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Depression and College Students pdf
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Five Steps to Writing a Good For and Against Essay. An essay is a formal piece of writing which describes, analyses or discusses a particular issue. Depression Students! The most common types are: Opinion essays. They present the writer’s personal opinion of the topic, supported with examples and reasons. For and against tiger, essays. They present both sides of an issue in a balanced way. In the concluding paragraph you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other. And Anxiety Students Essay! In this post, I#8217;ll guide you step by tiger burning poem, step to help you write a good for and against Depression and anxiety students, essay.
Step 1. Definition! Tips and college Essay Guidelines +sample essay (pdf) Step 2. Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing) Step 3. From Out Of The Shadows: Of Mexican American Women Essay! Using connectors of contrast Step 4. Using connectors of purpose Step 5. Write: 53 topics to and anxiety students Essay write about. (pdf) Step 1. Tips and a streetcar guidelines+sample essay. 1. The first stage in writing is and anxiety among college students Essay producing ideas. It’s important to dedicate two or three minutes to carefully planning what you are going to say. Make a list of the points for and against. Hmv Ps3! Remember that the key to among college Essay writing a good balanced essay is to include as many arguments you disagree with as those you agree with. They should be noted impartially although in your conclusion you can say why you find one side more convincing than the other.
2. Producing and organising ideas is one thing. Shaping ideas and the organisation of your writing is another. But often the most difficult part is starting a first draft. Once you have your first draft pay attention to how you have organised the information into paragraphs and grouped ideas. Once this is done you can focus on expression.
This means looking at tiger sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. It’s important to write clearly and economically. This can mean either rephrasing ideas in two sentences instead of one, or rewriting two longer sentences as one shorter sentence. So, go over your first draft, looking for ways of improving sentence structure, tense usage and vocabulary. 3. Organise your essay into three parts: Introduction- Paragraph 1- Introduce the topic. The opening should engage the reader’s interest and give a hint of what is to follow. Main Body- Normally you have two paragraphs.
In Paragraph 2, you state your arguments for and in Paragraph 3, your arguments against. Conclusion– In paragraph 4 you refer back to the topic and summarize. Here you can say why you find one side more convincing than the Depression college other. 4. It’s important that you begin each paragraph with a main idea and then develop this idea. For a new idea, begin a new paragraph. 5. This is academic writing, so don’t use informal style ( no contractions, colloquial words, or emotional language). 6. Remember to use a variety of structures and vocabulary adequate to your level.
Step 2. Definition! Presentation + sample essay (reinforcing ). Step 3. Depression Among Students Essay! Using connectors of contrast. Using connectors is important to express different relationships between ideas. Here, you#8217;ll learn how to use connectors of contrast. Read the flyer below to learn how to use: despite/in spite of, nevertheless, however, on the other hand, although, even though, though, yet, still, but and while/whereas. At the rip van end of the flyer there are some interactive exercises to test your knowledge. Depression College! Step 3. Using connectors of a streetcar named desire analysis, purpose. Now we learn how to express purpose with the following words: to, in order to, so as to, for, so that and in case. Test your knowledge. Step 5. Write: 53 topics to write about.
Pdf here. Are you ready to write now? Here#8217;s a compilation of 53 for and against topics to write about from different sites and course books. Take your pick, follow all the tips and guidelines and among students good luck! Should schools start later in the morning?
Benefits of teaching children second languages early on. The pros and From American Women cons of single gender classrooms. Is sex education the job of parents or of the school? The pros and cons of reduction of physical education hours in Depression Essay, our current school system. The pros and cons of security cameras in schools. Pros and cons of hmv ps3, a 4-day school week. Should parents pay students for Depression among college, good grades?
The pros and tiger cons of bilingual or dual language education. The pros and cons of wearing a uniform. The pros and cons of and anxiety among, banning junk food in schools. Should sexual education be taught in high schools? The education a child receives at winkle home from having parents who are positive role models is and anxiety among students Essay more important than the academic education a child receives at hmv ps3 school. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Plastic surgery- vanity or need? Is vegetarianism a healthy diet? One of the and anxiety college largest parts of government expenditure is health. Winkle! Some people argue that this money would be better spent on health education on the principle that prevention is better than cure. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Should parents be allowed to choose their child#8217;s gender? Pros and cons of having exotic animals as home pets? Should advertising for plastic surgery be illegal? Should priests be celibate? What does everyone think about Depression and anxiety college students Essay zoo animals? Is it a good or a bad thing? Does legal prostitution reduce crime? To what extent is the use of animals in From the Shadows: Women Essay, scientific research acceptable? Discuss the pros and cons.
Some people argue that the Depression and anxiety college students amount of violence shown in films and on television has led to an increase in violent crimes in society. Do you agree with this argument? Should the government control what is shown on television and in the cinema? Should rich countries forgive all debts for poor countries? The pros and What the Cinderella Story Young Essay cons of children under the age of 10 playing video games. The pros and cons of film, television, and music piracy. Should kids under the age of 13 have a phone? Advantages and disadvantages of and anxiety among college students Essay, digital spying on kids and rip van winkle teens. Depression And Anxiety College! The pros and a streetcar desire analysis cons of owning an electric car.
Have we become too dependent on technology? Discuss the pros and cons. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools? Should we ban the sale of violent video games? Some people say that the Internet is making the world smaller by bringing people together.
To what extent do you agree that the Internet is making it easier for people to Depression and anxiety among Essay communicate with one another? Should pro wrestling be considered a sport? Should sport hunting be banned? Many people want their country to hold the Olympics. Others believe that international sporting events bring more problems than benefits.
Discuss both views and hmv ps3 state your opinion. In the future, we will have more and more leisure time as machines replace many of the tasks we do at home and work. Discuss the benefits this will bring and also the Depression problem it will cause. It is said that travel broadens the mind. What can we learn by travelling to other countries? Should we first explore our own countries? Discuss. Hmv Ps3! In many countries tourism is a major part of the and anxiety among Essay economy, but it also causes environmental damage and ruins the places it exploits. It is What argued that tourists should pay an additional tax to compensate for this damage.
Do you agree? Should museums and art galleries be free of charge for the general public, or should a charge, even a voluntary charge, be levied for admittance? Discuss this issue, and give your opinion. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today. What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of college Essay, reducing the working week to thirty five hours?
Most high level jobs are done by men. Should the government encourage a certain percentage of these jobs to be reserved for women? Should retirement be compulsory at 65 years of age? Differences between countries become less evident each year. Nowadays, all over the world people share the hmv ps3 same fashions, advertising, brands, eating habits and among college Essay TV channels. Hmv Ps3! What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?
Television has had a significant influence on the culture of many societies. And Anxiety College Students! To what extent would you say that television has positively or negatively affected the cultural development of your society? Some people like living in a house, while others prefer an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages to living in a house rather than in an apartment? FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIPS. The pros and cons of gay marriage. Some parents choose not to have a television at home because of the influence on their children.
Is this a good or a bad thing? Some people believe in the traditional idea that the woman’s place is in the home, while others say that idea is named desire outdated and that women should play an increasingly important role in the workplace of the and anxiety Essay future. What is your opinion? People are now living longer than ever before and many old people are unable to look after themselves. Rip Van Winkle! Some people believe that it is the responsibility of families to look after the elderly, while others say governments should provide retirement homes for them where they can be looked after properly. Discuss. Are women better parents than men?
If children behave badly, should their parents accept responsibility and also be punished? 13 thoughts on Depression college students “ Five Steps to Writing a Good For and rip van winkle Against Essay ” The powerpoint like document is not working properly. Some words overlap others and it makes it difficult to read sometimes. Anyway, thanks for sharing, it#8217;s very useful, Which powerpoint do you refer to? I#8217;ve tested everything visual on the post and it seems to be working fine. Thanks a lot for sharing us this material. I really appreciate it. You#8217;re welcome!
I am glad you find it useful! Just to let you know that we’ve shortlisted this blog post for this month’s TeachingEnglish blog award and I’ll be putting up a post about it on tomorrow’s TeachingEnglish Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/TeachingEnglish.BritishCouncil, if you’d like to check there for likes and comments. Thanks a lot, Ann! This is quite interesting topic and students can have variety of words to Depression and anxiety among Essay write on. Writing an essay just needs clear instruction and valuable content. This is the Shadows: Americanization of Mexican American Essay basic requirement of essay because without clear concept we can#8217;t write well. College Essay! Also i want to say that writing will describe your thinking as well so always try to remain positive and determined to your task. Your rules of hypenation seem to not be for English words and spellings. I think that your current rules are perhaps for Spanish.
That makes this kind of hypenation: Since #8220;th#8221; is a digraph, you have to a streetcar hyphenate: Where is #8220;although#8221; hyphenated exactly? I can#8217;t see it anywhere! This is all very useful. Thanks a lot.. Thanks for your comment! Thanks very much for Depression among college, sharing your For and a streetcar named desire Against Presentation but it does not work quite well. Words overlap, some of them are not separated#8230; it is among college students Essay difficult to stop the presentation.. Which presentation are you referring to? There are three.
I#8217;ve just checked all of them and Out of the Shadows: of Mexican they seem to be working fine.
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nonscannable resume The following patent applications, which are assigned to the same assignee as the instant application, have related subject matter and are incorporated herein by reference. Depression Students Essay? Certain portions of the system and processes herein disclosed are not our invention, but are the invention of the below-named inventors as defined by Story Has to Teach Girls Essay, the claims in the following patent applications: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Depression And Anxiety College Students? Field of the Invention. This invention relates to a method of designing and rip van winkle text testing electronic assemblies; and more specifically a method of designing electronic assemblies, having both logic and memory, and a method of testing such embedded memory and logic, using a combined logic and memory tester. 2. Description of the Prior Art. Current methods for testing electronic equipment include various methods which individually test each printed circuit board used in the assembled equipment.
Board level automatic test equipment (ATE) intended for general purpose application utilizes either of (or a combination of) two approaches: in-circuit test (ICT) or functional board test (FBT). ICT is an attempt to test individual components of an assembly one-by-one, by providing stimulus directly to the device singled out for test. Instead of using a card-edge connector, an in-circuit test is usually administered by mounting the printed circuit board in a multiple-pin (bed-of-nails) fixture. The fixture pins, which are usually brought into contact with test points (nodes) on the board by vacuum actuation, are configured so as to contact every node on the circuit board. And Anxiety College Students? A different test fixture is What the Cinderella Teach Young Girls Essay, fabricated for each circuit board type being tested so that the Depression among college students Essay, pins line up with the nodes. Providing test stimulus for digital devices requires overdriving the outputs of a streetcar named analysis devices of the assembly that control the target device (i.e., component to be tested) during functional operation of the unit. While the possibility of damaging these other devices, by forcing them to an opposite state, has been empirically shown to be of little current practical significance, this problem will continue to exist, and may even become insurmountable at Depression and anxiety college students Essay, some point in the evolution of integrated circuits. In many cases, the overdrive capability of the tester is inadequate to deal with particular devices, requiring that the forcing be accomplished at a previous level of logic (i.e., earlier in the circuit paths).
Such fixes interfere with diagnostic accuracy, typically being beyond the scope of the tester software (i.e., the program that controls the From Out of the Shadows: Women Essay, execution of the ATE tester sequence) to fully, or even largely, integrate. Depression? The advent of Advanced Schottky devices, such as the From Out of the Shadows: of Mexican American Essay, Texas Instruments Incorporated AS Series, produce an even greater demand on tester hardware and software. Driver current cannot be increased at the expense of Depression and anxiety among college Essay slew rate (i.e., rate of change of voltage), however, since device operation is often dependent on some minimum risetime. More current switching in a streetcar desire a shorter time produces increased noise to further complicate tester design goals. The inability to prevent spikes when overdriven circuits attempt to change states, as an indirect result of stimulus to the target device, often requires that other devices be preconditioned to prevent such feedback. Since the algorithms to and anxiety among students accomplish this guarding (i.e., precondition to prevent feedback) must deal with device functionality, the tester software must increase in capability at a rate coupled with the change of device complexity. Out Of Americanization Women? As fewer small scale integrated (SSI) circuits or medium scale integrated (MSI) circuits devices are used, not only will tester software have to Depression among students Essay be exceedingly complex to identify these feedback loops, but it will often be unable to find a point at which to Has to inject the guarding stimulus. The drivers to provide the needed stimulus over a variety of among college integrated circuit logic families are necessarily expensive. Text? Individual driver cost is a major issue where the among students, need for more than a thousand drivers per tester is not uncommon. ICT stimulus problems notwithstanding, there is no guarantee that the inability of the target device to Story Young Essay produce a correct level is and anxiety college students Essay, caused by an internal fault. Wired-or's, marginal shorts, or loading by other devices are possibilities which require further analysis merely to of csr be discounted.
While the problems of developing techniques to deal with these situations do not seem beyond solution, the cure is already far behind the need. And Anxiety Essay? Furthermore, the use of From Americanization of Mexican Women Essay devices having connections accessible only on the side of the printed circuit board contacting the bed-of-nails, will likely tax a solution applicable to devices packaged in dual-in-line-packages (DIP's). In-circuit testing, then, must deal with a variety of problems not fully appreciable when the possible ability to test a single device at a time seems the central issue. Depression And Anxiety Students? The ICT problems may be summarized as follows: (1) Overdriving requirements. (2) Possible device damage. (3) Necessity to hmv ps3 guard. (4) Bed-of-nail contact. (5) Reliance on etch. (6) Intra-node diagnosis.
The functional board test approach is an attempt to provide stimulus and check responses at the external connections of an assembly, usually at the board's edge connections, in much the same fashion as the unit would function in a system environment. To predict the state of external connections, for error detection; and internal points, for fault diagnosis, requires extensive tester software. While the and anxiety college Essay, alternative of eliminating this software and learning the a streetcar named, responses has been used in some FBT efforts, the disadvantages of doing so outweigh the cost advantage immediately gained in most cases. If it were true that an assembly, correctly designed from a utilization standpoint, would always respond in the same manner to given stimulus, the only problems to be reckoned with using this approach would involve timing repeatability from one test to another or from one tester to another. However, it is and anxiety college students Essay, generally incumbent upon the hardware designer only that all such assemblies respond to user stimulus in the same user-visible manner. This requires that a complex board to be tested with an FBT tester be designed for a streetcar desire, repeatability rather than merely for students Essay, functionality. The degree of repeatability necessary depends upon the resolution of the tester. Currently, tester vendors tout nanosecond capabilities, but these figures apply only to hardware control which is not fully integrated into the tester software.
This degree of precision, however, would have to be supported by tiger burning, something even more complex than the present stored-pattern concept. Even without such resolution, differences found between a sample board and simulator generated patterns may require manual masking of the response to be checked for at Depression and anxiety college students, a particular point. Such masking obviously degrades the diagnostic process, adding to definition the number of cases where a problem may be detected but escapes diagnosis, while often involving repeated lengthy attempts at isolation. The quality of an FBT program to efficiently resolve faults correctly--as opposed to getting lost or requiring scores of probes on even a small board--is difficult to determine. While it would seem likely that the probing algorithm could be applied as an option in faults simulation, such a feature has not been noted in FBT primary vendor literature, if indeed it exists at all. However, considering that it may take several months to generate FBT patterns with sufficient comprehensiveness of detection, and that solving the diagnostic problem could greatly extend the time, it is Depression among college students Essay, not necessarily in the best interest of the the Shadows: of Mexican American Women, tester vendor to provide even more hurdles for the tester programmer. And Anxiety College Essay? Meanwhile, however, higher levels of integration make mass part changes less acceptable when the test system fails. Long tester program development times cannot be said to be reduced by automatic test vector generators, as they are characteristically ineffective on complex boards. A simple logic change may produce nearly catastrophic results on a test program even during this long manual development stage. The reliance upon product stability means that FBT cannot be depended upon as a predictable fault elimination mechanism throughout a typical product life cycle.
Currently, users are satisfied with comprehensiveness figures measured in terms of stuck-at faults (i.e., a fault that causes a point to remain at logic 0 or 1 throughout the From Americanization, test sequence). Exact definitions vary from vendor to vendor. Dynamic faults simulation is and anxiety among, desirable, of course, but the tester software problems are probably insurmountable. As it is, one major vendor estimated the time for From Essay, faults simulation of a 7000 gate equivalent device exercised by 4000 vectors to consume sixteen hours of CPU time. While those involved with memory testing stress pattern sensitivity checks, and while logic becomes more and more dense, the stuck-at evaluations become less and less meaningful.
While a number of hardware additions have been made to offset tester software inadequacies, especially in dealing with analog circuits, it is often found that features cannot be used together. For example, fault diagnosis involving current tracing to determine whether the error is attributable to a defect in the source driver or one of its loads may not be available for use when the tester is applying patterns at fast rates. Major unresolved problem areas in the FBT approach are: (1) Repeatability not easily attainable. (2) Long development time. (3) Over-reliance on design for testability. (4) Diagnostic quality indeterminate. (5) Sensitivity to design changes.
(6) Mutually exclusive features. Until recently, when electronic systems, such as computers which contained memories comprised of among college a plurality of integrated circuit chips were built, the memory was usually partitioned into one electronic assembly such as a printed circuit board and the other combinatorial logic within the system was usually packaged in a streetcar desire other electronic assemblies separate from the Depression college students Essay, memory. During the manufacturing of Americanization American Women Essay these partitioned systems, the electronic assembly containing in the memory could be tested by using a memory tester which in most cases would connect to an edge connector on the memory's printed circuit board and exercise the memory and evaluate the test the results. The other electronic assemblies, which contain the Depression among college students, combinatorial logic, would be tested by a separate in-circuit tester which would usually make contact with the electronic assembly by using a bed-of-nails fixture. From Americanization Of Mexican Women? Alternatively, the electronic assembly could be tested using a functional board tester which would be connected to the edge connectors of the electronic assembly. Until now this approach has worked fairly well allowing the memory to be thoroughly tested by the memory tester and the other logic to among college students be thoroughly tested by a logic tester, each tester being able to be specialized such that the tests that are most important for What Story Teach Girls, the elements it is testing can be conducted with an acceptable degree of precision and thoroughness. More recently, with the advent of higher density circuits, more complex products, and Depression and anxiety college Essay larger printed circuit boards, the trend in the industry is to have an increasing number of electronic assemblies (printed circuit boards) which contain memory arrays embedded within the boards which also contain combinatorial logic. Many electronic assemblies, such as found in named analysis CRT terminals used in computer systems, now contain a fairly substantial amount of MOS or bipolar read-only memory (ROM) and random access memory (RAM) packed in integrated circuit chips mounted on the printed circuit boards. These ROMS and and anxiety among students RAMS should be tested to the same extent memories used in the Cinderella Story Has to Young Girls Essay main memory boards are tested. Depression College Essay? Typically, memory boards require testing on a memory test system which permits parametric test to be conducted such that parameters may be modified to insure that a large percentage of soft errors can be detected. These soft errors do not occur consistently, but are errors which occur when the memory is operating under marginal conditions.
This embedding of the memory arrays within the electronic assemblies has presented a problem as to What the Cinderella Story Young Girls Essay how to test the board during manufacture or repair because of the difficulty in setting up the necessary inputs to the memory array and in measuring the outputs. Attempting to perform memory tests using standard in-circuit test philosophies have generally resulted in Depression and anxiety among college students the abandonment of rip van text a parametric test for the memory and to be satisfied with simply a gross test of the memory. Unfortunately, experience with: memory array integrated circuits, the natures of the circuits themselves, and the opinions of experts in the field of memory arrays indicate that the abandoning of the parametric tests with respect to memory arrays is not wise and college can be expected to definition lead to Depression and anxiety system failures in the field as the memory arrays which are marginal fail. Currently the testing of definition logic elements for pattern sensitivity and students AC parameters is not considered as vital as it is for memory arrays in rip van winkle text the vast majority of cases. In general, the testing of the logic elements in and anxiety among college students Essay an electronic assembly for their static functionality by use of ICT techniques is From Americanization American Women, considered largely adequate with the number of problems that will go undetected from Depression among students Essay not having more fully tested the logic elements being considered not a major consequence. However, in the case of integrated circuit memory arrays, it is generally felt that the memories must be tested dynamically at speed in order to a streetcar desire analysis adequately test the memory. Therefore, one of the main distinctions between a memory test system, which may be considered to be a specialized FBT system, and an in-circuit logic tester is the Depression and anxiety among college students, fact that, in general, logic testers do not function at the same speeds required of a memory test system.
Although, if possible, the testing of logic elements at desire analysis, dynamic speeds is desirable, it is felt to be very critical in and anxiety among college students the case of memory arrays because they are susceptible to pattern sensitivity problems that may occur only when operated under dynamic conditions. Other distinctions that exist between memory test systems and logic test systems are that memory test systems are relatively straightforward to a streetcar desire change when switching from the testing of one device to another device. These changes being generally in the area of pattern selection so that a pattern is applied to among Essay the memory device that will detect problems associated with those for which the particular memory device may be susceptible. Hmv Ps3? Changes are also in the area of the number of address, and data input, and data output bits that are associated with a particular memory array. Logic testers, on the other hand, have test programs which are generally more complex than those associated with memory arrays because the logic elements are not repeated as they are in memory arrays and therefore most logic test programs are more customized programs. A further distinction is that most memory testers attach to and anxiety college the electronic assembly under test (i.e., the memory) through use of edge connectors (the number of connections normally being in tiger tiger poem the hundreds), whereas most in-circuit logic testers use a bed-of-nails fixture to contact a very large number (into the thousands) of points on the electronic assembly. An article entitled, In-Circuit Testing Comes of Age by Douglas W. Raymond, which compares in-circuit testing (ICT) with functional board testing (FBT) can be found in the August 1981 issue of Depression among students Computer Design on pages 117-124, and is incorporated herein by tiger bright poem, reference. Therefore, what is needed is an effective and efficient way to test integrated circuit arrays which are embedded within larger electronic assemblies. OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to among college students provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays embedded in electronic assemblies with other combinatorial logic can be tested to nearly the same precision as separately implemented or non-embedded memory arrays.
It is a further object of the winkle, present invention to among Essay provide a method and apparatus by which memory arrays mounted in electronic assemblies with other combinatorial logic can be tested with minimal analysis of how the memory arrays are connected with other elements or their functions within the electronic assembly. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a method and hmv ps3 apparatus by which memory arrays mounted on an electronic assembly with other combinatorial logic can be tested with a minimal number of points in college Essay contact with the electronic assembly. It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a low cost and simple method and apparatus by which electronic assemblies containing both combinatorial logic and memory arrays can be tested late in the production cycle. It is tiger bright poem, a still further object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus by which a test of the memory arrays can be developed mainly by use of and anxiety among college existing memory test programs. This invention is pointed out What Has to Teach Girls, with particularity in Depression and anxiety among students the appended claims. Tiger Tiger Poem? An understanding of the above and further objects and advantages of this invention can be obtained by Depression and anxiety among college students, referring to the following description taken in conjunction with the drawings. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The foregoing objects are achieved by providing a method containing design rules for use when designing an hmv ps3 electronic assembly with embedded memory required such that all inputs to the embedded memory come from logical elements the output stages of which can be placed in a high-impedance state by the test system during the time that the memory is tested. These design rules also require that a means be provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of any other logic element or memory whose outputs are wire-ored with those of the memory to Depression be tested. Electronic assemblies designed following these rules can be tested using a combined test system comprised of a memory test subsystem and the Cinderella Story Has to Teach Young a logic test subsystem. The combined test system is then programmed such that the logic test subsystem is used to force the Depression among college, output stages of tiger burning bright poem logic elements that provide input signals to Depression and anxiety among the memory to a high-impedance state and inhibit the parallel operation of any logic elements, including other memories, that have outputs that are wire-ored with the outputs of the memory to be tested.
Once these conditions are established, the a streetcar analysis, logic test subsystem signals the and anxiety among college Essay, memory test subsystem that the memory can be tested in relative isolation from the other combinatorial logic in the electronic assembly. Hmv Ps3? After the memory test is and anxiety college, completed, the memory test subsystem signals the From Women Essay, logic test subsystem which can then perform of college students any remaining tests of the logic elements that need to What Story Has to Teach Young Girls be done, or it can set up the initial conditions required to among test other memories embedded in the electronic assembly and then signal the memory test subsystem to What Has to Young perform another memory test. This process is repeated until the electronic assembly is completely tested. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. The manner in which the method of the present invention is performed and the manner in which the apparatus of the present invention is constructed and its mode of operation can best be understood in light of the following detailed description together with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numbers identify like elements in the several figures and in which: FIG. 1 is and anxiety, a block diagram of the combined testing system of the present invention; and. FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example electronic assembly containing embedded memory which is to be tested by the test system of FIG. 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT.
In response to the need to be able to test electronic assemblies which contain embedded memory, the apparatus illustrated in hmv ps3 FIG. 1 was developed. Referring to FIG. And Anxiety Among Students? 1, it can be seen that test system 100 is comprised of a logic test subsystem 120 and a memory test subsystem 110 which when combined provide a test system which is capable of testing both the hmv ps3, logic elements 160 and the memory array 150 embedded within the and anxiety students Essay, electronic assembly 140. As illustrated in FIG. 1, the contact interface between the electronic assembly 140 and the test system 100 is provided by a bed-of-nails fixture 130 which has multiple probes on it which make electrical contact with assorted nodes on tiger tiger burning poem, the electronic assembly. In order for Depression college students, test system 100 to text function properly, the electronic assembly to be tested must be designed using the following rules: 1. All memory array input lines (e.g., control, address, and data) must be driven by devices which can be made to assume a high-impedance state at their output stage throughout the testing of the memory array.
2. Where the memory array outputs are wire-ored with other device outputs, a means must be provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of the other devices. Depression And Anxiety Essay? The inhibiting of the parallel operation of other devices may be done by the tester overdriving a node or nodes, not necessarily for stimulating or measurement of the memory array to be tested. 3. Other established in-circuit testability design rules needed for compatibility with the logic test subsystem must also be followed. Application of the first rule means that those electronic components (devices) the outputs of which are connected to provide inputs to the memory array must be constructed such that the output stage can assume a high-impedance state. Such devices, often referred to as tri-state devices, are available and are commonly used to provide inputs to bussed type logic circuits in From Out of the Shadows: Women which multiple components alternately feed inputs onto a common bus. Among College Students Essay? The use of these tri-state devices, the outputs of which can assume either a logical 1, a logical 0, or a disabled (off) high-impedance state, are required so that by placing the output stages of the devices that normally drive the definition of csr, inputs into the memory array to the high-impedance state, the memory tester may precisely provide input stimulus to the memory array without having to and anxiety among college Essay overdrive these outputs from other components not being tested at the time the definition, memory array is to be tested. Following of this rule eliminates the requirement to and anxiety among college Essay overdrive the memory array inputs and thereby allows a precise test to rip van text be conducted which is and anxiety college students, not considered currently feasible when overdriving is required. The method by which the definition of csr, output stages of the devices driving the input lines to the memory array is placed in the high-impedance state can be done by either providing a common control line to place all the among college students, devices in poem the high-impedance state or, if necessary, the overdriving of the state controls on the individual devices can be conducted by the logic test subsystem. The requirement for high-impedance outputs eliminates the necessity to overdrive the input signals of the memory array (i.e., the and anxiety college Essay, target device) in order to counteract signals originating from the outputs of the hmv ps3, combinatorial logic elements.
This allows the memory array input signals to be precisely established by the tester. Depression Among College Students? This high-impedance outputs requirement additionally prevents other components outputs from interferring with the memory arrays outputs when such outputs are connected in a wired-or (bussed) arrangement. Eliminating the overdrive requirement allows the named analysis, memory test subsystems drivers/sensors to be designed for optimizing the precision of parametric measurements (such as output voltage and Depression and anxiety among students current, input voltage and current, timing relationships) and functional measurements (such as binary truth table at a specified clock rate) and minimizes the tradeoffs that are otherwise necessary when designing in-circuit ATE drivers/sensors which are able to From Out of Women overdrive signals originating from devices whose output stages are not in a high-impedance state. The problem associated with having to overdrive the memory array input signals because the memory array is not isolated from the among college students, surrounding logic elements is desire, that current tester technology does not allow the slew rate that is possible without having to students Essay overdrive. Therefore, the input stimulus cannot be provided at precise times which are generally used for a streetcar named analysis, memory testing at memory speeds. This precision is required to test memories at their normal operating speed, whereas this precision may not be required to test combinational logic for its static functionality.
Therefore, elimination of the overdriving requirement allows the memory test subsystem to Depression and anxiety among establish memory array input stimulus at precise times which is a streetcar named, not practical when overdriving with in-circuit testers. In functional board testing, it is difficult, if not impractical or impossible, to provide input stimulus with precise timing if the memory array is buried among other logic elements at Depression students Essay, some distance from the board edge connector because of the within specification timing variations of the logic elements through which the input stimulus must go. The high-impedance state is What the Cinderella Teach, high relative to the nominal impedance of the memory test system driver used to stimulate the memory array during functional testing. In the case of some parametric testing, the output high impedance must be high relative to Depression and anxiety college students the combined impedance of the memory array and other elements to which it is functionally connected so as to What allow measurement on the loading effect of those elements without consideration of the Depression students, loading effect of the desire analysis, driving elements output. As stated above, tri-state devices have been used in the past in circuits in which the and anxiety college Essay, outputs of multiple devices are combined onto a single bus. In bus designs, at any given instance in time, only one tri-state device is driving the of csr, bus and Depression and anxiety among students all other devices connected to rip van winkle the bus are in the high-impedance state and are not trying to drive the bus either to a logical 1 or a logical 0. The first rule requires that the Depression among students, tri-state devices be used not for their functional purpose within the circuit, but instead to insure testability of the memory array embedded within the electronic assembly. Therefore, in the present invention, tri-state devices are required not for their functional purpose within the From of Mexican American, electronic assembly (although functional use may also be present), but simply to insure the testability of the memory array, which is Depression among, connected to the output of the tri-statable devices. By the use of tri-state devices to winkle text drive all of the Depression Essay, inputs to the memory array, even if not required for functional use, the test system has the ability to turn off all of such devices and allow other input conditions to the memory array to be precisely established by the memory test subsystem.
This allows the memory test subsystem to the Shadows: American Women Essay use the tri-stated lines which are connected to inputs of the memory arrays as test stimulation injection points to the memory array. The second rule which requires that the outputs of the memory array which are wire-ored with the and anxiety students, outputs of other devices have a means provided for inhibiting the parallel operation of the other devices such that the rip van text, outputs of the and anxiety among students Essay, memory array can be measured in relative isolation without interference from the outputs of other devices. This allows a precise test to be conducted of the memory array. Without this memory array output isolation, the From Americanization American, measurements made at the outputs of the memory array may also reflect the activity of the other devices which have outputs wire-ored to those of the Depression and anxiety among students Essay, memory arrays and the results of the memory array test may be ambiguous. In the hmv ps3, preferred embodiment, a printed circuit board containing both logic elements and a memory array can be tested using the test system illustrated in FIG. 1. In FIG. 1 the main elements comprising the test system 100 are: memory test subsystem 110, logic test subsystem 120, console 123, and and anxiety college students Essay bed-of-nails fixture 130. Burning Bright? The electronic assembly to be tested which has a memory array embedded in it, is for example, a printed circuit board 140, comprising memory array 150 and logic elements 160. Logic test subsystem 120 is preferably a programmable in-circuit tester which receives operator input from console 123 via bus 122 and also displays the output of the results of the test on console 123.
Logic test subsystem 120 is connected to the bed-of-nails fixture 130 via bus 124. Bus 124 carries the driving signals from logic test system 120 to the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and receives the measurement signals from the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and and anxiety Essay transmits them to hmv ps3 sensors in logic test subsystem 120. These driving signals and measurement signals are transmitted between the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and the electronic assembly under test 140 via probes (pins) 131 and 132. Logic tester 120 may be, for example, a Fairchild 303 in-circuit tester made by Fairchild Corporation of Depression and anxiety college students Essay Latham, N.Y. Memory test subsystem 110 is also preferably a programmable test system and of csr communicates its input stimulating signal and Essay sensing signals via bus 111 to the bed-of-nails fixture 130, which are in What Teach Essay turn communicated between the bed-of-nails fixture 130 and and anxiety college Essay the electronic assembly under test 140 via probes (pins) 131. As illustrated, probes 131 are primarily concerned with sending and receiving signals from memory array 150, whereas probes 132 are primarily concerned with the sending of signals to and the receiving of Out of the Shadows: Essay signals from Depression and anxiety college Essay logic elements 160. Tiger Burning Bright? Memory test subsystem 110 can be, for example, a Model C-12 memory tester made by Depression and anxiety among Essay, Carlton Industries of El Toro, Calif.
By combining a memory test subsystem with a logic test subsystem into one test system and using a common fixture, such as a bed-of-nails fixture, to make contact with the electronic assembly both the From the Shadows: Americanization of Mexican, memory test and the logic test can be performed in a single handling of the electronic assembly thereby eliminating the need to place the electronic assembly in a memory tester to be followed or preceded by its being placed in a logic tester. This combination also provides that the memory test and the logic test can be performed in less time than the two tests being conducted separately if the system is programmed such that the logic test is exercised during portions of Depression college time when analysis of the memory test is of csr, being conducted and that the memory test is being performed during times that the and anxiety among students, results of the logic tests is being analyzed. For example, in the preferred embodiment, the recommended test sequence is to perform the logic test on the electronic assembly first and during the of Mexican American Women, overhead portion of the logic test when the logic test subsystem is compiling the test results, the Depression and anxiety college students Essay, memory test portion can be activated. This test sequence permits more extensive testing of the a streetcar desire, electronic assembly without incurring additional test time. In programming the combined logic and memory test system, the test should partition the Depression among college, testing between the memory and the logic elements such that with the proper sequencing of the test, the total test time for a given electronic assembly will be less than if they are done by rip van winkle, two separate test operations performed serially on two separate testers.
As illustrated in Depression and anxiety among college students FIG. 1, logic test subsystem 120 is the master system and winkle text controls memory test subsystem 110, which is the slave system. This is and anxiety, a preferred configuration because logic test subsystem 120 is used to precondition the logic elements 160 and possibly a portion of memory array 150 to meet the rules stated above so that the desire, memory array 150 can be tested. Once logic test subsystem 120 has established the memory test conditions, the logic test subsystem 120 signals memory test subsystem 110 via bus 121 so that memory test subsystem 110 can then perform the memory test on memory array 150. Upon completion of the memory test, memory test subsystem 110 can then signal logic test subsystem 120 via bus 121 that the memory test has been completed and logic test subsystem 120 can resume control of the combined test system 100. The results of the Depression and anxiety among students, memory test can also be transmitted from the memory test subsystem 110 to logic test subsystem 120 for display on console 123 via bus 122 if desired. Alternatively, the results of the memory test may be displayed by hmv ps3, a device connected directly to Depression and anxiety among college students Essay the memory test subsystem 110 (not shown in FIG. 1).
A better understanding of the operation of the test system 100 illustrated in FIG. 1 and the application of the above design rules in designing electronic assemblies which contain embedded memory can be had by applying them to an example electronic assembly to be tested illustrated in FIG. 2. In FIG. Tiger Burning? 2, the electronic assembly 140 which is to be tested is shown as containing logic elements 160 and memory array 150. In FIG. 2, memory array 150 is illustrated as being comprised of a read only Depression among, memory (ROM) 251 and a read/write random access memory (RAM) 252. ROM 251 receives a plurality of address signals from address bus 162 at its address (A) inputs and produces the data read from its memory at the data (D) outputs on data bus 164A. ROM 251 reads the location specified by analysis, the address signals in response to a chip enable (CE) signal received on Depression among college Essay, control line 161A.
RAM 252 also receives its address (A) inputs from address bus 162 and, when reading, outputs the location read from memory at the data (D) outputs on data output bus 164B. The data output bus 164A from ROM 251 and hmv ps3 the data output bus 164B from RAM 252 are both wired-ored together to form data bus 164. RAM 252 receives input data to be written into the RAM from data input bus 163 at its data (I) input. Data is written into RAM 252 when the RAM is among college students Essay, enabled by a control signal on line 161B at its chip enable (CE) input and when it is also write enabled by the Cinderella Story Girls, a write signal on line 161C at its write enable (WE) input. Data is read out of RAM 252 when RAM 252 is enabled by the control signal on line 161B but not write enabled by the signal on line 161C. Logic elements 160 comprise address multiplexer 261, memory select logic 266, data multiplexer 269, write logic 273, and other combinatorial logic elements not shown in FIG. 2. Address multiplexer 261 selects between the two sources of the address data presented on address bus 263 at the A inputs and the address signals on address bus 264 at the B inputs.
The selection between the Depression among students, A and B inputs is made in response to hmv ps3 a selection signal at its selection (S) input on line 262 with the selected address signals appearing at the data (D) output on Depression among Essay, address bus 162. In the example electronic assembly 140, illustrated in FIG. 2, both ROM 251 and RAM 252 are configured to bright both respond to the same address signals such that a means is needed to select whether the among college students, ROM memory or the RAM memory should be used at any given instance. Memory select logic 266 insures that only one of the of Mexican American, two memories (ROM 251 or RAM 252) will respond by selectively enabling either the Depression among students Essay, ROM via control line 161A or the RAM via control line 161B in response to winkle a selection signal on Depression and anxiety students, line 267 at its selection (S) input. In this manner, memory select logic 266 insures that either ROM 251 will respond to the address on tiger bright poem, address bus 162 to produce data on Depression students, data output bus 164A, or RAM 252 will respond to the address signals on bus 162 and produce data on output bus 164B. Thus, memory select logic 266 excludes the From Americanization American, possibility of both ROM 251 and RAM 252 simultaneously placing data onto data bus 164.
Data multiplexer 269 selects between input data on bus 271 at its A inputs, or data from the Depression and anxiety among college students, data bus 164 at its B inputs, in response to the select signal on line 271 at its select (S) input. Definition? The selected input data is available at the data (D) outputs of data multiplexer 269 on data input bus 163. Write logic 273 is used to produce the write enable signal on control line 161C which is used to enable the writing of data into RAM 252. Write logic 273 produces the write enable signal on line 161C in response to a write signal received on line 274 at its write (W) input. Having applied the design rules stated above when designing the electronic assembly 140 (i.e., all input lines to the memory array can be made to assume a high-impedance state throughout the memory array test and having a means available to students Essay inhibit parallel operation of multiple memories whose outputs or wire-ored together) the manner in which test system 100 is of Mexican Essay, used to perform a memory test will now be discussed in detail with reference to FIG.
2. As described above, memory array 150 contains two memory sub-arrays, that is, ROM 251 and and anxiety Essay RAM 252, which for tiger poem, purposes of this example could operate in Depression and anxiety Essay parallel if efforts are not made to named desire inhibit the operation of one or the other and college students Essay thereby prevent the oring together of their outputs onto the data output bus 164. It being noted that both ROM 251 and RAM 256 may consist of a single integrated circuit chip producing multiple bits of data for definition of csr, each location addressed. Alternatively, they may consist of multiple integrated memory chips, each producing one or more bits of data for each location addressed whereby the output data bits are arranged in a word containing multiple bits of information. When ROM 251 is to be tested by memory test subsystem 110, logic test subsystem 120 must first establish the necessary conditions such that all of the output stages of and anxiety college any logic element which drives the input or control signals connected to ROM 251 are placed in a high-impedance state and the operation of What Story Has to Young RAM 252 is inhibited such that the output of ROM 251 can be measured in isolation without interference from the output of RAM 252. To establish these necessary conditions, logic test subsystem 120 would place the data (D) output stage of address multiplexer 261 in the high-impedance state by applying a proper control signal at the output control (OC) input. The establishment of this high-impedance state would be done by the logic test subsystem 120 applying the necessary signal via one of its probes 132 to the output control (OC) input of among college address multiplexer 261 by overdriving any signal on line 265 if necessary. Desire? The establishment of the high-impedance state at the data (D) output of address multiplexer 261 will allow memory test subsystem 110 to apply whatever address is required at the address (A) inputs to Depression and anxiety among college students Essay ROM 251 without interference from any signal being generated by logic elements 160. Rip Van Winkle? Logic test subsystem 120 must also establish a high-impedance state at the outputs of students Essay memory select logic 266 such that there will be no signal on Teach Girls, control line 161A which is connected to the chip enable (CE) input of ROM 251.
This high-impedance state at the output stages of memory select logic 266 is accomplished by logic test subsystem 120 applying a proper signal to the OC input of memory select logic 266 overdriving, if necessary, any other signal on line 268 being applied from other elements within logic elements 160. It being noted that OC inputs to logic elements may not be otherwise connected to the electronic assemblies if the electronic assembly does not use the elements' tri-statable capability during the functional operation of the electronic assembly. In addition to isolating all the inputs to ROM 251, logic test subsystem 120 must also insure that RAM 252 does not operate in Depression and anxiety students Essay parallel with ROM 251. The operation of RAM 252 can be inhibited by What Has to Girls Essay, applying the proper signal at the chip enable (CE) input of RAM 252 by logic test subsystem 120 overdriving, if necessary, any signal which appears on control line 161B. Having established these conditions, logic test subsystem 120 can then signal memory test subsystem 110 that it can perform the testing of ROM 251.
Memory test subsystem 110 then applies the Depression and anxiety college, proper address and chip enable signals to ROM 251 via bus 111 and probes 131 and measures the Out of Americanization of Mexican, data output which is received via probes 131 and via bus 111. The memory test subsystem 110 can then perform the memory test using the existing test programs which generate test patterns for the particular type of Depression college memory array involved. Rip Van Text? These test patterns can, when combined with parametric testing techniques, help determine whether the memory array is subject to soft errors. These test patterns typically involve a complete read and write (for writable memories) of each addressable location within each chip in Depression among Essay the memory array with worst case patterns being written in the devices to determine if the definition, device is subject to soft errors. Depression Students? These worst case memory patterns test as to rip van text whether there is any interaction between memory cells and thereby indicate whether the and anxiety college students, memory array is sensitive to rip van any particular data pattern or addressing patterns in which the Depression and anxiety among college students Essay, data is written into or read from the American Women, memory in a particular sequence. An additional advantage of partitioning a testing of logic of and anxiety college Essay electronic assemblies containing both logic elements and memory arrays in this fashion is that a memory tester is usually capable of testing memory arrays at speeds which cannot be accomplished by hmv ps3, most in-circuit testers. This is particularly the case if the in-circuit tester must overdrive outputs of among other logic devices in order to provide the proper stimulus at the inputs of the memory array. This in-circuit overdriving requirement usually prohibits the testing of the exact timing required to test a memory array at its rated real-time speed.
Having completed the testing of burning ROM 251 the and anxiety among college students Essay, memory test subsystem 110 can signal logic test subsystem 120 via bus 121 that the test is complete and hmv ps3 that logic test subsystem 120 can then established the necessary conditions for the testing of RAM 252. The necessary conditions for the testing of RAM 252 are similar to and anxiety students those recited for the testing of rip van winkle ROM 251, but in addition require that the Depression among students Essay, output stage of data multiplexer 273 be forced to a high-impedance state such that the American Women Essay, data inputs on bus 163 may be established by the memory test subsystem 110 without interference from signals generated by logic elements 160. And Anxiety Among College Essay? In addition, the write enable input on control line 161C must be conditioned by forcing the From, output stage of write logic 273 into a high-impedance state by applying the proper signal to the output control (OC) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on line 275. For testing RAM 252, the output stage of memory select logic 266 which feeds chip enable control line 161B must also be placed in the high-impedance state and this is done by establishing the proper signal at the output control (OC) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on Depression among students Essay, line 268 from the winkle, other elements within logic elements 160. And Anxiety College Students? During the testing of RAM 252, ROM 251 must be disabled such that its outputs on data output bus 164A will not interfere with those on data output bus 164B. This can be done by the logic test subsystem 120 disabling ROM 251 by placing the proper signal at the chip enable (CE) input thereof, overdriving, if necessary, any signal appearing on control line 161A. The logic test subsystem 120, having established the proper conditions for the testing of RAM 252 by isolating the inputs thereto and inhibiting the parallel operation of ROM 251, then signals memory test subsystem 110 via bus 121. Memory test subsystem 110 can then proceed to test RAM 252 in isolation from other elements on the board by applying the proper address signals to the address (A) inputs thereof, the proper data signals to the data input (I) inputs thereof along with the of csr, necessary chip enable (CE) and write enable (WE) inputs and measure the data (D) outputs. Once memory test subsystem 110 has fully exercised RAM 252 by applying the proper input signals via bus 111 and probes 131 and and anxiety Essay measuring the tiger tiger burning bright poem, response via probes 131 and bus 111, memory test subsystem 110 can signal logic test subsystem via bus 121 that the test is complete and and anxiety among college students Essay also transfer the desire analysis, results of the test if it is so desired. As can be appreciated from the Depression and anxiety college Essay, above discussion, the use of the combined test system on electronic assemblies which have been designed according to analysis the rules, which provide for memory array input and output isolation, allows for the testing of embedded memories to be performed using a relatively simple memory test.
The test is Depression and anxiety, simple to the extent that the test is at the same level as a memory array test that doesn't have surrounding logic or controlling logic in rip van the same electronic assembly, so that it allows the performance of the memory test directly and it allows the test to be performed at real-time high speeds. These memory tests can be performed using the accurate timing functions and Depression and anxiety Essay faster clock rates associated with memory test systems along with their ability to provide accurate input stimulus thus enabling the embedded memory to be tested for rip van text, the detection of marginal conditions and soft errors. This combined test system also provides for the reduction in and anxiety among college Essay the number of times the electronic assembly must be handled in the testing process and thereby causing total test time compression. Although the description of the preferred embodiment has been in terms testing integrated circuit memories mounted on printed circuit boards and the above principals are equally applicable for memory arrays embedded within an integrated circuit that also contains other combinatorial logic so long as there are means to effectuate a high-impedance state in all logic elements that provide inputs to the memory array and a means is provided from providing test input stimulus to the Cinderella Girls the memory and for sensing the memory output in isolation from any other elements to which it might otherwise be wire-ored with. Although the above discussion discussed the use of probes 131 of bed-of-nails fixture 130 for students, use by desire analysis, the memory test subsystem 110 and the use of probes 132 of bed-of-nails fixture 130 as if they were dedicated to Depression among college Essay logic test subsystem 120, it will be appreciated that in fact some or all of these probes may be used by either system and that busses 111 and 124 between the test subsystems and the bed-of-nails fixtures may in fact be a common bus such that the memory test subsystem 110 and logic test subsystem 120 can each access any probe and therefore any contact point on the electronic assembly under test that is hmv ps3, accessible by among Essay, the other test subsystem.
For example, some of probes 131 may be used during the memory test by memory test subsystem 120 to of Mexican Women Essay establish the input conditions on address bus 162 and these same probes may be used to measure the Depression and anxiety among college students Essay, output of address multiplexer 261 when logic elements 160 are tested by logic test subsystem 120. Although FIG. 1 illustrates the combined test system 100 as being composed of a memory test subsystem 110 and a logic test subsystem 120 coupled by a bus 121, a closer combination of these systems may be achieved wherein a single programmable controller that controls both systems and is shared between them. In this configuration, the conducting of one test can be done as a foreground task in a real time environment and the reduction of the data gathered from the other test can be conducted as a background task in parallel with the real time generation of test stimulus and sensing of the results and by the foreground task. Hmv Ps3? It will also be appreciated by those skilled in Depression and anxiety college Essay the art that memory test subsystem 110 and logic test subsystem 120 may share other elements in winkle text common with each other. It will also be appreciated however, that to the extent that memory test subsystem 110 can operate in parallel with logic test subsystem 120, the overall time it takes to test any individual electronic assembly 140 may be shortened if during the among Essay, performance of the memory test, the logic test subsystem is able to process data which has been previously gathered during the testing of logic element 160 and conversely if memory test subsystem 110 can process the results of the testing of memory array 150 while logic test subsystem 120 is burning bright poem, performing the data gathering operation on among Essay, logic elements 160. Although the preferred embodiment has been discussed in terms of combining an in-circuit test subsystem with a memory test subsystem, the use of tiger poem a functional board test subsystem is also envisioned.
For example, the use of a functional board tester such as the L135 functional board tester made by Teradyne Corporation of Boston, Mass., in conjunction with overdriving circuitry built into tester to board under test interface is not excluded as to its benefit in conjunction with the present invention. While the invention has been shown and described with reference to Depression and anxiety the preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the tiger tiger bright, above and other changes in form and detail may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
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The Resume Mocked ‘Round the Depression among students Essay World. With his name and hmv ps3 image appearing on and anxiety college Essay the “Today” show, in The New York Post and all over the Web site Gawker, Aleksey Vayner may be the What Story Has to Teach most famous investment-banking job applicant in recent memory. But he says his new celebrity is less blessing than curse. “This has been an extremely stressful time,” Mr. Vayner, a senior at Yale University, told DealBook over steak in a northern New Jersey restaurant Thursday. It was his first face-to-face meeting with a reporter since an 11-page application and elaborate video clip that he submitted to securities firm UBS showed up on two blogs, and then quickly spread to every corner of the Internet. The clip, staged to look like a job interview spliced with shots of Mr. Vayner’s athletic prowess, flooded e-mail inboxes across Wall Street and students eventually appeared on From Out of Women the video-sharing site YouTube . And the overwhelming reaction was mocking laughter. Mr. Vayner is not amused. Instead, he said he feels like a victim.
The job materials that were leaked and posted for public view included detailed information about him that allowed strangers to scrutinize and harass him, he said. His e-mail inbox quickly filled up, with most of the among students messages deriding him and, in certain cases, threatening him. What The Cinderella Story Girls! Since the video surfaced on the Internet, Mr. Vayner said he has deleted at least 2,000 pieces of and anxiety among college students, e-mail. It was Mr.
Vayner’s highly produced video that appears to have made his job application such a viral sensation. A Zen-like koan — “Impossible is nothing” — introduces the seven-minute clip, which shows Mr. Vayner performing various feats of physical strength and skill, interspersed with inspirational maxims. Viewers are presented with images of Mr. Vayner bench-pressing weights (a caption suggests it is 495 pounds), playing tennis (firing off what is definition, said to be a 140 mile-per-hour serve) and performing martial arts (he breaks seven bricks with his palm). The tone of the Depression and anxiety among college students video seems too serious to be parody, yet too over-the-top to be credible. After sharing the clip, fellow students at Yale began to share their favorite Aleksey-style tall tales, notably involving reminiscences of the Shadows: Americanization, bare-handed killings and among college students Essay nuclear waste. And then there were Mr.
Vayner’s claims about running a charity, the legitimacy of which is now in question. In person, Mr. Vayner is of csr, much as he appears in the video. And Anxiety Among College Students! Tall, with gelled-back hair and a navy pinstriped suit, Mr. Vayner — along with his sister, Tamara, and his lawyer, Christian P. Stueben — met with DealBook on Thursday afternoon. Throughout the interview, Mr. Vayner was reserved, speaking deliberately, sometimes peering at What Story, what appeared to and anxiety among students be notes in winkle his Yale University portfolio.
Mr. Vayner, 23, said he has been interested in finance since he was 12 years old, when he was creating financial data models. Depression And Anxiety College Essay! So Mr. Winkle Text! Vayner, who is registered in Yale’s class of 2008, decided a few weeks ago to look for a job at a Wall Street firm. He thought that making a video would help him stand out in the often cutthroat competition for investment-banking positions.
By emphasizing his various athletic pursuits, which he listed as including body sculpting, weightlifting and Tai Chi, as well as brief stints on and anxiety Essay Yale’s polo and varsity tennis teams, Mr. Vayner said he could show that he had achieved success in physical endeavors — success that could carry over to the financial world. “I felt demonstrating competency in athletics is a good way to stand out, because the same characteristics are the same in business,” said Mr. Vayner, who legally changed his name from Aleksey Garber when he was 18. “The need to set and achieve goals, to have the dedication and competitive drive that’s required in of csr business success.” Despite all the mockery that the video has inspired, he still speaks proudly of his athleticism. Nearly all the feats in Depression college students Essay the video are his, he said, and From the Shadows: Americanization of Mexican American they are real. And Anxiety Among Students Essay! (The only doubt in his mind lies in the skiing segment, which he says is probably him.) When asked about poem, a posting Mr. Vayner had placed on the classifieds site Craigslist soliciting skiing videos — a posting that was reproduced on Depression students Essay a blog that questioned whether the text skier was him — Mr. Vayner said he was simply looking for the cameramen who shot his ski-jump efforts. Much of the other Internet chatter about him, mentioning studies in Tibet under the Dalai Lama and a “Blood Sport”-type tournament in Thailand, is false, he said.
Such claims stem from what he described as a satirical article in Depression and anxiety among college students Essay Yale’s tabloid, the Rumpus, detailing outsized claims from him when he was still a pre-freshman. Rip Van! The author, a then-student named Jordan Bass, was merely giving his opinion, Mr. Vayner said, and did not directly interview him for the article. In a piece in this week’s New Yorker magazine, though, Mr. Bass said that he was merely reiterating what Mr. Vayner had told him. In the end, though Mr. Vayner said he is less concerned about the mockery — “One mark of success is the ability to handle mass amounts of criticism,” he said — than about what appears to have been a leak of Depression and anxiety college students, his application materials from UBS. Mr.
Vayner and his lawyer, Mr. Stueben, confirmed that they are exploring legal options against the investment banks to From Out of Americanization Women Essay which he sent the application. A UBS spokesman said in and anxiety college Essay a statement: “As a firm, UBS obviously respects the rip van winkle text privacy of applicants’ correspondences and does not circulate job applications and resumes to the public. Depression And Anxiety College Essay! To the definition extent that any policy was breached, it will be dealt with appropriately.” However the and anxiety job materials landed on What Has to Teach Girls the Internet, the scrutiny has raised several questions about Mr.
Vayner’s claims. On Wednesday, the blog IvyGate posted excerpts from Mr. Vayner’s self-published book, “Women’s Silent Tears: A Unique Gendered Perspective on college students the Holocaust,” which until recently was available on the Web site of Lulu Press. IvyGate searched the Internet and found that many sections of the book seemed to have been copied from other Web sites. Asked about the similarities, Mr. Vayner said Thursday that the the Cinderella Story Has to Young Essay text on Lulu’s Web site was a “pre-publication copy” based on an earlier draft. The final version was worded more carefully, he said. On his resume, Mr.
Vayner cites his experience as an investment adviser at a firm called Vayner Capital Management and his charity work at an organization called Youth Empowerment Strategies, of Depression and anxiety college students, which he was the founder and chief executive. Rip Van Winkle! Until recently, both organizations had active Web sites, explaining their missions and and anxiety college Essay guiding principles. A statement on Vayner Capital said its philosophy was, “Never lose investors’ money.” Youth Empowerment Strategies featured a four-star banner said to be from Charity Navigator, an burning evaluator of nonprofit charitable groups. Asked about Youth Empowerment Strategies, however, a representative of Charity Navigator said it had not given the group a coveted four-star rating. Instead, it had referred Mr.
Vayner’s organization to the New York attorney general’s office, saying it should be investigated for potentially posing as a fraudulent charity. Mr. Vayner said Thursday that he had filed the necessary paperwork for Depression and anxiety among the charity in August. Furthermore, he said that he had outsourced the design of his charity’s Web site to companies in India and Pakistan and rip van winkle text had no role in placing the Charity Navigator banner on it. Mr. Depression And Anxiety Students! Vayner told a reporter that he had the banner taken down immediately when he learned that the group had disclaimed the of csr banner, some time around Sept. 15. When a reporter then told Mr. Vayner that the banner was still on the site as of last week, Mr. Depression And Anxiety College Essay! Vayner clarified that he had sent notification to take down the banner.
Mr. Vayner’s explanation does not satisfy Trent Stamp, Charity Navigator’s president. The group had first attempted to contact Youth Empowerment Strategies in early August, but its e-mails bounced back, Mr. Stamp told DealBook. After learning Mr.
Vayner’s new-found Internet fame earlier this month, the group redoubled its efforts, he said. “I’m not on the governing board of Yale, but it seems to named me that someone who committed massive charity fraud with intent to Depression and anxiety deceive people shouldn’t be able to receive an Ivy League degree,” Mr. From The Shadows: Americanization American Women! Stamp told DealBook. A Yale spokeswoman declined to comment. Asked for details about his investment firm, whose Web site has since gone dark, Mr.
Vayner said he hopes to obtain his investment adviser license next year, but insisted the college students company was legitimate. He also stood by Vayner Capital’s stated mission of never losing money. It was not a promise, he said, but merely a philosophical polestar. “I have two rules,” he said. Desire Analysis! “One, I will never lose your money. And two, when in doubt, refer to rule No. 1.” For now, Mr.
Vayner said he is camping out at his mother’s residence in Manhattan, having taken a short leave of absence from Yale when his video hit the Internet. Depression And Anxiety Among! He said he may have lost his chance to work on hmv ps3 Wall Street, and added that he may not succeed in securing a financial job at all. Real estate development is an option, he said, but for now his future is and anxiety college, unclear. In the meantime, he plans on tiger tiger burning bright taking his midterm examinations next week. All photos by Depression, Emile Wamsteker for The New York Times.
Comments are no longer being accepted. This guy is a villian of Ernst Stavro Blofeldian proportions. The mystery is why it took so long for someone to take the axe to this rooster. I am deeply disturbed by a resume sent in confidence to a streetcar named a highly respected firm had been made public and that confidence broken. And Anxiety Students! Should we all worry about where are resume’s end up once sent to the firm of our choice? Typical. What else would you expect out of Yale? no more recruiting at Yale for of csr sure.
Whatever. This guy just exemplifies the Depression among college Essay kind of people you find at Yale. I have seen his picture and his body frame. There is NO WAY he can bench 495 Pounds if his picture is Current. He does not have the Muscle mass or just the pure size to do it. Hmv Ps3! Even if it was “Strong” muscle and not “Wide” Muscle. Among College Essay! His chest area would have to be about 3-4 inches wider on each side…just to ATTEMPT it. Classic 15-minutes of fame, but getting a story in From Americanization of Mexican Women Essay the Time is students, pretty good; I bet this guy finds a pretty good job, after all.
I agree with poster above who mentions how a private resume would find it’s way out to the wide world. That’s a little dicey, to say the least. More of rip van winkle, these kinds of things are on the horizon, no doubt, if not, as demonstrated here, right under our noses already. Thanks for reading, Dick Laresch, Jersey City, NJ. Tell him to do a Ph.D at Yale then preach some more. May I suggest you join GW Bush and Gang – they have been defrauding US citizens all too successfully since whenever! Your talents will be much appreciated there. If he had spent the same amount of time actually doing what he said he did, he’d be much better off! stories sound similar to those of a curent clothesless emperor who attended Yale.
Naah, the emperor’s contain more lies. “I have two rules,” he said. “One, I will never lose your money. And two, when in doubt, refer to rule No. And Anxiety Among College Essay! 1.” This guy is hilarious. He should lay low, wait tables for a couple years, then try to a streetcar named desire analysis get back in the game. What a joke…”Coffee is for closers,” buddy, and there’s no way in Depression and anxiety Essay h e l l you can hit a tennis ball 140 mph. my advice to tiger tiger burning bright mr. vayner: drop the finance career aspirations, you were made for reality TV. Did it occur to anyone that this may have been a test by and anxiety among college, the young man of how major corporations handle job applications?
If so it was brilliant. And whoever at UBS leaked it needs their head examined–after they are escorted off the premises. Sharing humor is desire, one thing; leaving in Depression and anxiety Essay the personal identifiers is What Teach Young Essay, quite another. Not sure I’d hire the young man, but I’d sure like to talk to Depression and anxiety college Essay him–he’s clearly a risk-taker with a sense of humor. Not sure what to think of definition of csr, his other ventures–dishonesty or just naivete or perhaps part of the test to see if anybody actually checked his resume. I’m amazed at how many people still don’t! This is an excellent piece of Depression among students Essay, reporting.
Pity the national press corps does not dedicate this level of a streetcar named desire, scrutiny to other Yale alumni who have hoodwinked this nation for the last 18 years. Depression And Anxiety Among Essay! As the body count of American soldiers in Iraq approaches the body count from 9/11, is anyone going toe-to-toe with decision makers on their decisions and activities? Or will reporters keep eating the Snowfall? I agree with Martha. Hmv Ps3! Although the among college students Essay kid is obviously a ridiculous egomaniac and not a particularly good liar, the definition real guilty party here is UBS. We can forgive Mr. Vayner on grounds of immaturity, but what excuse does UBS offer for having leaked documents delivered to it for the purposes of a normally confidential job application? It hardly inspires confidence in the clumsy financial giant. What is its claim to have “the heart and soul of a two-person organization,” but a more polished and more damaging lie than those Mr. Vayner offered? It seems to be going unremarked upon and anxiety students that even the tagline of his video, “impossible is nothing,” was filched from a recent Adidas ad campaign.
Next stop for this guy should be The Apprentice. This story is easily distilled: either the charity was legitimate or it was a fraud. That issue is not nearly as murky as Mr. Vayner wants us to tiger tiger burning poem believe. If it was a fraud, then his video is Depression and anxiety college, not a resume but a work of definition, fiction, and and anxiety among Essay I would be dubious about any privacy claims Mr. Vayner and his lawyer put forth. A Streetcar Named! Moreover, if it was fraud, Yale should do the Depression and anxiety among Essay honorable thing and expel him. Mr.
Vayner: Refer to comment number 10. If not successful, just come down to Brazil and you will be instantly named President Lula’s personal advisor. That kid should be stripped of his degree. It seems reasonably clear that he has lived a life of lies; after some investigation I’m sure that Yale could confirm any doubts of his credentials. Nick Sylvester (faked Village Voice lifestyle piece; just gave a lecture at Harvard Law School; featured on gawker.com today) The kids are not all right.
do get it, at all. but then again, it’s Yale.
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Abelard and Heloise Essay examples. By establishing this relationship on a lustful foundation, Abelard and Heloise were creating a relationship leading to a sinful life. As stated by Abelard, “My love, which brought us both to college Essay sin, should be called lust, not love” (Letter 5, Abelard to Heloise 86). What Young? When two people are actually in love, the relationship built is symbiotic and Depression and anxiety, mutualistic. Part of that establishment is for bright, the sole purpose that it, in some way, benefits both party members. In the case of Abelard and Heloise, the relationship was not symbiotic; it led both Abelard and Heloise to college students live a life with one another built on lust. Even Heloise shows how the relationship is not entirely out of true love for Abelard. She states, “…we enjoyed the pleasures of an uneasy love and abandoned ourselves to fornication” (Letter 4, Heloise to Abelard 65-66). This facet directly relates to definition how the relationship between the two is not based on love, if it were then both Abelard and Heloise would not resort to unfaithfulness and strained love, neither shows pure commitment to the other. Due to Depression students an inability to actually fight to stay together, Abelard and Heloise again show their lack of commitment toward each other, warranting that they are not truly in What the Cinderella Has to Teach Young Essay, from conventional medieval men and women.
Throughout the letters, Abelard and Heloise’s perspectives on gender roles were strictly based upon the traditional views on sexuality. For instance, in and anxiety students, the egotistical mind of Abelard, women in the medieval society were viewed as a weaker sex who need help of the a stronger male since there were certainly things that “cannot be carried out by of csr, women”5. Moreover, Heloise, despite her being a woman, did not seem to students Essay be shocked at the idea that men Exaple of a Bad Marriage: Abelard Heloise Essay. Heloise and Abelard: Focus on Right and definition, Wrong Essay. with each other and how we act right or wrong with regards to other people, not God. Depression And Anxiety College? Unlike Abelard, Heloise never wrote a unified and comprehensive piece of work. Instead we have to definition of csr gather her philosophy from her few letters’ and our understanding of her from Abelard’s responses. From her writing Heloise seems conflicted in both major relationships of her life, both Abelard and college, with God. With Abelard she is upset that after everything she did for him, he does nothing for her “Tell me one thing Regardless of the fact that Heloise (1101-1164) was Abelard’s junior by twenty-two years, they fell into love.Not unexpectedly, Heloise became pregnant, and gave birch to a son named Astrolabe.In order to avoid bringing scandal on themselves and What Story Essay, their families, Abelard insisted they be married in secret.Feeling guilty for what they had done, Abelard was able to college Essay persuade Heloise to take the holy vows at the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Argenteuil.Her uncle Fulbert quickly found out about what had happened Essay about A Comparison of Cleopatra and Heloise. with Antony but more captivated by the idea of who Antony was. Conversely, Heloise repeatedly claims that women are inferior to men and rip van winkle, that a woman needs a man's guidance and college Essay, protection. It is true that Abelard is her superior in philosophical knowledge and age but she is Young Essay, still a very intelligent young woman.
Heloise plays on among college students the fact that women are inferior to men in order to gain Abelard's sympathy. Abelard does not completely agree with Heloise's low standard of women. He claims that His greatest work was Summa Theologica. In this work he attempted to merge faith with reason, and winkle, the works of Aristotle with the scriptures. Historically, he is seen as an alternate approach to St. Augustine's view of the city of man versus the and anxiety among students Essay, city of God. Augustine and of csr, Aquinas shared the belief that the original sin was Adam and Eve's venture through the garden of good and evil. On page 239, Aquinas held that both faith and reason came from God, they were not in opposition to each other; properly Calamitatum Of The Individual Essay example. and so I yielded to the lusts of the Depression and anxiety among college students Essay, flesh. (p.65, ll.13-15).
The first part of this statement is a window into tiger tiger burning, what made Abelard an individual. He felt that he did not have to follow the same rules that other people did because he was superior to and anxiety college students them. Out Of The Shadows: Americanization Of Mexican Women Essay? The result was a man that did things differently, for and anxiety among students Essay, better or for worse. The second part of that statement lead Abelard down his next path of individuality, the first to cause him physical pain. To these faults he attributes his downfall, which Essay on Fuku—a Curse of Bad Consequences. Then Abelard makes a bad choice again.
He once has a chance to of csr send his daughters to Cube to live with his mistress Lydia’s family, so they can escape form Trujillo. Depression And Anxiety College Essay? However, Abelard chooses to believe “his Trujillo philosophy” that “he only had to keep his head down, his mouth shut, his pockets open, his daughters hidden for another decade or two. Desire? By then … Trujillo would be dead and the Dominican Republic would be a true democracy” (Diaz 227). Apparently, it turns out that his hope is just a hope Political and Emotional Dictatorship within Junot Diaz#x27;s Brief and Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. this structure, it suits to begin with the earliest generation chronicled: thus, Oscar Wao's grandfather, Abelard Luis Cabral. Abelard is a member of the Fortunate People(213)?read wealthy people?which of course means not much dictatorship affected his life before Trujillo, but Trujillo, remember, is the beginning of the Cabral-Wao V. When the college students Essay, brutal Trujillo seizes power, however, Abelard must maintain the outward appearance of the enthusiastic Trujillista (215), which he wasn't. So he has to the Shadows: Essay Essay about Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. Weeks later Abelard was arrested for apparently making jokes about Depression and anxiety Essay, dead bodies in the trunk of his car. Since Trujillo’s henchmen disposed of opponents this way (Abrams, P. 13), he was accused of slandering Trujillo. Abelard spent the rest of his life tortured in prison and all records of his writing and identity were completely demolished by Trujillo and company.
Both these stories show the power Trujillo had on his people. Trujillo wanted to make his presence felt everywhere in the Dominican
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control essay gun ( Kan. J.L. Pub. Pol'y , Winter 1995, at Depression and anxiety among 17) Clayton E. Cramer. The historical record provides compelling evidence that racism underlies gun control laws #151; and not in any subtle way. Throughout much of American history, governments openly stated that gun control laws were useful for keeping blacks and Hispanics in their place and for quieting the racial fears of whites. Racist arms laws predate the establishment of the United States.
This is not surprising. Blacks in the New World were often slaves, and revolts against slave owners often degenerated into less selective forms of racial warfare. The perception that free blacks were sympathetic to the plight of their enslaved brothers and the dangerous example that blacks could actually handle freedom often led New World governments to From Out of of Mexican Women disarm all blacks, both slave and free. Starting in 1751, the French Black Code required Louisiana colonists to stop any blacks and, if necessary, beat any black carrying any potential weapon, such as a cane. (1) If a black refused to stop on demand and was on horseback, the colonist was authorized to shoot to kill. (2) In Louisiana, the fear of Indian attack and the importance of hunting to the colonial economy necessitated that slaves sometimes possess firearms. The colonists had to balance their fear of the Indians against their fear of their slaves. College! As a result, French Louisiana passed laws that allowed slaves and free blacks to possess firearms only under very controlled conditions. (3) Similarly, in the sixteenth century the tiger burning bright colony of New Spain, terrified of black slave revolts, prohibited all blacks, free and slave, from carrying arms. (4) Often the relationship between racism and gun control was direct and obvious.
On other occasions the connection was more complex. One example of Depression and anxiety college Essay a complex relationship between economic struggle, slavery, and definition, possession of arms can be found in seventeenth-century Virginia. The aristocratic power structure of colonial Virginia confronted a political challenge from lower class whites. Depression Among College Essay! These poor whites resented how the men who controlled the government used that power to concentrate wealth into a small number of hands. These wealthy feeders at the government trough would have disarmed poor whites, but the threat of rip van both Indian and and anxiety among college, pirate attack made this impractical; all white men were armed and had to be armed. (5) Instead of of csr empowering poor whites, blacks, who had occupied a poorly defined status between indentured servant and slave, were reduced to hereditary chattel slavery.
In this way poor whites could be economically advantaged without the upper class having to give up its privileges. (6) In the Haitian Revolution of the 1790s, the Depression among college students slave population successfully threw off their French masters. As the Revolution degenerated into a race war, existing fears increased in the French Louisiana colony and Out of the Shadows: Americanization American Women Essay, among whites in the American slave states. (7) When the first U.S. official arrived in Depression and anxiety among college students, New Orleans in winkle text, 1803 to and anxiety among college Essay take charge of the new American possession, the planters sought to the Cinderella Teach Girls have the existing free black militia disarmed and otherwise exclude free blacks from positions in which they were required to bear arms. This exclusion included such nonmilitary functions as slave-catching crews. (8) The New Orleans city government also stopped whites from teaching fencing to free blacks, and then, when free blacks sought to teach fencing, the Depression and anxiety among Essay city similarly prohibited their efforts as well. (9) Restrictions on slave possession of arms in the North American English colonies go back a very long way as well. Arms restrictions on free blacks in hmv ps3, slave states, while present, at least allowed free blacks to obtain a license to possess a gun in and anxiety, their homes, or with good reason, to definition even carry a gun. Whites were not similarly restricted. Arms restrictions on free blacks increased dramatically after Nat Turner's Rebellion in 1831 caused the South to become increasingly irrational in its fears. Among College Essay! (10) In response to Turners Rebellion, the hmv ps3 Virginia Legislature made it illegal for free blacks to keep or carry any firelock of any kind, any military weapon, or any powder or lead. (11) In addition, the existing law under which free blacks were occasionally licensed to possess or carry arms was repealed, thus making arms possession completely illegal for free blacks. (12) But even before this action by the Virginia Legislature, in Depression among college Essay, the aftermath of Turner's Rebellion, the hmv ps3 discovery that a free black family possessed lead shot for Depression among college Essay use as scale weights, but did not have powder or a weapon in of csr, which to fire it, was considered sufficient reason for a frenzied mob to discuss summary execution of the owner. (13) The fear of armed blacks had become so extreme that dogs were considered weapons.
Maryland prohibited free blacks from owning dogs without a license and Depression college students, authorized any white to kill an unlicensed dog owned by a free black. (14) Mississippi went further and hmv ps3, prohibited any ownership of a dog by a black person, without even a provision for licensed ownership. (15) Provisions in Depression college students Essay, the 1834 Tennessee Constitution further reveal whites' increasing fear of burning armed blacks. Among College! Article XI, Section 26 of the hmv ps3 1796 Tennessee Constitution read: That the freemen of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence. (16) The 1834 constitution was revised to: That the free white men of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for their common defence. (17) It is not clear what else could have motivated this change other than Turner's bloody insurrection. Among College Students! The year before the new constitution was adopted, the Tennessee Supreme Court had recognized the right to bear arms as an hmv ps3 individual guarantee, but there is no evidence that this decision caused the change. Among College! (18) Other court decisions during the hmv ps3 antebellum period were unambiguous about the importance of among college race. In State v. Huntly, the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized that the North Carolina Constitution guaranteed a right to carry arms, as long as such arms were carried in a manner not likely to frighten people. A Streetcar! (19) The following year the North Carolina Supreme Court decided State v. Newsom.
The full significance of the Newsom decision would not be apparent until after the Civil War and passage of the Fourteenth Amendment. An 1840 statute provided: That if any free negro, mulatto, or free person of color, shall wear or carry about his or her person, or keep in his or her house, any shot gun, musket, rifle, pistol, sword, dagger or bowie-knife, unless he or she shall have obtained a licence therefor from the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of Depression among students his or her county, within one year preceding the wearing, keeping or carrying thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be indicted therefor. (20) Elijah Newsom, a free person of color, was indicted under the What the Cinderella Story Has to Teach Young Essay Statute in Cumberland County in June of 1843 for carrying a shotgun without a license #151; at the very time the North Carolina Supreme Court was deciding Huntly . (21) A jury convicted Newsom, but the trial judge directed a not guilty verdict, and the state appealed to the North Carolina Supreme Court. (22) Newsom's attorney argued that the Statute, which required free blacks to obtain a license to keep and bear arms, violated both the Second Amendment to the U.S. And Anxiety Among College Students Essay! Constitution and the North Carolina Constitution's similar guarantee. (23) The North Carolina Supreme Court refused to accept that the Second Amendment was a limitation on What Teach Young Girls state laws. The court, however, also had to deal with the problem of its own state constitutional guarantees, which had been used in Depression and anxiety among college students, deciding the a streetcar desire analysis Huntly decision the Depression among year before. Article seventeen of the 1776 North Carolina Constitution declared: That the people have a right to bear arms, for the defence of the State; and, as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. (24) The Newsom court asserted that: We cannot see that the act of 1840 is in conflict with it. . . . The defendant is not indicted for carrying arms in defence of the State, nor does the act of 1840 prohibit him from so doing. Burning! (25) But in and anxiety, Huntly , the court had acknowledged that the seemingly restrictive language for the defence of the State included an individual right. (26) The Newsom court then attempted to justify the necessity of tiger burning bright this law: Its only object is to preserve the peace and among students, safety of the community from being disturbed by an indiscriminate use, on ordinary occasions, by free men of color, of fire arms or other arms of an offensive character. Self preservation is the first law of nations, as it is of individuals. (27)
The North Carolina Supreme Court also sought to repudiate the idea that North Carolina's Bill of Rights protected free blacks by pointing out that it excluded free blacks from voting. Teach! Therefore, the court reasoned, free blacks were not citizens. But unlike a number of other state constitutions that limit the right to keep and bear arms to citizens , (28) Article seventeen of the North Carolina Bill of and anxiety among Essay Rights guaranteed this right to the people (29) #151; and try as hard as they might, it was difficult to argue that a free person of Has to Young Girls Essay color, in the words of the court, was not one of the people. It is one of the great ironies that, in much the Depression and anxiety Essay same way that the named desire North Carolina Supreme Court recognized a right to bear arms in 1843 #151; then a year later declared that free blacks were not included #151; the Georgia Supreme Court did likewise before the close of the decade. College Students Essay! The Georgia Supreme Court found in Nunn v. Desire Analysis! State that a statute prohibiting the sale of and anxiety students Essay concealable handguns, sword-canes, and daggers violated the tiger burning bright poem Second Amendment: The right of the whole people, old and young, men, women and boys, and not militia only, to keep and bear arms of every description, and not such merely as are used by the militia , shall not be infringed , curtailed, or broken in upon, in the smallest degree; and all this for the important end to among students Essay be attained: the rearing up and qualifying a well-regulated militia, so vitally necessary to the security of a free State. Our opinion is, that any law, State or Federal, is repugnant to the Constitution, and void, which contravenes this right , originally belonging to our forefathers, trampled under foot by burning bright poem Charles I. and among, his two wicked sons and successors, reestablished by the revolution of 1688, conveyed to this land of liberty by the colonists, and finally incorporated conspicuously in our own Magna Charta! And Lexington, Concord, Camden, River Raisin, Sandusky, and the laurel-crowned field of New Orleans, plead eloquently for desire this interpretation! (30)
Finally, after this paean to liberty #151; in a state where much of the population remained enslaved and forbidden by law to possess arms of any sort #151; the court defined the valid limits of laws restricting the college students bearing of arms: We are of the opinion, then, that so far as the a streetcar named act of 1837 seeks to suppress the practice of carrying certain weapons secretly , that it is valid, inasmuch as it does not deprive the citizen of his natural right of self-defence, or of his constitutional right to keep and bear arms. But that so much of it, as contains a prohibition against Depression and anxiety college students, bearing arms openly , is in conflict with the Constitution, and void . . . Hmv Ps3! . (31) Citizen? Within a single page, the court had gone from right of the whole people, old and young, men, women and Depression Essay, boys to the much more narrow right of a citizen. The motivation for this sudden narrowing of the right #151; that blacks were not citizens #151; appeared two years later. Cooper and Worsham v. From Out Of The Shadows: Of Mexican Essay! Mayor of among Savannah was not principally a right to keep and bear arms case. In 1839, the city of Savannah, Georgia, in an admitted effort to prevent the increase of free persons of color in our city, had established a one hundred dollar per year tax on winkle free blacks moving into Savannah from Depression and anxiety college other parts of Georgia. Samuel Cooper and Hamilton Worsham, two free persons of the Shadows: color, were convicted of failing to Depression and anxiety among college students Essay pay the tax and Teach Girls Essay, were jailed. (32) On appeal, counsel for Cooper and Worsham argued that the ordinance establishing the tax was deficient in a number of technical areas. (33) Of most interest to and anxiety students us is counsel's assertion that [i]n Georgia, free persons of color have constitutional rights. What Story Has To Young Girls! . And Anxiety! . . (34) Cooper and Worsham's counsel argued that these included the right to writ of habeas corpus, the right to own real estate, the Out of the Shadows: Americanization of Mexican American Women right to be subject to taxation, and the right to and anxiety among college Essay sue and be sued. Their counsel cited a number of precedents under Georgia law in defense of their position. (35) Justice Warner delivered the court's opinion.
One portion of the opinion shows the fundamental relationship between citizenship, arms, and tiger tiger, elections, and why gun control laws were an essential part of defining blacks as non-citizens: Free persons of and anxiety students Essay color have never been recognized here as citizens; they are not entitled to bear arms, vote for members of the legislature, or to hold any civil office. (36) The Georgia Supreme Court did agree that the ordinance jailing Cooper and of Mexican Women, Worsham for Depression among college Essay nonpayment was illegal and ordered their release, (37) but the comments of the court make it clear that their brave words in Nunn v. State about the right of the the Cinderella Has to Young Girls Essay people really only meant white people. (38) Finally, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, the among college students U.S. Supreme Court showed that it shared this understanding that citizenship excluded blacks and explained the relationship between citizenship and the carrying of arms: It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in companies, without pass or passport, and the Shadows: American Essay, without obstruction, to sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of among college students Essay speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to definition keep and carry arms wherever they went . And Anxiety Among College Essay! And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and What the Cinderella Has to Teach Young Girls, endangering the peace and safety of the State. (39) While settled parts of the South were in great fear of armed blacks, concerns about Indian attack often forced relaxation of these rules on the frontier. The 1798 Kentucky Comprehensive Act allowed slaves and free blacks on frontier plantations to keep and use guns, powder, shot, and weapons, offensive and Depression and anxiety students Essay, defensive. (40) Unlike whites, however, free blacks and slaves were required to have a license to carry weapons. (41)
Blacks needed to carry arms for self-defense not only against criminal attacks that any person, white or black, might worry about, but they also needed arms for protection against tiger tiger burning bright, the additional hazard of being kidnapped and sold into slavery. (42) A number of Depression among Essay states, including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, passed laws specifically to prohibit kidnapping of free blacks. These states were concerned that the Federal Fugitive Slave Laws would be used as cover for re-enslavement. What The Cinderella Story Essay! (43) The end of slavery in 1865 did not eliminate the problems of racist gun control laws. Depression And Anxiety Among College! The various Black Codes adopted after the Civil War required blacks to From the Shadows: obtain a license before carrying or possessing firearms or bowie knives. These Codes are sufficiently well-known that any reasonably complete history of the Reconstruction period mentions them. Depression Among Students! These restrictive gun laws played a part in provoking Republican efforts to get the Fourteenth Amendment passed. (44) Republicans in Congress apparently believed that it would be difficult for night riders to provoke terror in freedmen who were returning fire. It appears that the Fourteenth Amendments requirement to treat blacks and whites equally before the law led to the adoption of restrictive firearms laws in the South that were equal in the letter of the law, but unequally enforced.
It is clear that the vagrancy statutes adopted in 1866, the same year the arms control laws were adopted, were intended to be used against blacks, even though the language was race-neutral. (45) The former states of the Confederacy, many of which had recognized the right to winkle carry arms openly before the Civil War, developed a greater willingness to qualify that right after the passage of the Depression students Essay Fourteenth Amendment. One especially absurd example of how far a state was willing to go to qualify the right to bear arms, and named desire analysis, one that includes strong evidence of the racist intentions behind gun control laws, is a decision made in Texas. In 1859 in Cockrum v. Depression And Anxiety Essay! State, the Texas Supreme Court recognized that there was a right to carry defensive arms and that this right was protected under both the Second Amendment and Section Thirteen of the Texas Bill of Rights. (46) The outer limit of the state's authority (in this case, attempting to discourage the carrying of bowie knives) was that it could provide an enhanced penalty for manslaughters committed with bowie knives, but could not prohibit their being carried. (47) Yet, by 1872 in English v. State, the Texas Supreme Court denied that there was any right to carry any weapon for individual self-defense under either the state or federal constitutions. (48) Rather than explaining or justifying why the Cockrum decision was no longer valid, the court merely explained that the issue of the right to winkle bear arms was not fairly before the court in Cockrum . (49) What caused the dramatic change?
The following excerpt from the English decision reveals how racism permeated legal thinking: We will not say to Depression students Essay what extent the early customs and habits of the people of this state should be respected and of csr, accommodated, where they may come in conflict with the ideas of intelligent and well-meaning legislators. A portion of and anxiety among students our system of laws, as well as our public morality, is derived from a people the most peculiar perhaps of any other in text, the history and derivation of its own system . Spain, at different periods of the world, was dominated over by the Carthagenians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Snovi, the Allani, the Visigoths, and and anxiety students Essay, Arabs; and to hmv ps3 this day there are found in the Spanish codes traces of the Depression and anxiety among students laws and customs of each of these nations blended together in text, a system by Depression among college Essay no means to be compared with the sound philosophy and tiger tiger, pure morality of the common law. (50) Throughout the Depression and anxiety among college South during the post-war period, the definition of csr existing precedents that recognized a right to and anxiety among college students Essay openly carry arms under state constitutional provisions and of csr, the Second Amendment were being narrowly construed or simply ignored. (51) The apparent goal of the gun control and vagrancy laws was to intimidate the and anxiety college Essay freedmen into an economically subservient position. By making the freedmen defenseless, employers could be more confident that intimidation would keep their hired hands in Out of Women, line. Nor was the intent that led to these laws lost on judges in the North. In 1920, the Ohio Supreme Court upheld the and anxiety among college students Essay conviction of a Mexican for carrying a concealed handgun #151; while he was asleep in his own bed. (52) Justice Wanamaker's scathing dissent criticized the precedents cited by the majority in defense of this absurdity: I desire to give some special attention to some of the tiger tiger authorities cited, supreme court decisions from Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Kentucky, and one or two inferior court decisions from New York, which are given in support of the doctrines upheld by Depression Essay this court. The southern states have very largely furnished the Out of the Shadows: of Mexican Essay precedents. It is only necessary to observe that the race issue there has extremely intensified a decisive purpose to entirely disarm the negro, and this policy is evident upon reading the opinions . (53) There are other examples of among students remarkable honesty from the state supreme courts on this subject.
The finest is probably Florida Supreme Court Justice Buford's concurring opinion in Watson v. Stone. In Watson , a conviction for a streetcar desire carrying a handgun without a permit was overturned because the handgun was in the glove compartment of a car. (54) Justice Buford wrote: I know something of the history of this legislation. The original Act of 1893 was passed when there was a great influx of negro laborers in this State drawn here for the purpose of working in turpentine and lumber camps. The same condition existed when the Act was amended in 1901 and the Act was passed for the purpose of disarming the negro laborers and to Depression and anxiety among college students Essay thereby reduce the unlawful homicides that were prevalent in turpentine and saw-mill camps and to give the white citizens in sparsely settled areas a better feeling of hmv ps3 security. Among Students! The statute was never intended to be applied to the white population and in practice has never been so applied. (55) There is a shortage of such forthright statements of racist intent behind modern gun control laws. But has the racist intent disappeared, or simply been recast into a more acceptable form? Robert Sherrill, at one time a correspondent for The Nation and a supporter of restrictive gun control laws, argued in his book The Saturday Night Special that fear of armed blacks was the From Out of the Shadows: Americanization American Women major provocation of the Gun Control Act of 1968. He argues:
The Gun Control Act of 1968 was passed not to control guns to but control blacks, and inasmuch as a majority of Congress did not want to and anxiety college do the former but were ashamed to hmv ps3 show that their goal was the latter, the result was that they did neither. Indeed, this law, the first gun-control law passed by Congress in thirty years, was one of the grand jokes of our time. (56) Sherrill failed to provide smoking gun evidence for Depression and anxiety among college Essay his claim, but there is no shortage of evidence of the level of fear that gripped white America in the late 1960s. The California Legislature adopted a major new arms law in 1967, for the first time prohibiting the open carrying of a streetcar desire firearms in cities. And Anxiety College Students! (57) This law easily passed after the Black Panthers demonstrated against it #151; by walking into the Assembly Chamber carrying pistols, rifles, [and] at least one sawed-off shotgun. (58) This demonstration of course pushed the law through, in spite of significant opposition from conservative Republicans such as State Senator John G. Schmitz. (59) Another piece of evidence that corroborates Sherrills belief that both liberals and conservatives intended the Gun Control Act of 1968 as race control more than gun control has recently been found. There are strong similarities between the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the 1938 weapons law adopted by Nazi Germany. (60) This similarity is no coincidence; one of the principal authors of the Gun Control Act of 1968 was Senator Thomas Dodd of Connecticut. After World War II, Dodd was assistant to the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg war crime trials. (61) Shortly before the tiger poem Gun Control Act of 1968 was written, Dodd asked the Depression and anxiety students Library of Congress to translate the 1938 German weapons law into English. Of Csr! Dodd supplied the Depression and anxiety students German text. (62) Dodd was not a Nazi; he had a reputation as an aggressive federal prosecutor of civil rights violations. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that any sort of American Holocaust was intended.
Nonetheless, it would not be surprising if Dodd found it convenient to adapt a law that had already proven its efficacy at disarming a minority group. Today is not 1968. When proponents of restrictive gun control insist that their motivations are color-blind, there is a possibility that they are telling the truth. Nonetheless, there are some rather interesting questions that should be asked today. The most obvious is, Why should a police chief or sheriff have any discretion in issuing a concealed handgun permit?
Here in California even the state legislature's research arm #151; hardly a nest of pro-gunners #151; has admitted that the hmv ps3 vast majority of permits to carry concealed handguns in California are issued to white males. (63) Even if overt racism is not an issue, an Depression and anxiety among students official may simply have more empathy with an applicant of the Shadows: of Mexican American Essay a similar cultural background and consequently more closely relate to the applicant's concerns. As my wife pointedly reminded a police official when we applied for Depression among students Essay concealed weapon permits, If more police chiefs were women, a lot more women would get permits, and would be able to defend themselves from rapists. The warrantless searches of private residences for guns in Chicago housing projects in early 1994 is another reminder of definition how racism and gun control remain intertwined. (If there are white people living in these projects, they are remarkably invisible in news media coverage). While these warrantless searches were finally blocked by and anxiety Essay a judge, the From Out of American popular press was remarkably neutral in its coverage of the Clinton administrations advocacy of such an obvious violation of the Fourth Amendments protections against unreasonable searches. President Clinton, after his warrantless search policy was struck down, explained his goals: Finally, we're going to work with residents in high-crime areas to permit the full range of searches that the Constitution does allow in common areas, in vacant apartments, and in and anxiety among college students, circumstances where residents are in immediate danger. What Story! We'll encourage more weapons frisks of suspicious persons, and we'll ask tenant associations to put clauses in their leases allowing searches when crime conditions make it necessary. (64) The frisks of suspicious persons are a longstanding tradition used against and anxiety among, black Americans.
Requiring housing project tenants to give up their constitutional protections against warrantless searches is astounding. Can you imagine the reaction if tenants were required to give up their right to free speech when crime conditions make it necessary? It is hard to imagine the government attempting something similar in a white suburb #151; at the Shadows: American Women Essay least until the and anxiety among students courts first find it constitutional in a black ghetto. The case might be made that the definition government attempted to make the tenants safe by unconstitutional means #151; that the intentions were good even if the methods were wrong. But even for the special case of housing projects, there are profound inconsistencies in the policy. Secretary of Housing and and anxiety, Urban Development Henry Cisneros in a press conference on February 4, 1994, attempted to justify the warrantless searches as protecting the tenants of definition of csr these crime-ridden projects. Cisneros, however, admitted that [c]rime statistics . . . show that public housing residents are not to blame for the reign of terror. (65) A large majority of those arrested in housing projects were nonresidents. (66) It is and anxiety among college therefore all the more amazing that the residents , who would presumably have much to fear from these armed nonresident criminals, are the ones that the Clinton administration seeks to disarm. If we examine these Clinton administration policies as a pragmatic response to crime, we must ask: why disarm the likely victims of the criminals?
But if we consider these inexplicable policies as the latest symptom of racist attitudes about violence, then these policies make much more sense. Gun control advocates today are not so foolish as to promote openly racist laws, but it is important to consider the relevance of racist gun control laws of the past. My concern is that past motivations for disarming blacks are really not so different from the winkle motivations behind disarming law-abiding citizens today. Depression Among Students! In the last century, the rhetoric in support of such laws was that they (i.e., blacks) were too violent and too untrustworthy to be allowed weapons. Winkle Text! Today, the same elitist rhetoric regards law-abiding Americans the college students same way, as children in need of guidance from the government. While never openly admitted, one of the goals of disarming blacks was to rip van winkle text make them more willing to accept various forms of economic oppression, such as the and anxiety among students sharecropping system, in which free blacks were kept in an economic state not dramatically superior to slavery. Even today, with open racism unacceptable in the mainstream of American politics, gun control still looks suspiciously concerned with issues of race.
The Crime Bill of From American Women Essay 1994, passed after a bruising fight in Congress, was opposed by an unlikely coalition in the House: most Republicans, some conservative Democrats, and many black Democrats. The primary concern of the first two factions appears to have been the assault weapon ban. Black Democrats were concerned that the Depression and anxiety college students Essay death penalty provisions would disproportionately affect blacks. The assault weapon ban provisions of the Crime Bill certainly reflected a widespread fear of armed inner-city blacks. Much of its rhetoric was devoted to What Has to Teach Young Girls Essay the dangers of Depression among college Essay these guns in the hands of gang members and other code phrases for poor blacks. But as a number of rip van winkle careful studies have found, assault weapons are seldomly misused criminally. (67) A Wall Street Journal editorial chided Congress for passage of a ban that, under the most charitable assumptions, would reduce murder and Depression students Essay, other violent crimes by a tiny fraction of Teach 1%. (68) The Trenton, New Jersey assistant chief of police testified before Congress that his officers were more likely to confront an Depression among college Essay escaped tiger than a criminal with an hmv ps3 assault weapon. Depression And Anxiety Among! (69) Crime control was not the Young motivation for the assault weapon ban. Supporters of the ban continually emphasized that hunting rifles would not be affected by the ban. Was this a subtle way of saying that the and anxiety students sort of guns owned by white Americans would not be affected? Hunting is a heavily rural activity in America, and not surprisingly, black hunters are relatively rare. Similarly, an argument advanced by some pro-ban members of the Congress (notably Senator Campbell of Colorado) was that the What Has to Teach Essay law would only affect new manufacturing #151; existing owners could keep their guns.
If the effect of a similar 1986 ban on new machine gun manufacturing is any indication, the net effect of such an assault weapon ban will be to dramatically increase the price of Depression among college students existing weapons. A price increase further removes assault weapons from the financial reach of the poor, who are disproportionately black. What are the policy implications of restrictive gun control today? Increasingly, they are not aimed just at definition black people, or at the poor, but at the middle class. The forces that push for gun control are heavily (though not exclusively) allied with political factions that are committed to dramatic increases in taxation on among students the middle class. While it would be hyperbole to compare higher taxes on the middle class to the suffering and deprivation of sharecropping or slavery, the analogy of disarming those whom you wish to From of Mexican Essay economically disadvantage has a certain worrisome validity to it. Another point to consider is that under the American legal system certain classifications of governmental discrimination are considered constitutionally suspect, and these suspect classifications are subject to and anxiety among Essay a strong presumption of invalidity ( e.g ., a law that made distinctions based on race, even if the distinction was nominally race-neutral in its effect). (70) These classifications are suspect because there is a long history of governmental discrimination based on them, and because laws based on rip van these classifications often impinge on Depression among college students Essay fundamental rights. (71) In much the same way, gun control historically has been a tool of racism and associated with racist attitudes about tiger tiger burning poem, black violence. Depression Among! Similarly, many gun control laws impinge on that most fundamental of rights: self-defense. What The Cinderella Young Essay! Racism is so intimately tied to Depression college students the history of named desire analysis gun control in America that we should regard gun control aimed at and anxiety students Essay law-abiding people as a suspect idea and text, require that the courts use the same demanding standards when reviewing the constitutionality of a gun control law that they use with respect to a law that discriminates based on race. Throughout the history of the United States, our courts have often avoided directly answering questions about the constitutional limits of gun control.
As we have seen, this was sometimes done by and anxiety among students insisting that the right of the burning bright poem people didn't include black people. Another strategy popular in the slave states was to Depression among college Essay claim that as long as openly carrying a firearm was legal, then the state could prohibit or regulate concealed carrying of a firearm. Yet another strategy was to definition of csr dispute what arms were protected. The New York courts upheld the Sullivan Act, which licensed the Depression and anxiety students Essay possession of handguns at home, on the basis that handguns were not a constitutionally protected arm #151; unlike a rifle or a shotgun. Such decisions have usually insisted that only arms of the hmv ps3 soldier are protected by Depression Essay the Second Amendment, or the state constitutions equivalent provision. In United States v. Cruikshank (a decision that emasculated the tiger tiger burning bright poem Ku Klux Klan Act), the U.S.
Supreme Court decided that the Second Amendment is a limitation on college students Essay the federal government only, not on the state governments. (72) This argument has been accepted by most (but not all) state supreme courts. (73) These sorts of question-begging approaches will not be available to the U.S. Hmv Ps3! Supreme Court in the cases that will come before it shortly. The assault weapon ban in the 1994 Crime Bill prohibits new manufacture of Depression college students a category of weapons that is more clearly protected by original intent and existing precedents than any other category of common privately owned arm: arms with a primarily military function and appearance. Unlike Morton Groves handgun ban, (74) or California's Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act, (75) this law is federal, not state. Fourteenth Amendment incorporation is not necessary for text the Crime Bills ban to be contrary to the Second Amendment. Similarly, the Administrations gun control policies with respect to public housing will create differential treatment between whites and blacks, simply because blacks are so overwhelmingly the residents of and anxiety among Essay urban public housing projects. Will the Supreme Court apply the same reasoning to hmv ps3 the Second Amendment that they have with the First Amendment? Or will they continue a tradition of winking at the Second Amendment because the underlying policy of gun control is based on and anxiety college students Essay racist assumptions? 1. Thomas N. Named Desire! Ingersoll, Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812 , 48 Wm.
Mary Q. 173, 178-79 (1991). 3. Daniel H. Usner, Jr., Indians, Settlers, Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783, 165, 187 (1992). 4. Michael C. Meyer William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History 216 (4th ed. 1991). 5. Edmund S. Morgan, Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox , in among students Essay, Colonial America: Essays in Politics and Social Development 280 (Stanley N. Katz et al. eds., 4th ed. 1993) 7. Burning Bright Poem! Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the Making of America 81 (3rd ed. Depression And Anxiety Among Essay! 1987).
8. Ingersoll, supra note 1, at 198-200. 10. Stanley Elkins, Slavery 220 (3rd ed. 1976). 11. Nat Turner 115 (Eric Foner ed., 1971). 13. Harriet Jacobs [Linda Brant], Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861), in The Classic Slave Narratives 333, 395-96 (Henry Louis Gates, Jr. ed., 1987). 14. Theodore Brantner Wilson, The Black Codes of the South 30 (1965).
16. 6 The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and burning poem, Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming The United States of America, 3424 (Francis Newton Thorpe, ed., 1909) [hereinafter The Federal and State Constitutions]. 17. Students! Id . at Americanization of Mexican American Women Essay 3428 (emphasis added). 18. Simpson v. State, 13 Tenn. 292, 295 (5 Yer.) (1833).
19. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 20. Depression And Anxiety Among College! State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 203 note (5 Ired.) (1844). 24. Tiger Tiger Burning Bright Poem! 5 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 2788. 25.
State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 206 (5 Ired.) (1844). 26. Depression And Anxiety College Students Essay! State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. Definition! 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 27. Depression! Newsom , 27 N.C. at 206. 28. 1 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 538 (1818 Connecticut, Art.
I, Sec. 17); 3 Id . at 1275 (1792 Kentucky, Art. XII, Sec. Burning Bright! 23) and at 1290 (1799, Art. IX, Sec. 23); 3 Id . at 1648 (1819 Maine, Art. I, Sec. 16); 4 Id . at 2034 (1817 Mississippi, Art. I, Sec. 23); 5 Id . at 3101 (1790 Pennsylvania, Art.
IX, Sec. Depression Students! 21, but see 5 Id . at winkle text 3083, 1776 Constitution, That the people have a right to bear arms. . . Depression And Anxiety Among Students Essay! .); 6 Id . at 3543 (1836 Republic of Texas Declaration of rip van winkle Rights, Sec. 14) and at 3548 (1845 Texas Constitution, Art. Depression Among College Students! I, Sec. 13). 30.
Nunn v. State, 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846). 32. Rip Van Text! Cooper v. Mayor of Savannah, 4 Ga. 68, 68 (1848). 38. 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846) (upholding the right to bear arms). 39. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S.
393, 417 (19 How.) (1857) (emphasis added). 40. Juliet E. K. Walker, Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier 21 (1983) (quoting the statute). This is an inspiring biography of a slave who, through hard work moonlighting in the production of saltpeter and Depression among, land surveying, saved enough money to buy his wife, himself, and eventually all of his children and grandchildren out of slavery #151; while fighting against oppressive laws and vigorous racism. Most impressive of all, is that he did it without ever learning to read or write. 42. See id . at 73 (describing precautions free black families took to protect themselves from kidnappers).
43. Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws in the Old Northwest: A Documentary History, 27-32, 227-40, 309-14, 353-7, 403-4 (1993) (quoting statutes from Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin). 44. Michael Les Benedict, The Fruits of Victory: Alternatives to Restoring the Union, 1865-1877, 87 (1975) (quoting Louisiana statute); Francis L. Broderick, Reconstruction and the American Negro, 1865-1900, 36-37 (1969); Dan T. Named Desire! Carter, When The War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867, 219-21 (1985) (describing confiscation of arms from Depression and anxiety students Essay blacks after the Civil War); Eric Foner, Reconstruction 258-9 (1988). 45. See Foner, supra note 44, at hmv ps3 198-201. 46.
24 Tex. 394, 401-02 (1859). 48. 35 Tex. And Anxiety Among College! 473, 476-77, 478 (1872). 49. Id . at 476 (citing Cochrane [sic.] v. The State, 24 Tex. 394.) 50. Id . at 479-80 (emphasis added). 52.
State v. Nieto, 130 N.E. 663, 663, 665 (1920). 53. Of Csr! Id . at Depression and anxiety college Essay 669 (emphasis added). 54. 4 So. 2d 700, 702-03 (1941). 56. Robert Sherrill, The Saturday Night Special 280 (1973). 57. Assembly Office of Research, Smoking Gun: The Case For Concealed Weapon Permit Reform, 6 (1986).
58. Capitol Is Invaded , Sacramento Bee, May 2, 1967, A1, A10. 59. What Young! Bill Barring Loaded Weapons In Public Clears Senate 29-7 , Sacramento Bee, July 27, 1967, A6. 60. Jim Simkin Aaron Zelman, Gun Control: Gateway to Tyranny 83 (1992) (providing the full text in German and English of the Depression among Essay various weapons laws and regulations adopted by the Weimar Republic and the Nazis from 1928 to 1938 and comparing them to the Gun Control Act of 1968).
61. Named Desire! Sherrill, supra note 56, at 67. 62. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership, The War on Gun Ownership Still Goes On! , Guns Ammo, May 1993, at 30-31. 63.
Assembly Office of Research, supra note 57, at 5. 64. The President's Radio Address of Apr. 16, 1994, 30 Weekly Comp. Pres. Depression And Anxiety Among College! Doc. 823 (Apr. 16, 1994). 65.
The Vice President, Secretary Henry Cisneros, Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, Attorney General Janet Reno and Director of hmv ps3 Drug Policy Lee Brown, Press Briefing (Feb. 4, 1994) (transcript available from the White House Office of the Press Secretary). 67. Gary Kleck, Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America 75 (1991). 68. What Is an Assault Weapon? , Wall St. J., Aug. 25, 1994, at A12. 70. Thomas G. Walker, Suspect Classifications , in Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States 848 (Kermit L. Hall et al. eds., 1992). 72.
92 U.S. 542, 553 (1875). 73. See generally Clayton E. Cramer, For The Defense of Depression college Themselves And The State: The Original Intent Judicial Interpretation of the Right To Keep And Bear Arms 221-67 (1994) (surveying a number of state court decisions where gun restrictions were reviewed). 74.
Morton Grove, Ill., Ordinance 81-11 (June 8, 1981). 75. Cal. Definition! Penal Code §§ 12275-90 (West 1992 Supp. 1994).