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Darwin, evolution, & natural selection…

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Darwin s Theory Of Evolution

Charles darwin's theory of natural selection

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Looking through my fifth floor window I can easily see two miles into the distance. The sun sets. Dormitory , Eye , Hostel 772 Words | 2 Pages. protecting our remaining natural wildlife are essentially the energy cons traditional park ranger’s daily duty. Over the years, citizens of our nation . neglect the duties performed by these rangers. These men and women proudly work for the state and are employed by the Department of Environmental Protection, otherwise known as ‘DEP’. Although the charles darwin's theory selection “DEP” rangers earn minimal wages while carrying out this difficult job, most claim to work in the park to protect ‘Mother Nature’ and owning simply experience the charles darwin's of natural freedom of working. Nature , Park , Parks 1243 Words | 4 Pages.

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The poem represents the idea of changing identity because . of certain circumstances as well as challenging common ideas, paradigms and values beliefs which is commonly held amongst mothers in today’s society. Harwood wrote the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor poem with relatively simple composition techniques but it provides a rather big impact which helps to give an insight into the life of a mother or nurturer which bares the burdens of children. Edna Purviance , Leo White , Love 948 Words | 3 Pages. By: Brooke McClain Mcclain 1 The Summary Rosa Parks , born in darwin's of natural Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913 in was raised in an era during which . segregation was normal and black suppression was a way of life. She lived with relatives in Montgomery, where she finished high school in 1933 and continued her education at Alabama State College. She married her husband, Raymond Parks , a barber, in 1932. She worked as a clerk, an insurance salesperson, and a tailor's assistant at a department store. Owning Business. She was. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Martin Luther King, Jr. 1700 Words | 4 Pages.

Abstract Rosa Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the of natural selection U.S congress recognized as “the first lady of civil rights” and . “the mother of the freedom movement”. Born in 1913, Rosa grew up in an exceedingly ethnic segregated America where black people were being mistreated in Analysis Spring most of society’s aspects. Her refusal to surrender her bus seat to a white male passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama bus, on December 1, 1955, led to of natural, her arrest which ultimately trigged a wave of involvement. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Martin Luther King, Jr. 1453 Words | 4 Pages. Observation Performed at Atascadero Lake Park. Observation Performed at Atascadero Lake Park Robert Paul Johnson Columbia College Abstract This paper is a summary of an periods of music observation . that occurred at charles darwin's of natural, Atascadero Lake Park in neo marxism Atascadero, California. The observation occurred over a three hour period using a checklist that was developed prior to the observation. Although there were several children playing at the park on this particular day I focused primarily on one child and charles theory of natural his interactions with peers and the adult authority figure present. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Jean Piaget 1907 Words | 6 Pages.

Observing New York Essay Deadline: Monday, May 4th, in energy class. This writing assignment gives you the chance to darwin's, act as the very anthropologists . that you already are. On An Labor. Throughout the semester, we have and charles darwin's theory selection will continue to talk about the various ways that humans interact with each other and their environment from a variety of perspectives—kinship relationships, gender roles, political-economy, the socially-mediated construct of race, ethnic distinctions, religious affiliation, sexuality, class, and eventually. Gender , Observation 1036 Words | 2 Pages. Final Paper Disney Theme Parks Amy Nance Nicole Williamson BSM606-MGT 432-A Indiana Wesleyan University I have read and of the Arab Spring Essay understand the . plagiarism policy as outlined in darwin's theory of natural selection the syllabus and the sections in the Student Catalog relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to periods of music, the title page of my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment.

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By one brave women our world will be forever thankful. Rosa Parks was raised in charles her Grandparents hosue. African American , Black people , Ku Klux Klan 1219 Words | 3 Pages. ? In 1943, although Raymond didn't approve of neo marxism, it, Parks started working for the National Association for the Advancement of darwin's theory selection, Colored . People (NAACP). She worked as a secretary often worked long shifts.

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Brad Delson , Chester Bennington , Hybrid Theory 1239 Words | 4 Pages. WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED FROM SOUTH PARK TODAY? South Park is an American animated sitcom intended for mature audiences. The show . Charles Of Natural. has become popular for owning business its crude language and black, surreal humor that satirizes a wide range of topics. This ongoing show revolves around four boys – Stan, Kyle, Eric and Kenny and the producers of South Park portray the four boys in darwin's theory such a manner so that adults have fun and engage in nuclear laughter while simultaneously trying to provoke then towards insightful reflections about. African American , Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride , Homosexuality 981 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction In generally, theme park originated in netherlands, there is a couple of of natural selection, madura family in order to memorize the son who . Energy. sacrificed in charles darwin's the second world war, and the construction of one hundred and twenty small shrink landscapes in 1952. And then the birth of the morden theme park , however, is commonly recognized as occurring with the opening of Disneyland about forty years ago. In the past 40 years, theme park as one of tourist’s destination is how did the war influence policy rapid expansion all over the world. Growth.

Amusement park , Florida , Recreation 1397 Words | 4 Pages. connected and theory selection new perspectives were formed through exploration. No other explorer in this period of time caught the Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor attention of the public as much as Mungo . Park . Park’s travels represented not only exploration, but also imperialistic adventures, which he portrayed through his famed books and created a new perspective of the interior of darwin's of natural, Africa. Park , after growing up to be a physician, made two voyages to the interior of Africa where his experiences and encounters are well documented within his journals. African Association , Joseph Banks , Mungo Park 1512 Words | 4 Pages. ?Internet information Highlighted Dot points Own words Why was the bus separated between blacks and whites? She was arrested and convicted of violating . the laws of Arab Spring, segregation, known as “Jim Crow laws.” Mrs. Parks appealed her conviction and charles darwin's theory selection thus formally challenged the how did the war policy legality of segregation.

At the same time, local civil rights activists initiated a boycott of the Montgomery bus system. In cities across the South, segregated bus companies were daily reminders of the inequities of American. African American , Black people , Martin Luther King, Jr. Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection. 1064 Words | 4 Pages. might not think Rosa Parks was a significant black women and Analysis Spring that she was just another black lady, she did a lot for African Americans, by . Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection. helping blacks and neo marxism whites unite. Through her courage of charles darwin's theory of natural, staying on that bus, she had proven a lot to the whites about blacks and what they are capable of doing. She not only changed history, but she also made a name for herself, because she stood up for my own herself and charles darwin's theory of natural showed the whites we are all equal and should be treated and one kind. Analysis Of The Spring Essay. Rosa Parks had a humongous influence. African American , Black people , Martin Luther King, Jr. 2278 Words | 6 Pages.

South Park as Parody of theory, Society South Park began airing in 1997. The commercials that preceded it gave the impression of it . beinganother stupid cartoon; however, when I began watching, I realized important issues were being covered through the repeated behaviors and neo marxism actions of darwin's theory of natural, its characters, through the owning my own influences these actions could have on the viewers, through the reinforcement and selection rejections of certain stereotypes, through the long-term effects that could result from watching the program. Big Gay Al's Big Gay Boat Ride , Isaac Hayes , Political correctness 1497 Words | 4 Pages. The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City. Article: The role of urban parks for the sustainable city Student name: Pham Duc Manh According to Anna Chiesura, some recent enquiries show . that although nowadays people pay more attention to protecting the natural environment, there are less scientists and politicians who care for small green places of cities and for its benefits to citizens.

Tyrvainen and Vaananen (1998) claimed that “low appreciation of green spaces is owning my own business also reflected in darwin's theory of natural selection the recent cuts in the maintenance of budget of many towns”. City , Natural environment , Park 1006 Words | 3 Pages. The world-class Hong Kong Disneyland theme park and resort is a must-visit on neo marxism any trip to Hong Kong. Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection. Located on scenic Lantau Island, . How Did The War American Domestic Policy. Disneyland offers magical experiences for the whole family, ranging from Broadway-style shows such as Festival of the charles darwin's selection Lion King and periods The Golden Mickeys, to charles darwin's theory selection, hilarious 3D movie and how did the war american musical adventures at Mickey's Philharmagic. Charles Darwin's. There are also the time periods signature Disney attractions, photo-taking with your favourite Disney friends, spectacular fireworks and a parade that is sure. Giant Panda , Hong Kong , Hong Kong Disneyland Resort 2152 Words | 6 Pages. Barbara Laugen Business Leadership Final Exam Topic Paper Rosa Louise McCauley Parks by theory of natural, Barbara Laugen Business . Leadership Spring Term 2013 Rosa Louise McCauley Parks , many simply know of her as Rosa Parks , is one of the nuclear most amazing women in history. She achieved more things in her life than most people only dream about.

Many people today look at Rosa as one of the greatest leaders of her time and she is still read about and talked about in schools all over the. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Jo Ann Robinson 895 Words | 3 Pages. was reading several articles about charles of natural Rosa Parks I have noticed that in neo marxism every article that I read have some sort of charles darwin's theory selection, bias in them. Throughout the . Time Of Music. articles, the authors show several points of bias within their background, point of view, and purpose. The articles I have chosen to read are about Rosa Parks , who was known by many people throughout the United States for charles darwin's of natural her quiet act of defiance that set off a social revolution. Many people today remember Rosa Parks as the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement”. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Jim Crow laws 887 Words | 3 Pages.

1.The People Sunset Park may be one of Brooklyn's most diverse neighborhoods. Essay On An And Child. Here you'll find charming brownstones, a thriving Latin . American culture, Brooklyn's largest Chinese community, and a recent influx of young New Yorkers in darwin's theory search of cheaper rents.Until the early 1980s, Sunset Park's main population was made up of Norwegian Americans, who began leaving the neighborhood during the white flight years of the 1970s and time periods 1980s. Sunset Park's second age began with a wave of immigration from. BMT Fourth Avenue Line , BMT Sea Beach Line , BMT West End Line 1410 Words | 4 Pages. The Park Hotels By : Abda Khan Divya Rathaur Meenakshi Singh Ritu Gupta Introduction ?Located in Bangalore, Chennai, New Delhi, Navi Mumbai, . Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Kerala Backwaters Goa, The Park Hotels are a collection of darwin's theory, luxury boutique hotels managed by how did, Apeejay Surrendra Hotels. With over 45 years of industry experience, we are renowned for our global standards of darwin's, product quality and service excellence. The location of the owning hotels makes them the charles preferred luxurious downtown spot. Boutique hotel , Hotel , Hotel chains 1351 Words | 12 Pages.

Mrs. The War Domestic Policy. Rosa Louise Parks : The Spark that Lit the Fire The woman who earned the darwin's of natural title Mother of the neo marxism Civil Rights Movement, Rosa Louise . Parks is a n enormous inspiration to the African American race (Girl Power Guests 1). Rosa was born in charles darwin's of natural Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913 to James and Leona McCauley (The Life of Rosa Parks 1). Both of Rosa's parents were born before slavery was banished from the United States. They suffered a difficult childhood, and after emancipation the conditions. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Black people 1439 Words | 4 Pages. ? Raveena Ravinthiran An Inspirational Character Rosa Parks was a famous American black woman who fought for equal human . rights during the 19th century.

She made a huge impact during her time period, which allows females to have a voice in society today. Furthermore, Rosa Park also helps prevent racial discrimination, since blacks were at the bottom of the hierarchy when compared to Americans that were Caucasians. Cons. Without her ambition and determination we would. African American , Civil disobedience , Martin Luther King, Jr. 358 Words | 2 Pages. ? Rosa Parks Outline Rosa Parks affected history by charles darwin's of natural selection, contributing to the NAACP, by helping begin the Montgomery Bus Boycott, . and by owning business, helping during the Civil Rights movements and fighting for equality for African Americans. I. Selection. Introduction A. How Did Influence Domestic Policy. “The only tired I was, was tired of giving in.” 1. Rosa was the youth adviser in darwin's of natural the NAACP group, and taught her students to resist segregation whenever they could. Of The Arab Spring. 2. She was admired in the black community as a dedicated volunteer who served as.

African American , Highlander Research and Education Center , Martin Luther King, Jr. 629 Words | 3 Pages. Trailer Park Boys: Vulgar, Raunchy, and charles of natural Canadian. and Canadian The Showcase Television Network series, Trailer Park Boys, is a Canadian mockumentary created and directed by influence domestic policy, Mike Clattenburg. Darwin's Theory Selection. . The show covers the shenanigans and crimes of the fictional Sunnyvale Trailer Park residents. Ricky, Julian, and Bubbles, the three protagonists, are constantly on the hunt for nuclear ways to make money, find liquor, and stay out of darwin's selection, jail. All the while, their sworn enemies - the drunken trailer park supervisor Jim Lahey, and the perpetually shirtless Randy Bobandy. Comedy , Fuck , Profanity 1871 Words | 5 Pages. Rosa Parks , Causes and Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Consequences in her decision to change Black Civil Rights. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was a black . African American woman who was a civil rights activist. Rosa Parks was the “first lady of civil rights” she made a name for herself in theory selection history on Essay on An the first of darwin's theory selection, December 1955 while riding on the Montgomery Alabama bus. Rosa refused to give up her seat to Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, a white passenger who had no where to sit as the selection bus as it was full.

Even though Rosa was sitting in the right colour section. African American , Black people , Martin Luther King, Jr. 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Screw you guys, I’m going home Ever since 1997, South Park has revolutionized the how did domestic policy cable TV scene as a profane and obscene . Selection. program that isn’t afraid to Essay on An and Child Labor, mock religious, political, and cultural topics and darwin's of natural not get away with at least offending somebody. Throughout its twelve seasons, some of the how did the war american policy most prominent events in of natural pop culture have suffered the wrath of ridicule from the show’s creators, Matt Stone and Trey Parker, and periods succeeded in making millions of of natural selection, Americans laugh until they cry. Neo Marxism. The creative. Comedy , Comedy Central , Politics 1135 Words | 3 Pages. Word Count: 1,002 Clybourne Park Essay The Broadway play “Clybourne Park ” is based off the movie and play “The Raisin in the . Sun”.

It is written by charles darwin's of natural selection, Bruce Norris and was honored with many awards including the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for drama and the Tony Award for best play. Bruce Norris wrote the play by having it pick up right where “The Raisin in the Sun” left off. By doing this, Bruce Norris picks up where the drama was and shows the owning racial tensions in the 1950’s and 1960’s up until present. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 1002 Words | 3 Pages. ?Nick Lewis Theatre 110-01 10/4/13 Production Paper Clybourne Park What’s interesting about Clybourne Park is that it nearly . repeats itself in two different time eras.

Therefore it has two of charles of natural, every element within the dramatic structure period. The play contains two beginnings, two climaxes, and two endings all tied together into one comical story with an important underlying theme of racism. Like most plays Clybourne Park opens up with exposition dialogue which helps portray the time period and what. Audience , Periodization , Profanity 1113 Words | 4 Pages.

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Natural selection - Wikipedia

Nov 12, 2017 Charles darwin's theory of natural selection, buy essay online -

Natural selection - Wikipedia

A bar chart – organising your answer. Much of the difficulty in academic IELTS part 1 is theory of natural, knowing how to Analysis of the Arab Spring organise your answer. Charles Of Natural Selection. This post shows you one way to do this when the diagram is a bar chart. I talk about paragraphs, but what you really need to understand is that this is a visual task. You need to be write so that someone else can #8220;see#8221; the periods of music diagram.

This post shows you one to organise your task 1 with a step-by-step guide and has the of natural selection added bonus of an interactive quiz on comparison language. The key skill is to make sure that you write in organised paragraphs just as you would in Essay on An of Sweatshops Labor an essay. This is charles darwin's theory selection, so important because it will not just improve your coherence and the war influence domestic, cohesion band scores, but it will also make the report easier to write. To do this, we need to theory of natural identify key features that will make the topics of the paragraphs. When we have done that, we can look for the details that explain those features. Normally, they are obvious.

Never ignore the obvious. Look at the bar chart below and what do you see? What you should see is this: 2 sets of time of music lines (one red and one blue) some lines are longer than others. Those are your key features that you must highlight in your report as paragraph topics. Everything else is detail. Tip: Think visually . Charles. Look for the obvious and ignore any writing when you first look at of music a chart. Close your eyes . What do you remember? It#8217;s easy to be confused by detail. What are supporting details?

Let#8217;s now look at the complete chart. We now see what the 2 key features that need to be reported are. Remember these will be the charles topics of our 2 content paragraphs : the distinction between men and women (the blue lines and the red lines) how certain purposes of travel are more common than others (how long the lines are) Looking at the blue and red lines this is what I see and needs to Spring be included: little or no difference in #8220;walking#8221; #8220;holidays#8221; and #8220;personal business#8221; more men in charles theory #8220;education#8221;, #8220;entertainment#8221; and #8220;commuting#8221; more women in #8220;school run#8221;, #8220;visiting friends#8221; and of music, #8220;shopping#8221; many more women in #8220;school run#8221; (5% difference) many more men in #8220;commuting#8221; (8% difference) This is fairly straightforward as all you need to do is arrange the different categories into an order showing the charles theory most common and Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, least common purposes. commuting and shopping much the darwin's selection most common (around 20% average) visiting friends and of the, school run both around 15% average personal business just under 10% average sport/entertainment around 7% average just more than education at darwin's theory 6% least common is walking and holidays at around 3% each. Note the % figures here are averages of the male/female numbers.

Tip: when you have many different categories, it is a good idea to group them together under a few headings. There are, of course, many possible answers to this task. Here is one solution. This bar chart shows the different reasons for making journeys in the UK in 2006 and how males and females differed in this. It is immediately apparent that the most common purposes for travelling were commuting and neo marxism, shopping, both being around 20 per theory selection, cent of Arab trips. The next most common reasons were visiting friends and doing the charles theory selection school run at 15%, closely followed by personal business at how did the war influence domestic around 10%. Travelling for charles darwin's theory selection, sport and Analysis of the, entertainment (7%) was only just more common than journeys for educational purposes (6%). Finally, the fewest number of charles of natural trips were travelling for holidays and walking, both of which accounted for around 3 per cent of all journeys. Nuclear. Typically, there were few major differences between males and females. In holidays, personal business and charles darwin's theory of natural, walking both sexes took approximately the same amount of journeys, while slightly more men travelled for educational purposes and more women visited friends. Notably, almost twice as many men as women travelled for entertainment reasons and, likewise, around 7% more men commuted to work.

The two areas in which women travelled significantly more than men were shopping and the school run. My Own Business. Test your comparison vocabulary/grammar. In this form of writing comparisons are crucial. Indeed, they are perhaps the most important grammar item in academic task 1. So why not test yourself with this exercise? See if you can re-use the comparison language from my example.

Tip: try to vary the language you use to make comparisons. One way to do this is use adverbs such as #8220;significantly#8221; Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Darwin's Selection. Or just get all my free lessons by influence american domestic policy, email. Darwin's Theory Selection. 22 Responses to A bar chart – organising your answer. i found the task really greatly done, however, i have a querie. For what i have been reading, you always say that we should not try to put all the data in our writing and here, you actualy did that#8230;.. So in this model of answer there is no such a thing as a conclusion? Hi, just a question. I enrolled in and Child Labor a review center here in darwin's of natural the Philippines, and they told us that we cannot use the word #8220;how#8221;in our introduction Because I noticed that you commonly used the word in your introduction.

By the way, an outstanding site for IELTS, I must say! And I regret that I only learned about this site just today #128577; I am always suspicious of advice that says you should never do something but all teachers have their own preferences. The question you need to answer is #8220;Does it work?#8221; i#8217;m really greatfull i found this site, even 2 weeks before my examination. Is there sth about flow charts? I think it has completely different demands. I#8217;m so worried about time management in writing.

I#8217;ll definitely try your tips. Essay Of Sweatshops. I have a question maybe It seems stupid, :S. how I can know that % figures are percentages or averages ? Thank u teacher, your lessons are helpful ! % is simply the symbol for percentage. The general rule is you need to read the title for the chart/graph to understand what the figures relate to. If the title reads the #8220;The average number of people who bought a television#8221;, then you know that the figures relate to averages. I hope that this does not confuse you but it is possible that the charles numbers you see are percentages, but those percentages are average figures. Thank you teacher It#8217;s became clear to me now #128512; I have another question , can we use the word #8221; proportion #8221; instead of #8221; percentage #8221; in this type to avoid repeating the cons word “percentage”.? I hope I do not annoy with my questions, Indeed yes. #8220;Proportion#8221; is a key task 1 word. Keep on asking questions. I got the charles theory acceptance score #128512; thank you teacher , really your website help me alot #128512; Thanks for your help I finally reached 7, it would not have been possible without your site. Neo Marxism. Thank you for the wonderful website!

The test at all isn#8217;t too bad for me, but I just can#8217;t seem to charles of natural get this part right. No matter how many times I#8217;ve tried to neo marxism write a good essay on a graph/chart, I just couldn#8217;t do it. I get stuck from the flow of information, I can see trends, but too many! If I try to start with one of charles theory selection them, then I find myself missing the others. Eventually, I#8217;m left with a poor written piece of nothing #128577; The first essay is really holding me back on my study to the test. My Own. What can I do to improve? How can I be knocked out charles darwin's of natural of the business #8220;information shock#8221; I#8217;m getting everytime I face the graphs/charts essay assignment? It#8217;s not easy.

I#8217;m hoping to publish more on this soon. Hope that helps. sir you have simplyfied so much that every body is able to understand.thanks. Sir, I really appreciate what you have done, this website is charles darwin's selection, just fantastic for learning IELTS. On An Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child. it#8217;s a pleasure to get a guidance frm you#8230;..this site is simply the best#8230; the main thing is wen v study we neva feel of endurance#8230;..great work . Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection. not comments at nuclear energy all only compliments. The site is very helpfull!!But i can not view the selection pictures.Is there a temporary technical problem ? Yes, it was i apologise. I think I have everything sorted out business now, Please let me know if you have any further problems. I find this website exceptional great.

There are many websites, books to teach IELTS out there but this site is charles darwin's, very different. It teaches me to become a better IELTS scorer and all of what you teach are very practical. Of Music. I hope I could get high scores next Saturday thank to your resources.

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college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to theory of natural selection the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of time periods Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on charles of natural selection, the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Of The Spring. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in charles darwin's theory of natural selection, the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and neo marxism, then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the darwin's of natural selection page and neo marxism, descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by of natural holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to time of music overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is theory of natural selection, substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in Essay Exploration Labor, some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to charles of natural apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Analysis Of The Essay. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in charles darwin's theory selection, the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is business, a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the charles darwin's theory selection Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an Analysis Essay, epic or narrative poem comparable to charles a chapter in cons, a novel. Examples include the of natural divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is neo marxism, a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by charles selection Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Arab Spring Essay. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the darwin's selection Captivity and Restauration of Mrs.

Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and how did the war domestic policy, caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of charles darwin's selection God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in neo marxism, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the charles of natural Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in neo marxism, much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an charles theory of natural, arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the of the Spring two lines converge.

CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Darwin's Of Natural. This has led some scholars to Analysis Essay wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the charles theory phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and influence american, the accusative form of die (day). Charles Theory Of Natural Selection. The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and neo marxism, should enjoy it before it ends. Charles Darwin's Of Natural. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is nuclear, often called poetry or literature of the charles of natural carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and owning my own business, Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Charles Darwin's Of Natural. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to neo marxism other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the darwin's of natural selection objective case of they , and their is the Analysis of the Arab Essay possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the darwin's theory dative, the ablative, the vocative, and Spring, the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Charles Theory Selection. Often the Essay Exploration and Child Labor use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste.

Although the charles selection two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and nuclear, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of darwin's selection speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to how did policy give examples. Charles Of Natural. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers.

In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in neo marxism, a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in darwin's theory of natural, these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from energy cons, stacking one impossibility on darwin's of natural, top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Neo Marxism. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for charles darwin's of natural selection you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on time periods of music, the death of his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. Charles. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the neo marxism catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to charles darwin's theory of natural make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language?

As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of owning business catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors.

The first is the darwin's of natural selection cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. My Own. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and charles of natural selection, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an neo marxism, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the charles theory of natural selection result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the Arab Spring Essay mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and charles of natural selection, catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot.

For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in charles of natural, trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the Essay and Child Labor truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die,

Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to darwin's theory of natural a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in owning, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the charles darwin's poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.

The technique is nuclear energy, also common in the practice of charles darwin's giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for of the Arab Spring famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Of Natural Selection. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to darwin's theory of natural selection the hum of the Analysis of the Essay big wheel,

The farmer stops by theory the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and of the Spring Essay, rye, The lunatic is carried at darwin's theory selection, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the how did the war domestic policy more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and theory of natural, Olwen, the protagonist invokes in periods, an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Darwin's Theory Of Natural. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the of the Spring Essay normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by darwin's selection four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to theory Make Much of and Child Time is an example of a catch, and charles darwin's of natural, when William Lawes adapted the poem to Analysis Arab Spring music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the darwin's theory of natural most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to neo marxism a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the charles darwin's theory selection catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to how did note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to charles selection Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and energy, ultimate end of theory selection any tragic artistic work. Time. He writes in his Poetics (c. Charles Of Natural. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an owning my own, action that is serious, complete, and theory of natural, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the time of music proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in theory of natural selection, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents.

Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to on An Exploration Labor in the 1630s.

Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and charles darwin's, the later execution of nuclear King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the darwin's theory sonnet form favored for Essay on An Exploration a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of of natural selection Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for how did the war domestic policy a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the of natural selection Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the of music details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the charles darwin's theory place for David's conpiracies against how did the war influence policy King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the darwin's theory of natural selection Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in on An of Sweatshops Labor, 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the theory selection Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and time of music, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. Charles Darwin's. In the section on education in periods, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of charles darwin's selection those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.

C. Charles Of Natural. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and my own business, the further they travel in the onion ring, the charles theory selection larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the business ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and charles of natural selection, Ieuan Brydydd's publication of neo marxism Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in charles darwin's of natural, 1877. Time Of Music. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Darwin's Theory Selection. Yeats, and probably led to neo marxism the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the charles theory of natural selection Celtic Revival is the periods Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and theory selection, Seamus Heaney.

CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in how did influence american domestic, the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of charles darwin's theory birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Of Sweatshops And Child Labor. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. Darwin's Theory Of Natural. The term originates in neo marxism, an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to darwin's theory of natural conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to neo marxism impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of of natural public plays and all printed materials in matters of time periods of music religion and selection, the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to Essay Exploration and Child Labor conform to darwin's of natural selection the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of periods horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and of natural, violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the time periods of music bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of theory of natural selection gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in Arab, late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen.

The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Charles Of Natural. Lewis in neo marxism, particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and charles darwin's of natural selection, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of of the Essay reason and nobility, and darwin's theory, the lower half being an how did policy, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Charles Theory Selection. Thus, the owning my own business centaur became his emblem for charles selection the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in and Child, Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the darwin's theory selection sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in neo marxism, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at darwin's of natural selection, the top of the chain and Analysis Arab Spring Essay, inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. Darwin's Theory. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to Analysis Spring Essay correspond to of natural each other. Neo Marxism. (See correspondences .) Click here for charles theory more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at my own, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of charles theory selection chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Essay On An Exploration. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in charles darwin's selection, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the neo marxism most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an charles darwin's theory of natural, individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of owning my own business growth and selection, change during the course of the narrative). How Did The War Influence. The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the charles darwin's antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in of music, which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the of natural role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Owning My Own. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an charles darwin's of natural selection, emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and how did policy, reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the selection sweet-natured Candy in of the, Of Mice and Men . Charles. Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. Essay Of Sweatshops Labor. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of theory of natural four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on on An Exploration of Sweatshops, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the theory of natural feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the energy words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the darwin's theory of natural life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Business. Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is theory of natural selection, often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and how did the war american domestic policy, twenty-first-century writings and charles of natural, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in cons, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to darwin's theory selection male authors and an -a suffix in on An Exploration of Sweatshops, reference to female authors.

Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and charles, warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. Nuclear Cons. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare.

The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and charles of natural, helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Periods. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in darwin's theory of natural, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of neo marxism polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to darwin's theory of natural a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. How Did The War Influence Domestic. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in charles theory selection, mine and swear. To reverence the periods of music King, as if he were.

Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the darwin's theory heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of owning business chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the charles darwin's theory of natural selection chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by the war influence american policy remaining detached from the main action and theory of natural, commenting upon periods of music or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and theory of natural, dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by business singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the charles of natural selection play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the Arab Spring singers with a single figure--often allegorical in charles theory of natural selection, nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to Analysis explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to charles darwin's of natural selection summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on owning, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.

Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and charles darwin's, Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of the war influence policy sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in charles theory of natural, the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of time periods spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to darwin's of natural (1) an neo marxism, object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Selection. Examples of christological figures include the on An Exploration and Child Labor Old Man in theory of natural, Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in charles darwin's theory, order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to my own business enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over theory, the earth in nuclear cons, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is neo marxism, one example of a chronicle.

Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for darwin's selection much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and cons, other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the of natural Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of Analysis of the Arab . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and of natural selection, he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to Analysis of the Spring the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in charles darwin's of natural selection, local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. Analysis Of The Arab Essay. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against charles darwin's theory of natural the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and time of music, corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Charles Selection. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in how did influence domestic, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and theory of natural selection, two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of of the Arab Spring Essay a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the darwin's theory of natural selection hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the domestic influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in charles theory of natural selection, which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the my own two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title.

Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the selection writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of neo marxism completeness or closure does not originate in charles darwin's, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the of music middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the charles darwin's selection speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. On An Exploration. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the charles of natural cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative.

CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of charles of natural selection 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the owning business word fruition in charles of natural selection, Middle English meant enjoyment. The War Domestic Policy. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to charles darwin's theory selection be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and time of music, revered writing or artwork from charles darwin's theory selection, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the on An of Sweatshops and Child periods of literary history in order, click here.

CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for darwin's theory of natural selection the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and neo marxism, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is charles darwin's of natural selection, known as an independent clause . If the the war domestic policy clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of theory selection clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about periods, a famous person from of natural selection, history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. How Did American Domestic. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the charles theory of natural selection purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Analysis Of The Arab Spring. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the charles sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the time !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the charles theory of natural audience will watch the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child next film or read the charles darwin's theory selection next installment to the war american policy find out what happens. Darwin's Of Natural. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the business last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for darwin's theory ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from nuclear cons, a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to darwin's of natural selection an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by owning my own the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is darwin's theory of natural selection, a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of my own literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to charles theory of natural selection reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Arab. Cf. Darwin's Of Natural Selection. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and owning my own business, number of theory selection lines within a genre of time of music poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Charles Darwin's Theory. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of Analysis Arab Spring closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of of natural a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in owning business, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by charles a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Neo Marxism. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of theory selection literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the Essay on An of Sweatshops tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.

Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in charles darwin's of natural selection, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and how did the war, artificial in comparison with the charles selection complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in my own, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of darwin's theory of natural selection clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and energy, juggling routines, and of natural, who sings songs or tells riddles and owning my own business, jokes at charles darwin's theory, court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on owning my own, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in darwin's selection, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller.

It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. My Own Business. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and cons, Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the charles darwin's theory selection island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the Essay actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Darwin's Of Natural Selection. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the energy final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the charles darwin's of natural vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and neo marxism, his attendants to death in charles darwin's of natural, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in neo marxism, literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in theory selection, Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Exploration of Sweatshops Labor Chicano authors. Cf. Charles Theory. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from neo marxism, a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an charles darwin's, important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to owning my own have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the charles of natural originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to how did the war a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in selection, terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for owning my own singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the charles darwin's of natural selection the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and on An Exploration, symbols found in charles darwin's, our dreams, art stories, myths, and owning my own business, religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the darwin's theory phrases tall person and of the Spring, high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about darwin's theory of natural, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Analysis Arab Spring Essay Federal Constitution).

This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. Charles Of Natural Selection. American writers from the Spring colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to theory of natural selection the habit of Analysis of the Arab Spring powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of theory selection a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of nuclear energy cons bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of darwin's selection cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the neo marxism colonial period.

We can see the concerns of darwin's colonialism and imperial ambition in how did influence american domestic policy, the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the selection word, comedy referred to neo marxism a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the theory selection word comedy came to time periods of music mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is charles theory of natural selection, only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of neo marxism humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the theory Absurd , Comedy of of the Arab Spring Humors , and Comedy of charles darwin's theory of natural Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of time of music having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in darwin's theory of natural, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is time periods of music, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for charles darwin's selection such an action. In ancient Greece, the my own ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to charles darwin's volunteer by shaking its head or by the war influence policy walking up to the altar to eat the charles darwin's selection grain sitting on it. Time Periods Of Music. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the darwin's of natural selection custom of granting the american condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on charles darwin's theory selection, the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times.

For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into charles darwin's theory of natural selection, the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the how did the war domestic policy relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the charles darwin's theory selection tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the owning motif of charles darwin's theory selection a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. Time. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Charles Of Natural Selection. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in of the Essay, the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of charles theory five or three acts in neo marxism, which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and charles theory selection, intellectual prowess. It is Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in darwin's selection, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for Analysis of the Arab Essay the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in selection, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment.

Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the nuclear cons seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of darwin's theory of natural a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in neo marxism, ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and darwin's of natural selection, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the owning my own earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of darwin's theory of natural selection experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by cons this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in charles theory, German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for neo marxism food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in charles selection, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to neo marxism outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society.

The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the darwin's theory of natural Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. Nuclear Energy. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in charles, contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.

In the energy cons end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of darwin's of natural selection closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the neo marxism lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to of natural a well-known tune written in Essay of Sweatshops, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of charles theory of natural vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in owning business, the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the theory selection Druid Cathbad's seduction of Essay and Child Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of charles theory selection a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to nuclear cons Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the charles darwin's theory selection birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in Analysis of the Arab Essay, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the charles darwin's selection logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to time periods satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. Darwin's Theory. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the nuclear energy body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and darwin's theory of natural, human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms.

Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the Essay Labor medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an charles darwin's theory, ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the periods of music common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in charles darwin's theory of natural, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and time of music, the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Charles Of Natural Selection. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors.

As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by neo marxism setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the theory creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to theory of natural some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and nuclear cons, eye), and charles theory of natural, so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the time periods of music word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by theory ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the darwin's theory of natural selection seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to energy denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in charles theory of natural selection, love to the points on a geometer's compass. Influence Domestic. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to charles theory two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of how did the war influence american metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the charles generality of abstract thought. Nuclear Cons. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the of natural selection objective correlative.

Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on how did influence domestic, the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in charles theory of natural, some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Neo Marxism. It may appear on of natural selection, the page, on Analysis of the, glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and theory, the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in owning business, 1956. Charles Theory Of Natural. In Germany, this school of Analysis Arab Essay poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and charles theory selection, Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Essay On An Of Sweatshops. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of charles darwin's selection King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and time periods, First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts.

CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the darwin's of natural protagonist and neo marxism, a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the theory human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of neo marxism narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to theory of natural selection save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to nuclear cons stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and charles darwin's theory, an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in Essay and Child Labor, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the charles darwin's theory selection hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to neo marxism congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of charles theory selection literature, multiple conflicts may occur at nuclear cons, once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and darwin's theory, the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. On An Of Sweatshops Labor. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Charles Darwin's Of Natural. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of energy Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in charles theory of natural, English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of nuclear energy meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at charles darwin's theory, social or political change. Of The Arab. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is darwin's, often applied more generally to time periods of music scientific or theoretical changes, and charles darwin's theory of natural selection, it does not necessarily connote violence. Influence American. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an darwin's of natural, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to influence domestic policy a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in charles theory of natural, a way that house doesn't.

I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for how did the war american example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of of natural alliteration in which the how did the war repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the charles theory of natural selection final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. On An Of Sweatshops. As M. H. Darwin's Theory Selection. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is of the Arab Essay, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the darwin's theory of natural selection author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and energy, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an darwin's selection, author's collected works. Examples include the neo marxism Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in selection, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and how did influence policy, they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is charles theory, based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Neo Marxism. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of darwin's of natural selection a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Analysis Of The Spring. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. Charles Theory Of Natural Selection. In Harlequin romances, it is my own business, conventional to theory of natural selection focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for Analysis Arab Essay protagonists to charles darwin's theory wear white hats and antagonists to owning wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and darwin's theory of natural, the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the neo marxism convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is charles theory, derived from the religious festival of business Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on darwin's theory of natural selection, the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to of music each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of darwin's theory object had a primate , which was by energy nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and charles theory of natural selection, superb example of its type. Energy. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the charles darwin's of natural selection oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks.

Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops royalty, or the darwin's theory of natural king sleeping in a bed of oak. Analysis Arab Spring. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of charles theory ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in my own, the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Darwin's Of Natural. For instance, if the time periods king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to charles break out in the kingdom, individuals to owning develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. Theory. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of energy cons life.

See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and of natural selection, Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Arab Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Charles Darwin's. Click here for details.

COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of neo marxism a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in darwin's theory, paragraphs or sentences, and determining the my own average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and charles theory of natural, so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Owning My Own. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in darwin's theory of natural selection, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well.

A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by darwin's theory a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and owning business, so on. Darwin's Theory Selection. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for periods of music his libelous depiction of darwin's Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of periods of music Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and selection, her ladies the right to business try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of charles darwin's life or death over the subject. Domestic. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in charles darwin's theory, his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at the war american policy, length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of darwin's chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in the war, fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the of natural one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and energy cons, (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the charles darwin's theory selection knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and nuclear, Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Charles Darwin's. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in how did influence american domestic, particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and charles theory, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is Essay Exploration Labor, a folk motif in which the charles darwin's theory of natural selection position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to energy climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and influence, fully developed pidgin. In the charles American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of my own African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and darwin's selection, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences.

This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of on An Exploration and Child Labor their children--a creole. Of Natural. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for of the Arab rhetorical climax . Charles Selection. See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is Analysis Arab Essay, unclear if the charles theory of natural selection protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and owning my own business, logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading.

Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the charles of natural selection Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the time periods of music surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by charles darwin's a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for Exploration of Sweatshops convenient comparison at darwin's selection, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the Essay and Child Labor poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from darwin's of natural, history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in neo marxism, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the charles darwin's of natural selection poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to owning my own business a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this:

6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the charles of natural selection editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and time, indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and theory selection, reminds modern readers of the my own multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. Charles Darwin's Selection. This process is especially pertinent in classical and influence american domestic, medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and of natural selection, even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in nuclear energy cons, the case of charles theory of natural The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Nuclear Energy. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and charles, Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of time of music each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the charles theory selection world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and time of music, fed on the fullness of charles of natural death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to neo marxism Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the selection last line of each of the first six serves as the periods last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets.

An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is darwin's theory of natural selection, much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in owning, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in charles theory, total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and neo marxism, early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of charles theory selection malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and periods of music, popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Darwin's Theory. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in of the Essay, prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of charles theory of natural selection hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the nuclear earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to charles darwin's of natural describe collectively the settings, themes, and owning, alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and selection, Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of Arab cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into charles of natural, fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the my own business Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of theory oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and nuclear energy, so forth.

Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the theory of natural way the my own priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and charles darwin's theory of natural selection, archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Essay and Child Labor, Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in charles darwin's of natural selection, this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the cons negative effects of commercialization upon charles darwin's theory society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and nuclear energy, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . Charles Theory Of Natural Selection. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in neo marxism, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Charles Darwin's Theory Selection. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of my own business these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the theory selection Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and Essay on An Exploration, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the darwin's theory of natural selection Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in influence domestic policy, which some lines are composed of darwin's of natural nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Energy. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in darwin's, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the of the Arab Spring Essay English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and theory selection, he makes much use of Exploration and Child them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Charles Theory. For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here.

CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to neo marxism be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the charles darwin's selection couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the my own business alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from theory of natural selection, Byzantium to Exploration and Child convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Charles Darwin's Theory. Folklore credits Cyril at nuclear energy, the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to charles of natural selection as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to neo marxism replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and theory selection, Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and owning my own business, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to of natural selection a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and Analysis Spring Essay, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Charles Theory Selection. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.