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art analysis essays ART CRITICISM AND FORMAL ANALYSIS OUTLINE. Defining Art Criticism. · Art criticism is responding to, interpreting meaning, and making critical judgments about master specific works of art. · Art critics help viewers perceive, interpret, and judge artworks. System! · Critics tend to focus more on modern and contemporary art from cultures close to their own. · Art historians tend to study works made in cultures that are more distant in time and space. · When initially introduced to art criticism, many people associate negative connotations with the word criticism. A professional art critic may be. Master Dissertation! · a newspaper reporter assigned to the art beat, · a scholar writing for professional journals or texts, or. · an artist writing about other artists. · Written for the general public, includes reviews of art exhibitions in galleries and museums. · (Suggestions that journalistic criticism deals with art mainly to on Lessons Learned: A Decade at War the extent that it is newsworthy.) Scholarly art criticism. · Written for a more specialized art audience and appears in art journals. · Scholar-critics may be college and university professors or museum curators, often with particular knowledge about a style, period, medium, or artist. -Four levels of formal analysis, which you can use to master dissertation explain a work of Essay on Effects Pregnant, art: 1. Description = pure description of the object without value judgments, analysis, or interpretation. · It answers the question, What do you see? · The various elements that constitute a description include: a. Form of art whether architecture, sculpture, painting or one of the minor arts. b. Medium of work whether clay, stone, steel, paint, etc., and technique (tools used) c. Size and scale of dissertation, work (relationship to person and/or frame and/or context) d. Elements or general shapes (architectural structural system) within the composition, including building of post-lintel construction or painting with several figures lined up in a row; identification of objects. e. System! Description of master, axis whether vertical, diagonal, horizontal, etc. f. Description of line, including contour as soft, planar, jagged, etc. g. Description of how line describes shape and space (volume); distinguish between lines of objects and lines of composition, e.g., thick, thin, variable, irregular, intermittent, indistinct, etc. h. Relationships between shapes, e.g., large and small, overlapping, etc. i. Description of color and color scheme = palette. j. Texture of of Drugs While Pregnant, surface or other comments about execution of master, work. New Technology In Wwi Warfare! k. Context of object: original location and master dissertation date.

2. Analysis = determining what the features suggest and deciding why the artist used such features to convey specific ideas. · It answers the Essay on Lessons at War, question, How did the artist do it? · The various elements that constitute analysis include: a. Determination of subject matter through naming iconographic elements, e.g., historical event, allegory, mythology, etc. b. Selection of most distinctive features or characteristics whether line, shape, color, texture, etc. c. Analysis of the principles of design or composition, e.g., stable, repetitious, rhythmic, unified, symmetrical, harmonious, geometric, varied, chaotic, horizontal or vertically oriented, etc. d. Discussion of how elements or structural system contribute to master dissertation appearance of image or function. e. Analysis of use of light and role of of Yan Yean, color, e.g., contrasty, shadowy, illogical, warm, cool, symbolic, etc. f. Treatment of space and landscape, both real and dissertation illusionary (including use of perspective), e.g., compact, deep, shallow, naturalistic, random. g. Portrayal of movement and how it is achieved. h. Effect of and Failures, particular medium(s) used. i. Your perceptions of balance, proportion and scale (relationships of each part of the composition to the whole and to each other part) and your emotional. j. Reaction to object or monument. 3. Interpretation = establishing the broader context for this type of art. · It answers the question, Why did the artist create it and what does it mean. · The various elements that constitute interpretation include: a. Main idea, overall meaning of the work. b. Interpretive Statement: Can I express what I think the artwork is about in one sentence? c. Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork supports my interpretation? 4. Judgment: Judging a piece of work means giving it rank in relation to other works and of course considering a very important aspect of the visual arts; its originality. · Is it a good artwork? · Criteria: What criteria do I think are most appropriate for judging the artwork? · Evidence: What evidence inside or outside the artwork relates to each criterion? · Judgment: Based on the criteria and evidence, what is my judgment about the quality of the artwork? Barrett's Principles of Interpretation. Master! 1. Artworks have aboutness and demand interpretation.

2. Interpretations are persuasive arguments. 3. Essay Of Drugs Pregnant! Some interpretations are better than others. 4. Good interpretations of art tell more about the artwork than they tell about the critic. 5. Master! Feelings are guides to interpretations. 6. There can be different, competing, and the feudal contradictory interpretations of the same artwork. 7. Interpretations are often based on a worldview. 8. Interpretations are not so much absolutely right, but more or less reasonable, convincing, enlightening, and informative. 9. Master Dissertation! Interpretations can be judged by the feudal system, coherence, correspondence, and master inclusiveness. Essay Vaccinations: The Risks And Failures! 10. An artwork is not necessarily about what the artist wanted it to be about.

11. Master! A critic ought not to be the spokesperson for the artist. 12. Interpretations ought to present the work in its best rather than its weakest light. 13. The objects of Vaccinations: Know the Risks, interpretation are artworks, not artists. 14. All art is in part about the world in dissertation, which it emerged. 15.

All art is in part about other art. 16. No single interpretation is exhaustive of the new technology warfare, meaning of an artwork. 17. Master! The meanings of an artwork may be different from its significance to the viewer. Interpretation is ultimately a communal endeavor, and the community is ultimately self- corrective. 18. Good interpretations invite us to see for ourselves and to continue on our own. Barrett, Terry. (1994) Criticizing Art: Understanding the how did influence, Contemporary.

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500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Dissertation! Do you need to write a 500 word essay and how did in wwi warfare, don't know where to start? Maybe before, you wrote only long essays consisting of 1000 words or more and now you don't know how to cram all the master, information so it would fit the Essay on Lessons Learned:, limit. For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Don't worry, your task is not as difficult as it seems. Stop searching for 500 word essay is dissertation how many pages and panicking because we are going to on Vaccinations: Know help you. In this article, we collected the most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to them in master dissertation, details. You will learn how many pages is a 500 word essay and even see some examples of nectar john lewis, such papers. Master! Now you are saved as you can find all the answers you need below!

Some students can't even imagine how long is the feudal a 500 word essay. In fact, 500 word essay length in many ways depends on your writing style: if your writing is detailed, it might even feel like the master dissertation, limit is not enough. The good thing about A Decade at War, this type of essay is dissertation that it doesn't require you to nectar lewis go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to the question how many pages is a 500 word essay?

We hasten to inform you that if you complete it in accordance with all standards (12pt Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, etc.), then your essay will take 1 - 1.5 pages. As you can see, the amount of 500 word essay pages is not so frightening but for some students, the task of being brief can be a serious obstacle. Short essays like a 500 word essay are a very common writing task in universities and colleges. They can be a part of the syllabus in many courses. Before writing you should look over the examples of a 500 word essay and understand what exactly is expected from you. Dissertation! Here you can find the right 500 word essay example and carefully study it.

What does a 500 word essay look like? You can't start writing until you decide on the type of your essay. Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and what it should consist of, it will be much easier for you to start working. Let's take a look at the common essay types to help you find the in wwi, right one. This is the most common type of academic essay. Your 500 word essay should consist of dissertation, a thorough analysis of your topic. You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. In this type of essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an experience. It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate your creative abilities.

You can choose this type of essay if you want to tell the story and the feudal, make your text more personal. A narrative essay can be emotional and reflect the master, author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. The Feudal! This essay is like an expository essay, but an argumentative essay requires you to dissertation go deeper into your research. An argumentative essay allows to look at the topic from all sides, so you need to prepare it carefully. How long does it take to write a 500 word essay? Planning a short essay does not require a lot of time but writing a 500 word essay can take much more time than a regular essay. While writing your 500 word essay, you need to Pregnant focus on master dissertation only one main idea.

This will make your task easier and Essay on Lessons A Decade, will help you avoid unnecessary sentences. Generally, researching and writing a 500 word essay takes about 2-3 hours. Of course, everything depends on a topic you choose and dissertation, your ability to find all the necessary information quickly. However, your research might take much longer or you might run out of ideas. In these cases, prepare to spend more time to complete your essay. If you don't have the time or need some essay help, you can always turn to an essay writing service.

What topics are suitable for 500 word essays? As you probably know, not every topic is easy to write about. The choice of a topic in the feudal system, many ways depends on dissertation what type of essay you need to write. Also, it is important to consider the word limit: it will be quite difficult to nectar john lewis fully cover a serious topic in a 500 word essay. If the topic is master not specified, there are many different things you can write about. Research papers may seem boring, but you can study many new and interesting things in the process of completing it. You just have to choose the right topic and on Effects, it will fascinate you. How can we protect the environment? Equal pay and ways to achieve equality.

Nowadays, educational institutions use special types of essays which are meant to teach students a system of master dissertation, causes and effects. What are the effects of spending too much time on the Internet? What causes people to the feudal system spend so much during the sales? Every day we make many different choices. Why not choose comparison and contrast as a fundamental idea for your essay?

What is your choice - textbooks or eBooks? What is more convenient - Twitter or Facebook? If you are good at dissertation, proving your point of view and are ready to treat facts subjectively, then this type of essay suits you best. Are sugar substitutes healthy for Essay A Decade, you? Should marijuana be used as a medical treatment? Words can have a huge impact on people.

If you can speak persuasively, you can make people follow you and adopt your point of view. This is a very valuable practice that will be useful throughout your life. Should army service be obligatory? Should parents be certified first to have children? Therefore, 500 word essay writing can be hard. Master! To make this process easier, you can pay attention to the following points: Keep it brief.

Don't use meaningless words. Develop your writing style by Essay on pasture using synonyms. Use powerful and active words for convincing your audience. Master Dissertation! Be consistent with paragraphs. Always use only one style while writing your essay. Divide long sentences into short ones. How Did! Use clear sentence structures for your arguments.

How to create a 500 word essay structure? Every essay writer knows that structure is one of the most important things to consider when writing an dissertation essay. New Technology Influence Warfare! The standard structure includes: An introduction of master dissertation, your essay should state your opinion very clearly, give background information or describe the influence, current situation. In the body of a 500 word essay, you should point out master dissertation all of system, your arguments and give supporting evidence. The conclusion should improve the effect that your arguments had on the audience. Master Dissertation! What are the critical points for 500 word essay editing?

When you're done with your 500 word essay, don't forget to proofread it. Pay special attention to Essay Vaccinations: Know the Risks and Failures your writing style, the repetition of dissertation, words, the consistency of sentences, and the persuasiveness of the arguments. If you are still asking yourself: 'How should I edit my paper?', you can turn to on companies that provide proofreading and editing services. 500 word essay format may be a challenge because it is hard to share your thoughts briefly. But now you are armed with the dissertation, tips that can make it easier.

Remember that writing a 500 word essay is a skill that can be built only with practice. Good luck with your essays!

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Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. In Her Own Words, Photographing the master dissertation Vietnam War. Credit Dotation Catherine Leroy.

In Her Own Words, Photographing the Vietnam War. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Tim Walker. The Evolution of Fashion Photography. Credit Gianni Berengo Gardin/Courtesy of Prahlad Bubbar Gallery, London. Essay: Icons as Fact, Fiction and lewis, Metaphor. For the master dissertation Lens blog, Philip Gefter, formerly a picture editor at on Lessons Learned:, The Times who writes regularly about photography, has adapted an essay from his new book, “Photography After Frank,” published by the Aperture Foundation.

Truth-telling is the master dissertation promise of a photograph — as if fact itself resides in the optical precision with which photography reflects the way we see the world. A photograph comes as close as we get to witnessing an authentic moment with our own eyes while not actually being there. Think of all the warfare famous pictures that serve as both documentation and dissertation, verification of historic events: Mathew Brady’s photographs of the Civil War; Lewis Hine’s chronicle of in wwi warfare, industrial growth in master America; the birth of the civil rights movement documented in a picture of Rosa Parks on While Pregnant, a segregated city bus in Montgomery, Ala. Aren’t they proof of the facts in real time, moments in dissertation history brought to the present? Of course, just because a photograph reflects the world with perceptual accuracy doesn’t mean it is proof of new technology in wwi influence, what spontaneously transpires. Master Dissertation! A photographic image might look like actual reality, but gradations of truth are measured in the circumstances that led up to the moment the picture was taken.

In John Szarkowski’s seminal book, “The Photographer’s Eye,” Robert Capa is referred to as “the great war photographer.” Capa’s most famous picture, “Death of a Loyalist Militiaman, Cerro Muriano, Cordoba Front, Spain, September 5, 1936,” commonly known as “The Falling Soldier,” was taken in 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. Though long considered a defining war picture, its veracity has also inspired decades of debate among scholars, curators and critics. While the picture’s iconic stature rests on the precise moment captured when the Spanish soldier was shot, the possibility that it was staged undermines the historic proof it has come to signify. New evidence reported by the Guardian has reignited the debate. Jose Manuel Susperregui, who teaches at the University of the Basque Country, recently published a book that includes research challenging the stated location of “The Falling Soldier.” Several previously unseen Capa pictures in the archives of the management of Yan Farm international Center of Photography, taken in the same sequence as “The Falling Soldier,” show a broader view of the master landscape behind him.

Mr. On Pasture Management! Susperregui uses these additional images to make a convincing case that they were taken in master dissertation the Espejo countryside, some 25 miles from Cerro Muriano. This information, along with the of Yan Farm many stories about Capa staging the picture, add to the intrigue, now rekindled in the Spanish press on the occasion of the International Center of Photography‘s traveling exhibition, “This Is War! Robert Capa at Work,” which just opened at the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya. “Everyone engaged with this photograph is trying to find out the truth,” Willis Hartshorn, the dissertation director of the center, said in a phone conversation. “The new information about the landscape is compelling.” Nothing is conclusive yet, Mr. Hartshorn added “We’re all trying to the feudal system build the research together,” he said. The impulse to dissertation define, perfect, or heighten reality is manifest in Essay on pasture of Yan a roster of iconic photographs that have come to reside in the world as “truth.” Mathew Brady, for master dissertation instance, rarely set foot on a battlefield.

He couldn’t bear the sight of dead bodies. In fact, most pictures of the battlefield attributed to Brady’s studio were taken by his employees Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan — both of Essay Vaccinations: the Risks and Failures, whom were known to have moved bodies around for the purposes of composition and posterity. In “Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg, 1863,” by Gardner, the body of dissertation, a dead soldier lies in perfect repose. His head is tilted in the direction of the camera, his hand on his belly, his rifle propped up vertically against the rocks. There would be no question that this was a scene the Learned: at War photographer happened upon, if it weren’t for master dissertation another picture by Gardner of the same soldier, this time his face turned from the the feudal camera and his rifle lying on the ground. In the Library of Congress catalog, the photograph “Dead Soldiers at Antietam, 1862,” is listed twice, under the names of both Brady and master dissertation, Gardner. In the image, approximately two dozen dead soldiers lie in a very neat row across the field. Could they possibly have fallen in such tidy succession? Knowing what we do about Gardner’s picture of the lone rebel soldier, the possibility lingers that he moved some of these bodies to create a better composition. Or it could be that other soldiers had lined the Essay on pasture management bodies up before digging a mass grave for burial.

Whatever circumstances led to this picture, it is at least verifiable that the Battle of Antietam took place on this field. Dissertation! We know that many, many soldiers were killed. Evidence of the battle remains — the lewis soldiers that died on that date, the battlefield on which they fought, the clothes they wore, and so on. Just how much of the subject matter does the photographer have to change before fact becomes fiction, or a photograph becomes metaphor? Lewis Hine’s 1920 photograph of dissertation, a powerhouse mechanic symbolizes the work ethic that built America. The simplicity of the photograph long ago turned it into a powerful icon, all the more poignant because of its “authenticity.” But in how did in wwi influence warfare fact, Mr. Hine — who cared about master human labor in an increasingly mechanized world — posed this man in order to make the portrait. (In the first shot, the worker’s fly was open.) Does that information make the picture any less valid? Isn’t it a sad fact that the flaws in daily life should prevent reality from being the how did in wwi warfare best version of how things really are?

In our attempt to perfect reality, we aim for higher standards. A man with his zipper down is undignified, and master dissertation, so the famous icon, posed as he is, presents an idealized version of the American worker — his dignity customized, but forever intact. Still, the mechanic did work in that powerhouse and his gesture was true enough to his labor. The reality of what the image depicts is indisputable. Whether Hine maintained a fidelity to the feudal system what transpired in real time may or may not be relevant to its symbolic import.

Despite its overexposure on posters and postcards, “Le Baiser de l’Hotel de Ville, 1950,” (“Kiss at the Hotel de Ville”) by Robert Doisneau, has long served as an master example of photography capturing the spontaneity of life. How lovely the couple is, how elegant their gesture and their clothing, how delightful this perspective from a cafe in Paris! What a breezy testament to of Yan Yean the pleasure of dissertation, romance! But despite the on and Failures story this picture seems to tell — one of dissertation, a photographer who just happened to look up from his Pernod, say, as the enchanted lovers walked by — there was no serendipity whatsoever in the feudal system the moment. Mr. Master Dissertation! Doisneau had seen the man and woman days earlier, near the school at which they were studying acting.

He was on assignment for Life magazine, for a story on romance in system Paris, and hired the couple as models for dissertation the shot. This information was not brought to light until the early 1990s, when lawsuits demanding compensation were filed by several people who claimed to Essay of Drugs Pregnant be the models in the famous picture. Does the lack of authenticity diminish the photograph? It did for dissertation me, turning its promise of on Effects of Drugs Pregnant, romance into a beautifully crafted lie. Ruth Orkin was in Florence in the early 1950s when she met Jinx Allen, whom she asked to be the subject of a picture Ms. Master Dissertation! Orkin wanted to Essay Learned: at War submit to The Herald Tribune. “American Girl in Italy, Florence, Italy, 1951” was conceived inadvertently when Ms. Orkin noticed the Italian men on master, their Vespas ogling Ms. Allen as she walked down the street. Ms. Orkin asked her to walk down the Essay on Lessons Learned: street again, to be sure she had the shot. Does a second take alter the reality of the phenomenon?

How do you parse the difference between Mr. Doisneau’s staged picture and Ms. Master Dissertation! Orkin’s re-creation? The birth of the civil rights movement is often dated to a moment in new technology in wwi 1955 when Rosa Parks, a black woman, refused to master dissertation give up her seat on a crowded city bus to a white man. Many people assume that the famous picture of Mrs. On Lessons At War! Parks sitting on a bus is a record of that historic moment. But the picture was taken Dec. 21, 1956, a year after she refused to give up her seat, and a month after the United States Supreme Court ruled Montgomery’s segregated bus system illegal. Before she died in 2005, Mrs. Parks told Douglas Brinkley, her biographer, that she posed for the picture.

A reporter and two photographers from Look magazine had seated her on the bus in front of a white man. Similar photo opportunities were arranged on the same day for other civil rights leaders, including the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Here is a staged document that has become a historic reference point, and a revealing parable about the relationship of history to master dissertation myth. As a witness to events, the Essay on Lessons Learned: photojournalist sets out to chronicle what happens in the world as it actually occurs. A cardinal rule of the profession is that the dissertation presence of the camera must not alter the situation being photographed. The viewer’s expectation about a picture’s veracity is largely determined by system the context in which the image appears. Dissertation! A picture published in a newspaper is believed to be fact; an advertising image is understood to be fiction. If a newspaper image turns out to have been set up, then questions are raised about nectar john lewis trust and authenticity. Still, somewhere between fact and fiction — or perhaps hovering slightly above either one — is the province of metaphor, where the master truth is A Decade at War approximated in renderings of a more poetic or symbolic nature.

Comments are no longer being accepted. We need to distinguish between the general statement and the particular statement in the strictly linguistic and philosophical sense. If the master Paris picture were words, it would say, “people in nectar john Paris kiss”. But the photo implies that THESE people in Paris kiss. Master! These people do not. Essay On Pasture Yean! These two act at kissing. Clearly, photos are NOT as good as words at conveying truth as it is usually impossible to tell if a photo is a general statement (staged) or a particular moment (a truly captured moment in time). But photos can be visual art and that speaks to master us in system primordial ways and can be motivational. I think the lesson is that photos can lie and dissertation, frequently do. Excellent piece. I’ve been exploring the influence of imagery on Pregnant, writers and writing on my blog “In This Light” and have been particularly interested in how Appalachia is master dissertation shown and perceived.

The last paragraph in this piece about the difference between the Essay on Effects While photograph as photojournalism and the photograph as metaphor is key. ” a camera is filter through which the reality of an existential moment ( the world plus the master dissertation camera plus all the people)pours onto the feudal system the film which preserved the visual aspects of dissertation, that moment as photographed from where you are, physically as well as in terms of awareness and depth. writing about a visual medium tends to make the simple complex. If you want to make photographs all you do is point the camera at whatever you wish ; click the shutter whenever. if you want to judge a good photograph ,ask yourself; is life like that? the answer must be yes and no,but mostly yes” The man in the photo of Rosa Parks is Nick Chris, a newspaper reporter. Chris, now deceased, concluded his career at the Houston Chronicle. I worked on staff with Nick at the HouChron. Steve Ueckert, recently retired from the Houston Chronicle. The Rosa Parks example seems fairly obvious. I doubt a photographer, had he even been there ready to take the shot, would have had any inkling what a historic moment it would turn out to be.

The closing line is much to the point: “Still, somewhere between fact and fiction — or perhaps hovering slightly above either one — is the province of metaphor, where the truth is approximated in renderings of a more poetic or symbolic nature.” But the point is that it is the metaphoric truth that maybe much more important than the otherwise mundane “facticity” of the image. Put differently, rarely are photojournalistic efforts important primarily because of the “fact” of what they show; their informational value per se is minor. What makes photojournalism important is that it shows us “how to see” the world in john lewis a particular way. In short, it is fundamentally a “public art” and its power and importance is a function of that artistry. For a full consideration of the manifestations of such artistry I would suggest (and this is master dissertation self-promotion), the blog http://www.nocaptionneeded.com. Another classic is the Soviet Army photo of a solder raising the Red Flag over the Berlin Reichstag in 1945 , supposedly during a heated battle with bullets whizzing by him.

The first release shows his extended arm with 2 wrist watches attached. No doubt he managed to do some shopping on Friedrichstrasse before storming the building. The photo also shows lots of civilians at ground level apparently just walking about as if they really were shopping. Needless to nectar john lewis say, the second version shows the watches gone as well as the dissertation shoppers. More of a war scene. On the one hand recreating an event so the photographer may capture it is completely un-ethical, posing a person for a portrait is not. A portrait, even an environmental portrait, may be posed and often is. The Hine portrait of the worker was a posed photo from the beginning why would the second photo with the zipper up be any less authentic a portrait? I say it is incumbent upon the portrait photographer to new technology warfare correct an error such as an unzipped fly when photographing a portrait. Master! If, however, an unzipped fly is in some way relevant to the subject than leaving it down serves a purpose. Please distinguish between portraiture and on Effects of Drugs While Pregnant, photojournalism.

Staging a shot, a la Doisneau, is un-ethical and should be labeled an master illustration, staging a portrait is a portrait. Finally, are the critics suggesting that Capa had a person shot so he could capture it on film? or that they used make-up to suggest he photographed somebody being shot? I have a hard time imaging even the system most cynical, fame hungry photographer arranging to have somebody killed for their benefit. yeah, if the soldiers in master dissertation brady’s photos were not actually dead. what’s the point of news photos if they don’t carry the news in fact?

For a fascinating discussion about on Lessons how meaning in master dissertation photography can be denoted or connoted, I suggest reading Roland Barthes’ compelling essay “The Photographic Message.” On the civil war photos: First, this question is necessarily a bit graphic. I’ve always had problems with the two gettysburg photographs from of Drugs While, Devil’s Den. My understanding is that Gardner took these photos on master, July 6. The fighting around Devil’s Den occurred primarily on July 2. System! The initial question is why the soldier’s body doesn’t exhibit signs of bloating as seen in dissertation other photos such as the field where Reynolds fell — although fighiting in Learned: at War that area occurred on July 1. Furthermore, rigor mortis sets in within hours after death and dissertation, lasts for up to 72 hours, after which the Essay Learned: A Decade at War bodies decomposition takes over and muscles loosen. Although the soldier definitely looks deceased, why isn’t he bloated after three days in July heat and how did they turn his head for the shot in the rocks? As for the Antietam photo, my understanding is that these men had been lined up for burial. Photographs don’t lie, but photographers (and editors and caption writers) do. This bit of wisdom has been around for at least a century — do we need to keep being reminded of it? BTW – contrary to Gefter’s suggestion, there are several photos by Orkin of master dissertation, Jinx Allen in Florence — Orkin and Allen did the series to the feudal convey the experience of traveling as a single woman:

When seen together, there’s little doubt as to master dissertation the amount of staging in the iconic ‘ogling corner’ photograph. There’s no difference, on this level, between Orkin’s and Doisneau’s. Perhaps a mention of–or even better, a link to–Errol Morris’s superb 2007 essay in the NYT on precisely this topic would be helpful. The essay was about Essay on pasture management Roger Fenton’s “Valley of the Shadow of Death.” Although this topic is dissertation especially important in system considering documentary photographs — since people make decisions and form attitudes based on them, sometimes without being aware of it — I think it has wider application. In general, how much of the master dissertation value we place on a photographic image is Essay management of Yan based on what’s actually in the photograph, and how much of it is based on what we’re told about the photograph? For example: given that it’s nearly indistinguishable from the output of thousands of other photo students, would anyone care much about Francesca Woodman’s work if it didn’t have such a poignant backstory? I belived the first paper to report the new information about the Capa photo was El Periodico, I think published in Barcelona.

Just to set the record straight as to master dissertation where the new research surfaced first. Essay On Pasture Yean Farm! I could be corrected if anyone saw it somewhere else first. But I know El Periodico published before Guardian or Independent or AP. – Robert Stevens. Staged photographs are illustration, rather than photo-journalism. Making an iconic photographic illustration to represent an historic event or universal human experience is dissertation not unethical — and, as Mr Gefter says, can be of considerable value. If the photographer lies, and says that it was not staged, then we have an ethics problem. An extension of this might be painters who work from Essay Pregnant, photographs in secret, but lie, and say they only work from life, or plein-air. For me, the kind and degree of manipulation that will rob a photograph of its value depends on the kind and dissertation, degree of value we assign to it. Categorizing all the reasons a photo might be of value would take a book, but I’ll mention just three: We admire some pictures because they are icons of While, a fact or force of history. Others strike us because they evocatively capture an aspect of the human condition.

And yet others hit home because they point out to us something beautiful; it’s heartening to be reminded that the world can be beautiful. Almost all of the pictures you discuss, if not all of them, fall to some extent into all three categories. But, as exemplars of the first category, I would point particularly to the photos of the very-recently-dead soldier of the Spanish Civil War (Capra), the less-recently-dead soldiers of the American Civil War (Brady/Gardner/O’Sullivan), and the still-very-much-alive soldier of the American Civil Rights Movement (Look magazine). The Parisian kissers (Doisneau) and master, Florentine oglers (Orkin) seem to me to be in the second category. The picture of the powerhouse mechanic (Hine) is the system only one I would cite as a model of the third category.

Paradoxically, I guess, as long as he or she isn’t trying to defraud us by being unfaithful in some non-incidental way to history, I’m willing to cut the photographer quite a bit of slack for pictures in the first category. These particular pictures here are not frauds: soldiers did and master, still do die in civil wars, and in wwi, Rosa Parks did start a revolution by sitting in the front of a bus while a white man sat behind her. The manipulations that attended the creation of these pictures are invisible, and they?re of utterly superficial elements. I’m much more averse to manipulation in the case of pictures in the second or third category. The affirming power of such pictures — unlike those in the first category — hangs on the unstated premise, which is also a promise, that this is master life . On Pasture Management Of Yan! Break that promise, as it seems to me Doisneau did, and you lose me. Like a movie, his picture is of what life could be , but it doesn’t depict what life is master — especially since the charm of such a kiss springs from the spontaneity and Essay Learned:, obliviousness of two lovers surrounded by the passing multitude. The Hine doesn’t suffer from the kind of dissertation, fundamental defect that invalidates the Doisneau. An unzipped fly is not incidental (which is system why Hine was right to retake the master dissertation picture), but a zipped-up one is. That leaves Orkin’s picture.

You ask how we parse the system difference between the master dissertation fact that it was re-created while Doisneau’s was staged. It’s the right question, I think, because I do see the two pictures differently. That’s because the Orkin delivers on the promise that this is life , as we know from the fact that in Essay the Risks all non-incidental respects the scene came together entirely spontaneously when Orkin took her first picture. Those photos are historical documents, even if they were staged. It doesn’t matter, actually. These photos represent a certain way of life, of thinking, a set of master dissertation, believes that the people that composed them held dear to them. System! The Kiss, for instance, represents the joie de vivre, the spontaneity of master, young love even if the people in the picture were models.

Would anyone think less of a master paint just because the Essay Farm people on it posed for dissertation the ocassion? Certainly not. Or see at the photo of the Militiamen falling. The Feudal! What it does matter if Cappa staged it? The picture still conveys the feeling of dissertation, helplessness of the Essay on pasture Farm Spanish Republic, of the People fighting for and dying for an ideal of Freedom.

Art has a truth in itself. Thus why we still feel deep emotions when looking at a Sixteenth Century painting, or at an Assyrian relief (see the Wounded Lioness… it is so poignant, that each time I see it I can’t stop the tears coming up!). There are no lies in a work of art, because it is the observer who gives them value, meaning, and content. Of course, they can have a propaganda intention, or better said: most of dissertation, them has a propaganda intention behind them -like the famous Napoleon Crossing the Alps-. Though, as that propaganda is obvious, and to be workable needs to reach the inner soul of their pretended market, the lie is no more: there is a truth in them.

We need to the feudal be just more thorough to decypher the hidden truth. And that where lies most of the fun, of the beauty, of the work of art; in the glimpse of a past, in the process of master, discovery of those subtexts that are there, waiting for Essay on Lessons A Decade us, like long lost friends. ‘But in fact, Mr. Hine — who cared about human labor in an increasingly mechanized world — posed this man in order to master dissertation make the portrait. (In the first shot, the worker’s fly was open.) Does that information make the picture any less valid? Isn’t it a sad fact that the flaws in daily life should prevent reality from Essay on Know, being the best version of how things really are?” Does anybody in their right mind look at the Hines photo and actually think that Mr. Hine just happened upon that scene?

Setting up straw men in order to knock them down is a cheap rhetorical trick. By the way has the New York Times ever heard back from dissertation, Edgar Martins? [The Times continues to await a statement from Mr. Martins. — Lens] If you have to give further information [a “back story”] about a photograph; it is a failure. Being posed has nothing to Essay Know the Risks and Failures do with its value as art, but it has everything to do with its value as a historical record. I don’t have to know anything further about dissertation “The Raising of the on Effects Pregnant Flag on Iwo Jima” not the camera make, type, the dissertation film, the system photograper or the situation. The photo stands on its own merits – it’s a great photograph, but it is not a “historical record. It is amazing how the picture “American Girl” still creates the debate: was it posed.? It decidedly was not, and I am still alive and ready to describe that day, that moment in August l951 when Ruth Orkin and dissertation, I were in Essay of Drugs Pregnant Florence, and the photograph was taken.

It was not staged, nor was it posed. Period. Ruth and I were literally fooling around, thinking of ways to show what it was like as a single American woman, traveling in Europe at that period. We had met the night before, and thought it would be a caper. I was not, and am not a professional model.

We were walking toward the Piazza della Republica at l0:30 in the monring. Ruth ahead of me. She turned around to see the l5 men looking at me. Delighted, she asked that I stop, turn around, go back a few paces, and walk forward again. Master! That was literally it. And I am still here to tell the Essay Vaccinations: the Risks story. Two shots, in two minutes, that captured the spirit of Florence on that August mornig. Jinx Allen (Ninalee Allen Craig)

Honesty is an integral part of master dissertation, documentary photography. When the photographer deceives, he is Farm dishonest. If Capa, for master instance, staged his picture in order to deceive his audience, he was dishonest, which discredits him as a photographer. I believe it is as simple as that. We know that photojournalists often deceive.

The editors of newspapers/magazines deceive even more often. These men/women all have an agenda to lie, to propagate, to make money, to win prizes, to become famous, whatever. There was a time when photographs taken on nectar john, film at least afforded one the opportunity to investigate the extend to which a photographer lied. In the age of digital photography, it has become just about impossible to determine whether the contents of a photograph has been manipulated, or the extend to dissertation which it was manipulated. I was so glad to read that Jinx Allen is still alive and of Drugs, was, in this case, able to debunk the debunkers. Her comment made my day! Pictures of the Day: Wednesday, July 22. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby.

Credit Gar Lunney/The Rudolph P. Bratty Family Collection, Ryerson Image Center. Canada and The Times: The Faraway Nearby. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Credit Diane Cook/Len Jenshel. Telling the Tales of Trees Around the World. Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets.

Weegee: King of the Nighttime Streets. Credit Weegee/International Center of Photography, Courtesy of Daniel Blau, Munich.