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La Monnaie et la Banque, un transfert technologique et culturel au Japon au xix e siecle. Lors de son ouverture au monde occidental (la « restauration Meiji »), le Japon s’est inspire des modeles etrangers pour passer d’un systeme quasi-feodal a une organisation d’Etat moderne. Creationism Vs. Evolution? Cette ouverture, preparee par des missions d’etudes en Europe ou aux Etats-Unis, a radicalement transforme le pays. Dans le domaine monetaire, la creation d’un nouveau systeme et d’un stock monetaires, prelude aux changements fiscaux et bancaires, n’a ete possible que par l’acquisition d’un atelier monetaire complet (celui de Hong Kong) et par un vaste transfert de savoir-faire technologique qui a permis au Japon de devenir une grande puissance financiere. When it opened to should cigarette smoking be banned, the w estern world (during the vs. Evolution Essay, « Meiji Restoration »), Japan drew its inspiration from wertheimer foreign models in Creationism Essay, order to move from of confederation unable a quasi-feudal system to the organization of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay a modern state. Tesco Card Existing? This opening, prepared by study missions to Essay, Europe and card customers, the United States, completely transformed the Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, country. Wertheimer? In the vs. Evolution Essay, monetary field, the creation of a new system and of a stock of poems money, paving the way for Creationism, tax and the articles, banking changes, was only vs. Evolution, possible through the of demand and supply, acquisition of a complete mint (that of vs. Evolution Essay Honk Kong) and wertheimer psychology, a large transfer of Creationism Essay technological know-how, which enabled Japan to smoking be banned essay, become a great monetary power. 1 Le phenomene actuel de mondialisation de l’economie ressemble souvent, pour l’historien, a une repetition de situations anciennes. Vs. Evolution? Le champ des economies monetaires est un lieu de transferts de competence ou de technologie : il n’est pas de lien, politique ou economique, qui ne se concretise par des echanges monetaires ; il n’est pas de domination qui ne se traduise dans l’usage de la monnaie ; il n’est pas de partenariat qui n’inclue la monnaie quelle qu’en soit la forme. 2 Imposee ou recherchee, acceptee ou refusee, la monnaie (ou l’unite monetaire) est un des criteres d’integration ou de cooperation economique entre deux ou plusieurs pays.

De meme que l’unification monetaire est un des criteres de l’existence d’un Etat, l’appartenance de ce meme Etat a une zone monetaire est un critere de son integration au groupe des pays dominants. 3 Le cas du Japon du xix e siecle est d’autant plus interessant en matiere monetaire qu’il passe d’un regime feodal et local a une unification, puis a une integration dans le groupe des pays a etalon-or. Dans le meme temps, il transforme son economie, son armee, et, de pays colonisable, devient pays expansionniste puis colonisateur des le debut du xx e siecle (la Coree est annexee en 1910). How Is? Au-dela des faits, les dirigeants politiques japonais ont voulu expliciter leurs reformes pour credibiliser l’entree du Japon sur la scene internationale. Creationism Essay? Chaque reforme, chaque evolution a donc ete detaillee, commentee et argumentee. The Articles Of Confederation Congress To? Desireux de voir leur pays devenir une puissance economique et conscients de l’importance de la question monetaire, ils ont pallie leur manque de savoir-faire par l’importation des techniques occidentales. La question de la credibilite de la monnaie et de la confiance en sa stabilite etant au c?ur de toute relation financiere, afin que le Japon puisse emprunter sur les plus grandes places bancaires (Paris ou Londres), ils ont relate avec precision les ameliorations qu’ils apportaient a ses systemes monetaires et bancaires, calquees, au plus pres, sur l’organisation des institutions respectables et respectees des pays dominants. 4 Afin de comprendre les modalites d’importation d’un systeme monetaire et bancaire et son implantation au Japon, nous etudions et confrontons des sources, souvent meconnues, qui ont l’interet de documenter des phenomenes de changement de stock monetaire dans le contexte d’une crise et, consecutivement, de l’unification monetaire puis du passage rapide du bimetallisme au monometallisme d’un pays developpe. 5 Apres l’arrivee en rade de Tokyo du commodore Perry, porteur d’un ultimatum demandant l’ouverture du pays aux etrangers (1853), apres son retour a la tete d’une flotte militaire internationale (fevrier 1854), le Japon avait ete oblige de signer le 31 mars 1854 la Convention de Kanagawa ouvrant le pays, puis, des 1858, des traites largement imposes par les puissances occidentales au shogunat des Tokugawa. Creationism Vs. Evolution? Dans les annees 1860, les Japonais prennent conscience du caractere irreversible de l’evolution. The Articles Left Unable To? Des 1862, une mission, dite Mission Takenouchi, est envoyee visiter les pays europeens pour en rapporter des informations propres a nourrir la reflexion politique.

Des son arrivee au pouvoir (3 fevrier 1867), l’empereur Mutsuhito s’entoure de ministres et de conseillers de haut niveau et entame une serie de reformes destinees a moderniser le pays. En novembre, le shogun (seigneur local ou regional) d’Edo remet son pouvoir a l’empereur qui inaugure le 23 octobre 1868 l’ere Meiji, marquant la fin du regime feodal et le renouveau du pouvoir centralise imperial. Il quitte alors Kyoto pour s’installer a Edo rebaptisee Tokyo. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? Plutot que d’envisager un affrontement qui aurait certainement tourne au desavantage du Japon (comme ce fut le cas de la Chine), le Mikado prefere ouvrir le Japon aux Occidentaux et reformer le pays pour le doter d’une dimension internationale lui permettant de traiter d’egal a egal avec les grandes puissances. 1 ???????????? (1-5) ?? ?? ?? ? (????) 1977 ; traduits et publies sous le titre Iwakura Embassy, 1871 (. Of Demand And Supply? ) 2 Document publie dans Count Matsukata Masayoshi, Report on Creationism the adoption of the Gold Standard in ts eliot poems, Japa (. Creationism? ) 6 En l’espace de quelques decennies, le regime transforme la vie politique (passant en substance d’un feodalisme a un regime parlementaire), creant une armee nationale (tres rapidement capable de mener des operations offensives), bouleversant la vie economique en changeant le systeme d’imposition, modernisant les communications. Poems? L’evolution fut lente (Parlement en 1889, constitution en 1890), mais irreversible.

Pour mener toutes ces transformations, l’empereur s’appuie sur les exemples occidentaux. Vs. Evolution? Il continue a envoyer plusieurs missions dont la plus celebre est la mission Iwakura, qui parcourt les Etats-Unis et l’Europe pendant pres de trois ans (1871-1873), redigeant regulierement des memoires sur la vie politique et la technologie occidentales (ils ont ete publies en integralite1). The Articles Left Congress Unable? De tres nombreux hommes politiques se rendent ainsi a l’etranger, soit pour effectuer leurs etudes, soit en mission. Ainsi, le marquis Ito Hirobumi sejourne pour ses etudes hors du Japon, il fait partie de la mission Iwakura avant d’assumer cinq fois la charge de p remier ministre. En 1870, Ito redige a l’intention de l’empereur un long memorandum intitule « Raisons pour etablir le nouveau systeme monetaire japonais selon le systeme metrique », qu’il termine par « e crit en Amerique, le 29 decembre 1870 »2. Dans les annees 1860, le comte Inouye Kaoru, avant de devenir ministre des affaires etrangeres et vice-ministre des finances, et le marquis Ito Hirobumi, futur redacteur de la constitution et premier p remier ministre de l’histoire du Japon, effectuent leurs etudes en Angleterre. Creationism? L’ouverture et l’integration economique du Japon est donc, avant tout, le resultat d’un transfert de competence par la formation des elites du pays. 7 Tous ces hommes pensent que l’etablissement d’un systeme monetaire moderne est alors indispensable a l’economie nippone, pouvant seul assurer une homogeneisation des impositions et permettre la preparation d’un budget d’Etat.

Des avril 1868, la decision est prise de frapper de nouvelles monnaies uniformes et de bonne qualite pour remplacer le stock heterogene. Psychology? Seul un transfert massif de technologie et de competence peut permettre la creation ex nihilo d’un stock monetaire. 8 Harry Parkes, ministre plenipotentiaire anglais, est saisi par l’empereur, le 30 mai 1868, d’une demande concernant la possibilite de creer un atelier monetaire. Vs. Evolution Essay? Des negociations s’ouvrent pour le rachat des presses (des James Watt de Londres) et du materiel de l’atelier de Hong Kong ferme au debut de l’annee 1868. Wertheimer Psychology? Pour faire fonctionner l’atelier (qui necessite une centaine d’hommes) capable de produire 35 000 dollars d’argent de type mexicain en douze heures, le Japon embauche comme directeur Thomas Kinder, l’ancien directeur de l’atelier de Hong Kong. Essay? Ce choix fut un sujet de conflit, non en raison de la personnalite de Kinder, mais parce que les Japonais voulurent dans un premier temps assurer eux-memes la direction de l’atelier. A l’evidence, il convenait de s’adjoindre les services de l’ancienne equipe de la Monnaie de Hong Kong : constituer le stock monetaire pour 33 millions de Japonais n’etait pas simple.

9 Enfin, le 14 octobre 1868, le materiel arrive au port d’Osaka, ou l’atelier imperial, un batiment de style anglais, est en construction. Developed? t reize e uropeens accompagnent Kinder, qui prennent en charge les divers departements (essais, fonte, gravure des coins, pesee, frappe, acides, etc.). Essay? Le 4 avril 1871, l’atelier est inaugure et entre en fonction. Should Be Banned? Entre 1871 et le 31 janvier 1875, la frappe de la monnaie est entierement entre les mains des Anglais, qui assurent des productions de qualite. Essay? Ainsi, en 1873-1874, l’atelier produit 2,319 millions de monnaies d’or, 24,532 millions de monnaies d’argent et 36 millions de monnaies de cuivre, toutes rigoureusement similaires. 3 Fourth Report of the Director of the elasticity of demand, Imperial Mint , Osaka, Japan, for vs. Evolution, the Half-Year ending 31 st Jan (. ) 10 Kinder et ses associes garantissent non seulement la bonne marche de l’atelier, mais aussi le transfert de competence. Credit Card Customers? Lorsque Kinder part avec sept autres directeurs le 31 janvier 1875, il laisse un atelier en ordre de marche « In every detail the vs. Evolution, Mint is personality developed, now in Creationism vs. Evolution, the most perfect order, and ts eliot short poems, will be left by me in vs. Evolution, that state » (rapport de Kinder, 28 janvier 18753). L’effectif de l’atelier augmente alors considerablement : 380 personnes en 1874, 556 en 1876 apres son depart. Short Poems? La production augmente aussi, passant a 0,076 million de monnaies d’or, 23 millions d’argent et 87 millions de cuivre, soit 112 millions de monnaies en 1876 contre 62 millions en 1874. 4 Ces rapports s’intitulent Report of the Director of the Creationism vs. Evolution, Imperial Mint pour la periode 1872-1875 lor (. Elasticity And Supply? ) 11 La question de la qualite de la frappe monetaire est cruciale pour le Japon et l’Extreme-Orient.

La volonte de l’empereur est d’eliminer les monnaies feodales, pietres, disparates et incoherentes. Pour s’imposer comme puissance economique la monnaie japonaise doit etre au-dessus de tout soupcon. Les rapports publies par Kinder puis par ses successeurs mettent tous en avant la qualite des especes4. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? Il fait regulierement prelever de facon aleatoire des monnaies dont il fait verifier les poids et les titres a la fois a Londres et a San Francisco. How Is? Les rapports detaillent avec precision la faible tolerance dans les ecarts des poids et des titres. Vs. Evolution Essay? L’objectif est de produire des monnaies de meilleure qualite que les ateliers occidentaux ou americains : c’est une condition sine qua non pour le developpement du commerce japonais. Les negociants savent que le yen est alors la monnaie de reference, presque la monnaie officielle du commerce, dans tout l’ o rient. Le transfert de technologie reussit : le 24 fevrier 1880, cinq ans apres le depart de Kinder, le Daily Press reproduit le debat a la chambre de commerce de Hong Kong : 5 Documents and customers, Studies on 19 th c. Creationism? Monetary History, Japan, Republication of how is personality developed The Currency of vs. Evolution Essay Japan, A (. Tesco Credit Card Existing? ) Hon. Creationism Essay? P. Should Smoking Be Banned? Ryrie : there was a very long discussion on the Japanese yen in vs. Evolution, this Chamber. Should Smoking Essay? […] t his Chamber had not sufficient confidence in the Japanese Government as to Creationism vs. Evolution, their keeping up the tesco credit card existing customers, purity of the Creationism Essay, coin. Ts Eliot Poems? […] I have myself had conversations on vs. Evolution Essay the subject with gentlemen who were well informed, and ts eliot short poems, I have also had conversations on it with the vs. Evolution, late master of the how is, Japanese Mint, Major Kinder, and I believe that the most perfect and Essay, reliable assurances can now be given by should smoking the Japanese Government that the purity of the coin will be kept up5. 6 Sur cette question, voir Michael Schiltz, « An ideal bank of issue : the Creationism vs. Evolution, Banque Nationale de Belgiq (. ) 12 La question bancaire est plus simple a regler.

Les banques existaient avant la Restauration Meiji. Card Customers? Les guerres civiles qui opposent l’empereur aux shoguns recalcitrants dans les annees 1870 sont alors financees par l’emission de papier monnaie, entrainant une inflation consequente. La restauration des finances publiques devient l’?uvre de Matsukata Masayoshi, plusieurs fois ministre des finances et p remier ministre. Creationism Essay? L’une de ses taches est de doter le Japon d’une banque nationale. Elasticity And Supply? La encore c’est en Europe que Matsukata prend son modele : les statuts de la Banque du Japon s’inspirent de ceux de la Banque de France. Il conduit en personne la delegation japonaise lors de l’ e xposition universelle a Paris en 1878 et, s’il n’a pas ete admis a la Conference monetaire internationale d’aout 1878, il se lie avec son organisateur Leon Say, Ministre des Finances du gouvernement francais. Creationism Vs. Evolution? Il met a profit son sejour pour etudier en detail la Banque de France et la Banque de Belgique auxquelles il fait allusion dans ses ouvrages6. Personality Developed? En novembre 1883, quelques mois apres la creation de la Banque du Japon, il ecrit a Leon Say : 7 Cette lettre de Matsukata a ete traduite en anglais et publiee par Michael Schiltz, dans « An ideal (. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? ) As you may remember, it has been four years since I parted from ts eliot short you in Essay, 1879. I am still thankful for the kind consideration you gave me during my stay in poems, your country. Creationism? I particular benefited from wertheimer psychology you many useful suggestions on national finance […]. Now as minister of Essay finance, I am assuming the heavy responsibility of how is developed administering Japan’s national finance and Creationism Essay, am truing my best, day and wertheimer psychology, night, to Creationism, put into short effect what you kindly suggested7.

13 Passer des monnaies traditionnelles de cuivre coule a des monnaies en argent etait un premier choc. Cependant, des 1870-1873, le cours de l’argent-metal s’effondre, perturbant tous les systemes monetaires bimetalliques. Vs. Evolution? Rapidement, les principaux pays optent, peu ou prou, pour un monometallisme or. Credit Customers? L’Union Latine, cette entente monetaire bimetallique entre plusieurs pays europeens creee en decembre 1865, est mise a mal et, des juin 1867, les conferences internationales reclament l’adoption de l’etalon-or. Creationism Essay? Le refus des pays de l’Union Latine ouvre une periode de crise monetaire : aucun Etat ne peut admettre de voir le prix de l’argent decrocher de celui de l’or. How Is? Les uns apres les autres, les pays les plus riches sortent de l’Union pour adopter le monometallisme or. Creationism Vs. Evolution? La crise de la depreciation de l’argent touche aussi le Japon, peut-etre un peu plus tardivement car le pays manquait cruellement d’argent et pouvait absorber de grandes quantites de metal. 14 Le Japon des annees 1890 n’est plus celui des annees 1870 : il se comporte en puissance colonisatrice et guerriere, fort de ses progres dans tous les domaines. Wertheimer Psychology? A l’instar de l’Allemagne, le Japon ouvre les hostilites avec la Chine (1 er aout 1894-17 avril 1895) et exige de la Chine vaincue une indemnite payable en or a Londres (32 900 980 livres sterlings), environ 240 tonnes d’or monnaye.

Comme l’Allemagne le fait en 1873 en adoptant pour le mark un etalon-or grace a l’indemnite de guerre payee par la France, le Japon adopte le 1 er octobre 1897 le monometallisme or. Vs. Evolution? Ainsi, le pays passe dans le camp des grandes puissances guerrieres, dominatrices, a etalon-or. 8 Les ouvrages de M. Matsukata etaient a la fois des justifications (a usage interne) de sa politique (. Ts Eliot? ) 9 C’est le cas des correspondances entre Londres et le Japon (Great Britain. Essay? Public Record Office. Ts Eliot Short? Br (. Essay? ) 10 Plusieurs journaux ont ete regulierement publies au Japon par et pour les expatries, citons Japan H (. Short? ) 15 L’enjeu d’une telle recherche n’est pas seulement de suivre la facon dont le transfert de competence s’est effectue au benefice du Japon. Creationism? L’interet de ces sources est en effet de fournir des eclairages croises sur cette transformation. Wertheimer Psychology? Le choc culturel que represente le changement de monnaie (passage a un systeme decimal, changement de la forme des especes, changement des alliages, production industrielle avec des presses a vapeur, etc.), et donc de systeme de taxation, est documente par des textes reglementaires, forts deshumanises, et aussi par les nombreux ouvrages que le ministre Matsukata, le principal artisan des transformations, a laisses8. A ces sources s’ajoutent les rapports officiels, japonais, ou etablis par les consulats et ambassades ou representations commerciales des Etats etrangers a destination de leurs instances officielles9. Vs. Evolution? Les journaux publies au Japon pour les communautes d’expatries fourmillent aussi d’informations : la presse etrangere10, de diffusion reduite, etait redigee non pas par des journalistes professionnels mais par des personnes souvent impliquees dans des activites commerciales ; auteurs et lecteurs etaient donc tous avides d’informations economiques. Of Demand And Supply? Enfin, les Japonais, dans leurs ecrits, reagissaient parfois aux mesures economiques, fiscales et monetaires.

16 La documentation permet non seulement de comprendre l’exemplarite de la reforme (ou des reformes) economique, mais aussi de suivre les differentes perceptions, de differents points de vue, d’un transfert technologique. Creationism Essay? Nous sommes ainsi invites a effectuer un autre transfert culturel, si l’on peut dire, qui peut orienter la methodologie de la recherche : a reflechir a ce que la comprehension precise d’un phenomene particulier et documente peut nous permettre de comprendre d’evolutions similaires lors de periodes moins documentees. Ts Eliot Short Poems? Passer du koban au yen, du statere au denier, de la livre au franc, ce sont la diverses evolutions, diverses monnaies, diverses zones, diverses epoque, etc. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? – mais tout cela est bien semblable. L’etude des transferts est souvent une opportunite de nous regarder avec les yeux des autres. Les photos reproduites ci-apres ont ete prises par Georges Depeyrot lors d’un passage a Osaka. La monnaie d’Osaka, estampe, Musee de la Monnaie, Osaka. La monnaie d’Osaka, estampe, Musee de la Monnaie, Osaka. La monnaie d’Osaka, carte postale. Inauguration de la Monnaie, le 4 avril 1871, Musee de la Monnaie, Osaka. Presse francaise type Tonelli, 1871, Musee de la Monnaie, Osaka. Lettre autographe de Thomas Kinder, 1871, Musee de la Monnaie, Osaka.

Japan Weekly Mail, un des journaux de la communaute anglophone a Yokohama, 1880, Bibliotheque d’Osaka (cet exemplaire titre sur la crise de l’argent). 1 ???????????? (1-5) ?? ?? ?? ? (????) 1977 ; traduits et publies sous le titre Iwakura Embassy, 1871-1873. And Supply? A True Account of the vs. Evolution, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary’s Journey of Observation Through the elasticity of demand, United States of America and Essay, Europe, Graham Healey (dir.), Chushichi Tsuzuki, Londres, Routledge Curzon, 2002. 2 Document publie dans Count Matsukata Masayoshi, Report on of confederation left the adoption of the vs. Evolution Essay, Gold Standard in ts eliot short poems, Japan , Tokio, Printed at Essay, the Government Press, Thirty Second Year of developed Meiji (1899), p. Vs. Evolution Essay? 5. 3 Fourth Report of the of demand and supply, Director of the vs. Evolution, Imperial Mint , Osaka, Japan, for how is developed, the Half-Year ending 31 st January, 1875 , printed by Essay order of the developed, Council of Essay State, Tokio, printed at personality developed, the « Seishi-Bunsha » Office, 1878, p. Vs. Evolution Essay? 6. 4 Ces rapports s’intitulent Report of the wertheimer psychology, Director of the Essay, Imperial Mint pour la periode 1872-1875 lorsque Thomas Kinder etait directeur ; puis Report of the psychology, Commissionner of the Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, Imperial Mint, annees 8-20 de l’ere Meiji (1875-1890), lorsque H. L. Be Banned Essay? Mawatori, T. Vs. Evolution? Ishimal et K. S. Wertheimer Psychology? Endo etaient successivement commissionner of the Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, Imperial Mint ; puis Report of the credit card customers, Director of the vs. Evolution, Imperial Mint , apres 1891, lorsque K. S. Of Confederation Congress Unable? Endo fut nomme directeur.

5 Documents and Creationism, Studies on should cigarette 19 th c. Monetary History, Japan, Republication of vs. Evolution Essay The Currency of left congress unable to Japan, A Reprint of vs. Evolution Essay Articles, Letters, and elasticity of demand and supply, Official Reports, Published at Intervals in Creationism Essay, the Foreign Newspapers of elasticity of demand Japan, together with Translations from Japanese Journals, Relating to vs. Evolution Essay, the Currency, Paper and wertheimer psychology, Metallic, of the Creationism, Empire of tesco credit card existing Japan (Yokohama, 1882), Marina Kovalchuk, Georges Depeyrot (ed.), Wetteren, c ollection Moneta, n° 121, 2011, p 182. 6 Sur cette question, voir Michael Schiltz, « An ideal bank of Essay issue : the elasticity of demand, Banque Nationale de Belgique as a model for Essay, the Bank of poems Japan », Financial History Review, 13 (2), 2006, p. 179-196, et ?? ??, ??????????????????????, 2005. 7 Cette lettre de Matsukata a ete traduite en anglais et publiee par Michael Schiltz, dans « An ideal bank of vs. Evolution issue : the ts eliot poems, Banque Nationale de Belgique as a model for Creationism vs. Evolution, the Bank of the articles left congress Japan », article cite. 8 Les ouvrages de M. Vs. Evolution? Matsukata etaient a la fois des justifications (a usage interne) de sa politique et des documents a destination des marches financiers etrangers dont le Japon sollicitait les fonds. Personality? Voir : Matsukata M. (????), The History of Creationism National Debts in developed, Japan (?????) Tokyo, 1890. Matsukata M., (????), ?????? [ Shihei Seiri Shimatsu ] . Essay? Tokyo, 1890.

Matsukata M. Wertheimer Psychology? (????), Report on the Adoption of the vs. Evolution Essay, Gold Standard in unable, Japan (??????????), Tokyo, 1899. Matsukata M. Essay? (????), Report on should be banned essay the Post-bellum Financial Administration in Japan , (1896-1900) (????????), Tokyo, 1901. 9 C’est le cas des correspondances entre Londres et le Japon (Great Britain. Public Record Office. Creationism? British Foreign Office, Japan. Should Cigarette Be Banned Essay? Correspondence, 1856-1905 ). 10 Plusieurs journaux ont ete regulierement publies au Japon par et pour les expatries, citons Japan Herald (cree en 1862), The Japan Times (cree en 1865), Japan Gazette (cree en 1867), Japan Weekly Mail (cree en 1870). Creationism Essay? Ils etaient principalement publies a Yokohama.

En 1882, le Japan Gazette publia un recueil de textes parus dans ses colonnes et dans les autres journaux sur la question financiere. Left Congress Unable? Il s’agissait d’inciter le gouvernement japonais a prendre des mesures drastiques contre l’inflation (voir Documents and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, Studies on how is personality 19 th c. Creationism Vs. Evolution? Monetary History, Japan, ed. citee). Should Cigarette Smoking? Les reformes preconisees par le Japan Gazette furent appliquees par M. Vs. Evolution Essay? Matsukata, nomme ministre des finances en 1882. Georges Depeyrot et Marina Kovalchuk , « La Monnaie et la Banque, un transfert technologique et culturel au Japon au xix e siecle », Revue Sciences/Lettres [En ligne], 1 | 2013, mis en ligne le 15 janvier 2012, consulte le 02 octobre 2017. Of Demand And Supply? URL : http://rsl.revues.org/208 ; DOI : 10.4000/rsl.208. Charge de recherches, CNRS, AOROC (UMR 8546, CNRS-ENS) Professeur associee, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok. Parmi les publications : Documents and vs. Evolution Essay, Studies on tesco credit card existing customers 19 th c. Vs. Evolution? Monetary History, Japan, Republication of The Currency of Japan, A Reprint of and supply Articles, Letters, and Creationism Essay, Official Reports, Published at should cigarette smoking be banned essay, Intervals in Creationism vs. Evolution, the Foreign Newspapers of Japan, together with Translations from elasticity and supply Japanese Journals, Relating to vs. Evolution Essay, the Currency, Paper and how is, Metallic, of the Empire of Creationism Japan (Yokohama, 1882), Marina Kovalchuk, Georges Depeyrot (ed.), Wetteren, c ollection Moneta, n° 121, 2011.

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Informations Titre : Revue Sciences/Lettres En bref : Revue presentant les pratiques de la recherche sur des objets appelant une approche pluridisciplinaire.

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The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Summary Highlights, April 2009-April 2010. Updated: June 16, 2010. This document summarizes key events of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and CDC€™s response activities for historical purposes. This document is a summary; it is vs. Evolution Essay, not a comprehensive account of all CDC actions and wertheimer psychology activities nor is it intended to represent response efforts by Creationism, other agencies and partners. The 2009 H1N1 influenza (flu) pandemic occurred against a backdrop of pandemic response planning at all levels of government including years of developing, refining and poems regularly exercising response plans at the international, federal, state, local, and community levels.

At the time, experts believed that avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses posed the greatest pandemic threat. H5N1 viruses were endemic in poultry in Creationism parts of the world and were infecting people sporadically, often with deadly results. Given that reality, pandemic preparedness efforts were largely based on a scenario of severe human illness caused by an H5N1 virus. Ts Eliot Poems! Despite differences in planning scenarios and the actual 2009 H1N1 pandemic, many of the systems established through pandemic planning were used and useful for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response. CDC€™s response to Creationism, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response was complex, multi-faceted and personality long-term, lasting more than a year.

This document seeks to document for the public the key events of the pandemic as they unfolded and CDC€™s response. The following is a summary narrative of highlighted CDC-related events from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. 2009 H1N1 was first detected in the United States in April 2009. This virus was a unique combination of influenza virus genes never previously identified in either animals or people. The virus genes were a combination of genes most closely related to North American swine-lineage H1N1 and Eurasian lineage swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses.

Because of Essay, this, initial reports referred to the virus as a swine origin influenza virus. However, investigations of initial human cases did not identify exposures to pigs and quickly it became apparent that this new virus was circulating among humans and should cigarette not among U.S. pig herds. Infection with this new influenza A virus (then referred to as €˜swine origin influenza A virus€™) was first detected in a 10-year-old patient in California on April 15, 2009, who was tested for influenza as part of a clinical study. Laboratory testing at CDC confirmed that this virus was new to humans. Two days later, CDC laboratory testing confirmed a second infection with this virus in another patient, an 8-year-old living in California about 130 miles away from the first patient who was tested as part of an influenza surveillance project. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay! There was no known connection between the two patients.

Laboratory analysis at developed, CDC determined that the viruses obtained from these two patients were very similar to each other, and different from any other influenza viruses previously seen either in humans or animals. Testing showed that these two viruses were resistant to the two antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, but susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir. Vs. Evolution! CDC began an smoking be banned essay, immediate investigation into the situation in coordination with state and local animal and human health officials in California. The cases of 2009 H1N1 flu in California occurred in vs. Evolution Essay the context of sporadic reports of human infection with North American-lineage swine influenza viruses in the United States, most often associated with close contact with infected pigs. Ts Eliot Poems! (During December 2005 €“ January 2009, 12 cases of human infection with swine influenza were reported; five of these 12 cases occurred in patients who had direct exposure to pigs, six patients reported being near pigs, and Essay the source of ts eliot short poems, infection in Creationism one case was unknown). Human-to-human spread swine influenza viruses had been rarely documented and had not been known to result in widespread community outbreaks among people. In mid-April of 2009, however, the how is personality, detection of two patients infected with swine origin flu viruses 130 miles apart, raised concern that a novel swine-origin influenza virus had made its way into the human population and was spreading among people. CDC remained in close contact with the international health community as the outbreak unfolded and on vs. Evolution Essay, April 18, 2009, under the International Health Regulations (IHR) the United States International Health Regulations Program reported the 2009 H1N1 influenza cases to the World Health Organization (WHO).

The cases also were reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Canada and smoking be banned Mexico, as part of the Security and vs. Evolution Prosperity Partnership of North America. CDC worked closely with state and local animal and human health officials on epidemiological investigations by tracing contacts of both patients to try to determine the cigarette smoking be banned essay, source of vs. Evolution Essay, their infection and by examining whether there was any link between the patients and pigs. Surveillance also was enhanced to try to detect additional cases of human illness with this virus. Based on the geographic location of the first cases, lack of contact between these cases and swine, and data collected through contact tracing and how is personality developed laboratory testing, CDC epidemiologists suspected that human-to-human transmission of this virus had taken place. Creationism! In an article entitled Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March-April 2009 published on April 21, 2009 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC described the cases and requested that state public health laboratories send to CDC all influenza A specimens that could not be subtyped. That same day CDC responded to media inquiries related to the MMWR from medical reporters. Within a day, three additional samples of this new virus were identified in San Diego County and Imperial County California hospitals and sent to CDC for further testing.

CDC laboratory testing confirmed that these samples also were positive for tesco card existing customers the virus that would come to be called €œ2009 H1N1.€. By April 21, 2009, CDC had begun working to develop a virus that could be used to make vaccine to protect against this new virus (called a candidate vaccine virus). There are many steps involved with producing a vaccine €“ the first step is getting a good high yield vaccine virus. Creationism Vs. Evolution! A high-yield vaccine virus is a sample of the virus that is cigarette smoking, used to grow the virus in mass quantities in chicken eggs. Once the virus is Creationism Essay, grown in mass quantities, the virus particles are then purified to make vaccine. Recognizing that 2009 H1N1 was a new flu virus €“ and, like all flu viruses, unpredictable - CDC simultaneously pursued multiple scientific methods to create a high-yield virus. A virus isolated at CDC, (called A/California/07/2009) was eventually chosen to be the vaccine virus used to wertheimer psychology, make vaccine. Essay! CDC sent the vaccine virus to vaccine manufacturing companies so that they could begin vaccine production, in the event that the U.S. government should decide a vaccine was necessary. CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on April 22, 2009, to coordinate the response to the articles of confederation left congress, this emerging public health threat.

Response activities were organized into a team structure according to the National Incident Management System (NIMS)These teams had different areas of focus including but not limited to: surveillance, laboratory issues, communications, at-risk populations, antiviral medications, vaccine, and traveler€™s health issues. As the outbreak unfolded, team structures and staffing were periodically assessed for functionality and utility. On April 23, 2009, samples submitted by Texas revealed two additional cases of human infections with 2009 H1N1, transforming the investigation into a multistate outbreak and response. At the same time, CDC was testing 14 samples from Creationism vs. Evolution Mexico, some of which had been collected from patients who were ill before the wertheimer, first 2 U.S. (California) patients. Results from seven of the samples were positive for 2009 H1N1 and similar findings were reported for specimens submitted by Mexico to Canada. It had now become clear that cases were occurring in multiple countries and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay human to tesco existing, human spread of the virus appeared to vs. Evolution, be ongoing. Existing! That same day CDC held the Essay, first formal full press briefing to inform the media and be banned guide the public and health care response to vs. Evolution Essay, the rapidly evolving situation. CDC held nearly 60 press briefings during the 2009 H1N1 response. On April 24, 2009, CDC uploaded complete gene sequences of the of demand and supply, 2009 H1N1 virus to a publicly-accessible international influenza database, which enabled scientists around the world to use the sequences for public health research and for comparison against influenza viruses collected elsewhere, and an updated report on the outbreak was published online in the MMWR. World Braces for Possible Pandemic. On Saturday, April 25, 2009, under the rules of the International Health Regulations, the Director-General of WHO declared the 2009 H1N1 outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and Essay recommended that countries intensify surveillance for unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and severe pneumonia.

Also on April 25, 2009, New York City officials reported an customers, investigation into a cluster of influenza-like illness in a high school, and CDC testing confirmed two cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in Kansas, and another case in Ohio shortly after. On April 26, 2009, the United States Government determined that a public health emergency existed nationwide; CDC€™s Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) began releasing 25% of the supplies in Creationism Essay the stockpile that could be used to protect and treat influenza. This included 11 million regimens of antiviral drugs, and should cigarette personal protective equipment including over 39 million respiratory protection devices (masks and respirators), gowns, gloves and Creationism vs. Evolution face shields, to ts eliot short poems, states (allocations were based on each state€™s population). As part of the nation€™s pre-pandemic planning efforts, by April 2009 the Federal Government had purchased 50 million treatment courses of antiviral drugs €“ oseltamivir and zanamivir €“ for the SNS, and states had purchased 23 million antiviral regimens. After the Creationism vs. Evolution, determination of the public health emergency, FDA also took action to credit card, expand possible usage of antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir by issuing Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs).

The EUAs allowed for use of the products in a manner different from what they were FDA-approved for. This included allowing for off-label use of: oseltamivir to Creationism Essay, treat children younger than 1 year of age and to help prevent influenza in children 3 months to 1 year of age, and; oseltamivir and zanamivir to treat patients who are symptomatic for psychology more than two days before initiation of treatment, or who had complicated illness requiring hospitalization. On April 27, the WHO Director-General raised the level of influenza pandemic alert from phase 3 to phase 4, based primarily on epidemiological data demonstrating human-to-human transmission and the ability of the virus to cause community-level outbreaks. Based on reports of widespread influenza-like-illness and vs. Evolution Essay many severe illnesses and deaths in Mexico, CDC issued a travel health warning recommending that United States travelers postpone all non-essential travel to Mexico. As in past influenza seasons, CDC urged the public and especially those people at highest risk of influenza-related complications, to protect themselves by taking antiviral drugs early in their illness when recommended by their doctor; CDC also advised that everyone take every day preventive actions like covering coughs and sneezes and staying home from work and elasticity of demand and supply school when ill to help reduce the spread of illness. On April 29, 2009 WHO raised the influenza pandemic alert from phase 4 to phase 5, signaling that a pandemic was imminent, and requested that all countries immediately activate their pandemic preparedness plans and be on high alert for Creationism Essay unusual outbreaks of influenza-like illness and severe pneumonia.

The U.S. Government was already implementing its pandemic response plan. CDC continued to post and personality developed update guidance for states, clinicians, laboratories, schools, partners and the public on Creationism, topics ranging from the non-pharmaceutical measures communities could take to limit spread of disease, to how to evaluate a patient for possible infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza, to how to care for children who might be sick with 2009 H1N1 influenza. On April 30, 2009, CDC issued an MMWR Dispatch describing the initial outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza in ts eliot poems Mexico. Findings in vs. Evolution Essay Mexico indicated that transmission in Mexico involved person-to-person spread with multiple generations of transmission.

CDC also issued an MMWR Dispatch on short, the outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection in a high school in New York City, that was, at the time, the largest reported cluster of 2009 H1N1 cases in the United States. The Dispatch suggested that the high school age students had respiratory and fever symptoms similar to vs. Evolution Essay, those caused by a seasonal flu, but in addition, about how is personality developed, half had diarrhea, which is more than expected with seasonal flu. Essay! As the personality developed, details of the outbreak unfolded, the Creationism Essay, Federal response continued in high gear. Also on April 30, 2009, HHS announced that the wertheimer, Federal government would purchase an additional 13 million treatment courses of antiviral drugs to help fight influenza. Vs. Evolution Essay! The additional treatment courses would be added to the SNS. As the elasticity of demand, outbreak spread, CDC began receiving reports of Creationism vs. Evolution, school closures and implementation of community-level social distancing measures meant to slow the spread of disease. School administrators and should public health officials were following their pandemic plans and doing everything they could to vs. Evolution, slow the spread of illness. (Social distancing measures are meant to increase distance between people.

Measures include staying home when ill unless to seek medical care, avoiding large gatherings, telecommuting, and implementing school closures). CDC Laboratories Bolster Nation€™s Testing Capacity. While initial efforts were underway to develop a safe and effective vaccine to protect people against 2009 H1N1, work also was being done at CDC to help laboratories supporting health care professionals to more quickly identify the 2009 H1N1 virus in samples from patients. Elasticity And Supply! The real-time PCR test developed by CDC was cleared for use by diagnostic laboratories by FDA under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on April 28, 2009, less than two weeks after identification of the new pandemic virus. Prior to Creationism vs. Evolution, the availability of this EUA, public health laboratories had been able to identify whether influenza A viruses were seasonal influenza viruses or were a novel strain, but the new diagnostic kits allowed labs to confirm a virus as 2009 H1N1. On May 1, 2009, CDC test kits began shipping to domestic and psychology international public health laboratories. (Each test kit contained reagents to test 1,000 clinical specimens).

From May 1 through September 1, 2009, more than 1,000 kits were shipped to 120 domestic and 250 international laboratories in 140 countries. Once labs had the test kits and verified that their testing was running properly, they were able to identify new cases more quickly than before and no longer needed to send samples to CDC for lab confirmation. The transition away from CDC lab confirmation testing didn€™t happen overnight though - between April 23 and vs. Evolution May 31, 2009, CDC influenza laboratory analyzed about 5,000 influenza virus samples, five times the number that were processed in a similar timeframe in 2008, and should be banned more than during any previous influenza season. By May 18, 2009, 40 states had been validated to conduct their own 2009 H1N1 testing, with eight states having multiple laboratories able to do their own testing. CDC alerted the public that the expansion in testing capacity would likely result in a jump in vs. Evolution the number of 2009 H1N1 cases, but that this would actually present a more accurate picture of the true scope of 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States.

By May 1, 2009, CDC had identified some interesting things about the 2009 H1N1 virus. Researchers had confirmed earlier testing that the and supply, 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was a quadruple-reassortant virus, meaning that it contained virus genes that originated from four different influenza virus sources. Some of the gene segments originated from North American swine influenza viruses, some gene segments originated from North American avian influenza viruses, one gene segment originated from a human influenza virus, and two gene segments were normally found in swine influenza viruses from Asia and in vs. Evolution Essay Europe. Testing of a number of the short poems, virus samples submitted to Creationism Essay, CDC showed that they were very similar, which means they likely originated from the same source. Laboratory testing showed that the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus did not have any 1918-like markers that had been associated with increased risk of elasticity and supply, severe disease. Testing also did not find genetic markers that were previously associated with high death rates in people infected with the avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in other countries..

On May 4, 2009, CDC shifted from vs. Evolution reporting confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 to the articles left to, reporting both confirmed and probable cases of 2009 H1N1. At that point, more than 98% of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, €œprobable€ flu virus samples were testing positive for 2009 H1N1, indicating the ever-growing scale of the left to, outbreak. Probable cases were reported to CDC by Essay, state health departments and occurred in people who tested positive for influenza A and negative for elasticity seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes at Creationism Essay, their state health department laboratory, but whose samples had not had confirmatory testing for the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. CDC Shares Personnel, Guidance, Early Results of Studies. CDC deployed a large number of staff to the field to support the outbreak response; by May 1, 2009, 50 staff people were deployed, and that number climbed to more than 100 by May 11, 2009, before gradually declining as field teams returned from deployment to complete studies, analyze collected data, and help inform policy decisions for smoking be banned essay the prevention and control of vs. Evolution Essay, 2009 H1N1 influenza. Over the course of the outbreak, more than 3,300 people from throughout CDC would support the response. On May 6, 2009, CDC distributed recommendations for short the use of influenza antiviral medicines to provide guidance for clinicians in prescribing antiviral medicines for treatment and Creationism Essay prevention (chemoprophylaxis) of 2009 H1N1 influenza. CDC recommended that testing and should cigarette smoking essay antiviral treatment be prioritized for people with severe respiratory illness and people at high risk of complications from seasonal influenza. This included children younger than 5 years old, pregnant women, people with chronic medical conditions, and people 65 years and older. On May 8, 2009, CDC issued an MMWR updating the situations in Mexico, the United States, and worldwide, and on May 15, 2009, CDC€™s Travel Health Warning recommending against non-essential travel to Mexico, in Essay effect since April 27, 2009, was downgraded to a Travel Health Precaution for Mexico. By this point in the outbreak, about half of how is developed, all influenza viruses being detected through laboratory surveillance were 2009 H1N1 viruses, with the other half being regular seasonal influenza viruses, including seasonal influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2 and type B viruses.

Surveillance reports indicated that the largest number of 2009 H1N1 influenza confirmed and probable cases (about 57% of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, cases) were occurring among people between 5 years and 24 years of age, and 41% of the personality, hospitalizations were occurring among older children and young adults. The highest rates of hospitalization were among children younger than 5 years of age; the next highest hospitalization rate was in people 5 years to 24 years of age. Based on data from previous influenza pandemics and Creationism vs. Evolution seasonal influenza, pregnant women had been recognized as a high-risk group early in the outbreak. Early data on 2009 H1N1 illness among pregnant women was reported in an article published as an MMWR Dispatch on May 12, 2009. The Articles Of Confederation Left Congress Unable! This article emphasized the importance of empiric treatment (treatment without confirmatory testing) of pregnant women suspected to have 2009 H1N1. People with other previously recognized medical conditions that placed them at high risk of Creationism, complications from seasonal influenza also appeared to tesco credit existing customers, be at increased risk of complications from Creationism Essay 2009 H1N1 influenza. In this report, seventy-one percent (71%) of hospitalized patients had one or more underlying chronic medical conditions. Psychology! Reported deaths had occurred in people ranging in age from 22 months old to 57 years old. Vs. Evolution! Also, only tesco existing customers, 13% of hospitalizations had occurred in Creationism vs. Evolution people 50 years and older, and there were few cases and no deaths in people older than 65 years, which was unusual when compared with seasonal flu. Early results of an antibody study conducted by ts eliot poems, CDC indicated that children had no existing cross-reactive antibody to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, while about one-third of adults older than 60 years of Essay, age had cross-reactive antibody against the 2009 H1N1 flu virus. One possible explanation for this pre-existing antibody in older adults was that they may have had previous exposure, either through infection or vaccination, to an influenza A H1N1 virus that was more closely related to the 2009 H1N1 flu virus than contemporary seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses are.

Data from a similar study suggested that seasonal influenza vaccine would not provide any significant protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. On June 11, 2009, WHO signaled that a global pandemic of 2009 H1N1 influenza was underway by further raising the worldwide pandemic alert level to Phase 6 . That day, CDC held its first press conference with the short poems, new CDC Director Thomas Frieden, MD, MPH. Essay! The press conference had a total of 2,355 participants. At the time, more than 70 countries had reported cases of 2009 H1N1 infection, and community level outbreaks of 2009 H1N1 were ongoing in multiple parts of the world. The WHO decision to raise the pandemic alert level to elasticity, Phase 6 was a reflection of spread of the virus in other parts of the world and not a reflection of vs. Evolution Essay, any change in the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus or associated illness. To date, most people in the United States who had become ill with 2009 H1N1 influenza had not become seriously ill and had recovered without hospitalization. After the WHO declaration of wertheimer psychology, a pandemic on June 11, the 2009 H1N1 virus continued to spread and vs. Evolution Essay the number of countries reporting cases of 2009 H1N1 nearly doubled from mid-June 2009 to early July 2009.

Significant levels of 2009 H1N1 illness continued, with localized and in some cases intense outbreaks occurring. By June 19, 2009, all 50 states in the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and tesco the U.S. Essay! Virgin Islands had reported cases of 2009 H1N1 infection. Left Unable! The United States continued to report the Creationism vs. Evolution, largest number of 2009 H1N1 cases of any country worldwide, although most people who became ill recovered without requiring medical treatment. By late June more than 30 summer camps in the U.S. had reported outbreaks of 2009 H1N1 influenza illness, and CDC released guidance for day and residential camps to reduce the spread of influenza. At the elasticity and supply, June 25, 2009 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Meeting, CDC estimated that at least 1 million cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza had occurred in the United States. In early July, 2009, three 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses that were resistant to the antiviral drug oseltamivir were detected in three countries. (Antiviral resistance is when a virus changes in such a way that the antiviral drug is less effective in treating or preventing illnesses caused by the virus.) CDC and Creationism vs. Evolution WHO partners continued to conduct surveillance for antiviral resistance, although instances of should cigarette be banned, antiviral resistance continued to be detected very rarely. Also in July 2009, CDC reported findings in the MMWR that indicated a striking prevalence of Creationism Essay, obesity in intensive care patients who were confirmed to short, have 2009 H1N1 influenza.

Throughout the pandemic, CDC would continue to examine the Essay, relationship between 2009 H1N1 influenza, obesity, severe disease and poems other underlying risk factors. CDC continued to work with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to enhance surveillance for 2009 H1N1 influenza. As 2009 H1N1 cases continued to occur through the spring and summer, the task of counting cases became increasingly difficult. On May 12, 2009, CDC transitioned from reporting individual confirmed and probable cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza to Essay, reporting aggregate counts of cigarette be banned essay, 2009 H1N1 lab confirmed and probable cases, hospitalizations and vs. Evolution deaths with the launch of an aggregate reporting web site. Once the numbers of cases increased beyond the point where counting of wertheimer, individual cases was practical, on July 23, 2009, CDC reported the number of 2009 cases for the last time. Reporting of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations and vs. Evolution deaths continued. In addition, CDC continued using its traditional surveillance systems to how is personality, track the progress of the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. Traditional surveillance systems do not count individual cases, but instead monitor activity levels and virus characteristics through a nationwide surveillance system.

CDC worked closely with countries in Essay the Southern Hemisphere to how is developed, monitor and Creationism enhance surveillance for influenza viruses throughout the summer months. The Southern Hemisphere€™s influenza season began in May 2009 and countries there reported that 2009 H1N1 virus was spreading and of demand and supply causing illness along with regular seasonal influenza viruses. After mid-July, disease activity in most countries decreased, and by November, temperate regions of the vs. Evolution, Southern Hemisphere were reporting very little 2009 H1N1 disease activity. In general, the tesco credit card existing, experience of the Southern Hemisphere with the 2009 H1N1 virus was similar to what is usually seen during a regular influenza season and vs. Evolution did not seem to excessively impact the health care systems in the Southern Hemisphere. Also, surveillance systems did not find significant changes in the 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in the Southern Hemisphere as compared to viruses isolated from people in the Northern Hemisphere. These findings provided the U.S. with valuable clues related to what the 2009-2010 influenza season in the United States might be like. Importantly, the lack of significant changes in the virus indicated that the 2009 H1N1 vaccine being manufactured would closely match the currently circulating 2009 H1N1 viruses and short poems likely provide people with good protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza. 2009 H1N1 influenza summer activity peaked in vs. Evolution Essay the United States during May and psychology June and declined during July and early August.

However, levels of influenza activity would remain above normal throughout the summer months with localized outbreaks. During the last two weeks of vs. Evolution, August, 2009 H1N1 influenza activity again began to increase United States. In August 2009, CDC reported an how is personality developed, additional two instances of oseltamivir-resistant virus infection in two immunosuppressed patients in Seattle, Washington. Later, in mid-September, CDC reported two additional cases of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 influenza in Creationism vs. Evolution two summer campers in North Carolina. CDC and partners continued to carefully track 2009 H1N1 influenza antiviral resistance. As of June 2010 the 2009 H1N1 virus remains susceptible to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zanamivir, with rare exception. Cases of antiviral resistance are carefully tracked and ts eliot short poems updated numbers are posted each week as part of the CDC publication FluView. In late August, CDC began working with the commercial supply chain (manufacturers, distributors, retailers) for certain influenza countermeasures to monitor national inventory levels of critical supplies (antivirals and respiratory protective equipment) on a weekly basis. This visibility provided important data to guide SNS decision-making leading to Creationism Essay, the release of additional SNS countermeasures.

FDA and the manufacturer of the antiviral drug Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) recognized that commercial and stockpiled supplies of Tamiflu® oral suspension (liquid formulation meant for psychology children) were limited in October 2009. Creationism! CDC worked with partners to reach pharmacists with background information, updates on antiviral drug supplies, and instructions on how to compound oral suspension from Tamiflu® capsules meant for adults (Compounding is the mixing of elasticity of demand and supply, drugs by a health care professional to fit the unique needs of the Creationism vs. Evolution, patient). CDC also provided instructions for parents and caregivers on how to make a medicine mixture for their child using adult Tamiflu® capsules and thick, sweetened liquid. CDC also analyzed related surveillance data and how is personality developed based on Creationism vs. Evolution, the analysis over 500,000 bottles of pediatric oral suspension were distributed from the CDC SNS to states to fill production gaps and meet the increasing demand for the formulation. On October 23rd, 2009, FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for tesco existing Peramivir IV. Peramivir IV is an Creationism, investigational intravenous antiviral drug used to treat people who have been hospitalized due to severe flu illness. This drug was held in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and distributed by CDC under an EUA. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply! Licensed clinicians were able to vs. Evolution Essay, request this product through the CDC website electronic request system, and product was delivered directly to hospital facilities. Also in October, HHS authorized the release of an additional 59.5 million N95 respirators. CDC closed out reports of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths for the 2008-09 season in late August. On August 30, 2009, reporting modifications were implemented to allow states to report hospitalizations and the articles of confederation unable to deaths associated with any influenza or to report hospitalizations and deaths using a pneumonia and influenza syndromic case definition through the Aggregate Hospitalizations and Deaths Reporting Activity (AHDRA).

This change in Essay reporting was implemented in order to provide a fuller picture of the ts eliot short poems, burden of serious flu illness and deaths during the pandemic. The new reporting season for the 2009-2010 flu season began on August 30, 2009, and the first new numbers for the 2009-2010 season were reported in Creationism Essay the September 11, 2009 issue of FluView. Over the course of the pandemic, CDC refined and revised its surveillance methods, eventually developing a methodology based on surveillance data to estimate the range of 2009 H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and left unable deaths in the United States. CDC released its first official estimates for 2009 H1N1 cases, hospitalizations and deaths on November 12, 2009, and updated these on December 10, 2009, January 15, 2010, February 12, 2010, March 12, 2010, April 19, 2010 and for the final time on May 14, 2010. The emergence and spread of the 2009 H1N1 virus resulted in extraordinary influenza-like illness activity in the United States throughout the summer and Creationism fall months of 2009. During this period, influenza activity reached its highest level in short poems the reporting week ending October 24, 2009, with 49 of 50 states reporting geographically widespread disease. A cornerstone of the vs. Evolution Essay, U.S. Government response to the articles left, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was the launch of the national influenza 2009 H1N1 vaccination campaign that began in October. Much activity led up to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, the launch of the vaccination campaign. Starting in essay early June 2009, weekly calls were held to provide state and Essay local planners with vaccine-related updates, and on should cigarette essay, July 8, 2009, CDC issued guidance for state and local public health departments to assist them in planning for the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign. On July 9, 2009, the Department of Health and Creationism Essay Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the should smoking, Department of Education, and the White House held an influenza preparedness summit for federal, state, local and tribal officials to discuss existing pandemic plans, lessons learned, and preparedness priorities.

At the summit, the Federal government announced the availability of $350 million in supplemental funding for use by state, local and territorial health departments to bolster their response activities to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and strongly encouraged state, tribal and local partners to be ready to begin a 2009 H1N1 influenza immunization program by mid-October 2009. The 2009 National Influenza Vaccine Summit, a partnership of public and ts eliot poems private stakeholders committed to achieving the Healthy People 2010 goals for influenza vaccine, convened on vs. Evolution, June 29. Short! During the 2009 Summit, attendees were provided updates by experts in vs. Evolution Essay several professional fields, including private medicine, public health, health communication, vaccine manufacturing, vaccine distribution, and vaccine-related policy. CDC has been a cosponsor of this event, along with the American Medical Association, since 2001. In preparation for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunization program, on July 22, 2009, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced the start of a series of clinical trials to test pilot lots of congress unable, two manufacturers€™ versions of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy people, as well as people with underlying health conditions like asthma and HIV. Preliminary results from the Creationism Essay, clinical trials were announced publicly. On July 23, 2009, FDA€™s Vaccines and Related Biological Advisory Committee indicated support of FDA€™s proposed plan to license monovalent 2009 H1N1 vaccines via a €œstrain change€ pathway, similar to how seasonal influenza vaccines are licensed. This meant the 2009 H1N1 vaccine would be made in the same way using the cigarette smoking be banned essay, same standards already in Creationism Essay place for seasonal vaccines; it also allowed licensure to proceed more quickly since it did not require immunogenicity data or additional safety (except for the live attenuated vaccine) data for licensure.

On July 29, 2009, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) met to make recommendations for 2009 H1N1 vaccine. The ACIP recommended that as many people as possible receive 2009 H1N1 vaccine as quickly as possible. Certain groups of people were targeted to receive initially limited supplies of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine based on of confederation congress, epidemiologic and virologic data indicating they were at higher risk for infection or for severe influenza complications. The initial target groups for Creationism vaccination were estimated to consist of about 159 million people and included: pregnant women, people who live with or care for infants younger than 6 months of age, health care and emergency medical services personnel, infants 6 months through young adults 24 years of age, and ts eliot poems adults 25 through 64 years of age who are at higher risk for 2009 H1N1 complications because of chronic health disorders or compromised immune systems. The ACIP also recommended that local public health authorities and health care practitioners have flexibility to determine at the local level how quickly and when to expand vaccination to vs. Evolution Essay, other groups because vaccine availability and demand would likely vary by area.

CDC convened three public engagement sessions in mid-August in left ten regions of the United States with the purpose of soliciting citizen input into vaccination planning. The public provided opinions to CDC regarding how vaccine should be provided in Creationism vs. Evolution the U.S., and the information that was collected helped to wertheimer psychology, inform how 2009 H1N1 vaccine was distributed after it was manufactured. Ultimately, it was decided that vaccine should be distributed as soon as it was ready so that people could be protected against influenza as soon as possible, versus waiting to vs. Evolution, distribute vaccine until large quantities were prepared. In late August, CDC published a study in the MMWR that summarized an investigation of laboratory-confirmed cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza identified during April 24-July 25, 2009 in Chicago, Illinois. The study found that the overall attack rate was highest among children aged 5-14 years (147 per 100,000 population), which was 14 times higher than for adults older than 60 years of age. A total of 205 (13%) patients were hospitalized, with the highest rate observed among children aged 0-4 years (25 per customers, 100,000), followed by children aged 5-14 years (11 per Essay, 100,000). These findings would also provide input into vaccination strategy. By the end of August 2009, prototype vaccines to the articles left congress, prevent 2009 H1N1 virus had been developed but were not yet licensed.

Production of the enormous quantities of vaccine necessary to protect the entire U.S. population was underway. CDC expanded its contract for Creationism vs. Evolution the childhood Vaccine for Children program in the United States (McKesson Specialty Distribution), to provide centralized distribution of 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Available vaccine supplies were allocated to how is personality, states proportional to their total populations and shipped to public and private provider vaccination sites based on orders placed by the states. Participating providers were asked to sign a Provider Agreement assuring they intended to meet state requirements for administering vaccine. On September 3, 2009, CDC published in the MMWR a study that had analyzed data related to 2009 H1N1 influenza pediatric deaths reported to CDC from April to Essay, August, 2009. How Is Personality Developed! Data showed that as of August 8, 2009, 477 deaths with laboratory confirmed 2009 H1N1 flu in the United States had been reported to CDC, including 36 children younger than 18 years of age. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of Creationism vs. Evolution, children who died with 2009 H1N1 influenza had at credit card existing, least one high-risk medical condition.

CDC continued to urge parents to recognize 2009 H1N1 in their children early and to seek medical attention when needed. Essay! CDC also reiterated that all children 6 months or older and caregivers of children younger than 6 months should receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine when it became available. On September 10, 2009, the cigarette, HHS Secretary and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay CDC Director joined the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) in a news conference to stress vigilance against of demand seasonal influenza in an unusual season and urged Americans to get their seasonal flu vaccine early. In addition to Essay, NFID, HHS and CDC, the news conference was held in collaboration with the American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of the articles of confederation congress unable, Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Physicians (ACP), AARP, and Creationism vs. Evolution the National Influenza Vaccine Summit. On September 15, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced its approval of four 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines, and later, on November 16, FDA announced its approval of a fifth 2009 H1N1 vaccine to protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu virus. The NIH announced on how is, September 21, 2009, that early results from clinical trials of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in children looked promising. Preliminary analysis indicated that the Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, vaccines were safe, and that only one dose of 2009 H1N1 vaccine for the majority of 10 to 17 year olds would be needed to generate a sufficient immune response to be protective against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, but younger children generally had a less robust early response to the vaccine.

CDC recommended that children younger than 10 years receive two doses of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. Results of trials conducted among adults were later published in December, and tesco credit customers the data indicated that the immune response among vaccinated adults was excellent. The safety data from vs. Evolution Essay these trials also indicated that vaccine side effects were similar to those seen with the seasonal flu vaccines. On September 30, 2009, states were able to place their first orders for the 2009 H1N1 vaccine; forty-seven states placed orders on that day, and by October 9, 2009, all states and ts eliot short the District of Columbia had placed orders for vaccine. The first doses were administered on October 5, 2009. Because initial supplies of vaccine were limited, most state and local health departments requested that vaccine be given only to those in the initial target groups, and Creationism many restricted use to those in sub prioritization groups that had also been outlined by ACIP. The first six weeks after vaccines were initially released where characterized by high demand for vaccine and limited availability. On October 23, the ACIP discussed pandemic vaccine issues, including suitability of the initial target groups developed in July 2009, and the articles left congress unable to concluded that the July guidance remained appropriate.

The ACIP continued to emphasize the role of Creationism, local decision-making in determining when to personality, begin offering vaccine to Creationism, persons outside initial target groups. As vaccine supply increased, by late November and how is early December most states had begun easing restrictions for Essay 2009 H1N1 vaccine use, and by late December vaccination had been opened up to anyone who wanted it. Also beginning in December 2009, the elasticity of demand, HHS Center for Creationism vs. Evolution Essay Faith-Based Neighborhood Partnerships partnered with the how is, HHS Regional Offices to host eleven teleconferences to engage community and vs. Evolution Essay faith-based organizations in the 2009 H1N1 flu response. Since most states were easing vaccination restrictions, these calls presented an opportunity to remind key partners that they should check with their local health departments to determine availability of vaccine. By the week of ts eliot, December 22, distribution of 2009 H1N1 vaccine had been opened up to retail pharmacies so that they could place orders for vaccine directly, thereby expanding the reach and Creationism availability of vaccine. In December 2009, CDC published in the MMWR preliminary safety results for the 2009 H1N1 vaccines from the first months of reports received through the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national voluntary reporting surveillance system and tesco data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Results indicated that the vast majority (95%) of Creationism, adverse events reported to VAERS after receipt of the elasticity, 2009 H1N1 vaccine were not serious (e.g., soreness at the vaccine injection site).

Of the Creationism Essay, 3,783 reports, 204 (5%) were reports that involved what would be coded as serious health events (defined as life threatening or resulting in death, major disability, abnormal conditions at birth, hospitalization, or extension of an existing hospitalization). The percentage of reports involving what would be considered serious health events was not substantially different between 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines. The 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine was manufactured in should smoking be banned essay several formulations, using the same manufacturers and the same manufacturing practices used to produce seasonal influenza vaccine. Monitoring the safety of the flu vaccine continues to be a top priority. CDC and Creationism Essay the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) worked with other agencies to establish and enhance existing surveillance systems to rapidly detect any unexpected adverse events among persons who are vaccinated and to adjust the vaccination program, if necessary, to minimize risks and maximize benefits from vaccination. Short! Two important systems used to monitor vaccine safety that have been active for 20 years, are the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), jointly operated between CDC and FDA, and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) , a collaborative project between the CDC and eight managed care organizations covering more than nine million members(about 3% of the US population). These systems are designed to determine whether adverse events are occurring among vaccinated persons at a greater rate than what would be expected.

CDC worked with FDA and other partners to vs. Evolution Essay, strengthen these vaccine safety monitoring systems and develop new ways to monitor vaccine safety. In addition, based on the recommendation of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC), HHS established the H1N1 Vaccine Safety Risk Assessment Working Group to review 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety data as it accumulates. This working group of outside experts conducts regular, rapid reviews of available data from the federal safety monitoring systems and presents them to NVAC and federal leadership for appropriate policy action and follow-up. Also in December 2009, HHS joined with the Ad Council to launch a new nationwide Public Service Announcements campaign called Together We Can Fight the Flu that encouraged Americans to get vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 virus. The week of December 18, 2009 marked the first 100 million doses of the articles of confederation left congress, 2009 H1N1 vaccine available for ordering. The year 2010 began with the Creationism Essay, National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW). NIVW is a national observance that was established to unable, highlight the importance of continuing influenza vaccination after the holiday season into January and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay beyond. The President of the United States proclaimed the week of January 10-16, 2010, National Influenza Vaccination Week, and encouraged all Americans to observe the week by how is, getting the 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine and by asking their families, friends and coworkers to do the same. Creationism Essay! CDC and HHS - in conjunction with the states and many other partners, both public and private - launched a comprehensive NIVW campaign with the objective of raising vaccination awareness, providing educational opportunities, free resources, as well as vaccination clinics. Every year, certain days during NIVW are designated to highlight the importance for certain groups; this year€™s Week was dedicated to highlighting the importance of vaccination for the general public and health care workers, people with chronic health conditions that put them at high risk of ts eliot short poems, serious influenza-related complications, children, pregnant women, and caregivers of infants less than 6 months old, young adults 19 through 24 years old, and vs. Evolution people 65 years and older.

For example, the events on Tuesday, January 12 centered on people with chronic medical conditions that put them at higher risk of serious influenza-related complications. National activities included a webinar attended by approximately 1,000 participants. This joint effort was hosted by HHS, CDC, the American Cancer Society, the poems, American Diabetes Association, and the American Lung Association. In addition, Secretary Sebelius participated in vs. Evolution two press conference calls announcing new public service announcements (PSAs) tailored to African American and Native American audiences. The Director of the Indian Health Service joined the Secretary in stressing the importance and benefits of ts eliot short, vaccination. On January 15, 2010, CDC published an article in Essay the MMWR on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination coverage in the United States between October and December 2009. Results of the personality developed, study indicated that efforts to get available vaccine to target groups had largely succeeded. Early on during the 3-month period, 85% of available vaccine reached people within those initial target populations. By the end of December, with many programs expanding their vaccine efforts to all populations, 74% of all vaccine given during the Essay, program had gone to people in the articles congress unable the initial priority groups. On February 18, 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) published recommendations for the composition of Essay, influenza virus vaccines for the upcoming season in the Northern Hemisphere (November 2010-April 2011). The WHO recommended a trivalent (three component) vaccine including a 2009 H1N1-like pandemic virus.

In February of 2010, the components of the developed, 2010-2011 influenza vaccine were announced. Vs. Evolution Essay! The 2010-2011 flu vaccine will protect against a 2009 H1N1-like virus in addition to an influenza A H3N2 virus and an influenza B virus. The United States experienced its second wave of 2009 H1N1 activity in the fall with activity peaking during the second week in October. After that, activity declined quickly to below baseline levels in January, but persisted for several more months at lower levels. However, by May, influenza activity levels in the United States were low across key flu indicators. Reporting for left the 2009-2010 influenza season was finalized on May 28, 2010. Even as flu activity reached normal summer-time levels in vs. Evolution the U.S., CDC continued to recommend influenza vaccination, particularly for high risk persons, because of reports of tesco card existing customers, ongoing sporadic cases of 2009 H1N1, ongoing spread of 2009 H1N1 in vs. Evolution Essay the Southern Hemisphere and the possibility that 2009 H1N1 viruses might circulate early during the upcoming flu season.

CDC Communication Activities During the wertheimer psychology, 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. The CDC response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was led by science and continually evolved to meet the nation€™s needs as events unfolded and as more information became available. However, a consistent underlying communications strategy underscored the entire CDC response. Creationism! The strategy is based on the emergency risk communications principles of quickly, proactively and psychology transparently communicating accurate information to the public and to partners. This strategy included CDC clearly stating its goals and actions in response to the evolving situation and acknowledging what was not known, as well as what was known. Another important part of the strategy was CDC setting the expectation that information and advice would change rapidly as the situation evolved.

From the earliest days of the pandemic, CDC regularly articulated its goals to €œreduce transmission and illness severity, and provide information to help health care providers, public health officials and the public address the challenges posed by the new virus.€ Throughout the response, in vs. Evolution an effort to provide the most helpful information in of demand and supply the most effective ways possible, CDC drew on existing knowledge but also worked with partners to conduct ongoing scientific research and evaluation of people€™s knowledge, attitudes and practices related to a number of topics including 2009 H1N1 flu, infection control guidance, and vaccine. Especially during the early days of the outbreak, the Creationism, release of information from CDC and exchange of information with partners was conducted on a 24-hour cycle. Should Smoking Essay! This included frequent updates to media and the public, the consistent use of a core group of spokespersons, daily information outreach to partners, and rapid establishment and ongoing maintenance of an vs. Evolution, extensive Web site dedicated specifically to the emergency response for ts eliot poems 2009 H1N1 flu. The goal was not only to Creationism vs. Evolution, be as transparent as possible in all activities related to managing the public health response, but also to maintain credibility and continue to be a trusted source of information for the public and for partners. Beginning early in the response and continuing throughout the year and into 2010, special care was taken to keep state and local public health partners informed of CDC€™s activities.

Key messages were regularly provided to help maintain consistent, clear communication across the response. Special care also was taken to ts eliot, regularly collect feedback from state and local public health partners to Essay, help ensure that CDC recommendations were finely tuned to and supply, what was happening in the field. Regularly scheduled conference calls with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, the National Association of City and County Health Officials, and the National Public Health Information Coalition proved to Creationism vs. Evolution, be an tesco credit, effective way to Creationism Essay, share information. In addition, on April 24, 2009, CDC held the first of more than 30 Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) calls presented on a variety of 2009 H1N1-related topics. And Supply! COCA is designed to Creationism, reach a diverse group of health care providers and provide a system through which clinicians can communicate their educational needs to CDC and receive answers to questions about related emerging diseases. Of Demand! At the peak of the 2009 H1N1 response, COCA had more than 41,100 listserv subscribers. CDC also worked hard to keep the Creationism, policy community informed. CDC provided responses to congressional requests for should smoking essay information and briefings on vs. Evolution Essay, 2009 H1N1-related issues, and also provided email and web-based informational updates as the pandemic unfolded. In all, CDC participated in 14 hearings, provided technical assistance in another 12 hearings, issued over three dozen 2009 H1N1 newsletters to policymakers, arranged for over 40 congressional briefings or speaking engagements and fielded over congress unable, 350 congressional inquiries during the pandemic. There was a concerted effort to get information out as soon as possible and to keep the public and partners aware of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, developments as they unfolded, even as guidance was changing quickly. Psychology! For example, when relatively few cases of human infection with this virus were lab confirmed and severity of the pandemic was not known, on April 28, 2009, CDC posted guidance for schools and advised that they close if they had a suspected or actual case of the flu in order to lessen the risk of spreading 2009 H1N1 into their communities.

As more information became available suggesting a lower risk of Creationism Essay, severe illness and death from 2009 H1N1, six days later the recommendation was changed to recommend against school closure for community mitigation purposes. The development of wertheimer, CDC guidance is an example of the collaborative communication and sharing of information that took place between CDC, HHS, other federal agencies, and external partners. Development of appropriate guidance often relied on vs. Evolution, CDC communication with many external partners several times a week, with the goal of achieving consensus on what the best practice would be given the best science currently available. For example, CDC worked with representatives from a number of organizations including but not limited to Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), National Association of County and City Health Officials (NAACHO), American Academy of should cigarette smoking be banned essay, Pediatrics (AAP), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American College of Creationism vs. Evolution, Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), American College of Physicians (ACP), Infectious Diseases Society of psychology, America (ISDA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and World Health Organization (WHO), during the development of guidance related to everything from surveillance systems to the appropriate use of antiviral drugs during the pandemic. On the topic of vaccination, these discussions helped inform decision-making by the Advisory Committee on vs. Evolution Essay, Immunization Practices (ACIP). Apart from ongoing collaboration between CDC and its external partners, the communications response for 2009 H1N1 flu also was characterized by ongoing, close coordination between CDC€™s communicators and should cigarette essay its scientists to ensure that messages stayed scientifically accurate. Also, CDC communicators took time to regularly analyze feedback from a variety of external sources, including polls and surveys, in Creationism vs. Evolution Essay order to ensure that CDC's messages were clear. CDC provided a steady stream of information to audiences across the of confederation left unable, spectrum: from the public to pharmacists to vs. Evolution, laboratorians to wertheimer, international partners and Creationism countries around the how is personality developed, globe. Information provided by vs. Evolution Essay, CDC reached a myriad of audiences through a variety of channels including but not limited to: a 24-hour information hotline, press briefings for the media, dissemination through health alert networks, daily postings (including video and audio podcasts) to the articles to, the CDC 2009 H1N1 web site, regular updates on Facebook and Twitter, and further outreach by partners and partner organizations to their own audiences, just to name a few channels.

For example, in November 2009, CDC kicked off a national travelers€™ health public awareness campaign and urged travelers to plan ahead and stay informed about vs. Evolution, what to do if they got sick while they were away from home. Card Existing Customers! The campaign used a variety of media, including informational posters distributed at Essay, over 300 ports of elasticity and supply, entry in the United States, national radio and vs. Evolution Essay print advertising, and short social media and online outreach, which culminated in Creationism vs. Evolution Essay over 80 million exposures. CDC also coordinated with HHS and wertheimer psychology the Flu.gov web site and posted communication toolkits for the 2009-2010 influenza season for businesses, employers, childcare groups and vs. Evolution institutions of higher education. The CDC 2009 H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination campaign was made up of multiple outreach efforts including placement of articles geared to of demand and supply, numerous audiences like parents and young adults, in high-profile media outlets. Article placements led to nearly 403 million overall impressions. Other national outreach efforts made via social media tools, radio ads, two television public service announcements (PSAs), online media banners, and Creationism city bus ads. Numerous print materials in multiple languages were made for the articles left congress partners to distribute and were downloaded tens of thousands of times.

Special audiences identified for vs. Evolution additional print materials included Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanics, pregnant women, young adults, first responders, and psychology health care workers. In addition to Creationism Essay, materials provided for the 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccination campaign, CDC provided other key materials in multiple languages. For example, the entire English-language 2009 H1N1 web site was mirrored in Spanish. In addition, key tools and and supply resources were created in Creationism vs. Evolution Essay Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, French, German, Arabic, Russian, Amharic, Farsi, Somali, Karen, Burmese, Cambodian, and short Kirundi.. In all, between April 2009 when 2009 H1N1 flu first emerged and April 2010, CDC held 60 related media events €“ 39 press briefings and Creationism vs. Evolution 22 telebriefings €“ for the articles congress unable a total of Creationism, more than 35,000 participants. CDC also hosted its first ever two-day workshop for of confederation congress the news media on the subjects of both 2009 H1N1 influenza and seasonal influenza in late August. Originally conceived to include 12 members of the news media, the attendance grew to over 40 journalists from national, regional and local news outlets representing radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and online news media.

Speakers at the event included the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Essay, CDC Director, influenza experts, vaccine safety experts, and laboratory experts. Of Confederation Congress To! The CDC hotline (1-800-CDC-INFO) responded to more than 211,000 related inquiries from the general public and health care providers, and the CDC 2009 H1N1 web site had more than 219,595,000 page views. Creationism Essay! Also, the credit card existing customers, number of CDC Facebook fans rose to more than 55,000 fans and the CDC emergency profile on Creationism Essay, Twitter was tracked by psychology, more than 1,200,000 followers. To receive weekly email updates about this site, enter your email address:

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agrument essays Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and vs. Evolution time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an of confederation left argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline.

At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to wertheimer get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument. Ts Eliot? It’s made up of Essay a hook, background information, and a thesis statement.

1. Hook. The Articles Congress? Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is vs. Evolution, a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and short poems the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences.

2. Background information. Creationism Essay? The next part of of confederation left congress unable to your intro is Creationism, dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is psychology, this issue prevalent? Why is it important?

For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. Creationism Vs. Evolution? This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and elasticity and supply fish as their main source of protein and Essay nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on poems the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the Creationism vs. Evolution three claims I’m going to expand on of confederation unable to later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to Creationism starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. How Is? Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument.

Now that you have filled in Creationism Essay the general points of your topic and should cigarette outlined your stance in Essay the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only credit card customers have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to Creationism include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible.

1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. Credit Card Customers? For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay eating them can fix the problem of hunger and credit existing malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into Creationism vs. Evolution, play. 2. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to ts eliot short poems provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. Creationism Vs. Evolution? It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal.

For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the personality United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Vs. Evolution? Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of personality evidence to Creationism vs. Evolution back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now.

Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the wertheimer psychology Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for Essay, a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for tesco card existing, many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the Essay way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the how is personality opponents straight with a refutation that is Essay, full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to personality developed researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the Creationism best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to credit card customers develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion.

In your conclusion, you are going to vs. Evolution accomplish two important tasks. 1. Of Demand? Restate the importance of your issue. Vs. Evolution Essay? Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and the articles left unable nutrition of the Creationism vs. Evolution American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of how is developed their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the Essay vitamins, minerals, and of demand micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is Creationism vs. Evolution, valid.

Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into tesco credit card existing customers, the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the vs. Evolution guidelines specific to tesco credit card customers your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. Creationism Vs. Evolution? When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst.

98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. How Is? About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on the history of Essay cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the elasticity and supply goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics.

For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by Creationism vs. Evolution evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the unable to best option, you could focus on Creationism vs. Evolution arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by ts eliot short poems evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. Creationism Vs. Evolution? It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and wertheimer psychology solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to Creationism Essay viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and elasticity and supply other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked?

Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about Creationism vs. Evolution, people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is ts eliot, this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to Creationism support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Elasticity And Supply? Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different?

Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the vs. Evolution argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and developed I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out Creationism Essay my argument?

I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to credit card customers other people? That way, it falls into Creationism vs. Evolution, your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an existing customers argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to Essay increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and ts eliot poems help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to vs. Evolution Essay start from. Hisome of cigarette be banned essay these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on Creationism how to elasticity get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to vs. Evolution its users?

I am not sure how to smoking start from Creationism Essay there. Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on of confederation unable social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the vs. Evolution essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to the articles unable think about after reading or is it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is Creationism, definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. I recommend you check out how is personality developed this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot!

Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. Vs. Evolution? You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument!

You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to psychology help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi.

HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. Creationism Vs. Evolution? OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome!

Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. Ts Eliot? #128578; I#8217;m happy to Creationism vs. Evolution hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. Should Cigarette Smoking Be Banned Essay? I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of Creationism vs. Evolution arguments I need to tesco existing customers make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about Creationism Essay, it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about the articles, it. I have to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is essay, sports marketing.

I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in Essay so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular?

A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of of confederation left your essay to Creationism vs. Evolution fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful. Tesco Credit Customers? Here#8217;s what the vs. Evolution assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to psychology a group of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and of confederation even interviews in which you will be asked about Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, your chosen career path and its significance to you. Card Existing? The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do.

You#8217;ll also want to Creationism vs. Evolution find some hard facts and wertheimer psychology statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of Creationism reason 1, reason 2, and how is reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to vs. Evolution accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and ts eliot short reason 3. Glad to help!

Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? Please help. I need to wertheimer psychology submit it on thursday. Creationism? Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. Personality? You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help.

Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on ts eliot poems this. I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to Essay a tragic end. Cigarette Be Banned Essay? To be able to vs. Evolution Essay make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in ts eliot Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Essay? Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about personality, this edit?

Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Creationism Essay Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is congress, great. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? I can go ahead now. You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to cigarette smoking essay come up with a thesis statement. Creationism Essay? For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Personality Developed? Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. Creationism? this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment.

Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. Tesco Credit Card? I have to write an vs. Evolution argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations.

Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is wertheimer, how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to vs. Evolution reach up on it. Of Confederation Unable? can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an Creationism argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. Elasticity Of Demand? I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. Creationism? (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to of demand and supply see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans.

A topic that large is Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, going to congress be very difficult to Creationism explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of cigarette essay sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at Creationism vs. Evolution meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for should cigarette be banned essay, U.S. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in how is developed politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on vs. Evolution Essay some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.

Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to credit card customers help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey!

Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to vs. Evolution help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and the articles of confederation left unable to contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog.

What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for personality, the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in Creationism love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome!

I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life. Tesco Credit Card Customers? Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver.

I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in vs. Evolution 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in psychology this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and vs. Evolution Essay inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to should cigarette smoking hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading!

Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. Vs. Evolution? This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading!

Happy to ts eliot short help. I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay Weberianism. How Is Developed? Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading.

My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the Creationism vs. Evolution number of of demand women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is Essay, illegal. If your paper is ts eliot short, pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction.

Can you help me with introducing on ts eliot short smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Essay? Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good.

I have been reading about academic reading and ts eliot short writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. Vs. Evolution? This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and thanks. Heaps. The Articles? Fantastic! Happy to help. Creationism Essay? I have to and supply write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too?

I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to vs. Evolution do or how to elasticity start it. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for tesco card existing, each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. Creationism Essay? I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to ts eliot short poems support your stance. Vs. Evolution Essay? Here is ts eliot, a blog post about Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper.

My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction?

You might need to tesco card existing also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is Creationism, this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to tesco credit suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is Essay, separate from your thesis statement. The Articles Of Confederation Left Congress? The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too.

So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of Creationism vs. Evolution your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in credit existing customers the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the Creationism vs. Evolution idea that only elasticity of demand boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and vs. Evolution a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at?

Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in left to these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha!

I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and Creationism a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is should be banned essay, writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the Creationism information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to smoking be banned this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for Essay, your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from elasticity of demand and supply this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of vs. Evolution luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to cigarette smoking take a stance for or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance.

I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for college with the topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help. this is amazing and funny as hell. Vs. Evolution? this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of luck with your exam. #128578; it#8217;s very useful. Wertheimer? thanks a lot.

You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, commenting. I#8217;ll be thankfull to you #128578; You just made my time. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; Thank you very much for making this easy to how is personality understand, this helped me ace my English final exam. You are the best #128578; So happy to hear it! Thanks for the comment. Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines. Your article really makes my day more easier. Wish me luck.

Inny. Sweet! Good luck on your project! What a great tips. Thank you #128578; Happy you think so! Thanks for Creationism Essay, the comment. Psychology? woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for your efforts. Happy to help!

Thanks for the comment. Vs. Evolution? This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and tesco we have to Essay create an argumentative essay on should a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I#8217;m really bad at writing and reading. Creationism Essay? Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you#8217;ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for wertheimer psychology, tackling an in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the Creationism good woooork.

Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. How Is Developed? #128578; This blog is awesome and so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you. Thanks for the sweet comment! Happy to help. Creationism? #128578;

may u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for reading! Glad we could help. Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about how to start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don#8217;t know how I started and didn#8217;t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. I#8217;m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the outline!! I used it all morning to and supply help start my essay for college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses!

Fantastic! Happy to hear it. Vs. Evolution Essay? #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for #8220;being competent in English Language is necessary for ts eliot poems, successful academic achievement#8221; cloud you plx give me a best introduction for this essay #8230; An interesting fact or statistic that shows the correlation between learning English and Creationism Essay academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for short poems, same sex marriage . I#8217;m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. Creationism? comp class. How Is Developed? Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in vs. Evolution favor of poems same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on Creationism vs. Evolution Essay the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome!

Glad you liked it. Thanks for the comment. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for #8220;Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms#8221; I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro #8212; including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for should smoking essay, the comment. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay? #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry. Sorry that it wasn#8217;t more helpful, Trent. Elasticity And Supply? Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I#8217;m going to write about how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me?

May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and Essay I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to how is back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in vs. Evolution Essay your thesis and tesco card existing defend them throughout your paper. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is #8220;Why do I believe this?#8221; Hi, there. I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of Essay writing a paper on immortality. Short? I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter.

So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it#8217;s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome! We#8217;re happy you think so and thanks for cigarette essay, the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, my college professor and cigarette smoking I needed advice on vs. Evolution Essay an effective argumentative structure outline. This is the articles of confederation congress unable to, exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped. Creationism Essay? Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of and supply Mental Disorders a good topic to write about?

And is vs. Evolution Essay, it too broad? I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD.

You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in card customers young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the Essay contributing factor here! That#8217;s a pretty big statement and smoking essay you#8217;ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. Creationism Essay? 3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi#8230; Thanks for how is personality developed, reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info.

Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks. Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to Creationism vs. Evolution hear it. Elasticity And Supply? Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and useful outline I have used.

Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for vs. Evolution Essay, your kind words and happy to help. #128578; You#8217;re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment!

A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the same as an elasticity and supply argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. Vs. Evolution Essay? #128578; i love this blog #8230; you are an awesome teacher #8230; Aww, shucks. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I#8217;m 100% positive you could be as smart as me.

Happy this helped and thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I#8217;m not the best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones#8230; This is a huge help! Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to psychology help out. #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to Creationism vs. Evolution you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of of demand and supply these? Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I#8217;ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay!

Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for Creationism, the kind comment. Card? #128578; I was stumped in class by Creationism the prompt for a six paragraph essay. This article is should cigarette be banned essay, great. Creationism Essay? THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you.

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essay sun and steel Here is the basic thesis of this essay: there are three forces that have recently and profoundly changed the design of the Essay road-racing bicycle. The usual search for competitive advantage on personality developed the race course. Marketing pressures. The manufacturer's search to reduce costs, and the corollary desire to reduce the vs. Evolution Essay number of items manufactured. The result? Most people are being sold bicycles that have had their ride quality seriously compromised in the name of increased performance that is really illusory.

To put it bluntly, the ts eliot short poems bikes they are being sold ride like bloody hell. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay! The pleasure that can be had by riding a delicious, well-designed, comfortable bike that is competitive at all but the very highest levels of wertheimer psychology, racing has been denied to the majority of the modern road bike riders. A discerning rider should look upon lightweight road bikes as basically falling into two categories. All-out racing bikes (and lower-priced clones that purport to be the same, but have none of the competitive advantages and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay all of the disadvantages of these bikes) that, while not offering the most comfortable or pleasurable ride, give the serious athlete a chance to race without worrying that his equipment will hold him back. Many items that claim to be in this category are marketing tools aimed at the misinformed. But more about this later. Riding bikes. An intelligently designed bike will offer a wonderful ride, handle like a dream and only slightly compromise the all-out need for the ultimately competitive bike. I believe that these are the ts eliot short poems bikes most people should ride. This all used to be so easy.

In 1975, a professional rider rode a bike made of Columbus, or Reynolds 531. Vs. Evolution Essay! The usual group was Campagnolo Nuovo Record, but a mixture of French or even Spanish components could be used. Short Poems! The rims would be tubulars like Fiamme strung up with 36 spokes, and have handmade (cold-treated) tubulars glued on. Vs. Evolution! The bars were most likely Cinelli, the how is developed chain and cogset Regina. The bike probably weighed about 21.5 pounds. It was the vs. Evolution Essay state of the ts eliot short poems art. No bike could be made that was faster, more reliable or significantly lighter. At the same time, no bike could be had that rode better than a handmade frame, built by a master out of 531 or Columbus and vs. Evolution assembled with the pro of demand and supply equipment of the day. The bike was not only Essay competitive at the highest levels of the sport, it rode comfortably and had excellent vertical compliance so that it adhered to the road.

The sensual element that gives a bike ride its real pleasure could find no better tool than the true pro bike of the of confederation to '70s. Bikes have changed. Those changes require that a thoughtful person contemplating the purchase of a new bike to use a different set of criteria than a rider of the Creationism '70s and '80s. Of Demand And Supply! It's no longer enough to just want what the pros ride. As I stated in my opening paragraph, there are several forces at work changing the design of the professional racing bike. First of all, the most easily noticed is the march to lighter weight. This has caused the UCI (the governing body of worldwide bike racing) to Essay require that bikes weigh at least 6.8 kilograms (15 lbs.). There is a fear that the technological advance will obscure the importance of the human effort in short poems a bike race. The UCI wants to vs. Evolution Essay make sure that the ts eliot short emphasis is on the athlete. There are two other forces at work.

Manufacturers want to reduce the number of different items that they manufacture. Sometimes this ends up being for the better. Threadless forks are lighter, the stems are stiffer. Essay! The manufacturer gets to make only one fork and elasticity of demand cut it to length. Previously he had to make a different threaded fork for Essay each size frame. His life is simpler and personality developed the bike is lighter and stiffer. Compact frames reduce the number of frame sizes that need to Creationism vs. Evolution be manufactured. We make the Corsa Strada (not a compact frame) in 18 sizes, each with a unique geometry. This many items, all complex and differernt, are a manufacturer's nightmare, but a bike rider's dream. Fit and weight distribution on compact frames, however, can be a problem. If a person is between frame sizes, the choice between a too-short or too-long stem (and the same with the seat post) will result in a poor fit and bad handling.

The miniscule weight savings does not make up for the articles left congress unable to the disadvantages. But, the manufacturer has saved a bundle. And you'll look like the pros in the Tour de France who are being paid to sell this line of baloney. Another force driving design is advertising. Vs. Evolution! Marketing costs are huge. In the how is personality sport-driven world of bicycle advertising, these costs have ballooned. Creationism Essay! Up until the 1970s, a big bicycle factory could, on the articles of confederation to its own, sponsor a high-end bicycle team. Gone are the days of a Peugeot team stocked with Tour winning riders like Thevenet. The last team sponsored primarily by a bicycle company was TI-Raleigh. And this was possible because Tubing Investments, the owner of Raleigh, amortised a lot of the costs of the team over other branches of the vs. Evolution conglomerate.

Today, the elasticity of demand bicycle supplier generally plays a much smaller part in the financing of a pro Essay team, which can cost more than $8,000,000 a year. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply! With these huge costs, the pro team has been forced to become a more focused marketing driven device than in decades past. Every square inch of the bike and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay the riders' clothing is crammed with advertising. In the short poems past, rim manufacturers never paid racing teams money to Creationism equip their bikes because the personality developed then-used box-section rim is so anonymous. You never knew which teams were using what rims. New wheels with deep section rims can carry obvious and easily recognized advertising, but this is at a real cost to the rider. The deep rims ride very harshly. The reduced spoke count wheel have very high spoke tensions that exacerbate the Creationism problem. The consumer is sold the wheels because they are light. But, this is a half-truth. Personality Developed! Because the rims have deep sections, the inertial mass (rotating weight) is greater.

The result is that the bike has less snap and rides more harshly. To make it worse, tests have shown that a rim needs to Creationism vs. Evolution be 40 mm deep to have any real aerodynamic advantage. The rims with their cross sections in the 30mm's are not aero, they are only fancy looking. Before buying one of these wheelsets that have lots of gee-whiz, consider a nice set of 32 hole, cross-three wheels with box section rims. Put a pair on your bike and give them a chance. Borrow a buddy's set if you have any. The weight is almost the same. But the ride.

On to the frames. Bicycle frames and forks are made of four different materials: steel, aluminum, titanium, and carbon fiber. There other materials on the fringe, but they are beyond the scope of this discussion. Steel, aluminum and titanium are metals with an interesting relationship. Titanium has 1/2 the density of personality, steel and Creationism 1/2 the tensile strength. Wertheimer Psychology! Aluminum has 1/3 the density and 1/3 the strength of steel. Creationism Vs. Evolution Essay! Now the obvious conclusion that one can draw from this is that a frame of aluminum should end up weighing the existing customers same as a steel frame. A given cubic volume of aluminum weighs 1/3 as much as the same volume of steel. But because it has 1/3 the strength, one would need 3 times the material to Essay make a given structure work. It's not that simple.

In building bicycles, made of of demand, 9 tubes, there are problems in drawing the tubes too thin in relation to Creationism vs. Evolution Essay their diameter. Given the current state of the ts eliot short poems art, a bicycle downtube of steel is roughly 32 mm in diameter. It can be drawn so that the walls are about 0.4mm thick. Vs. Evolution! Any thinner and the tube can buckle easily, and the tube is subject to elasticity of demand and supply denting as well. Modern aluminum downtubes are usually oval for greater resistence to bending under the normal load of pedaling. The mechanical characteristics of vs. Evolution Essay, aluminum are inferior to steel. It will fail more quickly under repeated stress. So, the diameters and wall thicknesses must be increased, but not as much as would be called for to elasticity of demand make up entirely for the reduced tensile strength of aluminum. With a 42mm diameter, aluminum tubes can be drawn down to 0.7mm yielding a tube that weighs 185 grams, compared to Essay 220 grams for a state-of-the-art steel downtube. Multiplied throughout the bike's 9 tubes, it is obvious that a significant weight saving can be achieved using non-ferrous (non-steel) materials. Should Essay! Intermediate weight savings can be gained using titanium.

We know more about steel than any other of the materials used to build bikes. It is one of the basic building blocks of our civilization. Even though it has been over 150 years since Henry Bessemer figured out how to produce steel commercially and cheaply, new developments keep coming. Vs. Evolution Essay! In the early 1990s, Columbus announced the introduction of Nivachrome steel. Previous steels used to wertheimer psychology build bikes were chrome-moly alloys that lost as much as 40% of their strength after brazing. Nivachrome was the first alloy specifically developed for building bicycles. In the hands of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, a competent builder, Nivachrome loses only 10% of its strength after building. Also, it is tesco credit card existing a highly ductile steel (not brittle like glass) and has a very high tensile strength.

The results? Steel tubes could be made thinner and lighter. Previously, because so much strength was lost in brazing or welding, the tubing maker had to put a lot of redundant material in the tubing to allow for Creationism Essay the loss of strength. Poems! A normal tube in Essay 1976 was 0.9mm at the butted end and 0.6 in the center. With Nivachrome, that changed to 0.7mm at the butt and 0.4 in the center. This is a reduction of 1/3 of the mass of the tube with no loss of strength or durability. The resulting bikes made with these modern 0.4mm thick tubes were light and had a new, beautiful, elastic, delicious sensual feel that I cannot describe. I can only tell you that it is there. The other advantage of of demand, steel is reliability.

Modern metallurgy teaches that if a steel tube is bent and released repeatedly, it will not break as long as the amount of Creationism vs. Evolution, this bending remains within what engineers call the elastic range of the metal. When a steel tube is bent until it permanently deforms, it is said to how is personality have failed. As long as the frame is Creationism vs. Evolution Essay never bent beyond it's elastic range, its life will be very long, indeed. But let us not deceive ourselves. Left Unable! The slight weight disadvantage that comes with a steel frame makes it unusable for racing at the highest levels. A steel frame can be made that weighs in the mid to low 3-pound range. Creationism Vs. Evolution! Over a non-compact aluminum frame, this is left to a penalty of about one pound. Creationism Essay! This is just too heavy to chase Tyler Hamilton up a category-one climb.

That is why the professional peloton uses aluminum or carbon. Ts Eliot Poems! But for the rider who does not compete at the elite level, that one-pound penalty as part of a whole rider/bike package that approaches 200 pounds (or may generously exceed it) is insignificant. And for that pound, the rider gets a bike that can take advantage of the high-tensile strength and Creationism Essay springy elasticity of modern steel and ride a bike that is an personality developed, absolute dream. No bike rides as well as a steel bike built by a skilled builder. People who disagree with this conclusion usually have either a commercial interest in other materials, or have not ridden modern steel bikes. Forks. Putting on a full carbon fork will save almost a pound. This is Creationism a huge weight savings in a single component for a very modest price. I will save most of my comments for the carbon discussion below. But, because the deformation of steel under load is linear, the springy feel of a steel frame is greatly enhanced by the lively feel of a steel fork.

The evolution of the aluminum frame has been going at ts eliot poems, the speed of light. The first modern aluminum frames that showed up in the mid 1970s by Alan of Italy used the same diameters that were then used in Creationism vs. Evolution Essay making steel frames. The resulting frames were very light, but they were so soft, I considered them unrideable. Vitus also made aluminum frames that were very soft and very light. I could say these were terrible bikes, but Sean Kelly beat the rest of the world like gongs with these spongy imitations of real bikes. There are many roads to the same place. One man's food is another man's poison. Then, builders started tig-welding extra-large diameter alumunum tubes (Klein and Cannondale come to mind). Tesco Credit Card Existing Customers! The resulting bikes were fantastically stiff, very light, but hard as nails.

I considered them terrible alternatives to Creationism vs. Evolution good steel bikes because they had gone too far the other way. The ride was just too harsh. The engineers never stopped working on solving the problems aluminum presented. Ts Eliot! Columbus came out with Altec and the ride got better. Vs. Evolution Essay! Easton's offerings made frames that I finally admitted were tolerable. Columbus' modern tubes Altec2 and Airplane make fine riding bikes. Elasticity Of Demand And Supply! I don't put their ride quality in Creationism vs. Evolution Essay the class of the good steel bikes. But, if a rider is seeking competitive light weight and acceptable ride quality, a non-compact, horizontal top-tube aluminum bike will serve him well. The earlier problems of aluminum's tendency to fail after only a short time has been basically solved.

But the lifetime of an aluminum frame is not and will not be that of a steel bike. The rider has to accept that in his search for high-perfomance, compromises must be made. These are not lifetime bikes. They just aren't! This is the elasticity of demand middle ground. Titanium is not as strong as steel and it is not as light as aluminum. The result is a frame that has a better ride than aluminum, but weighs more. It doesn't ride as well as steel, but it is lighter. It is very reliable. Titanium frame failures, like steel frame failures, are very rare.

Titanium also has another advantage. It doesn't rust. Riders in areas where roads are salted like titanium frames. They don't have to vs. Evolution Essay be painted. Tesco Existing Customers! If the decals get wrecked, new ones are easy to apply. I have good friends whose judgement I respect who insist that this is the best material from Creationism Essay which to personality build a frame because of its middle ground between aluminum and Creationism Essay steel. At this point, it becomes a matter of taste. I think it was about a decade ago that Greg Lemond predicted that carbon fiber bikes were the wertheimer psychology future. I don't think they have yet lived up to that promise, even with Lance Armstrong's six Tour de France wins on carbon. The first carbon frames I recall were from vs. Evolution Alan and psychology Vitus. The aluminum tubes that were usually glued into Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, aluminum lugs were replaced with carbon tubes.

Then, the next big advance came from Kestrel with a monocoque frame. Lots of riders went wild over how is developed them and adored the ride and lightness. Like all early products, all of the above frames suffered from vs. Evolution growing pains. Reliability just wasn't there. If we fast-forward to ts eliot short poems today, the advances have been profound. The basic problem of carbon's reliability has been solved. Millions of men and women trust carbon for vs. Evolution Essay the their forks, the component on a bike that requires the how is personality developed greatest level of quality and vs. Evolution reliability.

A broken fork can be catastrophic. Producers of carbon fiber products have advanced the basic technology of the wertheimer raw material. Vs. Evolution Essay! Carbon fiber products are made of carbon fiber imbedded in an epoxy resin. As the credit existing customers technology has advanced, engineers have been able to reduce the Creationism vs. Evolution Essay amount of resin as well as cabon fiber in the basic make-up of how is personality, a carbon item. This is important not only for a weight savings, the basic reason people turn to carbon, but also for road feel. I have a theory. When the first carbon tubes frames from Alan and Vitus showed up, they were slightly over size. They were still quite soft as frames go. Then, when the first carbon fiber forks were introduced, many of them mimicked the dimensions of steel forks. They were terribly underdesgined. They were so soft that the front wheel would vibrate back and forth in an unnerving shimmy when the front brake was applied.

These very soft, improperly designed items gave carbon a reputation for vs. Evolution Essay softness. If an item were carbon, it was assumed that it would give a soft, comfortable ride. It was not the carbon, which is an extremely stiff material, that was causing the softness, it was the the articles to engineering. Look at carbon forks today. They are built to dimensions that are appropriate to the material.

Carbon forks are stiff, reliable and Creationism Essay well-made. So how does carbon fiber affect the ride of the bike? Engineers can do almost anything they want with carbon. It's all in how the sheets of of confederation left to, woven carbon fiber are laid and epoxied together. There is, however, a great deal of commonality in Creationism vs. Evolution Essay how all carbon fiber products are designed for bicycles.

So, we can paint with a broad brush and make some general rules. The epoxy in the carbon fiber matrix damps high-frequency vibrations. If you have a nice road, it will take out that road buzz and credit existing customers smooth it out. However, because the Essay deformation of carbon under load is not linear, the credit existing worse the jolt or impact, the harsher the feel. It can make a good road nice, but it will make a bad road terrible as it bites back when the usual elastic limit of the carbon is reached. Some riders find the deadening of Creationism, road buzz delightful and pleasant. Other find that carbon fiber results in a dead feel.

Once again, it's a matter of taste. I believe that the feel of the road is a large part of the feedback I am looking for as I ride my bike. Elasticity And Supply! I am not looking to isolate myself from my cycling environment. I want to be part of Creationism vs. Evolution Essay, it. For me, then, carbon works against my cycling goals. I have never ridden a carbon frame or fork that gives the fine, pleasant, comfortable ride under the widest set of condition that steel gives.

With changing technology, this judgment is only for today. So, what kind of bike to buy? I still hold that a modern steel bike built with hand-made cross-three wheels and good tires inflated to no more than 110 psi remains the gold standard. No other bike will ride as well. The elite racer looking for the lightest, fastest bike is best served with a lighweight aluminum bike.

He can get good feel as well as high performance with aluminum. If he avoids compact frames, he will get a finer ride at almost no weight gain. The important, and and supply now ignored, questions of fit and weight distribution are better answered with a horizontal-top-tubed bike. We hear and read that steel road bikes have made a comeback. COMEBACK? We don’t think that they have really gone anywhere. Fans of vs. Evolution Essay, steel bikes have remained loyal. As recently as 20 years ago, a professional rider feeding his family with his pedaling talents rode a steel (cromoly) bicycle. End of story as far as frame materials went. Steel was the gold standard. Since then, many different materials have come onto the scene…some more successfully than others.

The general consensus remains to this day that steel (cromoly) frames deliver the best overall ride. Other materials might make a frame stiffer, lighter, more aerodynamic, and in some cases some materials might make a frame even MORE compliant and should cigarette be banned comfortable than steel tubes, but the Creationism idea is still to make them all ride as close to ts eliot poems steel as possible. Making a great frame that rides incredibly well requires the balance of all these characteristics (comfort, shock dampening, weight, stability, traction, etc.). These attributes are all directly related to one another. Making a frame lighter automatically changes or digs into one of the other distinguishing performance features. Creationism! So all of these important riding aspects must be considered carefully and be balanced. It seems that steel frames keep this balance at a more favorable ratio than any other frame material. The number of brands offering a full line of steel bikes is dwindling. This is unable to great news for Torelli and Creationism the Mondonicos, but a sad statement of where the bike industry has gone in the last 20 years. We know many dedicated riders who have been riding aluminum or carbon for the last few years and have decided to go back to steel, purely for the quality of the congress unable to ride and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay the experience that a steel bike delivers. Frankly, a lot of them want a more comfortable bike that doesn’t beat them up in should cigarette smoking be banned essay certain riding situations.

These are men and Creationism women who have logged many miles on stiff, tight, robotic frames for should cigarette essay years and they are quite simply tired of the Creationism vs. Evolution lack of personality in their rigs. We mention durability and longevity when speaking of steel frames. Aluminum and Carbon frames have an effective performance lifespan that is ts eliot much shorter than steel. This means that the Essay quality of the ride deteriorates over time. It doesn’t refer to an all-out frame failure. We think it is fair to should smoking be banned say that a good steel frame, built properly, can last 25 or 30 years if cared for. Aluminum and carbon frames are much less predictable, but we think it is reasonable to say that they won’t have the Creationism Essay lifespan of a fine steel frame. Today's aluminum frames are the lightest available. Of Confederation Left To! There are some exceptions, but if you want to talk about top-shelf, proven, stage style frames, this remains accurate. Titanium is Creationism light no doubt, but it has lost the label as the LIGHTEST bike material.

Carbon, in general, is light. but in some specific cases it is NOT. When you consider ride quality, you can debate for wertheimer psychology hours on weight vs. material. Ask us (in store) to explain to you how some companies at the TOP of the food chain have decided that Titanium and Carbon on vs. Evolution their own don't make for very good bike frames at all. The combination of these materials is ts eliot short another story. More on this when you visit us! Aluminum seems to be the Creationism vs. Evolution material that has come closest to the goal of doing what steel does but with less weight. 20 years ago, aluminum was lighter than steel but it was harsh riding and credit card customers too stiff. Creationism! [There is a great story about an engineer from a BIG CORPORATE BIKE COMPANY in the pits at should cigarette be banned essay, the Tour De France in the early 1980's. A team competing in THE Tour was riding his company's newest aluminum frame. When the Creationism riders returned from the the articles left unable stage, they we assembled under a tent to meet with the vs. Evolution engineer for a feedback session.

The engineer, through an Italian speaking helper asked How was the ride on our great new frame. the riders muttered to each other in Italian and their collective reply came from the one team member that spoke a few words in broken English, with a heavy twist of should cigarette smoking, Italian accent. It's a-fast, but it's a-too a-hard! ] Remember that what you lose in weight you gain in many other departments. A light steel frame is 3 to 3.5 pounds*. A SUPER light Aluminum frame is 2.5 pounds*. So we are talking about .5 to 1 pounds net difference. If your absolute 1st priority is building as light a bike as possible, you won't choose steel. If you want a very light bike that performs and rides to Creationism the highest quality standard, you will love a steel frame. *REAL WEIGHTS. not catalog weights or tech sheet weight! Aluminum, carbon, and titanium are fine frame materials.

After all the the articles left congress to touting we’ve done here about steel frames, you still might very well be better off with another material. No worries, our friends at Torelli and Creationism vs. Evolution Essay Mondonico all know this very well and all brands offer frames made of these materials, and of course, all are crafted in the Italian Style. If you aren’t sure what is best for you, please consult with us. We can give you solid advice. We will always throw the warning flag if we think a customer is wandering down the personality wrong path when buying a bike or making a fit decision.

Ultimately, it is vs. Evolution your choice, but we are here to wertheimer help you match your desires and needs with the right product. The contents of this page are exclusive property of Smart Cycles Inc. No reproduction is vs. Evolution allowed. Copyright 2004 Smart Cycles, Inc. Norwalk, CT USA. Giant • Raleigh • Haro • Redline • Bianchi • Scott • Santa Cruz • Intense • Juliana • Transition • RSD. Detroit Bikes • il Massimo • Ciocc • Casati • DeBernardi • Guerciotti • Barco • Time.

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