comment by David Wellings posted on on 13 February 2015. Too many leaders operate in a #039;business as usual#039; comfort zone without recognising the impact this has, or could have on their commands if they truly were inspiring, confident and First, empowering. Greater transparency has already been identified as a critical element, but equally important is impartiality, which, despite the recent training module on unconcious bias, is a long way from being embedded in Cobain Essay the behaviours of leaders. Comment by Hugh Neill posted on on 13 February 2015. I#039;d have liked to see #039;commitment#039; and #039;accountability#039;. There is a perception I think that some leaders sweep in, author impossible changes, hold (committed) staff accountable for delivering them and then, having been rewarded for apparently (though not actually?) delivering, slip away into some other new post with no apparent accountability when chickens come home to Essay First Parties, roost. Comment by Dave C posted on on 10 March 2015. #039;Integrity#039; fits in there as well. I#039;m surprised it wasn#039;t included.

Comment by Menna Rawlings posted on on 13 February 2015. I like this a lot, and thanks for the opportunity to 2pac death, feed into the process and to comment on Essay First Political the outcome. I think there is a gap in How Television Essay the market for this sort of Essay First Political Parties statement, and the very clear sense of mission which has hitherto been lacking for the Civil Service as a whole. It#039;s important too that we keep setting our own standards for the sort of behaviours we want to model and see in others. Some of us at Director level across the Civil Service have recently made our own leadership commitment, and said we will do the following five things: 1. Feel and instil pride and may and stephens, passion for Political, what we do and for public service.

2. Focus on the positives. Challenge the negatives, especially bad behaviour. 3. Take risks. Encourage staff to do the same and have their backs. 2pac Death? Accept and learn from failure and set-backs.

4. Role model collaboration and inclusiveness. Get out more. Build networks. 5. Create space to keep working on Essay First Political these issues, as our contribution to the future. These echo many of the ideas in the Leadership Statement, but we developed them ourselves in collaborative way, and thus feel a strong sense of commitment to these sorts of behaviours. It would be great if others could use the statement as a licence to do the same. Why Was Mummification Important? Comment by Oliver Robbins, Cabinet Office posted on on 13 February 2015.

Thanks very much for these thoughts Menna. This is exactly the spirit in which we hope people will use the Statement - as a prompt for Essay First, discussion, self-reflection and personal development. The list of five commitments you#039;ve made with your colleagues is a great starting point, I think. I#039;ve been encouraging colleagues to start by just focusing on important one of the bullets they know in the heart-of-hearts is an area where they#039;ve got room to on The First Political, improve, and making a commitment to do something practical that teammates will notice over the months ahead. Affects Essay? Comment by Dave C posted on on 13 February 2015. About that People Survey: Did the Dept of Health include patients in the Civil Service survey?

Or MoJ include prisoners? The MoD included the military in our survey. Up to 44% of responses were military in some TLBs. The military are, of course, on First completely different Terms Conditions: better pay, better pensions, accomodation, etc. I#039;m not saying they don#039;t derserve it; they do, but if you check the results* for question B38: #039;I am satisfied with the total benefits package#039;, you will see that 40% of Memorable Super Bowl Season military agree or strongly agree, compared to 26% of Essay First Parties civilians. The published result is 33% - wildly different from the CS respondents#039; view.

*MoD are not publishing the results split by civilian and military; an FOI is required. Comment by Karen Hatt posted on on 13 February 2015. This is Memorable Super Season Essay wonderful rhetoric and it is clear that our leadership are coming up with contemporary new ways of on The First looking at things. Important? I would like to see first line managers empowered to reward and motivate their staff and this needs a budget allocation, however we cannot be seen rewarding our staff from the public purse because there is not enough to go around, so how do we motivate and reward staff who are already working for lower than the Essay on The First Political private sector wages? We have pride in our work and this needs to translate into feeling valued. Comment by Oliver Robbins, Cabinet Office posted on on 13 February 2015. Thanks for your comment Karen. I#039;m glad the intent seems to strike the right note with you, and there is Essay certainly the Essay on The First Parties commitment from the 2pac death top of the Service to keep the Political Parties focus on developing leadership capability. But the Viewing Affects Children Essay point you make is of course right: our colleagues#039; motivation is vital, and some flexibility to find ways to reward and recognise great work is really valuable for leaders at every level. On The First Political? Many departments are of course trying to find ways of recognising achievement when financial rewards have been much harder to Super Bowl, offer. The purpose of this Statement, and the work that goes along with it, is to Essay Political, make sure that we do one of the things that is absolutely within our power: lead our people with energy and integrity so that we bring out the best in them and ourselves.

Replies to Cultural Intelligence Assessment Essay example, Oliver Robbins, Cabinet Office Comment by Colin posted on on 16 February 2015. I agree with you - in that the Civil Service needs to be more innovative in looking for ways to recognise achievement, particularly when financial rewards are harder to offer. But I#039;d be interested in your views on how that squares with the HMRC approach - where, if my efforts result in promotion, my contract is then withdrawn and a new one imposed under which I have to work longer hours and Essay on The Political, receive less Annual Leave? I#039;d say that#039;s a curious way of showing that my motivation is vital. Comment by Tim posted on on 13 February 2015. Firstly let be bracket my statement to support its validity within the example Civil Service my grade makes me an none entity however I bring with me 18yrs service as an Essay, army officer and may and stephens, including a 2 ? yrs posting to a University Officer Training Corps as the Essay on The First Parties 2iC Advanced Training Wing teaching undergraduate potential officers leadership I ended my military career spent primarily leading men (no apologies for the gender reference) in Essay example the Infantry with a number of years as a leadership, training and human resource expert in the Equipment Support wing - REME. I read therefore the leadership statement with cautious interest. While I found some of the Parties statements amusing in their woolliness especially, after reading statements like straightforward, and resolving ambiguities. However what really enraged me was the statement about champion both difference and external experience space for Kurt example, an inappropriate adjective get real. When you have an application form that limits examples of competencies to Essay on The First Political, the past 3 years how can this service the above, when it leaves individuals who can demonstrate decision making under pressure through experiences such as; being an incident controller on a fatal air crash in 18inch of example snow at Essay Parties, night during -28 degrees and potentially in the middle of Cultural Assessment Essay example a mine field, but due to the narrow introverted application of the on The Parties rules has been restricted to one of the lowest grades in the service because they have failed to Affects Essay, make the ordering on a new pack of staples sound dynamic enough, as this is potentially the most extravagant experience they have been allowed to have in Essay First Political the last 10yrs service as a civil servant.

Has the 2pac death ability and capability of taking command in stressful and Essay on The Political, demanding situation dissipated so much that this is now what your effective ability level has become, or is this another method of discreetly ensuring those whos natural leadership capacity and Cultural Intelligence Essay, who frighten other with no real ability, but who hold the posting where they enjoy the authority and privilege the on The First Parties post offers, can be side-lined. This week a vacancy for 2pac death, advancement closed without my application, purely because I am no longer going to offer an opportunity to those with no ability to diminish my personal pride and the dignity I owe the memory of so many who willing followed me. Cleary as one of the foot soldier I am Inspired Empowered and by First the time this has been read by some Confidant of getting reprimanded or marked down on an annual assessment. Comment by Darren posted on Memorable Bowl on 16 February 2015. I have to agree with Tim, I am also ex-HM Forces.

I have given up the last seven years of my spare time and annual leave to achieve a BA Hons in Essay First Business Studies whilst looking after a disabled parent. I have also taken on many extra duties which have helped my Department through many transitional stages. Despite excellent leadership qualities gained via my forces training and my determination to continually improve myself, I am also tied to 2pac death, a low grade. I have over the years observed the #039;jobs for the boys#039; culture many, many times and yes I feel you are right that people with natural talent do frighten many in higher positions than themselves. Having said all that, I am adament that I will eventually achieve the Essay First grade I know I deserve through downright dogged determination. I must add that I expect very little help to #039;develop#039; from my managers as none have been offered in 20+ years of service despite them knowing of my eagerness to progress. Comment by Margaret posted on on 13 February 2015. Too many times as Civil Servants we are criticised for our ability, skills and professionalism by Ministers Exec.

Management, whose answer is to bring in Viewing Children externals who are deemed to be better in all aspects - Except the critical areas of Leadership, motivation trust. On The Political Parties? Not wishing to sound like a dinousaur, but I#039;ve been here long enough to Season Essay, recognise this is just another re-work of the values we#039;ve always worked to and tried to deliver against. Maybe more thought and Essay First Political, effort should be put into how we celebrate reward the successes and achievements of our hard working, committed teams who continue to deliver, despite their conditions being constantly erroded. Dealing with Suppliers on a daily basis I can confidently say, that Civil Servants are widely undervalued, the Private Sector constantly demonstrates serious inadequacies on delivery and quality. Comment by John posted on on 18 February 2015. I totally agree with everything Margaret has said. Super Essay? Trust in the Civil Service may be at record levels, but trust in senior management is reaching a very low point. We have some talented performers working in the department, but seem intent on head hunting successful, (and indeed some not so successful) senior managers from the Private sector, rather than looking from within. The one part of the statement that jumps out at me is we will welcome challenge however uncomfortable. This is commendable, but if you then totally ignore the feedback you receive, (for example on the despised appraisal system), then there is little point in First Political Parties making the statement.

Im proud of what I do on a daily basis. Cobain Essay? All I would ask of our senior leaders is to listen to Essay Political Parties, what staff on the frontline have to say, and Season Essay, stand up for them, which includes objecting against on The Political Parties policy / timescales imposed by the government of the day if it is unrealistic. In the why was past civil service leaders in my experience have done just that, not followed blindly like lemmings. We need to Essay Parties, motivate and start rewarding the staff you are expecting to implement one of the biggest reform programmes the department has ever undertaken. Comment by Janet posted on on 13 February 2015. 360 degree reporting?

How many, honestly, are going to say anything that is anything other than glowing, as they will be marked down if they do say something that is deemed negative towards their Manager(s) Comment by Alex Aiken posted on on 14 February 2015. Kurt Cobain Essay Example? I used the leadership statement in a meeting with a group of colleagues at a Cabinet Office workshop on leadership on Essay on The First Friday. It#039;s part of a regular training programme. The participants were a mixture of grades and roles and Cultural Essay, it was interesting that there was a really positive welcome for the statement but an understandable desire to see action taking place and on The Political Parties, the commitments followed through. I reassured them that the new 360 degree feedback, end of Memorable Bowl Season year reviews, courses and Civil Service Live were opportunities to test that, but we are at the start of the project. They were really struck by the emphasis on honesty, on being straightforward and simply more clear with each other, seeing the read across to performance management. If we can all do this there are tangible benefits for Essay on The First Political Parties, everyone in terms of career progression and productivity.

The success of the statement - a more empowered, confident and inspiring civil service is surely down to everyone playing their role, from the top certainly but right across the grades, disciplines, departments and why was mummification, agencies, starting with honest team discussions about what the statement means to the way we work and Essay First Political Parties, relate to one another. Comment by Michael Conneely posted on on 16 February 2015. Some one I know who has worked in stephens both the Civil Service and the private sector considered that on balance the CS delivered better. So to maintain deliveries, promote committed internal people not job hoppers or CV builders from outside who may scarper when matters become tough. Comment by Ruth posted on on 16 February 2015. I would have like to have seen wording about supporting staff, building and Essay on The First Parties, recognising their capability.

Another area would be about being consistent and not showing unconcious or concious bias. Comment by Memorable Super Bowl Essay Ken posted on on 16 February 2015. This is a well-worn path. On The Parties? Issue a few management words and then sit back, thinking #039;job done#039;. The difficult bit - actually ensuring that managers are properly selected, trained and supervised in their roles - is swept under the carpet. Business as usual! Comment by Barry Owen posted on on 16 February 2015. Unfortunately Civil Service reform is not being driven by a desire to improve the Service, which I think would be shared by most who work in it, or a desire to Cultural Intelligence Assessment Essay example, recognise the First Political Parties innumerable talented people in the Service, rather than by the highly politicised Cabinet Office which appears to Memorable Bowl Season Essay, have another agenda at its core.

Obviously the Cabinet Office would I#039;m sure agree that as Civil Servants we serve the country not a political party. Comment by Paul W posted on on 18 February 2015. Just to flag up to anyone who hasn#039;t been able to access the pink block of text, the Civil Service Disability Network has raised the requirement to provide an accessible version (and that this should have been done at Essay First, the ouset). Bowl Season Essay? Hopefully this will be done shortly. Paul Willgoss MBE.

Vice-Chair Civil Service Disability Network. Comment by Essay on The Political Cameron Smith posted on Memorable Bowl Season Essay on 19 February 2015. Thanks Paul - we have now updated the PDF with an accessible version. Essay? Comment by Pat posted on on 18 February 2015. Kurt Essay Example? Statements of this sort would only be useful if they are linked to First Political Parties, indicators of success (or key performance indicators, if you prefer): that government departments are more productive; that there is Kurt Cobain Essay example less overtime (paid or unpaid); that levels of customer satisfaction (where it is appropriate) remain high; that departments demonstrate their inclusivity (in mine, staff with manageable mental health conditions were steered towards voluntary redundancy and remain unemployed); that the aims of the department filter down to and are owned by individuals. I worry also about the #039;working in silos#039; bit. Essentially, if you look at this more widely, any government department is up for Essay on The First Political, grabs to be subsumed into another department.

So then you have the worry about #039;terms and conditions#039; (mentioned by others). Whose will you enjoy? Comment by Alex posted on on 18 February 2015. Sorry, but it#039;s just a statement of vague, woolly nonsense, After 28 years in the department (HMRC but I always say Inland Revenue) I#039;ve seen statements like this come and go and why was mummification important, they#039;re never adhered to mainly becuase they#039;re so vague that it#039;s impossible to, or because the people at the top move leave so quickly that they can#039;t be held to these promises. That#039;s why we have a new statement or suchlike every few years - they always fail. And as for silos - I thought it was something that animal feed is Political kept in for farming. Why on earth do we use these silly terms? Comment by Ruth2 posted on on 19 February 2015. I agree with Alex. The Civil Service has been talking about improving its leaders and their leadership capability for at least the last 30 years. Senior Grades and Fast Streamers were encouraged to attend leadership courses at the Civil Service College.

Those who did should now be at the top of the tree, but the troops on the ground don#039;t see that. Stephens? And what have these senior leaders been doing to Essay First Political Parties, develop their successors? Not so long ago we were told that we were all leaders! As for surfacing tensions, does this mean letting the staff up to the surface for fresh air or tarmacing over their concerns? Comment by Jeremy Heywood posted on on 25 February 2015. Thank you for taking the example time to read my blog. It is good that we are being challenged to demonstrate our commitment to Essay on The First Parties, this, and as Alex Aiken pointed out, it is important to stress we are only at the start of this journey. It is important for leaders at all levels to embody the Leadership Statement and actively encourage and welcome challenge. Leadership is not an add-on and How Television Affects, the assumption is that the behaviours in the Statement will be applied consistently.

This is precisely why we have developed a coherent 360 tool that all senior leaders are required to complete this year (extended to the whole SCS next year) that is built into Essay Political Parties the appraisal process. This will afford staff the opportunity to assess senior leaders against the values outlined in the statement and enable leaders to consider the Kurt Essay example impact they are having and reflect on areas for First, improvement. It is also important to point out Essay that this is not just about leadership at the top of Essay on The Political Parties our organisation. We want to push leadership at all levels as it is vital to why was mummification important, so much of what we are striving to achieve. If we are to continue to deliver excellent public services and on The, build a civil service that is a great employer that values the diversity of our workforce we will be reliant on a strong, empowering and inspiration leadership all the way through the Civil Service. Memorable Bowl Season Essay? Comment by Andrea posted on on 17 March 2015.

I see this statement as an important sign post for us all. It is good that our Senior leaders are pointing us in the right direction.and right that we all take responsibility for the next steps. BUT, whilst we can be reasonably confident that all appointed Civil Servants are fully aware of the statement, I am not sure that is the case for our consultant colleagues. In my Department, many of Essay on The First Parties them don#039;t even have access to the Intranet, so they may know nothing about it! I#039;m not sure anyone sees this as an issue and so they carry on displaying the behaviours learned outside the Civil Service, which in some cases are very poor. They therefore seem to me a #039;race apart#039; here, strangely exempt from the standards which the rest of us are being asked to Super Bowl Season, apply.

It would be helpful if as a follow-up to the statement, consideration could be given as to how to overcome this deficiency and ensure that everyone employed by the Civil Service is treated equally and behaviours are consistent. Comment by Alison posted on on 11 March 2015. I am involved in Learning Development. Whilst working on a piece of work that identifies if we are supporting the Political team at the #039;front line#039; of Super Season Essay our network it is clear that unless 1st Line Management make an Essay on The, effort then it is irrelevant whether the Senior Leadership Team spend their entire time on being #039;better#039; (whatever that looks like) leaders, the people doing the work are being left to Intelligence Assessment, flounder and simply try to Essay Parties, do the How Television Viewing Children Essay best job they can before they become disengaged and First Political, disheartened and end up just donig the Season job they #039;have#039; to do until payday. Essay First Political Parties? I have had some fantastic Line Managers and I have had some pretty dreadful ones; frankly very few have been #039;Leaders#039;.

Comment by why was important John D posted on on 13 March 2015. It is hard to take in the valuing professional expertise context in the Leadership Statement as a civil servant employed in a bespoke trading entity, an arm#039;s length body of the Ministry of Defence. DES is being transformed by injection of consultants and leaders by-passing existing experienced Civil Servant in Essay Parties many instances and associated pay scales. This is against the backdrop of successive governments eroding CS terms and conditions and Memorable Super Season, regressing pay in real terms whilst attacking the country#039;s public sector, I#039;m afraid I#039;m a bit cynical after reading the Leadership Statement as a document. Comment by Paul posted on on 18 March 2015.

I agree with you completely. It has now become a Job for the boys environment with non civil servants employing their colleagues on inflated salaries without competition. On The Parties? The whole structure and Cobain, ethics that the civil service was built on is crumbling. Comment by Andrew C posted on First Political Parties on 25 March 2015. I#039;m sure you will have referenced this article - I#039;ve just stumbled on it whilst trying to understand more about Viewing Children Essay, what speaking truth to power means. For me it articulates what speaking truth to power is, what it feels like for the recipient and initiator and Essay Political Parties, what are the (often dire) consequences when it isn#039;t part of the stephens organisational culture. Comment by Adam posted on on 11 November 2015. First Political? I went onto CS Learning and the self-assessment tool doesn#039;t work - there is a page for it but no actual tool? Comment by Micha Nether-Stowey posted on on 15 February 2016. Higher managers still do not listen and over manage everything. Basically they dont trust us to get the job done properly so have to interfere in every tiny tiny little bit of work.

If you know anything about management then you will know this is destructive. The staff suffer the most .So sorry but the statement means nothing to me or my collegues. How Television Viewing Affects? The underpaid, undervalued people at the bottom who actually do the work.And please , please do not insult us by saying we are valued as the lack of Essay pay rises, and being stripped of anything of reward value , making us work on things we have no training in, making us do our work in a way that devalues it and making us count everything a 100 times a week says differently. The Civil Service does the practical and Cultural Intelligence, administrative work of government. More than half of all civil servants provide services direct to the public. We welcome a range of stories from civil servants to this blog, if you would like to share something then email for details on Essay on The First Political Parties how to 2pac death, get involved.

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A resume for a mid-level professional can easily cost $1000. With this guide, you can do it yourself. The good news and the bad The good news is that, with a little extra effort, you can create a resume that makes you stand out as a superior candidate for First Political Parties, a job you are seeking. Not one resume in a hundred follows the principles that stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well written resume you should be invited to interview more often than many people more qualified than you. The bad news is that your present resume is probably much more inadequate than you now realize. You will have to learn how to think and may and stephens write in a style that may be new to you. If youve been online trying to make sense of Political Parties all thats out there about Memorable Season, resume writing much of it conflicting advice stay right here. We have the final word on Essay on The Parties those nagging questions (Length? Format?

Font? Keywords?). We have clear, no-nonsense guidance based on thousands of 2pac death real-life success stories. Heres how to do it yourself, broken down in Essay on The Political Parties, 10 parts. Our guide is may and stephens, based on one fundamental premise: Your resume is a marketing document. Its not the history of Essay on The Parties your past; its an ad. How Television Viewing Children Essay. Youre selling yourself to the employer, and on The competing against other people who are attempting to do the same thing. A great resume doesnt just tell them what you have done but makes the same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits . It presents you in the best light. It convinces the employer that you have what it takes to Kurt Cobain Essay example be successful in this new position or career.

It inspires the prospective employer to pick up the phone and ask you to come in. YOURE ADVERTISING YOURSELF. Heres a key thing we know based on on The Political deep research: Every resume is may and, a one-of-a-kind marketing communication. It should be appropriate to Essay First Political Parties your situation and Affects Essay do exactly what you want it to do. The reality is that most resumes fail to stir the interest of prospective employers. So, even if you face fierce competition, with a well-written resume you should be invited to Essay First Parties interview more often than many people even people more qualified than you. A great resume doesnt only tell the employer what you have done. It makes the 2pac death, same assertion that all good ads do: If you buy this product, you will get these specific, direct benefits. It presents you in the best possible light. On The Political. It convinces the employer that you absolutely have what it takes to Children be successful in this new position or career.

The very best marketing is research-based marketing. So, do your research. Visit the employers website often and follow the organization on social media. Political Parties. (Do this of course after doing any necessary cleanup of your social media profile more on Kurt example that in Section 8 of this guide, WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES .) What types of accomplishments do they celebrate and Parties how can you weave similar accomplishments into Affects Children your resume? What kind of language do they use to describe achievements? If almost everything is significant or breakthrough, how do you tactfully place those words in Essay First, various sections of your resume? You have to Kurt Essay know your customers needs and have a very clear sense of the skills theyre looking for Essay First, in their ideal job candidate. Our experience shows that your resume must demonstrate that you have at least 70% of a jobs requirements to have a legitimate hope of landing an Viewing Affects Children interview. Do all the research you can, from online searches and social media tracking to networking with people you know. If you know anyone who works there, definitely approach them for a conversation or better yet, coffee or lunch.

TIP: Avoid HR at on The Political Parties this stage: HR teams are constantly pushing back on unsolicited inquiries from people who want jobs. A sobering fact is that job recruiters spend an Cobain average of six seconds on Essay Political Parties every resume as they sort through digital stacks of applicants. So, focus on the employers needs, not yours . Memorable Super Season Essay. It is imperative that you take what you learn during your research and apply it as you customize your resume. There is no shame in adjusting your resume to appeal to Essay Parties your target audience; in Memorable Super Bowl Season Essay, fact, the opposite is true. It would be inadvisable not to adapt your resume even if slightly for each job application. Imagine that you are the person doing the Essay Parties, hiring. This someone with skin in the game. Often, its the person who is responsible for Essay, the bottom-line performance of the project or team you hope to join.

This is someone who cares deeply how well the job will be done. You need to Parties write your resume to appeal directly to him or her: If this person thinks you can be an Affects asset and help make them look good, you have a real shot. To reiterate: Your resume is a very informed, targeted advertisement. At the end of the day its an adnothing more, nothing less. 2. YOUR RESUMES #1 JOB: LAND AN INTERVIEW. Its critical to always bear in Essay First Parties, mind that your resume is a tool with one specific purpose: to win an interview. If it doesnt, it isnt an effective resume. So how do you prevail? First, embrace some basic truths about the job-seeking landscape. First, let go of any misguided preconceptions about what your resume is: Its not about may and stephens, you. Like any strong piece of advertising, its not about the product being sold its about the buyer and what they want.

Consider Coke advertisements: They say very little about the soft drink; they say a lot about how people who drink the beverage are happy and on The have a lot of Kurt Cobain happy people around them. The focus is on the benefits of drinking Coke. Your resume is about the benefits of Essay on The Political hiring you. Your resume is not a place to stephens brag; nor is Essay First, it a place to be modest. Its sole purpose is to generate interest in Cobain example, you. Essay On The Political. What differentiates you from the competition. In addition to including all relevant information about your skills, background, accomplishments, etc. (see Section 5 and Section 6), find ways to Cultural Assessment include details that could generate curiosity. Were you born in a different country? Is there community or volunteer work thats appealing? Are you fluent in on The Parties, multiple languages?

Did you go through college in three years or later in life? These are real people reading your resume, and maybe theres a fact about you theyll relate to Kurt Cobain Essay or find interesting. What does that mean? In The Pathfinder, we discuss how roughly 75% of people have a personality type we describe as Tribal. They are group workers, usually most successful and on The Political satisfied working with and through other people as members of an organization, group, or tribe. They are at mummification important their best when they are attuned to the tribe and Essay First Political Parties contributing to Bowl its goals. (For the record, the other 25% are what we call Maestros who identify as specialist e.g., I am a software developer versus I work for Microsoft for Essay on The Parties, more, see The Pathfinder.)

Back to Kurt example the tribe: If youre selling yourself to Essay First Political an organization, youre selling yourself to a tribe. The tribes members will have to be convinced that youre one of them. Use the research conducted in Kurt example, Section 1 to inform your approach in how you construct and write your resume. Consider the scenario of Essay on The First Political two tribes living on opposite sides of a lake. If you want to be hired by the tribe across the lake, you want to appear as though youre already one of them. This will inform everything you put in your resume from the Memorable Season, adjectives you use to Essay First Political Parties the aspects of your education and Essay work experience that you emphasize, to the outside interests you include. If the employers mission statement includes language about customer focus and its website talks about innovation, those words should be reflected in your resume (in a not-too-obvious way). If the employer is results-driven and cares about sustainable solutions, make it clear that you are results-focused and understand the importance of sustainable progress. You have to learn how to write powerful but subtle advertising copy. Essay On The Political Parties. An effective way to do this is to think of it as telling an introductory story. When you meet someone, you want to stephens know their story, right?

Its the on The Political, same for that hiring manager looking at your resume. Its important that all of the information you present fits together cohesively, and Cobain example helps the hiring manager understand your background, skills and Essay on The capacities, and the educational and work experiences that have led to you to where you are today. While you are selling a product, you shouldnt hard sell or make any claims that are not true. Most employers respond to resumes that are both impressive as well as credible. They are not fond of hyperbole; they also have no way of Memorable Super Season Essay knowing if youre being overly-modest. Essay On The First Political. Its a balancing act.

3. KNOW EXACTLY WHAT KIND OF RESUME YOURE WRITING. There are three basic types of resumes: Chronological, Functional, and Combined Chronological Functional. Generally speaking, we prefer the Combined approach but this decision should be informed by the type of may and stephens job youre seeking and Essay Political Parties the type of employer youre seeking to impress. For example, if youre applying for a job in a more traditional field such as law, science, or engineering, a Chronological approach would be best. If you are changing your career or returning to the job market after a break, a Functional resume is the way to go. A Combined approach offers the most flexibility; and if youre in a creative field, you might make modifications to a Combined format that showcase your artistic eye or style. Why Was Important. At the end of the day, its all about generating the best marketing copy to sell yourself. The chronological resume is the First Political Parties, more traditional resume structure. The Experience section is the may and stephens, focus of the Parties, resume; each job (or the last several jobs) is described in some detail, and there is no major section of skills or accomplishments at the beginning of the resume. This structure is primarily used when you are staying in the same profession and in the same type of work.

It is also commonly used in certain fields such as law and Cobain Essay example academia. We recommend that the chronological resume always have an Essay Parties Objective or Summary for the reader. Advantages: This approach may appeal to more traditional readers and may be best in conventional or conservative fields. It makes it easier to understand what you did in what job, and may help the name of the employer stand out (if its impressive). The disadvantage is that it is Kurt Cobain Essay example, much more difficult to Political highlight what you do best. Cultural Assessment Essay Example. This format is rarely appropriate for someone making a career change. The functional resume highlights your major skills and accomplishments from the very beginning. It helps the on The Parties, reader see clearly what you can do for them, rather than having to read through the job descriptions to find out. Actual company names and positions are in a subordinate position, with no description under each.

There are many different types of Memorable Bowl formats for functional resumes. The functional resume is a must for career changers, but is very appropriate for generalists, for those with spotty or divergent careers, for those with a wide range of skills in Essay on The First Political Parties, their given profession, for students, for military officers, for homemakers returning to the job market, and for those who want to make slight shifts in their career direction. Advantages: It will help you most in reaching for a new goal or direction, and it is highly recommended for such purposes. The disadvantage is that it isnt easy for the employer to quickly discern exactly what you did in each job (which could be a problem for some conservative resume reviewers). A combined resume includes elements of both the may and, chronological and functional formats.

It may be a shorter chronology of Essay on The Political Parties job descriptions preceded by a short Skills and Accomplishments section or with a longer Summary including a skills list or a list of qualifications). It can also be a standard functional resume with the example, accomplishments under headings of different jobs held. There are important advantages to this combined approach: It maximizes the advantages of both kinds of resumes, avoiding potential negative effects of either type. One disadvantage is on The, that it tends to be a longer resume. Another is that it can be repetitious: Accomplishments and 2pac death skills may have to be repeated in Parties, both the functional section and the chronological job descriptions. 4. GUIDANCE FOR A CAREER CHANGE RESUME. Clearly, career change has become a new norm of working. As we noted in Section 3, a career-change job search calls for a Functional resume. DEFINE YOUR TARGET MARKET.

Target market in stephens, advertising refers to people a company aims to turn into customers. In your career-change job search, your target is the collection of specific organizations that might hire you to do what you want to dowhere you want to Essay First do it. Start with geographic requirements is the world. 2pac Death. or Seattle? Within that geographic area, target the type of organization that interests you: profit-making, non-for-profit, or government? What kind of Essay on The business or industry? What size organization? Once you have your parameters, identify specific employers and learn all you can about them.

What is their history? What do they emphasize in their messaging? Who are the Super Season Essay, decision makers? What is their hiring philosophy? What kind of work culture is it? In addition to Essay digging around online and in social media, use your networking skills to learn all you can to help inform how you customize your resume. PLAY UP TRANSFERRABLE SKILLS. Jobs in very different professional fields can often have a number of similar requirements. Lets say that you want to go from a marketing position in a pharmaceutical firm to a fund-raising role for a not-for-profit. What are the skills youve already demonstrated that are applicable? They may be more than you think.

Consider these possibilities: Time management Project management Collaboration Persuasive communicating Strong decision-making Composure under pressure Innovative problem-solving. You should also be prepared to speak to your motivation for a career change. You can weave a little of this into your Objective, then also be prepared to write about it briefly in your cover letter, and stephens then of on The Political Parties course speak to it when you land an interview. As a career changer, you are effectively moving from one tribe to another. Within the bounds of integrity, the story you tell has to explain why the tribe you now want to enter is really the right one for you (and not the other one). This is another instance where research is critical. Go to LinkedIn and similar sites and take a look at a good number of resumes of people seeking similar jobs. Also, tap into your circle of colleagues, friends, and family.

Tune into the axis we call the Quality of Transactions in The Pathfinder. The basic premise of Kurt Cobain this model is Essay on The Political, that the closer you are to 2pac death connections that are hot (e.g., someone high up in the organization is on The First, willing to go to may and bat for you) versus cold (no connections and a basic resume submitted), the more likely you are to have quality transactions that can result in getting you hired. First. Even somewhere in the warm range maybe you know someone who knows someone in a position to help is highly preferable to coming in may and, cold. And create partners: Scan the on The First Parties, connections of your connections on LinkedIn. Then follow up energetically (more on this in Section 7 on Kurt Cobain example Digital Angles). TIP: There tends to be higher scrutiny of career changers, so the extent to which you can gain traction within the tribe is of fundamental importance. 5. THE JUICE: YOUR ASSERTIONS SECTION. In most cases, a great resume has two main sections. In the first, you make assertions about your abilities, qualities, and achievements. Essay On The Political Parties. You write powerful, but honest, advertising copy that grabs the readers attention. (Exceptions to may and stephens this are resumes targeting generally conservative fields such as law, science, or engineering.) The second section, the evidence section, is where you back up your assertions with evidence that you actually did what you said you did.

This is where you list and describe the jobs youve held, your education, etc. Essay Parties. And if you have opted to pass on Super an Assertions section, you have to build a powerful evidence-based resume that builds the case for you as a candidate with especially compelling skills and Essay on The First accomplishments summarized in the top half of the first page. The real juice in your resume is what you assert about yourself right up front. This is where you shine. The hard truth based on research: Only one interview is granted for every 200 resumes received by the average employer. Memorable Bowl Season Essay. Research also tells us that your resume will be quickly scanned, rather than read. You have only seconds to persuade a prospective employer to read further. The top half of the first page of your resume will either make or break your chances.

Ask yourself: What does the employer really want? How would you fill those shoes? What would set a truly exceptional candidate apart from a merely good one? If you are not sure what would make someone a superior candidate, you can gather intel from the on The, job postings you see, and/or from people who work in the same company or the 2pac death, same field. You could even call the prospective employer and ask them what they want.

Dont make wild guesses. Write down everything you have ever done that demonstrates that youre the right fit for First Political Parties, the job and the prospective employer. You dont have to confine yourself to work-related accomplishments. TIP: Use your entire life as the palette to why was mummification important paint with. The point is to cover all possible ways of First Political Parties thinking about and communicating what you do well. What are the stephens, talents you bring to the marketplace? If you are making a career change or are a new to the job market, you are going to have to be especially creative in Essay on The First Parties, getting across what makes you stand out. Kurt Cobain Essay. This initial brainstorming focus will generate the raw material from which you craft your resume. So many resumes we see make a gallant effort to inform the reader. But we dont want the Essay, employer to mummification important be informed; we want them to be interested and curious. In fact, its best to Essay Political Parties leave your reader with a few questions they would like to ask you.

In your assertions section, state your Objective your intended job. Ideally, your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for one specific job or job title. There is Cultural Intelligence Assessment Essay, debate out there about whether to state an Objective, but generally speaking, we think its a good idea. On The. If youre in a creative field or have gained insights suggesting that the employer would prefer an outside-of-the-box approach, perhaps you forego an Objective. Keep it to the point, and keep the employer front and center as your write. Consider this example. 2pac Death. The owner of Essay on The First Parties a small software company advertises for an experienced software salesperson. A week later they have 500 resumes. The applicants have a bewildering variety of backgrounds, and example the employer has no way of knowing whether any of Essay First them are really interested in selling software. Then the employer spots a resume that starts with the following: OBJECTIVE a software sales position in 2pac death, an organization seeking an extraordinary record of generating new accounts, exceeding sales targets and enthusiastic customer relations. This is on The First Parties, a fit . Not only does this candidate want the job, they want to make a real contribution.

Job-seekers often make the mistake of saying something like, a position where I can hone my skill as a scissors sharpener. Examples follow. In all of these examples, the underlined words and phrases could be interchanged with words and phrases relevant to your expertise, industry, and Memorable Essay the type of role you are seeking. In this example, the statement is Essay Political Parties, not preceded by the word Objective. Experienced IT professional offering more than five years of hands-on experience in How Television Viewing Children Essay, programming , web development , and IT trouble-shooting , and seeks leadership role in leading digital organization. In this example, you see a collection of on The First Political brief descriptions versus a formally stated objective in a grammatically complete sentence. Strategic thinker and may and communicator . Essay Political Parties. Expert storyteller . Cobain. A decade of Political deadline -driven on-air reporting . Ready to pivot to why was executive producer role. In this example, the applicant uses a first-person approach to a creative role. If the client wants a logo people will remember, I give them one people will never forget. If they want their brand to communicate , I make it sing . In this example, the job-seeker approaches a traditional job role with a traditional string of statements. CPA and CIA with 15 years of experience in financial services for global organizations.

Financial strategist with track record for onsidered and decisive recommendations , as well as thorough compliance with all federal, state, and internal regulations . Excels at individual as well as collaborative efforts. Known for work ethic and integrity. In this example, you see a more traditional approach by Essay Political Parties, a recent graduate seeking an entry-level role in a conventional job sector. OBJECTIVE: A starting position in an engineering organization where leading-edge skills and deep commitment to every project would be an asset to the company and mummification important its people. TIP: The point of using an Objective is to on The create a specific psychological response in the mind of the reader. If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to immediately focus on 2pac death where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is more important to stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first. It is Essay on The First Political, sometimes appropriate to include your Objective in why was mummification important, your Summary section rather than have a separate Objective section. The Summary or Summary of Qualifications consists of several concise statements that focus the readers attention on Essay your most important qualities, achievements, and abilities. (NOTE: If you are on Bowl Season LinkedIn, it is important that the summary in your resume be reflected in what you have in your LinkedIn summary.

You have a lot more space to work with in LinkedIn, so they neednt match exactly, but they should be close enough that they show consistency. You should be recognizable as the same person!) The things you mention should be the most compelling demonstrations of why you should be hired not the other candidates. This is your brief window of Parties opportunity to Essay highlight your most impressive qualities the spiciest part of your resume. In fact, this may be the only section fully read by the employer, so it must be strong and convincing. The Summary is the Essay on The First Political Parties, one place to include professional characteristics (highly energetic, a gift for solving complex problems in stephens, a fast-paced environment, a natural salesperson, exceptional interpersonal skills, committed to excellence, etc.).

Gear every word in Political Parties, the Summary to your goal: getting that interview. Here are the most common ingredients of a well-written Summary. A short phrase describing your profession Followed by a statement of broad or specialized expertise Followed by two or three additional statements related to any of the Cobain Essay, following: breadth or depth of skills unique mix of skills range of environments in which you have experience a special or well-documented accomplishment a history of awards, promotions, or superior performance commendations One or more professional or appropriate personal characteristics A sentence describing professional objective or interest. You would not necessarily use all these ingredients in one Summary. Use the ones that highlight you best.

The examples below show how to include your objective in First Political Parties, the Summary section. TIP: If you are making a career change, your Summary section should show how what you have done in the past prepares you to Assessment do what you seek to do in the future. Parties. If you are new to the job market, your Summary will be based more on ability than experience. A few examples of Summary sections: Highly motivated, creative and versatile real estate executive with seven years of Viewing Affects experience in property acquisition, development and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at Essay on The First Political Parties building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff.

Excellent management, negotiation and public relations skills. Seeking a challenging management position in the real estate field that offers extensive contact with the public. Over 10 years as an organizational catalyst/training design consultant with a track record of producing extraordinary results for 2pac death, more than 20 national and First Political community based organizations. A commitment to human development and community service. Energetic self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills. Financial Management Executive with nearly ten years of why was mummification experience in banking and on The First Political international trade, finance, investments and economic policy.

Innovative in may and, structuring credit enhancement for corporate and municipal financing. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and marketing background. Areas of expertise include (a bulleted list would follow this paragraph.) Health Care Professional experienced in management, program development and policy making in on The Parties, the United States as well as in several developing countries. Expertise in emergency medical services. A talent for Bowl Season Essay, analyzing problems, developing and simplifying procedures, and finding innovative solutions. Proven ability to motivate and work effectively with persons from on The Political other cultures and Cultural Intelligence Assessment example all walks of life. Skilled in working within a foreign environment with limited resources. Commander Chief Executive Officer of the U.S. On The First Political Parties. Navy, Atlantic Fleet. Expertise in all areas of management, with a proven record of unprecedented accomplishment. History of the highest naval awards and Kurt Cobain example rapid promotion.

Proven senior-level experience in executive decision-making, policy direction, strategic business planning, Congressional relations, financial and personnel management, research and development, and aerospace engineering. Extensive knowledge of Essay on The First Political government military requirements in systems and 2pac death equipment. Committed to the highest levels of professional and Essay First personal excellence. Performing artist with a rich baritone voice and unusual range, specializing in classical, spiritual, gospel and rap music. Featured soloist for two nationally televised events. Accomplished pianist. Extensive performance experience includes television, concert tours and club acts. Available for commercial recording and live performances.

SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. In this final part of the assertions section, go into Cultural Assessment Essay more detail. Essay First Political. In the summary, you focused on your most special highlights. Now you tell the may and stephens, rest of the best of your story. On The Political Parties. Let the employer know what results you produced, what happened because of your efforts, what you are especially gifted or experienced at doing. TIP: Dont tell them everything youve ever done. Its okay in fact, advisable to leave to your readers wondering about a thing or two in a positive way.

Sometimes the Skills and Accomplishments section is a separate section. Why Was Important. In a chronological resume, it becomes the Essay on The First Political, first few phrases of the mummification important, descriptions of the various jobs you have held. On The First Parties. We will cover that in a few minutes, when we discuss the Kurt Cobain Essay, different types of resumes. Essay On The First. When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on may and your situation: SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS SUMMARY OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS SELECTED ACCOMPLISHMENTS RECENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS AREAS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT AND EXPERIENCE AREAS OF EXPERTISE CAREER HIGHLIGHTS PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS.

There are options for how to structure your Skills and Accomplishments section. Whichever you choose, put your skills and accomplishments in order of importance for the desired career goal. If you have many skills, the last skill paragraph might be called Additional Skills. TIP: Be sure to use action-oriented words. These include words such as Delivered; Created; Solved; Boosted; Designed; Transformed; and Elevated (for more see our Section 9 on Power Words). Here are a few ways you could structure your Skills and Accomplishments section: A listing of skills or accomplishments or a combination of both, with bullets. SELECTED SKILLS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Raised $1,900 in 21 days in canvassing and on The First Political advocacy on environmental, health and 2pac death consumer issues.

Conducted legal research for four Assistant U.S. Attorneys, for the U.S. Attorneys office Coordinated Board of Directors and Essay Political Community Advisory Board of community mental health center. Later commended as the best thing that ever happened to that job. A listing of major skill headings with accomplishments under each. The accomplishments can be a bulleted list or in paragraph form. The material under the Intelligence Assessment Essay example, headings should include mention of accomplishments which prove each skill.

National Training Project / Conference Management. Director of First Political Parties Outreach on Hunger, a national public education/training project funded by USAID, foundations and all the may and, major church denominations. Designed, managed and promoted three-day training conferences in cities throughout the U.S. First Political. Planned and managed 32 nationwide training seminars and a five-day annual conference for university vice-presidents and business executives. Program Design: Universities. Invited by Duke University President Terry Sanford to develop new directions and programs for the Universitys Office of Summer Educational Programs, first Director of Dukes Pre-college Program, first editor of Summer at Duke. Designed and successfully proposed a center for why was, the study of creativity at The George Washington University. Essay Parties. A list of Cultural Intelligence Assessment bulleted accomplishments or skill paragraphs under each job (in a chronological resume).

Director of First Political Parties Sales and 2pac death Marketing. DELAWARE TRADE INTERNATIONAL, INC. Wilmington, DE. Promoted from Essay on The Political Parties Sales Representative within one year of joining company to Director of Sales and Marketing. Responsible for international sales of raw materials, as well as printing and graphic arts equipment. 2pac Death. Oversaw five sales managers. Was in charge of direct sales and marketing in 17 countries throughout Europe and Essay on The First Political the Middle East. Recruited, trained and managed sales staff.

Developed marketing strategy, prepared sales projections and established quotas. Selected and Memorable Essay contracted with overseas sub-agents to achieve international market penetration. Negotiated and finalized long-term contractual agreements with suppliers on Political Parties behalf of clients. Oversaw all aspects of transactions, including letters of credit, international financing, preparation of import/export documentation, and shipping/freight forwarding. May And Stephens. Planned and Essay on The Political Parties administered sales and marketing budget, and maintained sole profit/loss responsibility. Within first year, doubled companys revenues, and produced $7-9 million in annual sales during the next eight years. 6. THE NITTY GRITTY: YOUR EVIDENCE SECTION. The evidence section includes some or all of the following: experience, education, and possibly additional items such as awards, affiliations, and publications. While this section is secondary to your assertions section, it is still incredibly important. May And Stephens. TIP: Think of it as the Essay on The First, foundation holding up your assertions so they can shine.

If this section isnt strong enough, the resume doesnt hold together and Cobain Essay the hiring manager will question the credibility of your assertions. List jobs in reverse chronological order. Dont go into detail on Essay on The First the jobs early in Affects Children Essay, your career; focus on the most recent and/or relevant jobs. (Summarize a number of the earliest jobs in one line or very short paragraph, or list only the bare facts with no position description.) Decide which is, overall, more impressive your job titles or the names of the firms you worked for then consistently begin with the Essay First Political, more impressive of the important, two, perhaps using boldface type. You may want to Essay on The Parties describe the employer in a phrase in parentheses if this will impress the Kurt example, reader. Include military service, internships, and major volunteer roles if desired; because the section is labeled Experience. It does not mean that you were paid. Other possible headings here include: Professional History, Professional Experiencenot Employment or Work History, both of which sound more lower-level.

A note about dates throughout the evidence section: Be honest but also strategic. Generally speaking, put dates in italics at the end of the First Political, job to de-emphasize them. 2pac Death. Dont include months, unless the job was held less than a year. If youre old enough to on The First Parties have considered botox, consider what you might botox in Cobain Essay example, your resume. The year you earned your degree(s) doesnt have to be included. And as you summarize your early career, there is no need to include dates in this information. If there are gaps in your recent professional experience, use years versus months. Essay On The First Parties. Dont put down anything that isnt true its too easy for employers to 2pac death check information and Essay Political discover mistruths. Kurt Cobain Essay Example. But be prepared to speak to any gaps in a way that supports the Essay on The First, overall story youre telling about may and stephens, yourself. List education in reverse chronological order degrees or licenses first, followed by certificates and advanced training.

Set degrees apart so they are easily seen. Put in boldface whatever will be most impressive. Dont include any details about college except your major and distinctions or awards you have won, unless you are still in college or just recently graduated. On The First Political. Include grade-point average only if over 3.4. List selected coursework if this will help convince the reader of your qualifications for the targeted job. Include advanced training, but be selective with the information, summarizing the information and including only what will be impressive for 2pac death, the reader. No degree yet? If you are working on an uncompleted degree, include the degree and afterwards, in parentheses, the expected date of completion: B.S. On The Parties. (expected 20__). If you didnt finish college, start with a phrase describing the 2pac death, field studied, then the school, then the First, dates (the fact that there was no degree may be missed). Other headings might be Education and Cultural Essay Training, Education and Licenses, Legal Education / Undergraduate Education (for attorneys).

If the only awards received were in school, put these under the Education section. Mention what the award was for if you can (or just for outstanding accomplishment or outstanding performance). If you have received awards, this section is almost a must. If you have received commendations or praise from on The some very senior source, you could call this section, Awards and Commendations. In that case, go ahead and quote the source. Professional Affiliations. Include only those that are current, relevant and impressive. Include leadership roles if appropriate. May And. This is a good section for communicating your status as a member of a minority targeted for special consideration by employers, or for showing your membership in an association that would enhance your appeal as a prospective employer. This section can be combined with Civic / Community Leadership as Professional and Community Memberships. Languages. Being fluent in more than one language is definitely something to include.

Civic / Community Leadership. This is good to on The Parties include if the leadership roles or accomplishments are related to the job target and Viewing can show skills acquired, for example, a loan officer hoping to become a financial investment counselor who was Financial Manager of a community organization charged with investing its funds. Essay Parties. Any Board of Directors membership or chairmanship would be good to include. Be careful with political affiliations, as they could be a plus or minus with an 2pac death employer or company. Publications. Include only if published, and Essay First Political Parties provide links where you can if you think the work is impressive and relevant. Summarize if there are many.

Comments from How Television Children Supervisors, Clients, other Professional Elite. Include only if very exceptional. Heavily edit for key phrases. Personal Interests. Tread thoughtfully here. On The First Political Parties. While personal interests tend to feature prominently on social media platforms such as LinkedIn, you should weigh how much it can help you when applying for a jobideally on a case-by-case basis. Essay Example. It you include a section like this, keep the following in Essay First Political, mind. Advantages: Personal interests can indicate a skill or area of knowledge that is related to mummification the goal, such as photography for someone in on The Parties, public relations, or carpentry and wood-working for may and stephens, someone in construction management.

This section can show well-roundedness, good physical health, or knowledge of a subject related to the goal. It can also create common ground or spark conversation, and/or help a hiring manager see you as someone who would fit in their tribe. Disadvantages: Personal interests can be irrelevant to the job goal and purpose of the resume. Listing such interests can also have unintended negative consequences. For example, if youre highly athletic and on The Political the people interviewing you arent physically fit or perhaps eve self-conscious about that the fact that youre super-fit might not play in Cultural Assessment example, your favor.If in doubt, do not include a Personal Interests section. Your reason for including it is most likely that you want to tell them about you. But, as you know, this is an ad.

If this section would move the Essay First Parties, employer to understand why you would be the best candidate, include it; otherwise, forget about it. This section may also be called Interests Outside of Work, or just Interests. References. You may put References available upon request at the end of your resume, if you wish. This is How Television Viewing Affects Children, a standard close (centered at Essay on The First bottom in italics), but is not necessary: It is Season, usually assumed. Essay On The First Parties. Do not include actual names of mummification important references. You can bring a separate sheet of Essay on The Political references to the interview, to be given to may and the employer upon request. 7. WORK ALL THE DIGITAL ANGLES.

Social media venues offer valuable possibilities for powering your job search, as well as a few potential downsides. Be sure your digital footprint is an asset as you prepare your resume. OWN YOUR DIGITAL FOOTPRINT. Social media is on The Parties, a primary vehicle for communication. You will want to include at least one of Memorable Super Bowl Essay your social media accounts on your resume. Essay Political Parties. Be sure that any e-mail addresses and social media handles look and sound professional. If not, get new ones. You want to may and be [emailprotected]; not [emailprotected] Understand that most employers 65% or more use social networks to research candidates. Roughly half of them do so to see if the candidate is likely to be a good fit for Essay on The First Political, their culture in other words, right for stephens, their tribe.

It is documented that employers regularly review social media to see if there are reasons not to hire an applicant. First Political. So, it is imperative that you review all of your social media postings and why was important clean up any content that you wouldnt want a prospective employer to see. And keep an eye on your accounts so that you can monitor and remove comments from friends that dont serve your professional image. Social media posts that employers cite as detrimental include evidence of drug use or excessive drinking, bad-mouthing of previous employers, and discriminatory language. TIP: Be sure that information on your various social media accounts is consistent.

You cant assume that an employer will only check out on The First Political, your LinkedIn page. They may also look for you on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, or Google+. It is a good rule of thumb with social media posts to ask yourself whether what you are posting is something that you would be delighted for everyone in the world to see. USE SOCIAL MEDIA TO YOUR ADVANTAGE. Remember that youre marketing yourself. Owning your digital footprint is why was mummification, also about taking advantage of an additional opportunity to on The Parties make a good impression. Make an effort beyond any clean-up activity to create a strong social media profile. This is an Cultural Assessment Essay example opportunity for you to appear thoughtful, well-rounded, positive, a strong communicator the kinds of things employers are generally seeking.

In addition, be active on Essay First Political social media in a way that advances your professional interests and possibilities. Engage on Intelligence Assessment example networking sites to increase your visibility and searchabilty with prospective employers. First Parties. And while youre active on social media, to accommodate search engines, be sure that you are using a consistent version of your professional name. If youre Robert L. Smith on LinkedIn, you should be Robert L. Smith in your resume and on your other social media accounts not Rob Smith here and there. Cultural. Your professional screen name is probably your most important keyword. As mentioned earlier, follow your prospective employer on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and the like. Think of what you see as an aggregated news feed about the employer.

It doesnt take long to Essay First Parties begin to get a real sense of the organizations culture, values, and work environment intel can help you prepare the most thoughtful resume possible and can also help you immensely as you later prepare for Viewing Affects Children, an interview. And bear in mind: The beauty of Social Media is Essay on The, that you can gain access to people you otherwise might not. If you see someone within your connections who is connected to a person of interest to you. Perhaps they are in why was mummification, the field in which you are seeking work; perhaps they work for a company you wish to get in to then ask your contact to introduce you. TIP: LinkedIn offers the opportunity for people to post recommendations. First Parties. Be sure to ask people to provide recommendations for you, in particular those people who can speak to the strengths that you most want to be emphasized. In addition to Intelligence Essay example your professional name, there are many other keywords to consider. Many employers routinely digitally scan resumes for on The Political, keywords relevant to 2pac death their companies and cultures, as well as field of work.

You should assume that this is being done. Use keywords that are customized for the kind of position youre seeking as well as your job field. For example: Consider that your current title is Program Assistant. But when you search online, you dont see that title much. What you do see with high frequency on Indeed, LinkedIn, etc. is Administrative Assistant. Its not a misstep in integrity to list your current title as Administrative Assistant if thats accurate, and it will increase your find-ability for Political, recruiters and hiring managers searching online. Similar guidance holds true for skills and accomplishments. When customizing your resume for a specific position, take careful note of the skills required and use any number of those words in your resume. If you think of may and yourself as someone who leads stakeholder communications, but the employer uses the on The First Political, phrase stakeholder engagement thats right, youre now an How Television Affects expert in on The Political, stakeholder engagement. If you have increased website and social media traffic in your current job, but your prospective employers website discusses online presence your resume should note that you elevated online presence. Then use this same approach to find more keywords that will appeal to Cultural Intelligence that hiring manager. After conducting your research on Essay Parties the employers website and social media pages as well as media articles about the organization comprise a list of Intelligence Assessment Essay example words and phrases that appear regularly. On The Political. Be sure that these words and phrases appear in your resume, but in a way that doesnt seem forced or like overkill.

You have a bit of a fine line to walk these have to be words and phrases you can own in the context of selling yourself through your introductory story. Think of your resume as a visually appealing piece of art. This your masterpiece! No matter how closely you follow the guidance weve delivered here so far, if you fall short on the presentation of what youve written you do yourself a tremendous disservice. A note here about using images or video. Of course, there have been instances where applicants have been hired after using creative visuals or creating video resumes. This kind of approach is highly situational, and should be carefully considered based on what you know about the job and the tribe. For instance, if youre a graphic designer, why not show off your stuff to a certain extent? Or if youre applying to a video production firm or a start-up with a culture that would accommodate a video submission go for Kurt Cobain example, it. That said, we also recommend that a more traditional PDF with written information accompany your video. VISUAL APPEAL, FORMAT, AND LENGTH.

Everyone freely gives advice on resume length. There is Essay on The Political Parties, no universal right or wrong. Our rule of thumb is that shorter is better, as long as the Cultural Assessment Essay, resume contains all of your most relevant information. Essay First Political. If youve been in the workforce for a while or have many accomplishments or publications to Affects Essay list, you might need to exceed a page but only if the content warrants it. And whether its one page or more, the same rules apply in terms of the front end of the Essay Political Parties, resume being your big, brief chance to Cultural Intelligence make an impression. Use a simple, clean, symmetrical structure. Dont make it to crowded with text; conversely, dont have so much white space that it looks oddly sparse. A good rule of thumb is sections of writing that are no more than six lines, and Essay First Political Parties shorter if possible. Be sure to design elements to why was important your advantage. Essay On The First Political. For example, if there is information you want to highlight, consider using boldface.

You can also draw the eye to Cultural Intelligence Essay something by ensuring there is ample white space around it. Political. Order information in a way that draw attention to your strengths; readers tend to focus on the first and last items listed. NOTE: If youre considering an Children Essay infographic resume, be sure you give it very careful consideration. While one might make you stick out in a digital stack of resumes, I have never read one that didnt make me work harder to get the information I wanted. Unless you are an on The Political Parties infographic designer looking for that kind of Children Essay work (or something close), I would veer away from First Political this route. Your resume must be error-free.

There are no spelling errors, no typos. No grammar, syntax, or punctuation errors. There are no errors of Intelligence Essay example fact. Any recruiter or hiring manager will tell you that such errors make it easy to First Political Parties weed out a resume immediately. List information in a consistent way. For instance, every job should list this information in this order: Title, Name of Employer, City and State, and 2pac death the years. Use boldface, underlining, and italics consistently.

If you decide to Essay on The Parties bold one job title, all titles are in boldface. If you underline one section heading, underline them all. In addition, there is uniformity in the use of Assessment capital letters, bullets, dashes, hyphens, etc. So, if there is a period after one set of job dates, there is a period after all job dates. If one degree is in bold, all degrees are in bold. Essay On The First. If one job is lasted as 1999-2001 (versus 1999 2001 or 1999 to stephens 2000). Whatever you decide about on The, such things stylistically, be absolutely consistent.

There are any number of details that really matter. Consider all of the mummification important, following. Font. Use a font thats universally readable such as Arial, Calibri, Garamond, Georgia, Times New Roman, Helvetica, or Didot (a good choice for creative industry). Whatever font you select, use it consistently. Essay. And use a font size thats readable, but not distractingly large: 12-point is the way to go with some fonts, but sometimes 11-point can get the job done just as well. PDF. Essay. Save your resume file as a PDF. You dont want to risk what can happen if someone opens your Word document using a different version than you have, which can disrupt your careful layout, formatting, and more.

File name. When saving your PDF file, be sure you give a distinctive and relevant name. Definitively dont give it a number (e.g., NickSmith_V3.pdf) and dont call it NicksResume.pdf. If Nick is applying for Essay First Political, a Marketing Director position, a great file name would be NickSmith_MarketingDirectr.pdf). Keep track. As you customize your resume for each application, keep track of which resume you send to which employer. If youre called for an interview you will want to Essay show up with nicely printed hard copies of on The that precise document. Dont mix first-person and third-person. Use either the first person (I) or third person (he, she) point of view, but do so consistently. Watch your verb tense.

If the accomplishment is completed, it should be past tense. If the task is still underway, it should be present tense. If the skill has been used in the past and will be used again in the future, use present tense e.g., conduct presentations on recruitment to 2pac death professional and trade association. Experience first. Experience sections should come before Education. This is because your qualifications are more related to on The First Parties your experience than your education. Exceptions would be (1) if you have just received or are completing a degree in a new field, (2) if you are a lawyer, (3) if you are an undergraduate student, or (4) if theres something particularly impressive about Memorable Essay, your education for example, a Rhodes Scholarship or an MBA from Harvard. Sell yourself first and foremost. Always bear in First Political Parties, mind the needs of your customer the employer. What do they need to mummification know to assess that youre right for the job and will deliver for them? Customize your resume for Essay First Political, each job application. Use keywords selected with your prospective employer in mind.

Be sure you can back up what you say (pumping up is Affects Children Essay, fine but within the bounds of integrity). Use dynamic, high-energy language. Tighten up sentences where you can. Space is at a premium. Use quantitative information when possible as you describe accomplishments (e.g., ($1 million portfolio, increased sales 30%, double revenues). Look at First everything youve written in your resume and add action verbs wherever possible. Make your resume long enough to include all relevant information. May And Stephens. Be sure any e-mail addresses and Essay on The First Political social media handles shared are appropriate (not unprofessional). Use the may and stephens, same version of your professional screen name consistently. Be unduly modest.

You are selling yourself, period. Wing it. Real preparation and homework is required no matter how lucky youve been in the past. Include information even if youre proud of First Political it that could be construed as controversial or possible be off-putting to Memorable Super Bowl the employer (e.g., fringe personal interests, religious activity, political affiliation). List everything youve ever done. Essay On The First Political Parties. Its better to Kurt Essay leave an employer a little curious and more apt to interview you.

Include salary information. It is appropriate for you to provide this information only when asked. Mention reasons for leaving jobs. First Political Parties. You can have tactful, professional reasons ready for interviews. Include references. Provide them when requested, and Cobain example be sure your references know that an inquiry is on the way. Try to be funny or cute no matter how great your personality, these things dont translate on Essay on The First Political paper. Cultural Intelligence Assessment Essay. Include every single piece of information about yourself this is not your resumes job. If the employer wants to know more about Essay First Parties, you, theyll ask you for an interview. Get wordy.

Dont use three examples when one will suffice. Be hyperbolic. May And. Dont use more than one power word or adjective in First, one sentence. Underestimate the 2pac death, power of Essay Political Parties reading the job posting carefully and doing all of your homework. An astute hiring manager will recognize that youve done your advance work and will respect that about you.

10. USE YOUR WORDS (POWER WORDS) This isnt about using fancy or unique words. Its about using words that connect with your customer. Remember: This is customized ad copy. accelerated accomplished achieved acquired addressed administered advanced advised advocated aligned allocated amplified analyzed answered appeared applied appointed appraised approved arbitrated arranged assembled assessed assigned assisted assumed assured attained audited authored authorized awarded. blocked boosted bought briefed broadened brought budgeted built. campaigned capitalized cascaded cataloged caused changed chaired charted clarified classified closed coached collected combined commented communicated compared compiled completed computed conceived conserved concluded conducted conceptualized considered consolidated constructed consulted continued contracted controlled converted conveyed convinced coordinated corrected counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut.

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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in Essay on The First English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the 2pac death reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment.

The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by on The Parties, making sure you understand the composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an 2pac death, introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion. You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. It has three paragraphs in the body instead of Essay on The First Political, one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. Why Was Mummification Important. You want them to want to read more. If you need topic ideas, see No.

2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of Political Parties, one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. Kurt Essay Example. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the point and draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the Essay on The Parties paragraph provide information about the stephens point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and Essay Political Parties leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and Intelligence Assessment lead to the next idea or the conclusion.

Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to Essay on The First Political the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. Check out our lists of ideas. Write in a stream of consciousness.

Open a blank document and write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. It#39;s a mind dump. Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon may and waking. Essay First Political Parties. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the Memorable Super Season creative juices flowing.

There are a lot of Essay, places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to Affects Children write about your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. Essay Political. If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If its been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it.

Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about Cultural Essay example, summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling.

If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in First Political Parties your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about Kurt, something, they can usually relate, and thats when youve made an impact, whether its on on The First Political, a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language. Write about may and, what you are for rather than what you are against . Be for peace rather than against war. Use the voice that comes most naturally to Parties you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesnt get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of it.

This is your essay. Never use the work of Affects Children, other people and Essay on The Parties call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. 2pac Death. Be descriptive. Essay On The First Political. Use all of your senses. Put your reader in 2pac death your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders?

Show us. Help us experience your essay. Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself. Essay On The Political. This usually means writing in Season the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you cant speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. Essay On The Political Parties. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about something by How Television Viewing, giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to.

The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is on The First Political, editing. Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for several hours. How Television Viewing Essay. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct?

Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is First, hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you. Hire an essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully.

You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for Essay example you. Essay. EssayEdge is Essay, a good choice. One of the best ways to become a better writer is to Essay Political be an avid reader of good writing. If you want to Memorable Bowl Season master the art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in newspapers, books, magazines, and Essay on The Political Parties online.

Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well. Cultural Assessment Essay Example. Pay attention to Essay Parties how the end ties back to Memorable Super Bowl Season Essay the beginning. The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.

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Derek Walcott Walcott, Derek (Poetry Criticism) - Essay. Derek Walcott 1930- (Full name Derek Alton Walcott) West Indian poet and on The First playwright. A Nobel laureate and prominent West Indian literary figure, Walcott is known for writing poetry and drama that transcends traditional boundaries of race, geography, and language while exploring themes of cross-cultural ethnicity, political chauvinism, and postcolonial Caribbean history. Walcott was born on January 2, 1930, in Castriesthe capital city of may and, Saint Lucia, a small Caribbean island that was once a British colony in Parties, the Lesser Antilles. His father, who died during Walcott's early life, was British; his mother was West Indian.

Both were teachers who valued education, cultural enrichment, and creative expression. Encouraged by their mother, Walcott and his twin brother Roderick were active with a local theater group as children and Kurt Essay example young adults. Walcott displayed an early talent for poetry, publishing his first work at fourteen and his first book, 25 Poems (1948), at eighteen. At twenty he wrote and staged Henri Christophe (1950) and Political Parties cofounded the Santa Lucia Arts Guild with his brother, who also became a playwright. In 1953 Walcott received a bachelor's degree in English, French, and Latin at the University College of the West Indies in Jamaica. Soon thereafter, he began to teach in West Indian schools, while continuing to Cobain write and produce plays. In 1958 he accepted a Rockefeller fellowship to study drama in New York City.

The next year, he moved to Trinidad, where he established the Little Carib Theatre Workshop, which would later become the Trinidad Theatre Workshop. Although he also continued to Essay on The Political create and produce plays, during the next decade Walcott turned his attention once again to poetry. His 1962 volume, In a Green Night, garnered positive reviews in the English-speaking world and Viewing Affects Essay brought his name to the forefront of emerging nontraditional poets. In 1971 Walcott's play Dream on Monkey Mountain (1967) received an Obie award. This marked Walcott's first major notice as an internationally recognized playwright. Walcott received a Guggenheim fellowship in Essay on The Political, 1977; in How Television Essay, 1979 he was named an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.

During the early 1980s, Walcott began teaching at Essay First Political several universities in Kurt Cobain Essay example, the United States, including Columbia, Howard, and Boston University. Essay? He divided his time between residences in the Caribbean and in Super Essay, the United States. In 1992 Walcott became the first native Caribbean to receive the Nobel prize for literature. The central theme of Walcott's poetry focuses on dichotomy of Caribbean and Western civilization as seen through the Essay on The First Political Parties prisms of postcolonical race relations and cross-cultural identity issues. His first significant collection, In a Green Night (1962), established several of the themes that would appear in subsequent verse. His 1969 volume, The Gulf and Other Poems, is notable for stylistically diverse poems that are unified through a repeated thematic examination of separation and loss. Also among his early volumes of poetry is Another Life (1973), an autobiographical book-length work. Walcott's primary poetic output is considered by some observers to be that which was published between 1976 and stephens 1987, including Sea Grapes (1976), The Star-Apple Kingdom (1979), The Fortunate Traveller (1981), Midsummer (1984), and The Arkansas Testament (1987). In 1989, Walcott published his epic poem Omeros, which was based on the themes and portrayals of odyssey and identity found in on The Political, Homer's classic The Iliad.

Later works of poetry include The Bounty, which was published in 1997, and Tiepolo's Hound (2000), a book-length poem illustrated with the author's own paintings. Although his dramatic works are also highly regarded, Walcott's literary reputation is based most securely on his poetry. He has been widely lauded as an accomplished poet known for masterful explorations of racial, cultural, and historical consciousness that incorporate both classical and Cobain example Afro-Caribbean themes and experience. Among Walcott's poetry, In a Green Night, Another Life, and Omeros have been particularly well-received by literary critics. Despiteor perhaps because ofhis prominence as an accomplished English language wordsmith, some critics have charged that Walcott's written expression is so refined and technically intricate that it can obscure or overshadow his meaning. Walcott's self-defined position as a cross-cultural artist and commentator has also invited criticism from both sides of an often contentious cultural divide: he has been called too Western by some Afrocentric critics and too Afro-Caribbean by some Eurocentric critics. This type of criticism has softened somewhat as his international literary status has grown. Walcott has earned a literary reputation that, by Political many accounts, places him among some of the 2pac death greatest contemporary writers. Access our Derek Walcott Study Guide for Free.

Epitaph for on The First Parties, the Young: XII Cantos 1949. In a Green Night: Poems, 1948-1960 1962. Selected Poems 1964. The Castaway and Other Poems 1965. The Gulf and Other Poems 1969. Another Life 1973. Selected Verse 1976.

The Star-Apple Kingdom 1979. The Fortunate Traveller 1981. Collected Poems, 1948-1984 1986. The Arkansas Testament 1987. Poems, 1965-1980 1992. Derek Walcott: Selected Poems 1993. Tiepolo's Hound (poetry, plays, and essay) 2000. Dream on Assessment Essay Monkey Mountain (play) 1967.

Dream on Monkey Mountain and Other Plays (plays and essays) 1970. The Joker of Seville [with music by First Political Parties Galt MacDermot] (play) 1974. O Babylon! [with music by Galt MacDermot] (play) 1976. Remembrance (play) 1977. Pantomime (play) 1978. Beef, No Chicken (play) 1982.

A Branch of the Blue Nile (play) 1986. The Capeman: A Musical [with Paul Simon] (play) 1997. What the Cobain Essay example Twilight Says: Essays (essays) 1998. Walker and Ghost Dance (plays) 2002. SOURCE: Brown, Lloyd W. Caribbean Castaway New World Odyssey: Derek Walcott's Poetry. Journal of Commonwealth Literature 11, no. 2 (1976): 149-59. [ In the following essay, Brown offers an overview of Walcott's poetry, tracing the theme of the New World that appears throughout his work. ] In the poem Elegy Derek Walcott offers a bleak image of the Essay on The First Parties American Dream as New World nightmare: This elegy on the democratic ideal in the New World as a whole is stephens interwoven with an expose of the essential falsities that have always been inherent in First Parties, the rhetoric of idealism within the United States:

This poem deserves to be cited in Viewing Affects Essay, some detail, because it provides a useful introduction to some of the typical emphases in Walcott's poetry, specifically, his interest in Parties, a New World experience that is concentrated in a Caribbean consciousness and symbolized by United States history. In turn, this interest is rooted in a sense of crisis regarding the myths and institutions of Memorable Super Bowl Season, moral idealism. On the one hand, the idea of Essay First Political, a New World conjures up the image of new beginnings, the promise of How Television Viewing Children, a re-created order of things; and this new order is fraught with new epistemological possibilitieswith new ways of Essay First Parties, perceiving and describing (or naming) things. On the other hand, there is Cultural Intelligence Assessment a brooding suspicion that the new possibilities have been betrayed in that historical process which destroyed the dreams of a Che, and before him, groups like the Cheyennes. (It is dramatically appropriate that Che's name represents the first three letters of Cheyennes.) The orthographic coincidence points up a telling historical analogy: it is the same analogy which links the on The First Political oppressed Black (by way of the arrowhead metaphor) with the dispossessed Indian, or (ironically) the bullet-riddled Che with the victim (John Kennedy, presumably) of a presidential assassin. Moreover, the geographical image of the may and stephens West Indian archipelago (our hammock) unobtrusively links the tragedy of dispossession in North America with the destruction of the hammock-weaving Arawaks of the Essay on The Political pre-Colombian Caribbean. The cultural and geographical divisions of the New World have been deliberately obscured in Walcott's vision of betrayed ideals and corrupted institutions in the New World as a whole.

The poet subjects the mythic traditions of the New World to similar juxtapositions. Cultural Assessment Example? In one sense the mythological process is creative and Essay on The Parties vitalizing: it both represents and facilitates the Cultural human need to articulate the Essay Political perceived truths of experience and those dream ideals which transform reality. Walcott's Che is, thus, the important poet's mythic apotheosis of social justice and Parties reform. But, in another sense, myth is may and not a transforming truth but a mere falsehood decked out in the transparent images of Essay on The, specious innocence. Hence the all-American sex code is a feigned but profitable puritanism (every body wants to go to bed / with Miss America). Having demolished the wholesome image of the innocent all-American, the poet establishes a highly suspect image of that perennial symbol of American innocencethe cherry pie. Thus the Kurt Essay cherry tree invokes not only the legendary honesty of George Washington (that pre-eminently ideal American), but also suspicions about Washington's possible contributions to First Political Parties the falsehoods of America's innocence, falsehoods that are palpable in the fates of the Cheyennes and the Blacks.

The echoes of Marie Antoinette's Old World decadence (let them eat cherry pie) are, therefore, shocking precisely because they are unexpected in the innocent ambience of the New World. Finally, the poem offers a self-conscious view of the artist's role in it all. Walcott associates his own analysis of the New World with the works of those writers whose insights and Essay techniques are pertinent to First Political his themes. Hence the theme of Memorable Super Bowl Season, death and re-birth, which mocks the history of promise and disillusionment in New World democracy, echoes T. S. First Political? Eliot's vision of life and death in The Waste Land. Mummification Important? The image of yearly lilacs recalls Eliot's grasp of the paradox of life co-existing, even dependent upon, death; 2 and it also reflects Walcott's awareness of the old corruptions which have destroyed the Essay on The early promises of the How Television Children Essay New World, as well as his continuing optimism that there can be a genuinely new order that is intrinsic to the New World although rooted in the old waste land. Essay Political Parties? In a similar vein, the cherry orchard reference recalls Chekov's vision, in 2pac death, The Cherry Orchard, of the possibilities of rebirth-in-death. On the whole, this theme of new beginnings assumes the dimensions of an odyssey in Walcott's poetry. In a general sense, he envisages the odyssey of the artist (Eliot or Chekov, for example) as the search for, or a re-assertion of, stable values in a moral and social waste land. Hence the grim moral landscape of the Americans in Essay on The Political, Elegy is counterbalanced by the kind of moral energy that is evoked by the implied references to the insights of may and, The Waste Land and The Cherry Orchard.

Chekov and Eliot assume outsider identities because their moral idealism contrasts so strongly with the false or aborted ideals with which they are surrounded in Walcott's America. The artist's identity as outsider, or castaway (to anticipate a typical Walcott archetype), emphasizes his lonely odyssey for renewal in Essay on The, an environment of Cultural Assessment, decaying values. In more specifically West Indian terms, Walcott's artist is the on The First outsider archetype, not only in the traditional sense of the alienated artist, but also as an example of the West Indian as ethno-cultural castaway from Kurt Cobain Essay example Europe and Africa. And for this West Indian artist-castaway the quest for moral meaning is also a special odyssey for that new sense of being, that renewal of human possibilities, which Walcott derives from the geo-cultural symbolism of First Political Parties, his New World ambience. What we have in Elegy, then, is an overview of the cultural and moral malaise which prompts the Cultural Intelligence odyssey of the castaway figures in his poetry as a whole.

It is the Essay Parties kind of malaise that he describes repeatedly in the first three volumes of poems ( In a Green Night, The Castaway, and The Gulf ). In Goats and Children Monkeys the racial and sexual tensions of on The First Political, Shakespeare's Othello represent the Cobain divisiveness of a world in on The First, which love has failed. The innocent Desdemona and the malevolent Moor are equally the victims of that failure: As the allusive quality of Elegy has already demonstrated, Walcott's vision of the waste land habitually invokes the insights of stephens, his literary predecessors, and the Shakespearean themes of Goats and Monkeys are typical instances. So is The Prince, for Essay First, here the intellectual figure contemplating moral corruption is represented by Hamlet, brooding over his mother's lechery and the murder of his father ( The Castaway, ) p. 29). In both these poems Walcott intensifies his vision of the failure of love and Cobain example idealism by locating that failure, as did Shakespeare, in the familyin Othello's marriage and in the corrupted family ties of Essay on The Parties, Hamlet's world. However, the Cultural Intelligence Essay failures symbolized here by the family are extended more explicitly to society as a whole in other poems. The Gulf envisions the Gulf of Mexico as a symbol of human division ( The Gulf, p. 27-30). The lift-off of a jet airliner over the Gulf enacts an emotional and moral separation, or detachment, that is essentially destructive: the divine soul detaches / itself from created things; and on The Political human separateness is a foreboding of some punitive withdrawal by may and stephens a Divine force. In the process, this kind of separation has transformed the United States from the symbol of on The First Political, New World beginnings into a three-fold paradigmof individual alienation (we leave [Dallas'] Love / Field), of the violence of presidential assassination, and of the betrayal of 2pac death, old ideals (the divine union / of these detached, divided States, whose slaughter darkens each summer now). The prospects for on The Parties, the future are not re-assuring: The Gulf, your gulf, is daily widening. The prophetic warning to the divided States is grimly ambiguous: since the United States is, after all, a symbol of the human condition, the word states extends the American experience to all nations and to all states of being; and may and finally, your gulf not only addresses the American with a wry reminder of. (The entire section is 3856 words.)

Get Free Access to this Derek Walcott Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to First Political Parties ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and Kurt Cobain characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Valerie Trueblood (essay date May-June 1978) SOURCE: Trueblood, Valerie. Valerie Trueblood on Derek Walcott. American Poetry Review 7, no.

3 (May-June 1978): 7-10. [ In the following essay, Trueblood discusses poems from multiple volumes of Walcott's poetry, including In a Green Night, The Castaway and Other Poems, The Gulf, Another Life, and Sea Grapes.] The West Indian poet Derek Walcott published his first book of poetry in 1949, when he was still in his teens. His second, In a Green Night, came out in 1962, and Essay Political Parties since that time he has given us five more (as well as numerous plays) and a world. World has lost its punch from being applied to the districts of too many writers; I wish it. (The entire section is 4956 words.)

Get Free Access to may and stephens this Derek Walcott Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Andrew Salkey (essay date winter 1982) SOURCE: Salkey, Andrew. Essay On The Political? Inconsolable Songs of Our America: The Poetry of Derek Walcott. World Literature Today: A Literary Quarterly of the University of How Television, Oklahoma 56, no. 1 (winter 1982): 51-53. [ In the Essay Political Parties following essay, Salkey discusses recurring themes of light, harmony, and completeness in Walcott's poetry. ] Rather like the generalized implication that there is a whole unified scene going for stephens, all of us in the New World, in the geographical, historical and political concept of Jose Marti's nuestra america, anything anyone says about the poetry of Derek Walcott can be argued as true.

His is a new voice redolent with traceries of the elitist elegance of. (The entire section is 2281 words.) Robert Bensen (essay date spring 1986) SOURCE: Bensen, Robert. Essay Political? The Painter as Poet: Derek Walcott's Midsummer . Literary Review: An International Journal of Contemporary Writing 29, no. 3 (spring 1986): 259-68. [ In the Memorable Super Essay following essay, Bensen examines the Essay on The Parties centrality of may and, painting and Essay on The Parties imagery in Walcott's Midsummer.] An island of obsessive beauty, a people impoverished but rich in their cultural heritage from Africa and Europe, and a lifetime to celebrate them in 2pac death, art: these gifts had been given the young Derek Walcott, who swore with his friend Dunstan St. Omer not to leave St. Lucia before they had put the island on canvas and in wordsevery ravine, inlet, mangrove swamp and hill. (The entire section is Parties 5061 words.)

David Mason (essay date spring 1986) SOURCE: Mason, David. Derek Walcott: Poet of the How Television Affects New World. I Literary Review: An International Journal of on The First Political Parties, Contemporary Writing 29, no. 3 (spring 1986): 269-75. [ In the following essay, Mason explores the geographic expansion of Walcott's literary territory from the Caribbean roots of example, his earliest writings to North American and Mediterranean settings. Essay On The First Parties? ] Although Helen Vendler has called Derek Walcott a Poet of How Television Viewing Affects Children, Two Worlds, 1 it may be more accurate to call him a poet of the New World, a world which has absorbed the old and is still faced with its own lack of Political Parties, definition. His formal proclivities help him bridge old and new writing styles, and. (The entire section is 2pac death 2686 words.) Derek Walcott and Rebekah Presson (interview date 1992)

SOURCE: Walcott, Derek, and Rebekah Presson. The Man Who Keeps the English Language Alive: An Interview with Derek Walcott. New Letters 59, no. 1 (1992): 8-15. [ The following interview focuses on Walcott's epic poem, Omeros.] [ Presson ]: The last time we talked you made much of what Omeros is not, and so what would you say it is? [Walcott]: It's long. I don't know. In the reviews that have been coming out, they've been using the on The Political Parties word epic a lot. I just reread it again, and 2pac death I suppose in terms of the scale of on The Political, itas an undertakingit's large and 2pac death does cover a lot of geographic elements, historical ground. I think that's. (The entire section is 1875 words.) Edward Hirsch (essay date autumn 1997) SOURCE: Hirsch, Edward. On The First? Poetry: Derek Walcott. Wilson Quarterly 21 (autumn 1997): 109-11.

[ In the following essay, Hirsch offers a positive assessment of Walcott's career as a poet and playwright. ] There is a force of exultation, a celebration of luck, when a writer finds himself a witness to the early morning of a culture that is defining itself, branch by branch, leaf by leaf, in that self-defining dawn, Derek Walcott said in his Nobel Prize lecture for 1992. That force of exultation and celebration of luck, along with a sense of benediction and obligation, a continuous effort of memory and excavation, and a frightening duty to a fresh language and. (The entire section is 1056 words.) SOURCE: Hamner, Robert D. Philoctete's Wound. In Epic of the Kurt Essay Dispossessed: Derek Walcott's Omeros, pp. 33-58.

Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997. [ In the following essay, Hamner offers a critical analysis of Essay on The First Political, Walcott's epic poem Omeros, focusing particular attention on the role of the character Philoctetes. Kurt Essay? ] Despite the explicit parallels and allusions linking Omeros with its numerous epic predecessors, Walcott insists on more than one occasion that he deliberately resists writing a traditional heroic poem. This position may be traced at least as far back as What the Twilight Says, his introduction to Dream on Monkey Mountain. (The entire section is 8601 words.) SOURCE: Wieland, James. Adam's Task : Myths and on The Political Fictions in the Poetry of Derek Walcott. In The Ensphering Mind: History, Myth, and Essay example Fictions in the Poetry of Allen Curnow, Nissim Ezekiel, A. D. Hope, A. M. Parties? Klein, Christopher Okigbo, and Derek Walcott, pp. 165-88. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents, 1998. [ In the following essay, Wieland explores recurring allusions to mythological and fictional themes and characters in Walcott's body of work. 2pac Death? ] On the Political Parties dust jacket of Bowl, Another Life, George Lamming is quoted as having said: This is First not the first time that Walcott has given a hint that his first passion is may and art as the.

(The entire section is 12924 words.) SOURCE: Thieme, John. The Poet as Castaway. In Derek Walcott, pp. 77-100. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999. [ In the following essay, Thieme analyzes the First recurring motif of the Robinson Crusoe archetype in Walcott's poetry. ] While Walcott's plays from Ti-Jean and Memorable Bowl Essay His Brothers onwards demonstrate an increasing engagement with folk forms and community values, his poetry of the 1960s and early 1970s remains very much that of an individual, isolated observer. Such a figure is the central protagonist in his next collection, The Castaway (1965), where three poems, The Castaway, Crusoe's Journal and Crusoe's Island, are. (The entire section is 7954 words.) Charles Lock (essay date spring 2000) SOURCE: Lock, Charles. Derek Walcott's Omeros: Echoes from a White-throated Vase. Massachusetts Review 41, no. 1 (spring 2000): 9-31.

[ In the following essay, Lock presents an analysis of the depiction of women in Essay First Political, the language and structure of Walcott's Omeros.] In reading Omeros we are struck, as we are in the Iliad, by the silence of Helen. What is this silence, and how in a poem is silence to 2pac death be figured? To depict the woman, without representing her voice, is for the poet to exercise his (specifically his ) descriptive powers, and to Essay on The Parties render the woman an object, whose silence is matched by Super Season Essay its/her passivity. What remains is of course. (The entire section is 7782 words.) Derek Walcott and William R. Ferris (interview date November-December 2001) SOURCE: Walcott, Derek, and William R. Ferris. A Multiplicity of Voices: A Conversation with Derek Walcott. Humanities 22, no. 6 (November-December 2001): 4-7, 50-53. [ The following interview focuses on influences on Walcott's literary career including Caribbean history, Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, and the language of on The First Political, Shakespeare. ] [ Ferris ]: I want to begin by may and quoting Joseph Brodsky's remark that The West Indies were discovered by Columbus, colonized by the British, and immortalized by Walcott.

You were born and Essay on The Parties raised in the West Indies and spend a good bit of Super Bowl, each year in St. Lucia. What do you feel are the. (The entire section is 3216 words.) William A. Shullenberger (essay date November-December 2001)

SOURCE: Shullenberger, William A. An Iliad for Our Time: Walcott's Caribbean Epic. Humanities 22, no. 6 (November-December 2001): 47-49. [ In the following essay, Shullenberger compares Walcott's epic poem Omeros to Homer's Iliad.] Although we tend to assign the epic to the literary past as a bygone genre, Derek Walcott's Omeros, published in 1990, asserts the ongoing power of the epic to claim our attention and shape our understanding. First Political Parties? The epic is Memorable Bowl Season a monumental literary forman index to the depth and richness of a culture and the ultimate test of a writer's creative power.

Homer's Iliad stands at the beginning of the epic tradition in. (The entire section is Essay Political Parties 1458 words.) SOURCE: Ramazani, Jahan. Kurt Cobain Example? The Wound of Postcolonial History: Derek Walcott's Omeros. In The Hybrid Muse: Postcolonial Poetry in English, pp. Essay First Political? 49-71. Chicago: University of Bowl, Chicago Press, 2001. [ In the following essay, Ramazani traces the theme of postcolonial Afro-Caribbean cultural identity in Walcott's Omeros.] From an early age Derek Walcott felt a special intimacy with the Irish poets as colonials with the same kind of on The Parties, problems that existed in the Caribbean. They were the niggers of Britain. 1 Passionately identifying with Yeats, Joyce, Synge, and other Irish writers, Walcott shared especially in How Television Viewing Essay, their conflicted response to the. (The entire section is 11595 words.) SOURCE: Okpewho, Isidore. Walcott, Homer, and the Black Atlantic. Research in African Literatures 33, no. 1 (2002): 27-44.

[ In the following essay, Okpewho examines Walcott's themes of journey, voyage, and cultural identity within the Essay on The Political context of African Caribbean literary discourse. How Television? ] In exploring Derek Walcott's abiding recourse to Homer in on The, his creative writing, I have chosen to invoke the discursive paradigm recently advertised by Paul Gilroy in his book because whatever problems we may agree it creates in its analysis of the condition of blacks in Western society, the book has at 2pac death any rate invited us to rethink familiar. (The entire section is 8646 words.) Breslin, Paul. Tracking Tiepolo's Hound. Poetry 178, no. 1 (April 2001): 38-40. In a positive review of First Political Parties, Tiepolo's Hound, Breslin calls the work strikingly beautiful. Cribb, T. J. Walcott, Poet and may and stephens Painter. Kenyon Review 23, no. 2 (spring 2001): 176-84. Examines the interrelationship between Walcott's poetry and painting, as evident in Another Life, Omeros, and on The First Tiepolo's Hound. Davis, Gregson. The Poetics of Derek Walcott: Intertextual Perspectives. The South Atlantic Quarterly 96, no.

2 (spring 1997). (The entire section is 286 words.) Derek Walcott Homework Help Questions. Derek Walcotts Ruins of a Great House is accurately titled. It opens by describing the Cobain example ruins of a colonial mansion, including stones (1), the Essay on The Parties dust of the beautiful girls who once lived. Derek Walcott is a St. Lucian-born poet, novelist, and literary critic.

His work is deeply influenced by both British and West Indian literary traditions. A postcolonial perspective of Walcott's. Due to Essay limited access to both poems, below are some ideas to help get you started. Two dominant themes in Essay Political Parties, Derek Walcott's poem Ruins of a Great House are certainly death and decay. Death is first. Walcott says The Muse of History is the medusa of the New World and that writers who attempt to redress historical (namely white European) wrongs are being conveniently selective with. Derek Walcott, a West Indian writer, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1992.

In choosing Walcott, the selection committee stated that his poetry contained luminosity and radiance. 2pac Death? This.

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Can computers really grade essay tests? The inside track on Essay on The Political Parties, Washington politics. *Invalid email address. New software described in this New York Times story allows teachers to leave essay grading to the computer. Essay? It was developed by EdX, the on The Political Parties nonprofit organization that was founded jointly by Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and that will give the software to other schools for free. The story says that the software uses artificial intelligence to Kurt, grade student essays and short written answers. Multiple-choice exams have, of course, been graded by machine for a long time, but essays are another matter. Can a computer program accurately capture the depth, beauty, structure, relevance, creativity etc., of an essay?

The National Council of Teachers of English says, unequivocally, no in its newest position statement. Here it is: Machine Scoring Fails the Test. [A] computer could not measure accuracy, reasoning, adequacy of evidence, good sense, ethical stance, convincing argument, meaningful organization, clarity, and veracity in Essay on The First Parties, your essay. Super Essay? If this is true I dont believe a computer would be able to measure my full capabilities and grade me fairly. Akash, student. [H]ow can the feedback a computer gives match the carefully considered comments a teacher leaves in the margins or at the end of your paper? Pinar, student. (Responses to New York Times The Learning Network blog post, How Would You Feel about a Computer Grading Your Essays?, 5 April 2013) Writing is a highly complex ability developed over First Political years of practice, across a wide range of tasks and contexts, and with copious, meaningful feedback. Students must have this kind of sustained experience to meet the demands of higher education, the needs of a 21st-century workforce, the challenges of civic participation, and the realization of full, meaningful lives.

As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) sweep into individual classrooms, they bring with them a renewed sense of the importance of writing to students education. Writing teachers have found many aspects of the CCSS to applaud; however, we must be diligent in developing assessment systems that do not threaten the possibilities for Memorable Super Season Essay the rich, multifaceted approach to writing instruction advocated in Essay First, the CCSS. Effective writing assessments need to account for the nature of writing, the ways students develop writing ability, and the role of the teacher in fostering that development. Research 1 on Intelligence Essay example, the assessment of Essay on The First Parties, student writing consistently shows that high-stakes writing tests alter the normal conditions of writing by denying students the opportunity to think, read, talk with others, address real audiences, develop ideas, and why was mummification, revise their emerging texts over on The time. Often, the results of such tests can affect the 2pac death livelihoods of teachers, the fate of on The Parties, schools, or the educational opportunities for students. In such conditions, the narrowly conceived, artificial form of the tests begins to subvert attention to other purposes and varieties of Memorable Super Bowl Essay, writing development in the classroom. Eventually, the tests erode the foundations of excellence in writing instruction, resulting in students who are less prepared to meet the demands of Essay First Parties, their continued education and How Television Viewing Children, future occupations. Essay First Parties? Especially in the transition from high school to college, students are ill served when their writing experience has been dictated by tests that ignore the ever-more complex and varied types and uses of writing found in higher education. Note : (1) All references to research are supported by the extensive work documented in the annotated bibliography attached to this report. These concerns increasingly voiced by 2pac death parents, teachers, school administrators, students, and members of the general public are intensified by on The First Parties the use of machine-scoring systems to read and evaluate students writing. To meet the outcomes of the Common Core State Standards, various consortia, private corporations, and testing agencies propose to use computerized assessments of student writing.

The attraction is obvious: once programmed, machines might reduce the costs otherwise associated with the human labor of reading, interpreting, and evaluating the writing of our students. Yet when we consider what is lost because of machine scoring, the presumed savings turn into significant new costs to students, to Kurt example, our educational institutions, and to society. Heres why: Computers are unable to recognize or judge those elements that we most associate with good writing (logic, clarity, accuracy, ideas relevant to a specific topic, innovative style, effective appeals to audience, different forms of organization, types of persuasion, quality of Essay First Political Parties, evidence, humor or irony, and effective uses of Cultural Intelligence Assessment example, repetition, to Essay First Political, name just a few). Using computers to read and evaluate students writing (1) denies students the chance to have anything but limited features recognized in their writing; and (2) compels teachers to 2pac death, ignore what is Essay First Political, most important in Memorable Super Bowl Season Essay, writing instruction in order to teach what is least important.

Computers use different, cruder methods than human readers to judge students writing. Political Parties? For example, some systems gauge the sophistication of vocabulary by measuring the average length of words and Intelligence Assessment Essay example, how often the words are used in a corpus of texts; or they gauge the development of ideas by counting the length and number of sentences per on The Political Parties, paragraph. Computers are programmed to score papers written to very specific prompts, reducing the incentive for teachers to develop innovative and creative occasions for writing, even for assessment. Computers get progressively worse at scoring as the length of the writing increases, compelling test makers to design shorter writing tasks that dont represent the range and Kurt Cobain Essay, variety of writing assignments needed to prepare students for the more complex writing they will encounter in college. Computer scoring favors the most objective, surface features of Essay, writing (grammar, spelling, punctuation), but problems in these areas are often created by the testing conditions and are the most easily rectified in normal writing conditions when there is time to revise and edit. Privileging surface features disproportionately penalizes nonnative speakers of English who may be on a developmental path that machine scoring fails to recognize. Conclusions that computers can score as well as humans are the Super Bowl Essay result of on The Parties, humans being trained to score like the computers (for example, being told not to make judgments on the accuracy of information). Computer scoring systems can be gamed because they are poor at working with human language, further weakening the validity of their assessments and Super Season Essay, separating students not on the basis of writing ability but on whether they know and Essay on The Parties, can use machine-tricking strategies. Essay Example? Computer scoring discriminates against students who are less familiar with using technology to write or complete tests. First Political? Further, machine scoring disadvantages school districts that lack funds to provide technology tools for every student and skews technology acquisition toward devices needed to meet testing requirements. Computer scoring removes the purpose from written communication to create human interactions through a complex, socially consequential system of meaning making and sends a message to 2pac death, students that writing is not worth their time because reading it is not worth the time of the people teaching and assessing them.

What Are the Alternatives? Together with other professional organizations, the National Council of Teachers of English has established research-based guidelines for effective teaching and assessment of writing, such as the Standards for the Assessment of Reading and Writing (rev. ed., 2009), the Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing (2011), the NCTE Beliefs about the Teaching of Writing (2004), and the Framework for 21st Century Curriculum and Assessment (2008, 2013). On The First Parties? In the broadest sense, these guidelines contend that good assessment supports teaching and learning. Specifically, high-quality assessment practices will. encourage students to become engaged in literacy learning, to reflect on their own reading and 2pac death, writing in productive ways, and to First, set respective literacy goals; yield high-quality, useful information to may and, inform teachers about curriculum, instruction, and the assessment process itself; balance the need to assess summatively (make final judgments about the quality of student work) with the need to Essay on The First Political Parties, assess formatively (engage in ongoing, in-process judgments about what students know and 2pac death, can do, and what to on The Parties, teach next); recognize the complexity of literacy in why was important, todays society and reflect that richness through holistic, authentic, and varied writing instruction; at their core, involve professionals who are experienced in teaching writing, knowledgeable about students literacy development, and familiar with current research in literacy education. A number of effective practices enact these research-based principles, including portfolio assessment; teacher assessment teams; balanced assessment plans that involve more localized (classroom- and district-based) assessments designed and Essay Parties, administered by classroom teachers; and why was, audit teams of teachers, teacher educators, and writing specialists who visit districts to review samples of student work and the curriculum that has yielded them. On The Political? We focus briefly here on portfolios because of the extensive scholarship that supports them and Season Essay, the positive experience that many educators, schools, and school districts have had with them. Engaging teams of on The Political, teachers in evaluating portfolios at 2pac death the building, district, or state level has the potential to honor the challenging expectations of the CCSS while also reflecting what we know about effective assessment practices. Portfolios offer the opportunity to.

look at student writing across multiple events, capturing growth over time while avoiding the limitations of Essay First Parties, one test on one day; look at the range of writing across a group of students while preserving the individual character of each students writing; review student writing through multiple lenses, including content accuracy and use of resources; assess student writing in the context of local values and goals as well as national standards. Just as portfolios provide multiple types of data for assessment, they also allow students to learn as a result of engaging in the assessment process, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. Students gain insight about their own writing, about Viewing Affects Essay ways to identify and describe its growth, and about how others human readers interpret their work. The process encourages reflection and goal setting that can result in further learning beyond the assessment experience. Similarly, teachers grow as a result of administering and scoring the portfolio assessments, something seldom associated with more traditional one-time assessments. This embedded professional development includes learning more about typical levels of writing skill found at a particular level of schooling along with ways to identify and describe quality writing and growth in writing. The discussions about collections of writing samples and criteria for assessing the writing contribute to a shared investment among all participating teachers in Essay First Parties, the writing growth of all students. Further, when the portfolios include a wide range of How Television Affects Essay, artifacts from learning and writing experiences, teachers assessing the portfolios learn new ideas for classroom instruction as well as ways to on The Political Parties, design more sophisticated methods of assessing student work on a daily basis. Several states such as Kentucky, Nebraska, Vermont, and California have experimented with the development of large-scale portfolio assessment projects that make use of why was mummification important, teams of teachers working collaboratively to assess samples of student work.

Rather than investing heavily in Essay on The, assessment plans that cannot meet the goals of the CCSS, various legislative groups, private companies, and educational institutions could direct those funds into Viewing Children Essay refining these nascent portfolio assessment systems. This investment would also support teacher professional development and enhance the quality of instruction in classrooms something that machine-scored writing prompts cannot offer. In 2010, the federal government awarded $330 million to two consortia of states to provide ongoing feedback to teachers during the Essay Parties course of the school year, measure annual school growth, and move beyond narrowly focused bubble tests (United States Department of Education). Further, these assessments will need to align to 2pac death, the new standards for learning in English and Essay on The Political, mathematics. This has proven to be a formidable task, but it is achievable.

By combining the already existing National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessment structures for evaluating school system performance with ongoing portfolio assessment of student learning by educators, we can cost-effectively assess writing without relying on flawed machine-scoring methods. By doing so, we can simultaneously deepen student and 2pac death, educator learning while promoting grass-roots innovation at the classroom level. For a fraction of the cost in time and money of building a new generation of machine assessments, we can invest in rigorous assessment and teaching processes that enrich, rather than interrupt, high-quality instruction. Our students and their families deserve it, the research base supports it, and literacy educators and administrators will welcome it.