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A short course in project management. By Carl Chatfield and Timothy Johnson. Carl Cha tfield is a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) with extensive knowledge of Microsoft Office Project as well as specific usability issues. Of Rational? Timothy Johnson has previously worked as an Office Project support professional for several years. Tim possesses in-depth technical knowledge about the software. Carl and Timothy are the authors of Microsoft Project 2000 Step by Step , Microsoft Project Version 2002 Step by Step and Microsoft Office Project 2003 Step by Step , all from Microsoft Press. What The Cinderella Story Has To Essay? To learn more about other books on Choice Essay the 2007 Microsoft Office system, visit Microsoft Press. In our new book, Microsoft Office Project 2007 Step by Step , we provide advice on how best to use Microsoft Office Project 2007 while following sound project management practices. This article focuses on the basics of project management, regardless of any software tools you may use to help you manage projects. While project management is a broad, complex subject, in this article we focus on cleisthenes definition the “project triangle” model. In this model, you consider projects in terms of time, cost, and scope.
Understand what defines a project. Succeeding as a project manager requires that you complete your projects on time, finish within budget, and make sure your customers are happy with what you deliver. Of Rational? That sounds simple enough, but how many projects have you heard of disease or recessive, (or worked on) that were completed late, cost too much, or didn’t meet the The Perspective Choice Essay, needs of their customers? A Guide to the Project Management Body of What Story Teach Essay, Knowledge (3rd edition, published by Essay the Project Management Institute, 2004) — referred to as the PMBOK and literary, pronounced “pimbok” — defines a project as “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.” Let’s walk through this definition to clarify what a project is and is not. The Perspective Essay? First, a project is literary temporary . A project’s duration might be just one week or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date.
You might not know that end date when the project begins, but it’s out there somewhere in the future. Of Rational Choice? Projects are not the same as ongoing operations, although the is tay-sachs disease or recessive, two have a great deal in common. Ongoing operations , as the name suggests, go on The Perspective of Rational Choice indefinitely; you don’t establish an end date. Examples include most activities of accounting and human resources departments. People who run ongoing operations might also manage projects; for example, a manager of a human resources department for a large organization might plan a college recruiting fair. Yet, projects are distinguished from ongoing operations by an expected end date, such as the date of the recruiting fair. Next, a project is an disease dominant endea vor . Resources , such as people and equipment, need to do work. The endeavor is undertaken by a team or an organization, and therefore projects have a sense of being intentional, planned events. Successful projects do not happen spontaneously; some amount of preparation and planning happens first. Finally, every project creates a unique product or service . This is the deliverable for the project and the reason that the project was undertaken.
A refinery that produces gasoline does not produce a unique product. The whole idea, in this case, is to of Rational Choice, produce a standardized commodity; you typically don’t want to buy gas from one station that is significantly different from gas at Enforce Title another station. On the other hand, commercial airplanes are unique products. Although all Boeing 777 airplanes might look the same to The Perspective of Rational Choice, most of disease dominant, us, each is, in fact, highly customized for the needs of its purchaser. By now, you may realize that much of the work that goes on in the world is project work.
If you schedule, track, or manage any of this work, then congratulations are in order: you are already doing some project management work! Project management has been a recognized profession since about the 1950s, but project management work in some form has been occurring for as long as people have been doing complex work. When the Great Pyramids at Giza in Egypt were built, somebody somewhere was tracking resources, schedules, and specifications in some fashion. The project triangle: view projects in The Perspective of Rational, terms of time, cost, and Enforce Title IX Essays, scope. Of Rational Essay? You can visualize project work in many ways, but our favorite method is what is is blues music sometimes called the project triangle or triangle of triple constraints. This theme has many variations, but the basic concept is of Rational Choice Essay that every project has some element of a time constraint, has some type of budget, and requires some amount of work to cleisthenes, complete. (In other words, it has a defined scope.) The term constraint has a specific meaning in Choice, Project 2007, but here we’re using the more general meaning of a limiting factor. Let’s consider these constraints one at literary a time. Have you ever worked on a project that had a deadline? (Maybe we should ask whether you’ve ever worked on a project that did not have a deadline.) Limited time is the Choice Essay, one constraint of any project with which we are all probably most familiar. We Must? If you’re working on a project right now, ask your team members to name the of Rational Essay, date of the project deadline. They might not know the project budget or the scope of work in great detail, but chances are they all know the project deadline.
The following are examples of cleisthenes definition, time constraints: You are building a house and must finish the The Perspective Choice, roof before the rainy season arrives. We Must Enforce Title IX Essays? You are assembling a large display booth for a trade show that starts in two months. You are developing a new inventory-tracking system that must be tested and running by the start of the next fiscal year. Since we were children, we have been trained to understand time. We carry wristwatches, paper and electronic organizers, and other tools to help us manage time. For many projects that create a product or event, time is the The Perspective of Rational, most important constraint to manage. You might think of cost simply in monetary terms, but project cost has a broader meaning: costs include all of the resources required to carry out the project. Cleisthenes? Costs include the people and equipment that do the work, the materials they use, and all of the other events and issues that require money or someone’s attention in a project. The following are examples of cost constraints: You have signed a fixed-price contract to deliver an inventory-tracking software system to a client. If your costs exceed the The Perspective of Rational, agreed-upon price, your customer might be sympathetic but probably won’t be willing to renegotiate the contract. The president of your organization has directed you to carry out a customer research project using only the staff and equipment in your department.
You have received a $5,000 grant to cleisthenes definition, create a public art installation. You have no other funds. For virtually all projects, cost is ultimately a limiting constraint; few projects could go over budget without eventually requiring corrective action. The Perspective Of Rational Essay? You should consider two aspects of scope : product scope and project scope. Tragedy Literary? Every successful project produces a unique product: a tangible item or service. Customers usually have some expectations about the features and functions of products they consider purchasing.
Product scope describes the Choice Essay, intended quality, features, and situational literary, functions of the product — often in minute detail. Of Rational Choice? Documents that outline this information are sometimes called product specifications. Definition? A service or event usually has some expected features as well. The Perspective Essay? We all have expectations about what we’ll do or see at a party, concert, or sporting event. Project scope , on the other hand, describes the work required to cleisthenes, deliver a product or service with the intended product scope. Project scope is usually measured in tasks and phases. The following are examples of scope constraints: Your organization won a contract to develop an automotive product that has exact requirements — for example, physical dimensions measured to 0.01 mm. This is of Rational Essay a product scope constraint that will influence project scope plans. Tragedy Literary? You are constructing a building on a lot that has a height restriction of The Perspective of Rational Essay, 50 feet.
You can use only internal services to develop part of your product, and those services follow a product development methodology that is cleisthenes different from what you had planned. Product scope and project scope are closely related. The project manager who manages project scope well must also understand product scope or must know how to communicate with those who do. Essay? Time, cost, and scope: manage project constraints. Project management gets most interesting when you must balance the time, cost, and scope constraints of your projects. The project triangle illustrates the process of balancing constraints because the situational irony definition, three sides of the The Perspective Essay, triangle are connected, and changing one side of a triangle affects at least one other side. The following are examples of definition, constraint balance: If the duration (time) of your project schedule decreases, you might need to increase budget (cost) because you must hire more resources to do the same work in The Perspective of Rational Choice, less time. If you cannot increase the budget, you might need to reduce the scope because the resources you have cannot complete all of the planned work in music, less time. If you must decrease a project’s duration, make sure that overall project quality is not unintentionally lowered.
For example, testing and quality control often occur last in a software development project; if project duration is decreased late in of Rational, the project, those tasks might be the tragedy, ones to The Perspective Essay, suffer with cutbacks. Definition? You must weigh the benefits of decreasing the project duration against the potential downside of a deliverable with poorer quality. If the budget (cost) of The Perspective Choice, your project decreases, you might need more time because you cannot pay for as many resources or for resources of the same efficiency. If you cannot increase the time, you might need to reduce project scope because fewer resources cannot complete all of the planned work in the time remaining. If you must decrease a project’s budget, you could look at the grades of material resources for which you had budgeted. For example, did you plan to shoot a film in 35 mm when cheaper digital video would do? A lower-grade material is cleisthenes definition not necessarily a lower-quality material. As long as the of Rational, grade of material is appropriate for the Cinderella, its intended use, it might still be of high quality.
As another example, fast food and gourmet are two grades of The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, restaurant food, but you may find high-quality and low-quality examples of each. You should also look at the costs of the human and equipment resources you have planned to use. Can you hire less experienced people for less money to carry out simpler tasks? Reducing project costs can lead to a poorer-quality deliverable, however. As a project manager, you must consider (or, more likely, communicate to the decision makers) the What Young Girls Essay, benefits versus the of Rational Choice, risks of reducing costs. If your project scope increases, you might need more time or resources (cost) to cleisthenes, complete the The Perspective Essay, additional work.
When project scope increases after the project has started, it’s called scope creep . Changing project scope midway through a project is not necessarily a bad thing; for example, the environment in which your project deliverable will operate may have changed or become clearer since beginning the project. Changing project scope is irony literary definition a bad thing only if the project manager doesn’t recognize and plan for the new requirements — that is, when other constraints (cost, time) are not correspondingly examined and, if necessary, adjusted. The Perspective Choice Essay? Time, cost, and scope are the We Must Enforce Title, three essential elements of any project. To succeed as a project manager, you should know quite a bit about of Rational Choice, how all three of these constraints apply to your projects. Here is our final word about the project triangle model. We Must Title? Like all simple models of complex subjects, this model is a useful learning tool but not always a reflection of the real world. If real projects always performed as the The Perspective, project triangle suggests they should, you might see projects delivered late but at planned cost or with expected scope.
Or, projects might be completed on time and with expected scope but at higher cost. In other words, you’d expect to see at least one element of the project triangle come in as planned. Enforce? But the sad truth is that many projects, even with rigorous project management oversight, are delivered late, over budget, and with far less than expected scope of functionality. You’ve probably participated in a few such projects yourself. As you well know, project management is just plain difficult. Success in project management requires a rare mix of skills and The Perspective of Rational Choice, knowledge about schedule practices and literary definition, tools, as well as skill in the domain or industry in The Perspective Essay, which a project is executed. Title? Manage your projects with Project 2007. The best project management tool in the world can never replace your good judgment.
However, the Choice, right tool can and definition, should help you accomplish the following: Track all of the information you gather about the work, duration, and The Perspective Choice Essay, resource requirements for your project. Visualize your project plan in standard, well-defined formats. Schedule tasks and resources consistently and effectively. Exchange project information with stakeholders over What Story Has to Teach Girls, networks and the Internet using standard file formats. Communicate with resources and other stakeholders while leaving ultimate control in the hands of the project manager.
Armed with the information about project management contained in this article and the rich functionality of Project 2007 discussed in our book, you are off to The Perspective of Rational Choice, a great start with Project 2007.
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HBS Class of 2017 MBA Application Essay, Resume, and App Form. In this post I will be analyzing the optional essay question and key components of the HBS Application for the Class of 2017 as indicated by the optional MBA essay topic: You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores, and what your recommenders have to say about you. The Perspective Choice! What else would you like us to We Must Enforce, know as we consider your candidacy? I did not get this post up in time for R1 as I was too busy working with clients on their HBS R1 applications, but better late than never! SORRY ABOUT THE FORMATTING ISSUES BELOW. I WILL ADDRESS THEM AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. My comprehensive service clients have been admitted to The Perspective Choice, the regular HBS for the Classes of 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2005. Is Tay-sachs Dominant Or Recessive! My clients’ results and testimonials can be found here.
In addition to providing comprehensive application consulting on HBS, I regularly help additional candidates with HBS interview preparation. I have worked with a large number of Choice applicants from Canada, Europe, India, Japan, other parts of Asia, and the United States on HBS application. I think that this range of experience has helped me understand the many possible ways of is tay-sachs dominant or recessive making an The Perspective Essay, effective application to HBS. My best HBS client results were the best ever for the Class of We Must Enforce IX Essays 2016. I had six clients admitted from five different counties. Their backgrounds and essays varied greatly. The Perspective Choice! In fact, one one of them actually contributed his or her essay to The Unofficial Harvard Business School Essay Book, which made me really happy . I can’t tell you which one.
I do highly recommend reading this book because it will give you a really good idea about the range of possible answers and disease dominant, dispel any myths about needing to submit something that is professionally written. I would also recommend the old book that contained HBS admits essays. That collection is still a good read for Essay, understanding how to put together an MBA essay though the specific questions are no longer being asked by HBS. Combined, both books are really great guides for someone looking to see sample successful MBA essays. Beyond those essay books, a piece of absolutely required reading for HBS admissions is Poets Quants’ John Byrne’s interview with Dee Leopold, Managing Director of MBA Admissions and Financial Aid at or recessive, Harvard Business School. If you are looking for one article to give you overall insight into how HBS makes admissions decisions, John Byrne has done an exceptional job of asking Dee Leopold the The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, right questions. I will quote from that interview below. Note: Application related content is taken from the online application. Instructions: Please provide a current resume or CV.
Ideally, this would be about tragedy literary definition 1-2 pages in length, but we’re not going to make a fuss if yours happens to be longer than that.” The resume has always been an important part of any HBS application. You can find a resume template I have linked to on my blog here. That resume template can also simply serve as a checklist for what to include. While many schools prefer a one-page resume, HBS really does not care. Depending on a client’s background, I will recommend 1 or 2 pages.
I think it best to think of a resume as a record of Essay accomplishment. If you have sufficient accomplishments, 2 pages is is tay-sachs disease, fine. Some applicants try to of Rational Choice Essay, a use an MBA student’s recruitment resume format as the is blues, basis for The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, their own resume, but I generally don’t consider this a good idea as such resumes serve a very different purpose. An MBA resume should really designed to focus on you overall, that is your academic, professional, and cleisthenes definition, personal accomplishments and key facts. A recruiting resume is meant for a different kind of audience, recruiters, and of Rational, typically focuses on a much more narrow range of We Must Title information.
When I first start working comprehensively with any client, whether they are applying to HBS or not, I always start with the resume for The Perspective Choice Essay, a couple of reasons: 1. It is a great way for any applicant to summarize the most important information about them and dominant or recessive, their accomplishments. Choice Essay! It sometimes helps applicants actually remind themselves of what they have done. 2. For me, it is disease, a way I learn about a client so that I can better understand their background. One key thing to remember about what you include on your resume: Anything that is there, just like any component of the of Rational Essay, application, may become the basis for a HBS interview question. Therefore if you don’t want to talk about it and don’t need to write about it, leave it off the resume.
While not mentioned in the HBS essay question, there is also an Employment Section of the disease dominant, application that provides space for you to discuss two positions in The Perspective detail including providing brief descriptions of your professional accomplishments and challenges. What Is Blues! To some extent this information will overlap with the resume. This is nothing to of Rational, worry about. That said the is tay-sachs, challenge question in particular is very possibly something you would not be covering in your resume. Stanford has a similar detailed employment section in their application, which they seriously. I assume HBS does as well, so just as with the resume, make sure your answers in the application are as effective as possible. Don’t treat it like some form you do at the last minute. First, keep in mind that a dmissions officers read transcripts and Choice, are trained to know what they are reading. They don’t just look at GPA (If your school calculates it). If there is something really bad on your transcript (a fail, a withdrawal, etc) or odd, you really do want to Enforce, explain it in the additional section or, in some cases, in the essay. If is just a C and Choice Essay, you have no specific excuse, don’t bother trying to explain it.
If your academic performance varied greatly from year to year (or semester to semester), was there a reason for it? Is it one that you want to provide? I don’t recommend discussing how you became depressed after your boy/girl friend broke up with you, but, if, for example, you were taking a major leadership position in a student organization, running a start-up, working a lot to We Must Enforce Title, pay for school, doing major research, or playing a varsity sport, you do have a topic worth discussing. Finally, If neither your transcript, GMAT/GRE, or resume indicate that you have solid quantitative skills, you should explain why you do if you can. The proper place to The Perspective Choice Essay, provide that explanation is in the Cinderella Story Has to Essay the additional section or the essay. Given HBS’ instructions on this, I do highly recommend including your best extracurricular activities with perhaps 2 out of 3 being focused on college/university activities, unless you have some particularly impressive post college/university activities, where I might see including only 1 activity from The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay college/university.
If you have done nothing impressive extracurricular-wise after graduating and have 3 good activities from university, feel free to just use use this section for those activities. If you did nothing but study during college or university and is tay-sachs disease or recessive, really have no activities, hopefully you have three post-college things to include. If you have any activities that are directly relevant to your professional goals or to your personal story and of Rational Choice, you really want to what is blues, emphasize them, use this space accordingly. While I would surely emphasize the most impressive activities in terms of The Perspective Choice Essay leadership or engagement, if you need to focus on definition personal interests that were not group focused (running for example) because you simply don’t anything better, put it here. Activities that show you are well-rounded, civically engaged, artistic, athletic are all possibilities here. Keep in mind that extracurricular activities can (and usually should) also be fully accounted for on The Perspective of Rational Essay the resume and given the fact that you can submit a two-page resume, there is no reason that can’t account for an activity.
Also, if you are not using the cleisthenes, space for anything else, the The Perspective, 500 character additional information section could be used. Instructions: Were you on the Dean’s List? Did your apple pie win a blue ribbon at the state fair? Tell us about tragedy literary it here. List any distinctions, honors, and awards (academic, military, extracurricular, professional, community) in The Perspective Essay order of importance to We Must Title, you (i.e., list the most important first).
You may list up to of Rational Choice Essay, three awards. For some applicants this section is really easy to fill out definition, because they have won a number of awards, distinctions, or honors and just need to prioritize them. Other candidates will freak out about this section because they never won anything that they think fits. While, it is sometimes really the case that I will have perfectly great applicant who has nothing to report in this section, most applicants are actually likely to have something. HBS is not asking you a narrow question here, so think broadly. INTENDED POST-MBA CAREER GOALS. (This is found on of Rational Essay the Employment page of the application) “Intended Post-MBA Career Goals. Briefly tell us more about your career aspirations: Instructions: Please only add additional information here if you need to the Cinderella Girls, clarify any information provided in the other sections of Essay your application. This is tragedy literary definition, not meant to be used as an additional essay.
Please limit your additional information to the space in this section. We’ll know you’ll be tempted, but please don’t send us any additional materials (e.g., additional recommendations, work portfolios). The Perspective Of Rational Choice Essay! To be fair to all applicants, extra materials won’t be considered. Here it is — the moment you’ve been waiting for! Time to do your essay! (If you want to, that is. Believe it or not, the essay is optional.) The essay question is:
You’re applying to Harvard Business School. What The Cinderella Story Has To Teach Girls! We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores, and what your recommenders have to Choice, say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? Use your judgment as to how much to the Cinderella Has to Essay, tell us. We don’t have a “right answer” or “correct length” in mind. The Perspective Of Rational Choice! We review all the definition, elements of your written application to decide who moves forward to the interview stage.
Upload your Word or PDF document below. As far as format goes, use a standard font like Times New Roman or Arial in Choice Essay a size that won’t hurt our (rapidly aging) eyes. No need to repeat the question above unless you want to.” If you read the Harbus essay collection, you will see that applicants handled this essay in a variety of ways last year. Four Ways HBS Evaluates Applicants. My objective when working with each of situational my clients is to help them identify the best content in their essays, resume, interview and other application components to show fit for The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, each school they apply to.
My approach is to understand the Enforce Title IX Essays, audience that is being communicated to because the only objective of The Perspective of Rational Choice your application is to what music, communicate effectively to your audience, the The Perspective, admissions committee. The following summarizes what HBS is looking for cleisthenes, in terms of three stated values (Habit of Leadership, Analytical Aptitude and Appetite, and Choice Essay, Engaged Community Citizenship) plus Diversity and the possible places where you can demonstrate these in situational irony your initial application (Interview and of Rational, post-interview not considered below): These four core ways that HBS evaluates applicants need to be communicated in cleisthenes your application and one or more of them should be used in your essay. In addition to those four elements (which are discussed in of Rational Choice detail below), other possible common topics for inclusion here would be: -Your wider post-MBA career vision that you could not explain in the 500 character answer on the Employment page. Literary! Some applicants will not touch on this topic at all in their essays. -Why you want an MBA in general? Again, some will address this, others will not. The Perspective Of Rational Choice! Since there is no place in the application to indicate this otherwise, it would reasonable to explain your rationale for doing an MBA, whether you state this in Title general and/or terms of HBS in particular is your choice, but my bias is of Rational Essay, certainly for being HBS specific. -Why HBS? I don’t think one has to necessarily write in detail about situational literary why you want to go to HBS, but providing your overall rationale for why you want to go HBS now is The Perspective Essay, certainly reasonable.
If your career vision is something you are writing about and there are particular aspects of HBS that really relate to it, feel free to mention them. For a discussion of career vision, why an MBA? or how to explain why you want to attend a particular program, see my analysis of the cleisthenes, Stanford essays. If you are a reapplying to The Perspective of Rational Essay, HBS, I do recommend addressing that issue either in what is blues music the essay or, if you only need a brief amount of words, in the Additional Information section. If you are reapplicant, please see here. It is usually the case that ones tries to show growth since the The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, last application. Whatever form(s) this growth takes, you might need a brief amount of word count or significant word count. Cleisthenes Definition! Common topics: 1. Changes in career goals since the previous application. Feel free to alter your goals, just explain why.
2. Why you are a better candidate now. This could be everything from of Rational Choice Essay a career change to increased GMAT scores to improved English ability to taking courses to overcome an academic weakness to a valuable extracurricular activity. The mission of HBS is to educate leaders. I have worked with clients from Canada, France, India, Japan, UK, and US who were admitted to HBS. They had a diversity of educational, extracurricular, and What Story Has to, professional backgrounds, but were united by The Perspective of Rational Choice one thing: In one or more aspects of cleisthenes definition their lives, they demonstrated this habit of leadership.
HBS takes a very broad view of what they are looking for: HBS does not explicitly ask you to The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, show your potential for leadership in this essay, but it may very well be something you decide to literary, write about. The Perspective! Leadership is no easy thing. Nor is what, it always obvious. The Perspective Of Rational! If you leadership is what is blues, fully obvious from resume, than perhaps your essay not discuss it, but the of Rational Choice, worst possible thing is to Enforce Title, conceive of leadership as simple formal responsibility or a title because this conveys nothing about the person in that position. While some applicants will have held formal leadership positions, many will not. The Perspective Essay! Formal leadership positions are great to write about We Must if they involve the applicant actually having significant impact, making a difficult decision, being a visionary, showing creativity, or otherwise going beyond their formal responsibility, but the same is true for those showing leadership without having a formal title. If you are having difficulty really understanding leadership, one great place to read about leadership, and business in general, is The Perspective, Harvard Business School Working Knowledge. Also, if you have not done so, I suggest reading relevant essays in 65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays: With Analysis by the Staff of the Harbus, The Harvard Business School Newspaper. Reading these essays should help you to understand the great diversity of topics that are possible and not only in terms of leadership. Some clients I have worked with have never really considered themselves as leaders.
I think it is critical that if you are applying to HBS that you have idea about what kind of leader you are. While there are number of ways to definition, describe leadership, I particularly like this formulation of leadership types that INSEAD Professor Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries has used in one of his Harvard Business Review blog posts (Disclosure I am a student in an INSEAD program that he co-directs): I have previously suggested that applicants who are having difficulty really understanding leadership find out what kind of leader they are by taking this quiz based on The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay Lewin’s classic framework. While leadership is more complicated than Lewin’s framework, the quiz is a great way to get you started thinking about yourself, a key part of answering any leadership essay question effectively. However I think the 8 archetypes above provide a much better guide for What Story Essay, those who both have extensive leadership experience and those who think they lack it. The Perspective Of Rational Choice Essay! Think of these 8 archetypes as aspirational images of certain kinds of leader. You may fit into tragedy literary, more than one category. The Perspective Of Rational Choice! You may find you don’t feel like you are really good at any of the above in comparison to the descriptions above, but that is OK because you are trying to identify your potential even if it seems based on tragedy relatively little “objective evidence.” If leadership is not obvious from your resume or likely to be a topic your recommenders will focus on, you should certainly consider how you show your leadership potential.
I have never worked with anyone who could not demonstrate potential in at least one of the categories above. Some types of leadership experiences that make for effective essays: -A time you convinced someone or some group. -A time you lead others. -A time you demonstrated courage. -A time you made a difficult decision. -A time you were innovative. -A time you formulated and executed a strategy or tactics.
-A time you turned around a situation, overcame an obstacle. -A time reformed something. -A time you changed something. -A time you effectively negotiated with someone. -A time created something. -A time you managed or organized something. -A time you mentored or coached someone. While “Engaged Community Citizenship” might take the of Rational Essay, form of leadership, it is quite distinct: So much of our MBA experience – including the case method, section life, and student-organized events – requires the active collaboration of the We Must Enforce, entire HBS community. That’s why we look for students who exhibit the of Rational, highest ethical standards and literary, respect for others, and can make positive contributions to the MBA Program. The right candidates must be eager to The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, share their experiences, support their colleagues, and is blues, teach as well as learn from their peers.
HBS and other MBA programs are looking for The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, students who will make a contribution. This really makes sense because of the collaborative nature of is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive MBA education. Choice! While professors play an important role in the classroom, students learn from what each other on a continuous basis both inside and outside of class. An MBA education is very much one based on relationship building. Of Rational! One of the chief functions of an MBA admissions committee is to select people who will be good classmates. The director and cleisthenes, the rest of the committee have done their job properly if they have selected students who can work well together, learn from The Perspective each other, and if these students become alumni who value the relationships they initially formed at business school. Given that two of the major takeaways from an HBS education are the relationships that a student forms during the program and irony, access to the alumni network, HBS is looking for candidates who will fully engage with others. Engagement in a community may take many different forms.
Over the of Rational Choice Essay, years, I have found the following types of activities to be very effective for MBA applications: -Volunteer or social activities at situational definition, work, whether it is actually organizing them or participating in them. -Volunteer or social activities at school, whether it is actually organizing them or participating in them. -Volunteer or social activities outside of work or school, whether it is of Rational Choice, actually organizing them or participating in them. -A volunteer activity related to your post-MBA goals. -A volunteer activity that allowed for the development of music leadership and/or teamwork experience.
-A volunteer activity that put you in contact with people who are quite different from you in The Perspective of Rational terms of nationality, income level, and/or educational background. -An international volunteer or social activity. -Active involvement in an alumni organization. -Active participation in a sports team. -Active political involvement (Not just voting or knowledge of politics, but actual activities) -Participation in an orchestra, band or other musical group. -Participation in drama or dance. -Organizing trips or other activities for a group of friends. -Serving as the leader, organizer, or active member of a team-based educational activity such as a seminar, project, or overseas trip.
The above are just some possibilities. Some people will no doubt worry that they lack extracurricular activities to demonstrate such community citizenship, but in my experience there is always some way to demonstrate this. Part of my job is to disease, help my clients identify such activities and communicate about The Perspective them effectively. If you have demonstrated extensive community citizenship in your resume, you may very well not need to write about in the HBS essay, but you might still find that explaining your motivation for such activities is something you want to disease or recessive, convey to HBS. For those with limited objective resume content in this area, if there is an effective way to get some positive aspect of your community citizenship into the essay, do so. HBS is a highly competitive and challenging academic environment. The Perspective! It is not for anyone. “Analytical Aptitude And Appetite,” what can more generally be thought of as academic potential, will be very easy for some candidates to demonstrate without ever writing an essay on the topic.
You must demonstrate your analytical intelligence somewhere in your application. Situational Irony Definition! Yes, a solid GPA and GMAT are enough for The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, that purpose, but if you think your academic record and GMAT are weak, I do suggest demonstrating your high analytical aptitude and appetite in We Must your essay. Also, whether you address your analytical abilities in The Perspective your essay, for most applicants, it would also be very useful to have one or more recommenders discussing this. Some effective ways to is tay-sachs dominant, demonstrate analytical intelligence include the following: -Solving a complex problem at The Perspective of Rational, work, school, or elsewhere. -Discussing the successful completion of complex analytical tasks. -Breaking down a complex problem that you solved and communicating it a very brief and clear way. – Demonstrating great personal insight into ones weaknesses, failures, and/or mistakes. -Showing the ability to learn from weaknesses, failures, and/or mistakes. -Showing the dominant, ability to learn and master something highly complex. -Demonstrating a high level of creativity. Those with truly outstanding academic background and test scores need to The Perspective Choice, likely focus less attention on this area.
If you think you have weaknesses in this area, consider how to definition, use the of Rational Choice, essay to mitigate them. The above list provides some effective ways to do that. This overall intention to create a highly diverse class significantly impacts HBS admissions’ decisions. The critical thing is that you demonstrate why you are unique and how you will add to the diversity of the situational literary definition, class. In your essay you need to show what makes you stand out. Of Rational! Especially if you think your academic, personal, professional, and/or extracurricular experiences are not inherently unique, it is situational definition, very important that your essay demonstrates what makes you stand out. Some ways of Choice Essay demonstrating diversity that my clients have used successfully include the following: -Being the first person or kind of Title person to do something. -Being the youngest person to do do something.
-Making an original contribution to something. -Having an unusual family, academic, personal, or professional background. -Unusual skills or talents. -Extensive international experience. -Receiving prestigious awards or scholarships.
Keep in mind that diversity is The Perspective, a matter of interpretation and presentation and it is What Teach Essay, each applicant’s responsibility to best demonstrate how they will add value to Choice Essay, their classmates. One of literary definition my jobs as a consultant is The Perspective Choice, always help my clients identify ways that make them distinct even if they think they are not special. I operate on the assumption that everyone is unique. So far I have discussed topic selection. I think it is useful to think about the actual structure for an effective essay. When it comes to telling stories, which is situational irony literary, what the two essays for of Rational, HBS require you to do, I think it is most important to situational irony literary definition, think about Choice your audience. You are not writing these essays for yourself, you are writing them to convince your audience.
How to convince them? The following grid connects the parts of an essay (the first column) to three core aspects of writing an effective essay. What Story Teach Girls Essay! The table should help you see the relationship between the components of a story and what I would consider to of Rational Choice Essay, be three major questions to ask about any story. What actions did you take?Action Step 1: The grid above is based on the following assumptions, which I consider to be basic for writing effective essays: Your reader must understand you. HBS emphasizes this in the essay instructions: Just answer the question in clear language that those of us who don’t know your world can understand. Provide a clear interpretation of what you have done. Write in simple language, even about complex things. Assume your reader has a basic business background, but don’t assume any expertise.
Cause-effect relationships should not be merely implied where possible. Showing your actual action steps is critical. Cleisthenes! A full explanation might be impossible because of of Rational Essay word count, but if you tell things in sequence, it usually provides that explanation. You reader must believe you. If your reader is not convinced by your story, you are dead. I am all in favor of telling the the Cinderella Story Young Girls, best version of a story that you can, provided it is also believable. Bad self-marketing is of Rational Choice, frequently based on lies that can be seen through. I have met many admissions officers and while not all of Enforce IX Essays them were brilliant, all the good ones had finely tuned “bullshit detectors.” If your essays have a seemingly tenuous relationship with reality, you are likely to be setting yourself up for a ding. Your reader must be engaged.
If a reader does not become interested in what they reading, there is a problem. Of Rational Choice! The problem may be that the cleisthenes definition, essay is simply generic or it might be the way a story is being told is boring or it maybe a lack of passion in the writing. Whatever the case, it needs fixing. One of my roles as a consultant is to coach my clients on writing essays that will be engaging. You must sell your reader on your high potential for admission. Great essays don’t just need to be believable and interesting, they have to of Rational Choice Essay, be convincing. You are trying to cleisthenes definition, get admissions to take a specific action after they read your file: admit you or invite you for an interview. Thus, essays must convince them to take action, they have to see why you should be admitted. Of Rational Choice! I help my understand how to do this and give very specific advice on how to do so. Your reader should be interpreting your essay the way you intend.
In writing there is what is blues music, always room for The Perspective Choice Essay, misinterpretation. If you have not effectively interpreted yourself, there is always the We Must, possibility that your reader will draw opposite conclusions from what you intended. I help my clients make sure that they understand and The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, correct for all such negative interpretations. My final point is that HBS is looking for tragedy literary definition, people who want to The Perspective Choice, be leaders, not mere managers. They are looking for people who will use their “one precious and wild life” to achieve great things, not those who will be satisfied at Title, being mediocrities.
If you can’t show the potential for that now, when will you?
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Top Ten ARTnews Stories: Exposing the Hidden ‘He’ Back in January 1971, in the first flush of the feminist revolution, ARTnews did a special issue on women’s liberation, women artists, and Essay art history. “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” was the cover story, written by the Cinderella Story Has to Essay Linda Nochlin, a professor of art history at Vassar College who had become interested in feminist studies in the fall of of Rational Choice Essay 1969 (after returning from a Fulbright fellowship in Italy) and had changed the subject of disease or recessive her Vassar seminar to The Perspective of Rational Essay women in art. And the rest, as they say, is history. Radical, counterintuitive, and immensely influential, the essay redefined the issues. One could call it seminal, but even that word now resonates with sexist implications. Nochlin’s premise, like most great ideas, was so simple, so logical, and so obvious that readers could only wonder why no one had ever noticed any of these things before. Yet in its utter simplicity was a wealth of the Cinderella Has to Teach Young Girls Essay complexity, based on wide-ranging research. As Nochlin now says about of Rational Essay writing the essay, “Doors kept opening and opening. It was an internal dialogue.” Unlike the first-generation feminist artists, who tended to take things personally, Nochlin adopted a historical view, exploring the Young myths behind the assumption of what she called “the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural.” She examined the art world’s unacknowledged value system and the intellectual distortions and biases that supported, as she put it, “the hidden ‘he.’” She formulated the crucial questions and showed how they falsified the of Rational Choice Essay issue. Nochlin dismissed the notion of a different kind of greatness for women’s art, as well as a different choice of subject matter: “The question ‘Why have there been no great women artists?’ is simply the cleisthenes definition top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees rei§ues about the nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in of Rational Choice Essay all of this.”
She ripped into the myth of genius (“What if Picasso had been born a girl?”), examined the conditions for producing art in terms of We Must Enforce IX Essays social class (“Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?”), and concluded that art-making occurred within a social structure and a social context. Institutional discrimination against women had consequences, prime among them the historical unavailability of the nude model to women artists. She delved into etiquette books that warned women not to excel at any one thing, examined the role of artist-fathers and artist-mates, and concluded with the example of Rosa Bonheur, whose success far surpassed that of her impoverished drawing-master father. Nochlin had the The Perspective Choice Essay grace not to comment on H. W. Janson’s History of Art , the all-male standard art history textbook of the time, or on the odd fact that while male art students traditionally drew from nude models, the Has to Girls Essay model for female students in Thomas Eakins’s life-drawing classes was a cow. Originally written for an anthology on The Perspective Choice Essay women in sexist society that had been edited by Vivian Gornick but not yet published, Nochlin’s essay caused feminist artists and the larger art world to is tay-sachs or recessive question everything. The Perspective Choice. In the early days of racial, ethnic, and gender awareness, the repercussions spread far and the Cinderella Story Has to Essay wide. The Perspective Of Rational Choice Essay. The essay literally changed the course of art history. ARTnews continued to expand on Nochlin’s famous question. Is Tay-sachs Disease Or Recessive. In October 1980, asking “Where Are the Great Men Artists?” the magazine featured a cover photo of of Rational Choice Essay 20 women and three articles (one of What Story Girls Essay which quoted the late Hannah Wilke: “Where are the great women artists? Judge not lest ye be judged”). The Perspective Choice Essay. The May 1997 issue had another cover with 20 influential women, as well as several articles.
By March 2003 contributing editor Ann Landi could ask, “Who Are the Great Women Artists?” Did Nochlin, who is now at New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts, have any idea of the impact her article would have? “No, I never think about things like that,” she says. “Big surprise: this year it was used on the SATs without attribution. What Story Young. That,” she adds, “is fame.” Kim Levin is an independent art critic and curator. Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? Implications of the Women’s Lib movement for art history and for the contemporary art scene—or, silly questions deserve long answers; followed by eight replies. By Linda Nochlin, as published in ARTnews January 1971. While the recent upsurge of The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the irony definition other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the The Perspective of Rational Essay feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the Enforce IX Essays feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in The Perspective Choice the realm of academic investigation as it is in cleisthenes definition our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and Choice Essay the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to is tay-sachs disease dominant light.
And it is here that the very position of woman as an The Perspective Choice acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the definition hidden “he” as the subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance or a subjective distortion. In the field of art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the art historian, may—and does—prove to The Perspective Choice Essay be inadequate not merely on moral and is blues music ethical grounds, or because it is The Perspective Choice Essay, elitist, but on definition purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and a great deal of history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical nai?vete. At the moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. The Perspective Of Rational Essay. Just as Mill saw male domination as one long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in order to achieve a more adequate and accurate view of historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on definition to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and Choice Essay “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in other fields.
Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of We Must IX Essays chain reaction, expanding not merely to encompass the accepted assumptions of the of Rational single field, but outward to embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and thereby, from the outset, to challenge the assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the IX Essays meaningful questions of our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones. Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to of Rational Choice men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in range and sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to situational create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the The Perspective Essay bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to answer the question as it is put: i.e., to Enforce IX Essays dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and make out a case for The Perspective of Rational Essay them; to is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent on Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to The Perspective Choice engage in the normal activity of the specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on disease dominant or recessive women artists which appeared in The Perspective of Rational the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on What the Cinderella Has to Teach Young Girls such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in The Perspective Choice Essay adding to our knowledge of definition women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to Essay answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.
Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and is tay-sachs dominant asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of “greatness” for The Perspective of Rational Choice women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and is blues music its expressive qualities and based on The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on tragedy literary the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in The Perspective of Rational general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and purposefully articulate women intent on bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of tragedy literary possibility it has so far not occurred. While the The Perspective of Rational Choice members of the Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at cleisthenes Pont-Aven, the Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by Choice certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the is tay-sachs disease dominant styles of Essay women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to tragedy definition link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about Choice Essay Women . 4 No subtle essence of femininity would seem to link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon, Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of definition Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronti«, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anai?s Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag. In every instance, women artists and The Perspective of Rational Choice writers would seem to be closer to cleisthenes other artists and writers of their own period and The Perspective outlook than they are to What Story Has to Teach Young each other. Women artists are more inward-looking, more delicate, and nuanced in their treatment of their medium, it may be asserted. But which of the women artists cited above is more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Vigee-Lebrun?
Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. “femininity”? Certainly, though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestic life, or of children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and Cassatt. In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the The Perspective Essay naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms. Art is We Must Title IX Essays, almost never that, great art never is.
The making of art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to Essay be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on situational canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. That this should be the case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for the same. If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and Choice Essay discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the good fortune to what be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male.
The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and our education—education understood to Choice Essay include everything that happens to music us from the moment we enter this world of The Perspective meaningful symbols, signs and signals. The miracle is, in fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics, or the arts. It is when one rally starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for what music granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. Choice. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and tragedy literary definition then, what purposes such formulations may serve. Of Rational Choice Essay. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the bad conscience of those with power: thus the problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is referred to by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by what music denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and Essay the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of our own present state of affairs as the “Woman Problem.” Now the “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of definition stance or program on the part of the “ problems ” themselves . Of Rational Essay. Thus women and their situation in Young Girls Essay the arts, as in other realms of The Perspective Choice endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of irony literary definition themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to look the facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions. It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in The Perspective Choice Essay the arts, or in cleisthenes any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work: those who feel the The Perspective of Rational Choice urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to disease dominant fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and The Perspective of Rational Essay typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and is tay-sachs disease dominant hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay bow to superior power of one sort or another.
Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on is tay-sachs or recessive the human beings who are part of The Perspective Essay them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural. Disease. The subjection of women to of Rational Essay men being a universal custom, any departure from situational irony definition it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to equality, are reluctant to give up this “natural” order of things in which their advantages are so great; for Choice Essay women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well: thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is simply the top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of definition shaky idees recues about the of Rational nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of tragedy definition human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the social order plays in The Perspective all of this. While the “women problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of women.
Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of what is blues music art in general, as well as the making of Essay great art. Literary Definition. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the rubric of The Perspective of Rational “Great”—an honorific attested to by the number of definition scholarly monographs devoted to of Rational the artist in question—and the Great Artist is, of course, conceived of is blues music as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is thought of The Perspective of Rational Essay as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in the person of the Great Artist. Literary Definition. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the The Perspective Essay dimensions of historical thought seem a model of sophistication. But these assumptions are intrinsic to a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the what music conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the The Perspective province of some other discipline, like sociology. To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and situational irony monograph-producing substructure upon Choice which the literary definition profession of art history is based, and of Rational Essay which has only recently been called into question by a group of what music younger dissidents. Underlying the The Perspective Essay question about We Must Enforce Title IX Essays woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and The Perspective of Rational their creators has, of What Story Has to course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in of Rational Essay antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by Max Buchon in definition his biography of Courbet.
The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to The Perspective Choice set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of what music a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of The Perspective of Rational artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Story Young Girls Essay Goya were all discovered in of Rational Choice similar pastoral circumstances. Definition. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to Essay have manifested itself very early, and What the Cinderella Has to Young Girls Essay independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in literary the margins of The Perspective of Rational Essay their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen. The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the literary definition opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.
Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the The Perspective Choice Essay early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. It is no doubt true, for example, that the literary definition young Picasso passed all the The Perspective Choice Essay examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to tragedy definition the Madrid, Academy of The Perspective of Rational Art at the age of definition 15 in but a single day, a feat of such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of course, art historians are uninterested—or to study in greater detail the role played by Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. The Perspective Essay. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Sei±or Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in is tay-sachs disease a little Pablita? What is stressed in Choice all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is elevated to situational irony definition hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the making of The Perspective of Rational Essay art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. Cleisthenes Definition. The artist, in the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out The Perspective of Rational, sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to what music pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alcoholic, sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value. Yet it is of Rational Choice Essay, this sort of disease or recessive mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to The Perspective Essay social influences, ideas of the times, economic crises and so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the Great Artist as primary, and the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement.
On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the Title IX Essays golden nugget of Choice artistic genius then it would reveal itself. Definition. But it has never revealed itself. Q. E. D. Women do not have the golden nugget of artistic genius. If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Yet, as soon as one leaves behind the world of fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on the actual situations in which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and The Perspective of Rational institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. What The Cinderella Story Has To Essay. One would like to ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at different periods of The Perspective Essay art history, from what castes and disease dominant sub-group. What proportion of painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of major painters and sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in The Perspective related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th And 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from tragedy definition father to The Perspective of Rational son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the is tay-sachs dominant or recessive customary fees for lessons. 8 Despite the The Perspective noteworthy and situational irony literary dramatically satisfying cases of the Choice great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to admit that a large proportion of artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to cleisthenes definition follow in their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. In the rank of major artists, the The Perspective of Rational Choice names of Holbein and literary Direr, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti, and Wyeth as members of The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay artist-fam.
As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and cleisthenes social class is concerned, an interesting paradigm for The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the questions: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at What the Cinderella Has to Teach Young Girls least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into the ranks of the marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. Wile the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to Choice Essay the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in the arts and What the Cinderella Teach Young Girls even develop into respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to social functions, the very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of genius and talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of The Perspective of Rational Essay which the production of great art is a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and talent generally, not merely of artistic genius. Literary Definition. Piaget and others have stressed in their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of Essay a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by step, from infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to What Story Has to Teach the unsophisticated observer.
Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the of Rational Essay notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and tragedy definition as primary to the creation of art.9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and The Perspective Choice superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the total situation of Story Has to Teach Young art making, both in terms of the The Perspective of Rational development of the art maker and in what music the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of The Perspective Essay this social structure, and are mediated and tragedy determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the of Rational divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude. We can now approach our question from What Story Has to Teach Young Essay a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of individual genius or the lack of it, but in the nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the of Rational Choice nude model to aspiring women artists, in cleisthenes definition the period extending from the Renaissance until near the of Rational Choice end of the definition 19th century, a period in which careful and prolonged study of the nude model was essential to the training of every young artist, to The Perspective of Rational the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the dominant or recessive highest category of of Rational art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in cleisthenes the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to The Perspective Choice say, central to the training programs of the academies since their inception late in dominant or recessive the 16th and early in The Perspective of Rational the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of situational definition artists and their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the Choice Essay nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in definition almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and The Perspective Choice after—a state of Title IX Essays affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.”10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at of Rational Essay the Royal Academy in London, and even when they were, after that date, the model had to be “partially draped.”11. A brief survey of representations of like-drawing sessions reveals an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and Vienna; men working from the seated male nude in Boily’s charming painting of the Story Has to Young Essay interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in The Perspective the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of definition young men diligently drawing or painting from The Perspective Essay a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.
The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the time of Seurat and well into Has to Teach Girls, the 20th century, attests to the central importance of this branch of The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay study in the pedagogy and What the Cinderella Has to Girls development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of course, from copying from drawings and engravings, to drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. To be deprived of The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay this ultimate stage of training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the possibility of creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is definition, rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to dissect or even examine the of Rational naked human body. There exist, to Title IX Essays my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in any role but that of the Essay nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in cleisthenes definition the active study and recording of The Perspective naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on tragedy confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is of Rational Choice Essay, embodied in a group portrait of the members of the Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall. Definition. A slightly earlier drawing of of Rational Choice Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in what is blues a group of students working from the male model, but the model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to The Perspective Choice a sense of cleisthenes classical elevation; no doubt such license was considered daring in its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an The Perspective English stereoscopic color view of the We Must Enforce interior of a studio of Choice about 1865, the standing, bearded male model is so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in situational irony the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. A photograph by Thomas Eakins of about 1885 reveals these students modeling from of Rational a cow (bull?
Ox? The nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into his short-lived studio academy in cleisthenes definition the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to be sure—in the company of men. The Perspective Of Rational. Even in this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the what music Russian realist’s pupils, past and The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into the question of the cleisthenes definition availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the The Perspective of Rational institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of We Must Enforce Title IX Essays art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to Choice success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Cinderella Girls the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for women, of The Perspective of Rational course—and for We Must Enforce Title which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of of Rational women artists than any other—that is to say, in terms of their percentage in the total number of artists exhibiting in the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.”12 In the middle of the century, there were only definition, a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only of Rational Choice Essay, 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the Legion of Honor.13 Deprived of encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is Enforce IX Essays, almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the Choice Essay same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to learn the language, can learn to read and write, and is blues music can commit personal experiences to paper in The Perspective Choice Essay the privacy of one’s room. Naturally this oversimplifies the real difficulties and What the Cinderella Story Has to Girls complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to the possibility of the existence of The Perspective Essay Emily Bronte or an Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in What the Cinderella Has to Girls Essay the visual arts.
Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for the most part, both psychically and socially closed to women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate with members of What Teach Girls humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. Essay. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of What the Cinderella Story Girls Essay well-earned dominance and power, was needed by the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in the control and Essay instruction of the numerous students and Title IX Essays assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the Choice image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. Dominant. It is precisely the insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and Choice Essay what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in literary definition any one thing:
It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to women, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to excel in something” is The Perspective Essay, a frequent and, to We Must IX Essays some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is The Perspective Essay, of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one. By the former, she may render herself generally useful; by What Has to Girls Essay the latter, she may dazzle for Essay an hour. By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to excellence in one, she may remain incapable of Title IX Essays every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to Essay the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an Story Has to Young Girls Essay evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. [my italics]14.
Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique, or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and The Perspective of Rational Choice the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the literary mainstay of the The Perspective Choice Essay Feminine Mystique. Such an outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to situational irony definition the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for The Perspective Choice Essay the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares . . . Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain that general cheerfulness which is situational irony definition, a part of social and domestic duty . . . It can also,” she adds, “ be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.”15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in Essay this area in the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in what is blues music the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in The Perspective of Rational their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the tragedy definition family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in The Perspective of Rational Essay which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other.
In literature, as in life, even if the tragedy literary woman’s commitment to art was a serious one, she was expected to drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the The Perspective moment they are born. Even the determined and is blues music successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at The Perspective Essay least partly excused by the fact that she is cleisthenes, a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of of Rational love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in the course of What Young her novel, is content, finally, to Essay let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to What the Cinderella Teach Young doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs. Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’”16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the The Perspective Choice Essay choice for women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is definition, undeniable: one has only to think of of Rational Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh, and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in irony literary definition part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly.
Yet none of them was automatically denied the The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in question happens to situational irony literary definition be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century. Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the of Rational Choice Essay verdict of the pompous proprietor about the worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an what is blues overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the The Perspective Choice Essay Model . Title. The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to the world. It is the charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the The Perspective subject of literary definition Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century.
But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of Choice a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt, or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to the Cinderella Young Girls have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an The Perspective Choice investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of definition artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Of Rational. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for men artists, either, as we have indicated above in tragedy literary the case of artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at The Perspective of Rational Essay least until quite recently. From the legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on cleisthenes definition the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the The Perspective of Rational Choice same breaking of IX Essays traditional bonds and of Rational Choice Essay discarding of time-honored practices that permitted men artists to strike out in cleisthenes directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the of Rational Choice 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well. Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and What the Cinderella Story Has to Girls Barbara Hepworth, for example, recall the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only Choice, gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of Enforce Title rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in of Rational Choice the case of men or vice versa. One thing however is clear: for a woman to opt for situational literary definition a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in The Perspective Essay the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to the socially approved role of wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically.
It is only by situational irony definition adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for their own sake, that women have succeeded, and continue to succeed, in of Rational Choice Essay the world of art. It is We Must, instructive to examine in greater detail one of the Choice most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822–1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon We Must IX Essays its estimation by changes of taste and Choice a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the situational literary definition 19th century and in the history of taste generally. Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the Essay internal and external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. The success of definition Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in of Rational Choice Essay art. We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to situational irony literary become an artist if she was, at the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into The Perspective, her own in the middle of the 19th century, a time in which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to situational the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and of Rational still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and is tay-sachs disease dominant institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the rise of the The Perspective of Rational bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for the rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and never would rest comfortably in Enforce Title IX Essays the middle-class parlor. ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.”17 In mid-century France, as in of Rational Essay 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for artists to attempt to achieve some sort of definition security in a shaky market situation by specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and The Perspective of Rational Choice Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at definition one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to brush in the backgrounds).
Rosa Bonheur’s rise to fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. The Durand-Ruels were among the first dealers to tap the of Rational Choice expanding market in is tay-sachs movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to Choice Essay capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive the time. The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and vigor would be counted as “masculine” in The Perspective of Rational Choice the first half of the 19th century is conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is We Must, somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in The Perspective of Rational Essay her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the is blues music members of the community, and The Perspective of Rational Choice disapproved of the is tay-sachs disease additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to The Perspective of Rational find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior.
“Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to Enforce IX Essays me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and The Perspective of Rational Essay whose independence I will support to my dying day . . .”18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. Enforce. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an The Perspective of Rational Essay even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and never to become the slave of irony definition a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to The Perspective of Rational Essay combine the situational literary definition most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to The Perspective Choice Essay her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to the sacrifice, she maintained.
Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and is blues apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Of Rational Essay. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of is tay-sachs disease or recessive clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the Choice example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of her profession. Is Tay-sachs Disease Or Recessive. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in Choice Essay her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for literary her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of of Rational Essay my curls?” she demanded.20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to wear men’s clothes in the ordinary course of life. If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses.
Indeed, you have to love your art in Enforce Title IX Essays order to live in pools of blood . . . I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs . . . ? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing.21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.”22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to The Perspective of Rational Essay admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors . . . Many times I have congratulated myself for having dared to situational irony literary definition break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere . . .” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.”23. It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and The Perspective Essay incontrovertibly masculine in what her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and the Order of Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to The Perspective Essay justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for What the Cinderella Girls Essay any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of Choice Essay her own conscience. Tragedy Literary. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the note contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to Choice her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.”24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and dominant most innovative work in art.
We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by Choice Essay examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon What Story Teach Young Essay which the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by probing some of the limitations of the discipline of art history itself. Hopefully, by stressing the institutional —i.e. the of Rational Choice public—rather than the individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for the investigation of other areas in the field. By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the Cinderella Has to Young Essay the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of The Perspective of Rational Essay a tiny band of What the Cinderella Story Has to Young Essay successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the The Perspective members of any minority groups. And while great achievement is rare and difficult at best, it is still rarer and What Has to Essay more difficult if, while you work, you must at the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and The Perspective Essay guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an cleisthenes excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay outsiders in What Story that of ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in The Perspective of Rational Choice general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the Enforce Title necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Choice Essay. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women, New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. We Must IX Essays. “Women Artists,” Review of Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91-104.
I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for The Perspective Choice having brought this review to my attention. 3. See, for example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin, L (June), 1968, 153-168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by John Stuart Mill , World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the is tay-sachs emphasis on The Perspective Choice the artist as the nexus of esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and Maurice Z. Shroder, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in music French Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is The Perspective of Rational Essay, revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of irony literary a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. The Perspective Choice. For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of Art, Past and Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. Definition. 96f.
9. The Perspective Of Rational Choice. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from emphasis on the individual genius and his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of Art . Ernst Gombrich and cleisthenes Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation. 10. Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in The Perspective of Rational Naples in 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Definition. Pevsner, op. Essay. cit., p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity as late as about 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later. 12. H. C. and C. A. White, op. cit. , p. 51.
14. What The Cinderella Story Young. Mrs. Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. 35. 16. Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. C. and C. A. Of Rational Choice Essay. White, op. cit., p. 91.
18. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre , Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19. What Music. Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, New York, 1963, p. The Perspective Choice. 158. 20. Story Has To Young Girls. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , p. 166. 21. Of Rational. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on what is blues music its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. 308-309.
24. The Perspective Essay. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. Tragedy Literary. 10012. Of Rational Choice. All rights reserved. Your cart is empty. Picket Fences: Ai Weiwei Protests Oppressive Borders with a Work of Public Art.
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4 CIO Resume Builders to Get Ahead. One of the most important things that you can do is of Rational Choice Essay highlight work or projects that have been done in conjunction with other non-technical/information related business units, explained Paul Peterson, National Talent Resource Manager, Human Resources at Grant Thornton. What Is Blues Music! For example, write 'in conjunction with marketing developed strategy that #133;' or 'co-led finance project to #133;' The goal is to showcase your understanding of the business outside of of Rational Essay, your traditional role. The win is the What the Cinderella Young, difference between mastering a single brush stroke and being able to of Rational Choice, make an entire picture out definition, of the paint of your experience. But how do you show command of the big picture when you've been busy mastering details? Connect the detail dots to paint a broader view for the powers-that-be to The Perspective of Rational Choice, consider. Take, for example, a data governance program: If a CIO can articulate the the Cinderella Story Has to Young, business problems and The Perspective Choice, stakeholders who were served by the program, then the CIO is demonstrating three C-Suite skills: 1) the ability to deliver value from data assets, 2) balancing the definition, needs of of Rational Essay, business units against the overall health of the enterprise, 3) resisting the allure of technology-based partial fixes in situational irony literary definition, favor of a sustainable, systemic solution, said Gwen Thomas, president and The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, founder of What the Cinderella Story Has to, The Data Governance Institute.
Look at your accomplishments with a fresh perspective. Where have you worked with other business units? What was the outcome? How did your technology choices move the company ahead (as opposed to just keeping the lights on)? Find the business result of every decision you made and of Rational, speak to that on your resume. But don't leave your career advancement strictly to situational irony literary, the strength of your resume. Spend time with various business unit heads and learn what their obstacles are.
Offer suggestions. Be helpful. In short, make sure they remember you in a fond light and as a true profit-driven leader rather than as head of a drag-along cost center. These are the people you'll one day need as references and The Perspective of Rational, allies. Further, one of them may move up to a position where they can help you advance too. Board members and cleisthenes definition, recruiters alike know that there are essentially two-types of CIOs: the techie and the visionary.
The techie knows technology inside-out whereas the visionary knows business outside-in. The techie can connect anything by wire or wireless. The visionary connects business units and goals by Choice, way of technology. Disease Or Recessive! Business-driven CIOs are rare and The Perspective Choice Essay, hard to find as most CIOs are individuals who entered the technology field because they are passionate about technology, not business, said Richard Meuris, partner at Nick Pierce Associates in Atlanta. A top-notch CIO will be passionate about reaching revenue, profit and other overall business goals through the use of technology, which is why he looks at resumes with an eye-peeled for a laundry list of business skills and pretty much ignores any CIO resume chock full of technology terms. Another rare talent boards of directors and recruiters look for What the Cinderella Has to Teach Girls, in a potentially promotable CIO is of Rational Choice Essay a well-honed ability to communicate. Too many CIOs are comfortable only what, speaking geek but it's the CIO that can speak confidently to a non-techie group, make persuasive presentations, blog and write well that wins the higher seat. Your resume is your pitch for why you deserve a promotion.
Great attention should be paid to how your resume reads and looks if you want to be a serious contender for that coveted position. It's more than just skills that are crucial to include when a CIO is vying for the C-Suite; it's how those skills are presented, said Adriana Llames, veteran career coach and Choice, author of Career Sudoku: 9 Ways to Win the Job Search Game . First, it's important to consider your resume in all its many forms: as a paper and digital file, a LinkedIn account, descriptors on social media accounts, and the bio on your blog postings. Make sure each contains top keywords and is tay-sachs dominant, shiny details of business acumen. Remember always that the powers-that-be in your own company are reading what you post. If done right, your credentials may earn you an The Perspective of Rational Choice, internal promotion or a lateral move that can aid you on your path to What Story Girls, the C-suite. While it's not impossible to move from a CIO role into a non-IT role within another organization, it is much easier strategically to gain additional experience by moving into Choice new functions internally, within one's current company, said Howard Seidel, partner at Essex Partners, a career advisory firm specializing in literary definition, senior executive and The Perspective of Rational, C-level career management. The traditional resume is still the most important consideration in the final promotion or hiring decision so make sure yours is up-to-date in terms of content and form. Professional recruiters and career coaches say as many as four pages are acceptable but it is the one-pager that gets the most attention.
Decision-makers for C-suite new hires don't like a lot of detail but they want to know what the is tay-sachs dominant or recessive, person has accomplished -- actual results in past positions, which gives them a very good idea as to The Perspective Choice, what the person can accomplish in the new promotion, said Richard Deems, career coach and author of Story Young Girls, thirteen books on The Perspective of Rational Choice, key management issues. Deems said the music, perfect one-pager resume begins with a brief (three to five lines) summary of past results, each beginning with an action word such as increased, reduced, negotiated, developed, reorganized, etc. This is followed by short descriptions of past results either by category: leadership, profit growth and reduced costs; or, categorized by past employment. That is followed by a brief blurb on your education. Lastly is a segment Deems calls the What Others Say section. The Perspective Of Rational! This is three or five -- always an uneven number -- statements that others have said about the person, usually with attribution. Keep all resume forms up-to-date and become as visible as possible both online and off.
But be careful how you go about it, because there is one more thing experts say is absolutely in demand from a C-suite candidate: they want a person who won't rock the boat, said Deems.
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collectivism essay A comparison of theological systems noting the overemphases on continuity or discontinuity in the major theological systems. 1999 by James A. The Perspective Essay? Fowler . All rights reserved. You are free to download this article provided it remains intact without alteration. You are also free to We Must transmit this article and The Perspective quote this article provided that proper citation of disease dominant or recessive authorship is included. Everyone engages in theology. Everyone has a theology. The word theology is derived from two Greek words, theos meaning God, and logos meaning word with extended meanings of reasoning or logic. Theology refers to reasoning about God. Everyone has some reasoning about God, including the atheist who rejects the god he has reasoned about. Christians should not be afraid of theology or have an of Rational Choice aversion towards theology.
Theology is not necessarily overly intellectual or unspiritual. Granted, there has been much theology that has been nothing more than academic exercises in disease or recessive, God-talk, but this does not negate the legitimacy of genuine theological consideration which seeks Biblical documentation and spiritual understanding. In analyzing the theological systems that predominate today, it is important that we remain as objective as possible. We do not want to misrepresent what others believe. We do not want to Choice Essay set up straw men, which any wind-bag could blow down.
We do not want to engage in ballistic brick-throwing and unloving polemics against Christian peoples who hold differing theological opinions. Genuine and sincere Bible-believing Christians subscribe to varying theological systems. Never do we want to write someone off and deny that they are our Christian brother or sister because they organize their belief-system differently that we do, provided they profess that Jesus is the Christ and have received Him by faith. Irony Definition? Christian unity is not uniformity of thought or ideology. We seek a unity of love despite diversity of opinion, understanding, interpretation or theological explanation. Our unity is in Christ, not in theological constructions.
In this study we will be considering the two predominant theological systems in The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, conservative Christian theology today (Covenant theology and the Cinderella Story Teach Essay Dispensational theology), and The Perspective then proposing another theological interpretation (Christocentric theology), that avoids some of the problems presented by the other two. This will necessarily involve some critique of the predominant theological systems and their presuppositions. Questions will be asked about their premises, some of which beg for an answer. We seek not to destroy these theological systems, but to honestly inquire, question and confront. In that these theological systems have innumerable variations among their proponents with subtle nuances of differing interpretation, we must attempt to analyze the over-all system and simplify the issues involved without being so simplistic as to misrepresent. Not an easy task! Covenant theology is also referred to is tay-sachs or recessive as Reformed theology and occasionally as Federal theology. Reformed theology is not equivalent to Reformation theology. In their protestation against the theology of Roman Catholicism, Martin Luther and John Calvin, among others, developed distinctive theological interpretations, so that Lutheran theology and Calvinistic theology both existed prior to The Perspective Essay Reformed or Covenant theology. It was not until the seventeenth century that a systematized theology based upon the idea of what is blues covenant developed.
Samuel Rutherford (1600-1661) from Scotland, and Johannes Cocceius (1603-1669) of Holland, were both instrumental in the establishment of Covenant theology. It became firmly entrenched in Reformed Protestant theology after the Church of Scotland accepted the Westminster Confession in 1647, which incorporated the idea of federal or covenant theology into a creedal statement for the first time. The socio-political climate in of Rational Essay, which these ideas germinated is important. 1 In the seventeenth century, the European societies were breaking free from the old feudalistic system of governance. There was strong emphasis on national sovereignty and on social contracts or covenants to defend national freedom. Societal and is tay-sachs moral law was emphasized to maintain the new social structures. These sociological and cultural factors lent themselves to the development of a corresponding political theology which emphasized law and covenant and The Perspective of Rational sovereignty. Irony Literary Definition? Covenant theology has been conducive to political enmeshment throughout its history, as is evidenced by the contemporary resurgence of theonomy and reconstructionism. Theologians and The Perspective Choice authors identified with Covenant theology include Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), Charles Hodge (1797-1878), Philip Mauro, Albertus Pieters, Oswald Allis, William Cox, Anthony Hoekema, Herman Ridderbos and John Murray, as well as many others.
Covenant theology is closely connected with five-point Calvinistic theology, though not to be equated with such. Some of the prominent features of Covenant theology include (1) the idea of what music a common covenant of grace, (2) emphasize on the singular collective people of God, (3) unity and uniformity of God's people and the Bible. A single, over-all, everlasting covenant of grace is The Perspective of Rational Choice postulated by definition, covenant theology. The mention of an everlasting covenant in Genesis 17:7,13,19 serves as the The Perspective basis for this single, unified covenant, within which a series of subordinate covenants are said to build upon one another so as to culminate in the new covenant. Situational Irony Literary Definition? Even so, the old and new covenants are not viewed as two separate covenants, but only The Perspective Choice Essay as two forms of the literary definition one covenant of grace. The progressive sequence of subordinate covenants includes (1) the covenant of works (Gen. 1,2) in The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, the garden of Eden with the promise of perfect environment, (2) the Adamic covenant (Gen. 3) with the first promise of a Savior, (3) the Noahic covenant (Gen.
6-9) with the promise never to destroy the earth by flood again, (4) the What the Cinderella Young Girls Essay Abrahamic covenant (Gen. 12-35) with the promise of The Perspective multitudinous seed, (5) the Mosaic covenant (Exod. 19-24) with the promise of grace, (6) the Davidic covenant (II Sam. We Must Enforce Title? 7:1-16) with the of Rational Choice Essay promised throne of David, and (7) the New covenant (Heb. 8:8) which fulfills the promise of situational definition Jeremiah 31:31 and God's ultimate purpose for an elect people in covenant relationship with Himself. Does the emphasis on covenant serve to cast God's dealings with man into a legal, judicial, contractual framework? Is God the ultimate legal contractor who keeps adding clauses to the contract?
Does the whole framework of The Perspective Essay legality diminish the dynamic and ontological essence of God's function? Does the covenantal and legal framework lend itself to external behavioral legalism? A second prominent feature of Covenant theology is the focus upon tragedy literary, the people of God. God, the Father, chose a people for Himself; the Son agreed to pay the penalty for their sin; the Holy Spirit agreed to of Rational Essay apply the benefits of the tragedy literary Son's work to the people of God. The Perspective Of Rational Essay? Does this not divide the Godhead into music work assignments? Does God need a people so necessarily as to become contingent on man for such? Does the sociological collectivism of an The Perspective Choice identified people overshadow the individual response to God in faith? Does the application of benefits adequately explain the life and work of Jesus Christ? A third feature of Covenant theology is the unity of all God's people spiritually throughout the covenantal development.
This is also identified and applied as the unity of the literary definition Bible. Does not the unity thesis become a uniformity grid which imposes a singularity of Essay divine function, which effectively puts God into a straight-jacket? When all subsequent covenantal actions of God must incorporate all precedent actions, so that there is an equivalency among all the people of God in every age, is God really free to do something new and unique and novel? Is God unable to change His modus operandi ? When Covenant theology explains the connections of old covenant and new covenant, it is heavily weighted toward a correspondence of theological content throughout all of the history of God's dealings with mankind. Both law and music grace are said to be co-existent within each era or covenantal period. Despite the almost antithetical contrast that Paul draws between law and grace, 2 Covenant theology often attempts to The Perspective of Rational Essay balance these concepts or amalgamate them in such non-biblical phrases as the grace of the law, or the law of grace. Does God talk out of both sides of tragedy literary His mouth at the same time with different emphases? Covenant theology asserts that the gospel has been preached in every covenantal period. Grace has been available to all men with a singular plan of Choice Essay salvation offered to all in every age. God's divine declaration of righteousness, the activities of the Holy Spirit, and is tay-sachs disease dominant the personal regeneration unto spiritual life are attributed to of Rational Essay believers both in the new covenant and in prior times.
All of the so-called divine benefits are regarded as having an literary definition eternality of existence based on God's eternality. Does this not deify God's actions apart from His Being? Emphasizing the eternality of God's activities in the continuity of historical continuum, covenant theology seems to of Rational stereotype God into a commonality of continuous content and action that disallows God from every doing anything different or new. If all subsequent actions are consistent with precedent actions, God is trapped in literary definition, the box of precedency. To sidestep some of these logical contingencies of the covenant theological system, explanation is The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay sometimes given that attempts to show some discorrespondence of what is blues theological content and discontinuity of historical continuum between old and new covenants. It is explained that law took precedence over grace during the Mosaic covenant, but that grace predominates over law in the new covenant, even though law still has its function. The on-going function of the law is explained in the arbitrary categories of moral law, ceremonial law and judicial law. One segment of covenant theology has advocated the contemporary application of God's law in theonomy and reconstructionism, 3 which involves the application of their understanding of God's law as the law of the land in the United States. A sense of discorrespondence and discontinuity is also suggested by covenant theology when they are forced to admit that new covenant Christians experience superior spiritual benefits, or that these benefits take on deeper meaning in the new covenant. Within their emphasis on the people of of Rational Choice Essay God, there is also a discorrespondence and discontinuity in the explanation that the physical application of this designation predominated in the previous covenant periods, but a spiritual application of the people of God predominates in the new covenant period. Over-all, the literary definition presuppositional insistence on a singular and common covenant of grace in Covenant theology leads to an emphasis on a concordance and correlation of covenant peoples, a solidarity and unity of Essay divine activity, which verges on complete identification and equivalence.
The people of God are one collective and corporate unity, albeit with multiple manifestation in old and new covenants, having one common heavenly destiny in what is blues music, the presence of God. The Perspective Of Rational Choice Essay? Israel and the Church are in essence the same entity, the elect people of God. The Church, the ecclesia, the called out people of God, existed all the way back to Adam. The events on Pentecost (Acts 2) comprised but the empowering of the Body of Christ in the new covenant. The kingdom of God, defined by His right to tragedy literary rule, has existed from the beginning of God's dealings with man. What, then, was the purpose of Christ's coming to earth in His redemptive mission? Covenant theology seems to explain that Jesus came to make the final addition to the covenantal progression in order to establish the The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay new covenant manifestation of Israel, the church, the kingdom, wherein the people of God might have right relationship with God. What are the expectations, the hope of covenant theology? When God's people evidence commitment and is blues obedience within the legal and contractual framework of the covenant relationship, then the situation will progress toward the perfection of God's intent for the new covenant community.
Things will get better and better. Most who accept the covenant theological premises arrive at eschatological conclusions which are amillenial or postmillenial. There are premillenial covenant theologians, though, so eschatological persuasions alone are not the basis for determining whether one subscribes to Covenant or Reformed theology. Likewise, there are those who have amillennial or postmillennial eschatological beliefs, but have an Arminian theology, and could never be identified with Covenant theology which is strongly connected with Calvinistic theology. The prominent feature by which Covenant theology is identified is the distinctive idea of a common covenant of grace, and this colors their interpretation of all the Scriptures. The covenant idea was, to some degree, sociologically, politically and culturally derived from the sixteenth and seventeenth century transition from Essay, feudalism. Covenant theology is closely allied with the closed-system theology of irony definition Calvinistic determinism which emphasizes the sovereignty of God in the implementation of His covenants. If one accepts the of Rational Essay ideological premise of a predetermined, unified covenant people, then Covenant theology can be a consistent theological system. Dispensational theology is probably the cleisthenes most popular theological understanding in America at this time, even though it has a more recent origin than Covenant theology. The development of Dispensational theology dates back to the nineteenth century in Britain.
J.N. Darby (1800-1882), an Irish lawyer, sought to explain the The Perspective of Rational Choice uniqueness of the Christians' spiritual condition in Christ. To explain the radical different in Christian benefits from that afforded to peoples in all prior times, Mr. Darby employed the definition division of time into distinct dispensations. Harry Ironside, a later proponent of Dispensational theology, noted that until Mr. J.N. Darby. it (the dispensational idea of a postponed kingdom) is scarcely to be found in a single book or sermon through a period of sixteen hundred years. 4 Darby's novel idea of distinguishing dispensations of The Perspective Essay time became the basis of a new theological system known as Dispensationalism.
As with Covenant theology, it is equally important to explore the socio-political climate in which Dispensational theology emerged. In nineteenth century Britain there existed an abundance of oppressive and depressing sociological conditions, out of is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive which grew an anti-establishment movement of thought against Essay, both governmental and ecclesiastical authority. Historical analyst, George Marsden, has noted that two individuals who were contemporaries of one another both became the catalysts of popular systems of thought. 5 J.N. Darby (1800-1882) and Karl Marx (1818-1883), both reacted to the existing conditions in nineteenth century Britain. Whereas Karl Marx sought to instill a hope of literary liberation from the sociological conditions in an idealistic socio-communalism, J.N. Darby tended to see the condition of the world as hopeless and advocated a heavenly escapism.
This observation of the common sociological breeding ground of Choice Essay Marxism and Dispensationalism does not imply that they share a common ideology, for the systems of is tay-sachs disease or recessive thought are contrasted in almost every way. J.N. Darby became an instrumental leader in the movement which became known as the Plymouth Brethren. This independent religious group was outside of the mainline institutional churches of that day, and they charged the external organized churches as being equivalent to the world system of Satan, caricaturing them as Christendom. Other British Dispensationalists include C.H. Mackintosh, William Kelly and E.W. Bullinger. Darby made at least eight visits to America to promulgate his new interpretations, and they were espoused by of Rational Choice Essay, such American leaders as Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899) and J.H.
Brookes (1830-1897). Other prominent names associated with Dispensational theology in the twentieth century include W.E. Blackstone, L.S. We Must Title? Chafer who founded Dallas Theological Seminary, and C.I. Scofield who popularized Dispensational theology with his explanatory notes in The Scofield Bible. Dispensational theology became entrenched in the Fundamentalist movement of the 1920s and 1930s. More recent Dispensational writers include John E. Walvoord, Hal Lindsey who authored the popular The Late Great Planet Earth, and Charles Ryrie who like Scofield has added explanatory notes in his Ryrie Study Bible.
Dispensational theology is not as closely connected with Calvinistic theology as is Covenant theology. This explains in Essay, part why it so quickly and easily found favor across denominational and theological lines in Teach, America, for of Rational, there were many American Christians who did not appreciate the rigid dogmatism of five-point Calvinism and desired more freedom for diversity, in typical American pluralistic fashion. One could wish that Dispensationalists could have maintained such tolerance for diversity without becoming so dogmatic and exclusivistic about their own theological and eschatological opinions, which led eventually to the Evangelical movement breaking free from the Fundamentalist movement in the 1940s. Dispensational distancing from strict Calvinism allows Pentecostal and Holiness theologies, which are quite Arminian, to be Dispensational in theology as well. Covenant theologians are quick to fault Dispensational theology for not adhering to pure Calvinism, but sometimes unfairly charge all Dispensationalists with being Arminian in their theology. Some of the prominent features of Dispensational theology include (1) distinct dispensations of time, (2) the dichotomy of Israel and the Church, (3) the unconditional covenant of God with Abraham, to be fulfilled physically and literally for the Jewish people in Enforce, the future Davidic/millennial kingdom. Upon these basic presuppositions the system of Dispensational theology is The Perspective constructed. The Dispensationalist divides time into distinct dispensations.
The consistent distinguishing of these periods of time is referred to as rightly dividing the word of truth (a misuse of is blues music II Tim. 2:5 as translated in the KJV). The concept of dispensations is The Perspective Choice Essay taken from the Greek word oikonomia, from which we get the English word economy. Is Tay-sachs Disease? The Greek word meant stewardship, management, administration or arrangement. Of Rational Essay? Based on the less than accurate KJV translation of oikonomia as dispensation in I Cor. 9:17; Eph.
1:10; 3:2; Col. 1:25, the early formulators of Dispensational theology defined a dispensation as a period of time with a test that ends in failure, and tragedy began to divide all history accordingly. A more complete Dispensational definition of a dispensation might be a period of time wherein (1) a distinctive idea of revelation is Essay given by God, (2) a specific test of obedience is given based on that revelation, (3) man fails the test of obedience, (4) God judges man for his disobedience, and then establishes another dispensation. These dispensations do not build upon one another, but are regarded as totally distinct and separate from one another. Dispensationalists are not agreed as to the number of the Cinderella Teach Girls dispensations of time wherein God deals with men in different ways. At least three dispensations are required for the theological system to provide the contrasts necessary; these are the dispensation of law, the dispensation of grace, and the dispensation of the millennial kingdom. The most popular calculation of dispensational time periods is seven. They are usually identified as. (1) The dispensation of The Perspective of Rational Choice innocence (Gen. 1-3), wherein the test was the eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the Cinderella Story Has to Young Girls the failure was the fall of man into sin.
(2) The dispensation of conscience (Gen. 48:14), wherein the test was proper sacrifice and the failure was the continual evil of men's hearts judged by the flood. (3) The dispensation of human government (Gen. 8:1511), wherein the test was governance and compliance with government and the failure was evidenced at the tower of Babel. (4) The dispensation of promise (Gen 12Exod. Essay? 18), wherein the is tay-sachs dominant or recessive test came when God offered the Law to the Israelites, and the failure is alleged to be their abandonment of of Rational Choice a prior grace/faith relationship with God by their rash and foolish acceptance of the Law. (5) The dispensation of Law (Exod. 19Acts 1), the test of which came when Jesus came to earth and is blues offered the Jews the Davidic kingdom which they refused, so God postponed the fulfillment of the kingdom promise. (6) The dispensation of grace (Acts 2Rev. 19), wherein the test is for Christians to live obediently in The Perspective of Rational Choice, grace, but the the Cinderella Has to Teach Girls failure is predicted to be the apostasy of the institutional church. (7) The dispensation of the kingdom (Rev.
20), a thousand year period which will end in final rebellion leading to the judgment of God upon the earth and the inauguration of a new heaven and new earth. Though the Dispensationalist argues for a face-value interpretation of Scripture, one must inquire whether the Greek word oikonomia is legitimately understood as a dispensation of time. Are these dispensational divisions but an arbitrary compartmentalizing of history and Scripture? Is God an economist who has tried six different theories of dealing with man, and has yet to implement one that works? Why does God have to try again and again with Plan A,B,C,D,Etc.? The system of evaluating each dispensation with a test and a failure seems contrived, and the imposition of such is questionable. For example, when God is said to Essay have offered the Israelites the irony literary definition Law, and they are said to have rashly and foolishly abandoned grace to accept the Law, does this make God guilty of entrapment?
Deuteronomy 5:27,28 indicates that God heard the words of the Israelite's acceptance of the Law, and He said, They have done well in all that they have spoken. A second prominent feature of Dispensational theology is the radical dichotomy and disjuncture of Israel and the Church. In an apparent attempt to keep law and grace distinctly separated, Dispensational theology has divided the nation of Israel from any connection with the Church of Jesus Christ, the Body of Christ. They are alleged to be so mutually exclusive as two separate peoples that never the twain shall meet. The Perspective Of Rational Choice? J.N. The Cinderella Story Teach Young Essay? Darby indicated that the Jewish nation is of Rational Choice never to enter into the Church. 6 The physical race of tragedy Jewish people is regarded as God's earthly people while Christians are regarded as God's heavenly people. Dispensational theology indicates that separate promises are given to The Perspective Jews and to Christians, and differing destinies await them.
Why does God have a dual-purpose, dual-plan for His created human beings? Is God a segregationist? Does God engage in racial supremacy, nationalistic favoritism or religious exclusivism? Law and grace can surely be differentiated and separated without reverting to such a radical and tragedy definition permanent disjunction between Israel and the church, between Jews and Christians. Such separationism forces Dispensationalists to misinterpret such verses as he is a Jew who is one inwardly (Rom. 2:29); they are not all Israel who are from Israel (Rom. 9:16); and of Rational Choice Essay He. made both groups one, and broke down the disease dominant barrier of the dividing wall (Eph. 2:14). A third basic presupposition of Dispensational theology is the alleged unconditional covenant with Abraham, to be fulfilled physically and literally for The Perspective of Rational Essay, the Jewish people in the future Davidic/millennial kingdom.
Beginning with the the Cinderella Teach Young Girls Essay promises of God to Abraham in Genesis 12, 15 and of Rational 17, the Dispensationalist argues for a literal fulfillment of these promises for the physical race and nation of the what music Jews. Such fulfillment is alleged to be the epitome of God's intent and of Rational Essay the primary message of the Bible. Charles Ryrie states that the goal of history is the tragedy definition earthly millennium. (which is) the climax of history and the great goal of God's program for the ages. 7 John E. Walvoord further explains that the Abrahamic covenant furnishes the key to The Perspective Choice the entire Old Testament. (and) sets the mold for the entire body of Scripture truth. 8 Does this not appear to be the application of a particular grid over the interpretation of all the Scriptures? Though the Dispensationalist argues for a literalistic hermeneutic for Biblical interpretation, the primary meaning of literal has to do with accordance to the intent of the is blues author and to the literary genre employed, rather than face-value subjectivism that creates a mold for The Perspective Choice, consistent understanding. Dispensationalism often charges those who recognize figurative and metaphorical language in tragedy definition, the Scriptures with spiritualizing the interpretation of the text rather than accepting their literal interpretation. On the other hand, are Dispensationalists secularizing the interpretation of the Scripture texts by demanding physical, racial, national and The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay religious preference for What Story Has to Teach Young, Israel? On what literal basis can it be claimed that God made an unconditional covenant with Abraham? The majority of Dispensationalists are wary of the Choice Essay Calvinistic doctrine of a predeterministic unconditional election, so why are they so willing to accept the predeterministic unconditional covenant with Abraham, with no literal expression of such in Scripture? Dispensational theology varies from Covenant theology particularly in its emphasis on the discorrespondence of theological content and discontinuity of historical continuum in music, the explanation of connectivity between old and new covenants.
Every dispensational time-period is disconnected and Choice distinct from all others. Situational Literary Definition? The complete separation of The Perspective Choice Essay Israel and the church, of Jews and Christians, necessitates this discorrespondence and discontinuity, particularly between the dispensation of Law and the dispensation of grace. According to Has to Teach Young Dispensational theology, Israel constitutes God's earthly people and Christians are God's heavenly people. The earthly people of Israel received a literal promise from God in the unconditional covenant to Abraham. God only makes covenants with the of Rational Choice Jews, and He had promised the is blues music Jews that He would establish the Davidic Kingdom on earth. Jesus came to earth for just that purpose, to establish the earthly Davidic Kingdom for The Perspective, the Jews, but they rejected Him. God therefore postponed the re-implementation of the Kingdom until Jesus comes again to set up the definition millennial kingdom, which will be the fulfillment of the new covenant promised to the Jews. The period of the postponed kingdom, the dispensation of grace, is a parenthetical time period wherein God's primary purpose is interrupted and held in abeyance.
The Church is Choice not to be identified with God's kingdom and was unforeseen by all of the Old Testament prophets whose prophesies never refer to the Church age. The Church, which is primarily for Gentiles, began on Pentecost, and there are many mysteries concerning God's revelation of Himself in Jesus Christ so as to situational definition call out a heavenly people whose destiny is to be seated with Christ on The Perspective the throne in the New Jerusalem of heaven. Meanwhile the primary futuristic focus is on the return of Jesus Christ to re-establish the realm of the is tay-sachs disease or recessive earthly Davidic Kingdom in Palestine during the 1000 year millennial period which fulfills the promised new covenant, the The Perspective Choice Essay dispensation of the kingdom. (Some Dispensationalists will allow that the tragedy definition new covenant may have a double application: a spiritual application for The Perspective of Rational, the church and a physical application for Israel.) The return of Christ is imminent, expected at any moment. It will be preceded by the rapture in order to remove the Church and What Story Teach Essay keep Israel and the Church separated. Dispensational theology is necessarily premillennial, but that does not mean that all premillennialists subscribe to Dispensational theology. There are covenant theologians who believe in a premillennial return of Choice Christ. The definitive disparity between Israel and the Church is foundational to the theological discorrespondence and historical discontinuity of Dispensational theology. Their affinity for espousing divine privileges for Israel has earned for them the tag of Christian Zionism.
Is God a race-specific respecter of persons (Acts 10:34-KJV) who engages in partiality? Does the so-called Jewish Kingdom promise refer to a realm of rule in Palestine, or does it refer to the reign of Christ as King in the lives of Christian peoples? How can it be said that the purpose of Christ's coming was to establish the earthly Davidic kingdom for the Jews, which they then rejected, when Jesus clearly indicates that He came to give His life a ransom for many (Jew and Gentile) in Matthew 20:28, and that we might have life (John 10:10)? Can the death of Jesus Christ and the spiritual indwelling of His life in Christians legitimately be understood within an unforeseen parenthesis theory, a secondary Plan B, until God can get on with His foremost objective for the Jews? Paul wrote the Colossians indicating that Christians have been transferred to the kingdom (Col. 1:13) of Jesus Christ, so why is the kingdom forestalled until the alleged future millennium in Dispensational theology? The writer of Hebrews certainly does not seem to Enforce postpone the new covenant to a future millennium (Heb. 8:8,13; 10:16; 12:24). The imminent return of Christ has been the speculation of many Christians through the centuries, but the words of The Perspective Scripture seem to imply only an impending return, the time of which no man knows. The diverse time-dispensations of Dispensational theology allow for the theological discorrespondence and We Must Enforce Title historical discontinuity between those dispensations. Essay? The acceptance of the basic presuppositions of the dominant Dispensational time distinctions and The Perspective of Rational Essay the dichotomy of disease Israel and the Church creates a framework to consistently divide the word of truth into the theological subdivisions of this particular system of thinking.
One should always seriously explore the presuppositions of a theological system to determine whether they provide a suitable and accurate foundation on which to build all further analysis and interpretation. Christocentric theology is of Rational not a well-defined system of theological thought as are Covenant theology and Dispensational theology. It is the label being recommended in this study for a theological understanding that differs from the two previously mentioned. Covenant Theology and Dispensational theology are often viewed as the tragedy definition only two valid theological alternatives. If one does not agree with the premises of Covenant theology he is often accused of being a Dispensationalist.
And vice versa, if one does not agree with the premises of Dispensational theology, he is often accused of being an adherent of Covenant theology. I have been accused of both at one time or another. Covenant theology and Dispensational theology often view themselves as opponents at opposite extremes of the theological spectrum, shooting arrows across a great theological chasm. There is indeed a great diversity of opinion, as we have tried to delineate, but from another perspective they are both camped in The Perspective Choice, the same ditch. That ditch is the epistemological ditch where man-made ideological and theological systems are debated and developed.
The idea of common covenant and the idea of diverse dispensations are both thrust forth as the honed sword of the Lord. Perhaps they have both missed the central emphasis of the cleisthenes gospel. Both Covenant theology and Dispensational theology have well-documented socio-political and cultural backgrounds which may have provided the milieu for natural ideological formation. These historical breeding grounds must be taken into account when evaluating the formulation of The Perspective of Rational these respective theological systems. Both of these theological systems tend to commence from a theological starting-point that emphasizes the is tay-sachs disease dominant or recessive will of God, His decrees and His plan, rather than the personal character of God. The Perspective Essay? The emphasis on a divine plan lends itself to an attempted systematization of understanding the plan, which soon becomes an ideological grid that is imposed upon all ensuing interpretation of Scripture and theology. The covenant idea and the dispensation idea are both applied in this manner, and definition thus appear to be quite logically consistent if one has accepted their initial ideological presuppositions and The Perspective premises. Dispensational theology begins its application of presuppositions in Genesis 12-17 with the Enforce Title expectation of a literal and physical fulfillment of an unconditional covenant with Abraham. Covenant theology also focuses the application of its presuppositions on the everlasting covenant of God with Abraham in Genesis 17. Isn't it interesting that both theologies seem to commence with epistemological premises about the fulfillment of promises to Abraham? Should not our theology commence with divine activity prior to Abraham?
The static, traditional theological terminology employed by both of these theological systems creates a situation wherein they both engage in The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay, meaningless semantic sparring. Theologians from both camps keep referring to situational irony the benefits derived from the Person and work of Jesus Christ, and how various theological categories are applied to Christians. The detachment of grace, salvation, righteousness, the Holy Spirit, the Church, the gospel, etc. The Perspective Choice Essay? from the dynamic life and ontic Being of the risen and living Lord Jesus, leaves but a dead and static theological system to be argued as an ideology and revered in idolatry. Herein is the major difference in the Christocentric understanding which I propose. Theological benefits are not to be our focus, but the very Being of tragedy Jesus Christ. It would probably be quite presumptuous to assert that the historical background for this theological interpretation goes all the way back to The Perspective of Rational Essay the first century, for all theologies would want to is tay-sachs disease dominant assert that theirs was the original interpretation. Still, I assert that the of Rational Choice center-point of all history and the focus of all the Scriptures is in Jesus Christ. Likewise, it will not serve any purpose to claim that we are proposing a Biblical theology, as every variety of literary Christian theology claims that their system is in accord with the The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay Bible, as they interpret it.
Important features of Christocentric theology will include the definition premises that (1) Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of Messianic promises in the Old Testament, (2) All of God's redemptive and salvific actions are centered in and expressive of the Person and work of Jesus Christ, and (3) God continues to act in grace as the The Perspective of Rational Choice dynamic life of the risen Lord Jesus is lived out in Christians. The Bible does not commence with Abrahamic promises. Tragedy? The Bible does not begin at Genesis 12 or 17. Neither should our theological explanation. The Perspective Essay? Immediately after the fall of man into sin, recorded in Genesis 3:1-7, God began to Title make promises of the Messiah He would send to remedy the death consequences of Choice Essay man's sin and restore the tragedy literary spiritual presence of God in man. Of Rational Choice Essay? The first Messianic promise is found in Genesis 3:15 when God promised that the seed of the woman would crush the head of the serpent. Messianic promises precede and supersede Abrahamic promises! Messianic promises are universal in their application and spiritual in their fulfillment, rather than racially, nationally or religiously exclusive in physical, militaristic and geographic fulfillment. Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the Messianic promises of the Old Testament, including those given to Abraham in Genesis 12, 15 and 17. The Old Testament believers, including Abraham, died in faith, without receiving the promises (Heb. 11:13,39), but for cleisthenes definition, new covenant Christians as many as may be the promises of of Rational Choice God, in Jesus Christ they are Yes, affirmed and fulfilled (II Cor.
1:20). Jesus Christ is the what music central key to understanding all of God's promises, all of The Perspective God's dealing with man, and all of the Biblical record. The division of the Scriptures between Old Testament and New Testament, meaning old covenant and new covenant, with the dividing point being the incarnation and redemptive mission of the Messiah, evidences the centrality of the Story Teach Essay Person and work of Jesus Christ. The calculation of history in the calendar of the Western world which separates the era of B.C. and the era of A.D. is based on the center-point of history in Jesus Christ. What further dividing of time or the The Perspective of Rational Essay Book needs to be made? None! Jesus Christ is the fulfillment of the promises, the prophecies, and the types of the Old Testament. He is the Messiah. He is the Savior. He is God! All of the what creative, redemptive and salvific activities of God center in of Rational Essay, and are expressive of the Person and work of Jesus Christ.
Christological and soteriological considerations should be major theological concerns rather than covenantal contracts or dispensational division. Our theology should be Christocentric. Christianity is not just a study of the historical foundation or the theological formulations of a particular religious phenomena. God in Christ continues to function in literary, grace as the The Perspective dynamic life of the risen Lord Jesus is literary lived out in Christians who have received Jesus Christ to live in them by faith. Christianity is not a belief-system of epistemological categories. Christianity is not a morality-system of ethical conformity to behavioral regulations or ecclesiastical recommendations. Christianity is not a book-religion for educational acquisition of divine knowledge. Essay? Christianity is What the Cinderella Story Has to Essay life the ontological reality of the life and Being of Jesus Christ in the Christian.
Christ in Choice Essay, you the hope of glory (Col. 1:27); Christ is what music our life (Col. 3:4); Christ lives in The Perspective of Rational, me (Gal. 2:20); For me to disease or recessive live is Christ (Phil. 1:21). God has not offered us some salvific benefits because of The Perspective of Rational Christ's sacrifice, or some spiritual commodities which we can acquire, possess and cleisthenes definition apply, and which will suffice to The Perspective Choice assure us of our heavenly destiny. God has made Himself available to us in We Must, Jesus Christ so that by Christ in the Christian, deity might once again indwell humanity to be the basis of our spiritual identity and the activation of our behavioral expression by His grace in order to exhibit His character unto His glory, the purpose of our creation in the first place (Isa. Of Rational Essay? 43:7). Christianity is the the Cinderella Story Young Girls Essay dynamic of the life of the risen Lord Jesus Christ His Being in action. Nothing must be allowed to dominate our theological considerations that would detract from the centrality of Jesus Christ!
If the of Rational Essay major difference between Covenant theology and Dispensational theology is their theological correspondence or discorrespondence and historical continuity or discontinuity (as has been the format of our comparison), how then do we evaluate these differences and apply those categories within a Christocentric interpretation? Christocentric evaluation concludes that the continuity/correspondence premises of Covenant theology do not have adequate documentation in Scripture. Where is the mention of the common covenant of grace that is to dominant be maintained throughout all of history and the Biblical record? On what basis are we to posit a singular people of God, to be equated with the kingdom of God and the Church in all ages? How can the unity and uniformity of these elect covenant people be regarded as the unity of the Choice Essay Bible? This author is not convinced of the validity of the continuity/correspondence presuppositions of Covenant theology, and the subsequent usage of such as the central interpretive feature of their theology. Christocentric evaluation also concludes that the discontinuity/discorrespondence premises of Dispensational theology do not have adequate documentation in Scripture. Does the Greek word oikonomia properly imply distinct dispensations of time into which all the definition history of God's dealings with mankind can be divided? Is there a legitimate literal basis for understanding that God gave an The Perspective Choice unconditional covenant to Abraham, which is yet to be fulfilled? Does the We Must Title fulfillment of such a promise demand such a dichotomy between Israel and the Church that the separation and of Rational segregation of the two constitutes rightly dividing the word of truth?
This author is not convinced of the validity of the discontinuity/discorrespondence presuppositions of Dispensational theology, and the subsequent usage of such as the definition central interpretive feature of their theology. Instead, the central interpretive feature of Christian theology should be the Choice centrality of Jesus Christ, who God foreknew before the foundation of the world would be the Messiah, the Savior of man's sin, the restoration of the What the Cinderella Young Essay spiritual life of the Lord to the spirits of mankind in order that they might function as God intended. There is no need for a covenant grid or a dispensation grid in order to understand the history and intent of God's dealings with mankind. The Person and work of Jesus Christ provides sufficient perspective and explanation for all interpretation of the Scriptures and Choice subsequent development of Christian theology. The Christocentric emphasis recognizes both historical continuity and discontinuity, as well as theological correspondence and discorrespondence.
There is an obvious historical continuity from God's dealing with the physical nation of Israel to the incarnation of His Son, Jesus Christ, born under the Law (Gal. 4:4), as a Jew (John 4:9), identified with Abraham (Matt. 1:1) Jesus was well aware, though, even during His redemptive mission on earth, that the connection with the physical people of the Jews was to be expanded to include peoples of situational irony literary definition all races in the world of mankind. God's choosing of the Israelite people in the Old Testament was to serve as a preliminary and pictorial pre-figuring of the universal people of God in the new covenant. The race-specific nation of Israel was to be a pointer toward the spiritual new Israel of of Rational Essay new covenant Christianity, wherein racial generation would no longer be a criterion (Rom. 2:29; 9:6; 11:26; Gal. 6:16). Is Blues Music? Christians in the Church of Jesus Christ would become the people of God (Titus 2:14; I Peter 2:9), citizens of God's spiritual kingdom (Eph. 2:19; Col. The Perspective Of Rational Essay? 1:13). The historical foundation of God's dealing with the Israelites in the Old Testament is essential for Christian understanding.
Otherwise Christianity is suspended in mythical and mystical subjectivism. We must not repudiate the historical continuity between the Old and New Testament. Likewise, we must maintain an awareness of theological correspondence. The one God who is the Creator of all things, who is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, is the God who so loved the world that He gave His son (John 3:16) and was incarnated in situational irony, Jesus (John 1:1,14) in The Perspective, order to become our Savior and our life. A singular divine objective is evident throughout God's dealings with man. God desires to see His character manifested by irony definition, His grace in human behavior unto His glory, and this can only be accomplished by the personal, expressive Word (John 1:1,14) of Jesus Christ making God's image (Gen. 1:26,27; II Cor.
4:4; Col. 1:15) visible through man. In His pre-awareness of man's fall into sin, God knew that He would remedy the death consequences of sin for man on the cross by the vicarious death of His Son as Savior, and restore His life to man by the resurrection of Jesus and the Pentecostal outpouring of the Holy Spirit. Prior to the historical enactment of The Perspective Choice Essay such, God in definition, His infinite wisdom saw fit to reveal to mankind the seriousness of the death consequences of sin and the inability of man to function as intended without the indwelling of God in the man. So the Old Testament period became a temporary and preliminary time wherein God allowed Israel to be a physical pattern and example (I Cor. 10:6,10) of the spiritual reality that He would provide in of Rational Essay, His Son, Jesus Christ, in the fullness of time (Gal. 4:4).
Historical continuity and theological correspondence cannot be denied. On the other hand, we must observe an historical discontinuity also. Time has progressed through many centuries of human history. The space/time context of human understanding allows us to observe that God acted in ages past in ways that were preliminary to His actions in future ages. This does not impinge upon the immutability of God, for though He is unchangeable in His character, the same yesterday, today and forever, His subsequent actions are not contingent upon His precedent actions. God can change His modus operandi, in the midst of which His actions will always be consistent with His character. Discontinuity is evident in what music, the time terms employed to contrast an old covenant with a new covenant, particularly by The Perspective of Rational Choice, the writer of Hebrews. That the terms and conditions of the old covenant have been superseded by the new covenant (Heb. 8:13), implies discontinuity. Theological discorrespondence is what also evident in such discontinuity. Choice? Though God's covenantal dealings with man are always conditional since God created man with a freedom of choice to respond to God in personal relationship, rather than mechanical manipulation, the theological realities referred to in those differing covenants are not always equivalent.
God must not be stereotyped into exact and identical activity. Story Has To Young Girls? The character of god's graciousness and The Perspective Essay favor is expressed in the Old Testament by the Hebrew word hen, but grace was realized in Jesus Christ (John 1:17) in the new covenant. Title? Old Testament believers believed and trusted in God, but they died in of Rational Choice, faith, not receiving the promises (Heb. 11:13,39), whereas Christians receive Christ (John 1:12), the Spirit (Gal. 3:2) by receptive faith. The continuity and correspondence is also explained since we become Abraham's offspring by such faith (Rom. 4:12-17; Gal. 3:8).
The Jewish peoples were saved from circumstances in IX Essays, physical deliverance (I Peter 3:20), while Christians are made safe from satanic misuse of humanity in order to function as God intended by the indwelling presence of God in Christ. Abraham and other Old Testament persons were reckoned as righteous (Rom. 4:3,9,22; Gal. 3:6) by their right responses to of Rational Essay God, but Christians become the righteousness of God in Christ (II Cor. 5:21) as Christ is our righteousness (I Cor. 1:30). There is an undeniable theological discorrespondence from Old Testament to New Testament. It might be noted that some of the Christocentric interpretations that are being proposed appear to be similar to literary definition positions advocated by Covenant theology and Dispensational theology. The discontinuity and discorrespondence between Judaism and Christianity, for example, has some similarities with Dispensational theology, but the conclusions are arrived at apart from the presuppositions of Dispensationalism.
On the other hand, recognizing that Christians are the people of God, the new Israel, has similarities to the tenets of The Perspective Choice Essay Covenant theology, but the Christocentric emphasis does not incorporate the continuity/correspondence presuppositions of Covenant theology. The one central phenomenon that sorts out all of the continuity and discontinuity of the history of God and man, and the correspondence and is blues music discorrespondence of theological content, is the The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay Person and work of Jesus Christ. Cleisthenes? Christocentric theology refocuses all interpretation on the action of God in The Perspective Choice Essay, Jesus Christ. The focus of Christian theology is not to be on legal covenants, sociological peoples, historical dispensations or racial nations, but on We Must Enforce Jesus Christ, and that not only The Perspective of Rational Choice Essay as an historical figure or as a theological formulation, but on disease dominant or recessive the personal indwelling of The Perspective of Rational Choice His life and Being in Christians. The primary objective of God in dealing with fallen mankind is not to develop an elect people or to develop a kingdom for disease dominant or recessive, Israel, but to restore the divine presence in man by the indwelling of Christ in the Christian, and that in order to allow God to be glorified by the expression of His all-glorious character within the behavior of man. The natural tendency of man is to attempt to slant explanations and The Perspective interpretations to his own way of thinking, to promote the presuppositions he has espoused and the preferences that serve his own purposes. The self-orientation of man creeps into his theological considerations. Situational Literary? Christians today need to be discerning so they can recognize the man-made grids of interpretation that color and taint and bias so much of of Rational Christian instruction today. Surely we do not want to literary be blind followers who have failed to develop our own reasoning about God in accord with inspired Scripture?
Paul prayed for the Philippians Christians that their love might abound more and more in real knowledge and all discernment, so that they might approve the things that are excellent. (Phil. Of Rational? 2:9,10). Such would be my prayer for Christians today. It is not the intent of this study to propose another theological system in competition with any others. The world of sinful mankind does not need another system; they need the Savior, Jesus Christ. The solution to the problems of fallen mankind are not in the compilation of logical truths, but in definition, the receiving of the One who is the Living Truth (John 14:6) Jesus Christ. The Perspective Choice Essay? Thus it is proposed that our reasoning about God, our theology, should be Christocentric. As Christian peoples in different places and at disease, different times have different reasonings, it is important to reiterate again that theological understanding and concurrence should not be a test of fellowship among Christian peoples. We must not revere theological systems. The systematization of ideologies into well-defined theologies produces additional isms which capture men's imaginations and cause them to interpret Scripture and The Perspective Choice their relationship with God through a colored lens, an imperfect grid.
Ideological reasonings must not become idolatrous objects of reverence. Theological constructions must not become deified as gods to be worshipped and defended with vitriolic vehemency. Those who have received the risen and definition living Lord Jesus Christ by faith can and must remain one in the unity of love despite different theological reasonings. This can be accomplished by allowing Jesus Christ to be the center of our thinking, our theology and our lives. 1 Torrance, J.B., Scottish Journal of of Rational Essay Theology, Vol.
34, pgs 225- 243, Article entitled The Covenant Concept in Scottish Theology and Politics and its Legacy. 2 Cf. Romans 4:4-16; 5:20,21; 6:14,15; 11:6; Gal. What? 2:21; 5:4. 3 Authors advocating this application of The Perspective of Rational Essay law include Greg Bahnsen, Kenneth Gentry, Gary North and R.J. Rushdoony. 4 Ironside, Harry, The Mysteries of God. New York: Loizeaux Brothers.
1908. pgs. 50,51. 5 Marsden, George M., Fundamentalism and American Culture. New York: Oxford. 1982. Girls? pg. 64. 6 Darby, J.N., The Hopes of the Church of God. London. p. 109. 7 Ryrie, Charles, Dispensationalism Today. The Perspective? Chicago: 1965. pgs. Is Tay-sachs Disease Or Recessive? 18, 104.
8 Walvoord, John F., Bibliotheca Sacra. 1951. Article entitled, The Abrahamic Covenant and Premillennialism. pg. The Perspective Of Rational Essay? 414. Additional books worthy of study on this subject: Belcher, Richard P., A Comparison of Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology. Southbridge, Mass.: Crowne Publications. 1986. Fuller, Daniel P., Gospel and Law: Contrast or Continuum? The Hermeneutics of Dispensationalism and Covenant Theology.
Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. 1980.