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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. The Kodak Camera. Few people have heard of Fibrmyalgia syndrome (FMS). It is a sever disorder in cno practice nurse client which not a lot of people know much about. So what actually is FMS? Fibromyalgia syndrome is a widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue disorder for which the cause is still unknown. Fibromyalgia means pain in the muscles, ligaments, and tendons- the fibrous tissues in who invented the kodak the body. Epidural Vs Natural Essay. FMS used to be called fibrositis, implying that there was inflammation in who invented the kodak the muscles, but research later proved that inflammation did not exist. We can write a custom essay on Fibromyalgia for you!

Every muscle, ligament, and tendon shouts out in pain. Fibromyalgia can occur by taoist, itself, which is called primary fibromyalgia, or it can be overlaid on top of another chronic illnesses, such as lupus or cancer and then it is who invented, referred to as secondary fibromyalgia. Although the definite cause of FMS is unknown, researchers have several theories about for animators, causes or triggers of the disorder. One theory is who invented camera, that below-normal levels of growth hormone may cause it. Growth hormone deficiency has been associated with low energy, muscle weakness, sensitivity to cold, weakened ability to remember and think, and other problems-, many of which are seen in patients with fibromyalgia. Some scientists believe that an injury or trauma may cause the Epidural vs Natural Essay, syndrome.

This injury may affect the central nervous system. Fibromyalgia may be associated with changes in muscle metabolism, such as decreased blood flow, causing fatigue and camera decreased strength. Although researchers have many different theories, no one truly knows why it happens. Fibromyalgia is difficult to diagnose because many of the symptoms mimic those of for animators other disorders. The physician reviews the patient’s medical history and makes a diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on a history of chronic widespread pain that persists for the kodak camera, more than three months.

The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has developed criteria for fibromyalgia that physicians can use in diagnosing the disorder. According to wetherspoons in bath, ACR criteria, a person is considered to have fibromyalgia if he or she has widespread pain in combination with tenderness in at least eleven of eighteen tender point sites. The pain of fibromyalgia is more than normal muscle aches common after physical exertion. It can sometimes be sever enough to the kodak, disrupt a person’s daily work and activities. With FMS often comes unrestful sleep, fatigue, and morning stiffness. Less common symptoms or conditions that can accompany FMS include Headache, Raynaud’s Syndrome , and for animators irritable bowel syndrome . Fibromyalgia is who invented camera, not a psychological condition, although it has some components that are related. As with many conditions that cause chronic pain, anxiety and depression are common in people with FMS and may make symptoms worse. Many people with fibromyalgia report that their muscle pain is made worse by cold or damp weather, poor sleep, fatigue, stress, overexertion, and anxiety. The skin may be ultrasensitive, reacting to standards nurse client, a firm touch with tingling, numbness or a “pins and needles” sensation. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and who invented essay examples on Fibromyalgia topics are traced by computers, plagiarism detection systems.

All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for who invented the kodak, school, college or university. Love In La. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote? If you need a custom essay on Fibromyalgia feel free to contact our online essay writing company. Our professional academic writers who hold Master#8217;s and who invented PhD degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation for you. Our custom essay service produces high-quality custom essays on in bath, any topics and disciplines. Timely delivery and who invented camera confidentiality guarantee! http://papersmart.net - will write a custom essay, research paper, term paper, thesis or dissertation on any topic and discipline. 100% non-plagiarized papers from standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, professional writers. Who Invented Camera. Affordable prices. http://www.essaylib.com - is computers for animators, place where you can order custom essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations starting from $10/page!

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Who invented the kodak camera

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Explaining Short Job Stints and who invented camera Employment Gaps. There are many criteria that recruiters and HR professionals use to computers for animators eliminate job applicants after screening their resumes. Recently I posted an article here on that topic [“The Brutal Truth on How Resumes Get Eliminated.”] That blog article became one of the most widely read postings on Recruiter Musings . Obviously, I touched a nerve there! One of the potential problem areas I wrote about is job turnover. If your resume’s job history shows too many short stints over a limited time period, the person screening it can read it as a negative: you might be a job-hopping flight risk … you seemingly can’t hold down a job … perhaps you don’t get along with others well … there may have been performance issues that got you fired – the who invented camera imagination creates all kinds of possible scenarios! Likewise, significant unexplained gaps between jobs can be red flags that will get you eliminated. And finally, if you are not currently working and you’ve been out of standards therapeutic relationships work for who invented, a long time … well, I don’t have to tell you how awkward it is when someone asks you: “So, what have you been doing since you left your last job?” I thought it might be helpful to suggest some strategies that can be used to overcome those issues. Too Much Job Turnover. There may be perfectly valid reasons for love in la, having a lot of jobs within a short period.

I would advise briefly listing the reasons for those short job stints right next to who invented camera the dates on your resume to avoid this obvious red flag. The idea here is to be pro-active, and answer their questions about why you left each job before those questions are even asked. Wetherspoons In Bath. It’s a simple thing, and yet very few people do it. You don’t need to go into long-winded or detailed explanations. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. All you need is a brief phrase, in parenthesis, following the dates of each short-lived position. For example: “Laid Off Due To Economic Circumstances” … or “Position Was Eliminated” … or “Company Went Out of Business,” etc.

What this does is provide the screener with a perfectly valid explanation for the short stint, and computers eliminates the possibility that they will imagine something much worse – i.e., that you were fired for who invented camera, cause, poor performance, etc. (Of course, if you actually were fired for love in la, cause … well, that’s another story!) Unexplained Gaps Between Jobs. Unlike a job application, a resume is the kodak camera, not a legal document and there is no requirement that it must contain a complete history of everything you’ve ever done. Tiger Bright Poem. It should be truthful … but it’s up to who invented camera you to Epidural vs Natural decide what to include or not include. Here’s a suggestion: the dates listed next to who invented the kodak camera each job do not have to include the months – instead, you can show them as a range of years. That can often avoid the red flag of seeing brief periods of in bath unemployment between jobs. Who Invented The Kodak. For example: Likewise, if there are jobs in your work history (especially if they were short-lived) that were unrelated to vs Natural Essay your main industry or niche … there’s no reason you can’t leave those off the resume.

You only who invented camera, need to feature your most relevant positions – and usually only wetherspoons in bath, go back about 10 years. Many people take positions outside of their industry while between jobs as a temporary way of maintaining an income until they find something in their field. Others have jobs earlier in who invented the kodak camera their chronology that are also outside of their current target industry. Listing those “side-trips” can sometimes be distracting to a screener who is only focused on looking for tiger tiger burning bright, experience in one particular field. The one caution I’ll add here, is that sooner or later almost every company will have you fill out an official job application form. Unlike your resume, that application is actually a legal document that you must sign … so don’t leave anything off of that one.

Be sure every job, employment date, salary, and educational degree that you list is accurate. The Kodak. It’s better to leave something blank, than to guess or make something up. Background checks will inevitably uncover incorrect information … and inconsistent or false information on an application will look like you’ve intentionally lied. That almost always results in the applicant being eliminated. I’ve seen job offers withdrawn for things like candidates listing the wrong dates of employment or school graduations, exaggerating salary histories, fabricating educational degrees, etc.

Just tell the truth! Currently Not Working. Believe it or not, there actually are companies out there who have made it known that they won’t consider hiring unemployed candidates! I know – it sounds outrageous … and tiger bright that’s a topic for another blog. [See “’Unemployed Need Not Apply’ – Working Around This Scary Message.”] Nevertheless, it’s obviously in camera any job-seeker’s best interest to computers not appear to be unemployed. Camera. So, if it’s been a long while since you left your last full-time job, how do you handle that? Different people handle this issue different ways on their resumes. Here are three common solutions: Volunteer Work: Many job-seekers turn to volunteer work as a way of staying busy and wetherspoons in bath feeling useful while unemployed. Besides the obvious personal benefits that come from the act of giving of yourself, sharing your time, helping others and who invented the kodak camera upping your “karma” score, volunteering can often get your “foot in the door” with a company that might potentially hire you in the future. Showing people what you can do, how well you can do it, and philosophy demonstrating your exceptional work ethic – even if it’s not in who invented camera a paid position – can bring you to the attention of professionals who notice such things, and in bath reward them when opportunities open up.

If you are volunteering somewhere, then list that volunteer position on your resume as your current position. Who Invented. However, do NOT use the term “volunteer!” Simply list the organization and your title or role, describe your function, relevant skills used, and for animators any accomplishments there just as you would with any of your other jobs. Let the fact that you are not being paid wait for an interview, where you should then disclose it. Consulting (Contract) Work: Depending on your field, many job-seekers choose to take temporary assignments, contract work, or other “1099” (non-employee) jobs. People who engage is this type of work often refer to themselves as “consultants.” Very often, those contract jobs have the possibility of who invented the kodak camera turning into full-time positions. Again, list those temporary “consulting” positions on your resume … and love in la highlight the relevant skills you used, and who invented the kodak any accomplishments achieved at those temporary assignments. If your period of “consulting” was not long-term or consistent, list it as one long job period (from the last full-time job till the present) and under that “Consulting” heading list some individual assignments without specifying dates. In Bath. Again, leave the exact details of when and for how long you actually worked at each assignment for either an interview or an official job application. The goal here is to the kodak camera look like you’ve been keeping busy and working in your field. [Read: “Contract / Consulting Jobs Explained … Available in Three Different Flavors” for more information on this topic.] Self-Employment: These days, more and more job-seekers are turning to love in la starting their own businesses.

There’s even a media-coined term for who invented camera, this phenomenon: “Entrepreneur by Necessity.” If you are in that category – by all means list it on your resume as your current occupation. Whether or not you’ve actually earned any income from computers your company or had any actual success in your venture, listing a self-owned company on the kodak your resume is much better than having a large gap of current unemployment without any explanation. And, of course, it’s the standards therapeutic client perfect answer to that question: “So, what have you been doing since you left your last job?” Excellent advice Michael and the videos made me laugh…great way to start ANY day! I just wanted to tell you how much I enjoy your blog. Not only is it evident that you are a “mensch” but the information you provide is extremely valuable. Thanks for who invented the kodak camera, your insights! A quick comment on wetherspoons this excellent subject… I am one of those applicants who has gaps and short employment history. It’s not what I planned, it just turned out that way.

During my last 6-month search, I was often asked why was I still available. I would politely smile and say: When the who invented right fit, location, and compensation all line up, I’m looking forward to accepting that offer. It just has not happened yet. For me, that answer worked. I found I was more receptive to a company that was more interested in what I could do for them today and moving forward vs where I had been.

You cannot change history. Just learn to skip around it confidently. Going into cno practice therapeutic nurse any interview I wanted to know if my skills could fix their problem, not get me a job. I agree with your point. I believe that employer should focus on present that what value i can add to their business rather than focusing on past and making the judgments without knowing the reasons.

They can also confirm through reference check the reasons for a candidate’s leaving the job. Thanks for posting. Thanks for the answer to camera resume employment gaps-I especially like that your opinion of not using the word “Volunteer” matches mine. You can say it in love in la the interview- but do not put it in writing in the resume. Although I know I am guilty of it also- one of the best ways to shoot yourself in the foot in job seeking is TMI (Too Much Information.) You have one of the best blogs out there- proud to be a fellow Clevelander. What about the opposite camera side of the standards therapeutic client relationships fence. If you have been with the same employer for 10 – 15 years, is that a positive or negative?

I don’t think a 10-15 year job stint is necessarily either a negative or a positive. It all depends on how one looks at it. There is certainly something to be said for job stability and employee loyalty. The more important issue would be whether or not you had increasing responsibilities within that one long job time span … and if you did – to show that on your resume. And, of course, how much your particular skills are in who invented the kodak demand in taoist philosophy today’s market. With today’s economy and so many people consulting, is this as much of an issue as in previous decades? Most companies have a strict time limit on the kodak camera consultants thereby forcing a job change every 9-24 months depending on the length of the in bath contract. There are also numerous cases where someone obtains permanent employment only to have the the kodak company go through a restructuring or actually go under shortly thereafter. In my opinion, as long as you are not truly job hopping, being upfront in a job interview is the way to go. A hiring manager would have to be ignorant of the current job market to not take these conditions into account when reviewing a resume or a candidate.

If someone is “consulting” (1099 contract jobs) then this is a non-issue. Those types of jobs are, by love in la definition, temporary assignments that do not require further explanation. Who Invented Camera. It’s when a person has a series of cno practice standards client short-lived permanent positions that the the kodak camera red flags go up. Yes, with today’s economy there are many valid explanations for short stints. Love In La. I’m simply suggesting that it’s better to provide those explanations on the resume to avoid being eliminated during the initial screening stage. The Kodak. “Being up front in a job interview” is all fine and good … but that only works if you get past the initial review and get invited to actually have an interview! This is an interesting discussion and you both make excellent points. As a 20-year consultant, I think it is still important how it is philosophy, presented regardless of the time. Yes I have had many project for many clients over the years but all of which was operated under a few major firms (ie, EY, Fujitsu, IBM), thus technically not much change at all. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. I think it is reasonable for tiger tiger burning bright, a consultant to average 2-years at a position is ideal, which is longer than the average cio term. the fact is most projects are 3-6 months vs those that are 12-18 months.

So yes, there are dangers to showing too many short term jobs, for who invented the kodak camera, all the reasons previously stated, but also issues with those that have been with a single firm for 15 – 18 – 20 – 25+ years, as they may have trouble adapting to a new enviornment, organization, corp culture, etc.. The net net is that there needs to cno practice client be a balance and camera how you spin it, but always be truthful to prospective employers, clients and Epidural vs Natural most importantly yourself… Just started reading your blog and love it! I’ve been a hiring manager for over 30 years, and do a lot of pro-bono job search coaching along with presentations at the kodak, job seekers groups. Your comments and suggestions really “hit the love in la mark” and who invented the kodak address very well many of the questions and concerns I continue to therapeutic nurse hear from who invented camera job seekers. The people who put the cno practice therapeutic effort into incorporating your ideas into camera their job search strategies will find it much easier to differentiate themselves from the computers dozens or hundreds of camera other candidates seeking the same position. I was in an abusive relationship for 25+ years and wasn’t allowed to work. I am finally out of that relationship and walked away with nothing but my life.

I was wondering could you help me with advice as to how I can reenter the work force. . Your situation is similar to a new college grad who, as a job-seeker, is faced with the challenge of client having little or no actual recent work experience in their targeted field. I suggest you read: Advice for Recent Grads and Career Changers. The Kodak Camera. There are several practical suggestions in that article on how to position yourself in such a situation. Wow.. michael gave you awful advice. I mean, basically useless. Someone who has come out of un unexplained career gap is the same as someone coming out of COLLEGE? No.

Its way easier to tiger burning say “I was in college during that time” than to say “My abusing husband did not allow me to work during that time”. Even if you say something like ‘I was home making for who invented camera, my family” during that time and leaving out the details, it’s not the same as explaining away employment gaps for college students. My opinion is that you say that you were managing your hour and family which required you be home full time. Make sure to state that even though you were not employed that you maintained your skills by doing “stuff”. Many career women who take time off to be mothers (now I understand yours was NOT your choice, but you dont need to come out and say that on an interview if you don’t want to. It’s not really their business) show that they were active in tiger burning bright the community and schools. Talk about your home life as though it was a job and talk about any skills you’ve learned over the last years. Who Invented Camera. Even though you weren’t working doesn’t mean you didnt DO things and learn new things. You can use examples such as maintained skill with computer programs specific to taoist philosophy your area of interest by helping the school put together a yearly news letter, organized class trips or events while working as a leader and helping bring together a team of parents to make it happen.

Also things like balancing household budgets, managing schedules, etc etc. Being a stay at who invented the kodak, home mom IS a job… Treat it like one on your resume and love in la you will not be overlooked for who invented camera, a career gap IF (and this is a big if) you are eloquent about it and cno practice relationships really show that you KNOW these things. I actually agree with your new advice wholeheartedly. I did not mean to imply that 25 years of abuse was in any way comparable to being in who invented college! (Wow, did that come out love in la, wrong!) I only meant that anyone with a resume that lacks a professional work history of camera jobs connected to the field in which you are seeking employment is in a similar predicament as a recent college grad with no practical work experience in their field. Yes, of course “home making for my family” is a job. (My wife has been a stay-at-home mom for our 4 children for the last 26 years, and I wouldn’t have it any other way — I feel they all achieved great successes largely due to her efforts and full-time devotion to the task of therapeutic nurse client child-rearing!) This issue all depends on what type of job you are seeking, and what the qualifications and requirements are.

If leading class trips, balancing household budgets and managing schedules fits the listed requirements of the job you are applying to the kodak — well then, no problem! If, on poem the other hand, the job you are seeking requires a certain number of the kodak years of actual job experience in a specific industry or technical niche, or knowledge of some specific software, etc. … then the challenge is to prove you have those skills and wetherspoons experiences. The article I referenced in my original answer (which is aimed at who invented the kodak camera, recent grads and career-switchers) suggests gaining such experience through volunteering or internships. The bottom line is simple: any resume needs to demonstrate that you fit the job requirements you are applying to. Without real business-world job experience (outside of home-making) you will have a huge challenge. It’s not about explaining the gap so much as demonstrating that you can do the job you are applying for — and do it better than all the other applicants who may actually have the experience you lack! I do apologize if my original answer seemed in any way to love in la minimize the the kodak camera abuse that you suffered, Candice. That was certainly not my intention. I wish you good luck with your job search. So, what do you think is a short stint? Is it 2 years?

One year? That’s a very good question … and for animators I don’t have an exact answer. I think it depends somewhat on how many jobs you’ve had over a period of time. For example, 5-10 jobs over a four or five year period (and I’ve seen that scenario many times) seems like a red flag. On the other hand, a single short job (one-year or less) sandwiched in between two multi-year stints is less problematic, and probably easier to explain. Who Invented. There is no hard and fast rule. Good stuff, Michael, and spot on.

Very relevant and as another recruiter, I heartily agree with your points. Michael – saw your comment on LinkedIn (and looked back at some of your “musings”) and found it very helpful. I worked with the same company for tiger burning bright, about 8 years and have now been unemployed for the kodak, over a year (only recently seeking employment). One of my biggest fears is tiger tiger burning, explaining that gaping hole on my resume. Who Invented The Kodak. I recently signed up for 2 volunteer positions and I’m glad to wetherspoons see that as one of your suggestions for people who are unemployed. It’s nice to know I’m doing something right! Just loved your blog. I have a question. I have done my MBA-HR in 2009 and as you know it was a recession year so though i got a job but not what i wanted. Camera. So, i left my first job after working for vs Natural Essay, 11 months and joined an HR consultancy.

I loved this job but i had to leave again b’coz of who invented the kodak camera some family issues i had to love in la relocate to other city where they dont have any office. Here, i worked for 4 months. Now, i am unemployed and looking for a job and finding it very tough to get a call for an interview. As you said, we can write the reasons briefly in the resume itself, but would employers accept the the kodak fact that in love in la the initial year of one’s career somebody can leave job for family issues? Would it be a good idea to write in my resume? That’s a tough one. I guess it depends on the nature of the “family issues” you mentioned.

Simply saying “left due to the kodak camera family relocation” might be sufficient. Just be prepared to explain it further when asked. As an illustrator and having worked in wetherspoons the Social Services I too have gaps in my employment but I just don’t see what the the kodak gaps have to do with anyone else.I recently signed with an agency who wanted to tiger tiger burning bright know what I was doing for three months in 2006 – no wonder there is unemployment and the fact that I was in Hong Kong is my own business, as long as my CRB is in the clear that should be good enough. I agree that a 3-month gap between jobs is very insignificant — and any recruiter who focuses on such a short period of time is who invented, probably very inexperienced. On the other hand, it would be naive to assume that longer gaps between jobs will not be a problem for you as a job-seeker.

You many not think they are a important … but as I said in my blog article, significant unexplained gaps absolutely do raise red flags for recruiters, HR professionals and taoist company decision-makers. Who Invented The Kodak. Without reasonable explanations, people often assume very negative things about taoist philosophy why you were out of work for so long, and who invented the kodak may consider you a hiring risk. Like it or not, fair or unfair … that’s just the way it works. You might be passed over for job opportunities because of wetherspoons in bath such gaps without ever knowing why. And as to your trip to Hong Kong — I’m not sure what that’s all about, but if it was a personal trip unrelated to your job history, then it should not be on your resume at all — and should certainly not be a topic of discussion with a recruiter. Having your CRB (Criminal Record Bureau, right?) be “in the clear” is an unrelated issue, and has nothing do to with any employment gaps on your resume. I have had many ‘gaps’ in my employment history. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. During an interview, I address the standards nurse gaps quickly and work to the kodak bring the conversation to my strengths and what I can do for the employer today.

If I have yet to find the wetherspoons in bath perfect role and there is a lengthy timeframe my standard answer is: when the who invented the kodak camera location, finances, and love in la fit line up, I’m ready to who invented camera accept an offer. One cannot erase the past and if an employer is really all that concerned about a gap, they’re not the best fit for me. Too many rules #128521; I, for the first time in my life, have been employed with two different companies in a period of cno practice standards therapeutic 14 months- 1 job for eight months and who invented the kodak was recruited for a job I accepted for only six months-these certainly define a short stint of Childbirth employment I would imagine. If this is considered a red flag, does a previous history of longer employment over shadow these? If during a short stint there are considerable accomplishments that are shown on the resume does this also help lessen the impact?

Showing a prior history of long employment, and also listing significant accomplishments are both good things that may or may not counter-balance the potential negative impact of two short back-to-back job stints that follow. The more important question you need to address (not mentioned at all in your comment to me) is WHY you left each of those two jobs after such short periods. Deciding to who invented leave a job simply because you found a better opportunity after only Childbirth Essay, 8 months could be seen as a red flag to who invented some. (What’s to prevent you from leaving your next job quickly if a better offer comes along?) And then, why did that second job last for only 6 months? Did you quit? Were you let go for cause? Was it an unexpected lay-off?

The explanations you provide are key to philosophy how those short stints will be perceived by camera anyone reviewing your job history. No one wants to hire someone who might be a flight risk. The explanation simply is for the eight month stint is the company misrepresented the area-geographically disadvantaged insufficient housing, crime, etc.I was expected to relo (at my expense) however, during the time my family was trying to cno practice standards therapeutic client relationships sell our home (I had an apartment) I realized I could not move them to the kodak camera this place. The six month term was one in which I’ll forever hang my head in embarrassment-I violated a company policy (A minor one-but none the less) and was released. Their feet were held to the fire on for animators this one as there was an employee who was making a big deal of why a member of who invented camera mgmt was not being held accountable-regardless I have to in bath own my mistake. I’ve enjoyed a successful career w/out blemish and full of the kodak camera accomplishments, however, this last job is wetherspoons, (with a company for which I have great respect) will personally forever haunt me. The glimmer is that I will get great recommendations from the company officers, which I hope will minimize the damage… I have a question. I’m on the younger end of the job hunting spectrum. Most of who invented camera my jobs have been short tenure, but explainable (I left one to tiger bright relocate to the city where my fiance lived, one was a summer contract position).

One however, I left because the job was not at all what I expected and I was not equipped to handle the who invented the kodak working environment, or what I felt like was a lack of Essay training and the kodak camera support. While the first two are explainable, I’m not sure how to explain the last (and most recent) one. If it helps, I also do freelance work and have since 2009. (I have recommendations from tiger burning bright past clients). How do I address this on my resume? That’s a tough one.

I would not try to camera explain that last one on your resume. Depending on how you portray your “freelance work” section, you may not have to even list that last job at all — especially if it was a short stint. Freelance work (much like “consulting”) can serve as an umbrella on your resume to cover a long period of time during which you may have done work for multiple clients. Save your explanation of Essay why your last job was a bad fit for an interview. Who Invented The Kodak. Trying to explain it on in bath your resume the way you did in who invented camera your question will raise too many red flags. Great post, Michael. I have a question for you. Cno Practice Nurse Client Relationships. I “rolled” a short team employment, 6 months, into my next long team job, 6 years and 8 months. The Kodak. So, in fact, I only worked at my present job for love in la, 6 years and 2 months. But my resume stated month/year. Who Invented. How should I address this issue on my resume?

I don’t really understand what you are asking. Do you want to know if it’s OK to combine the short stint with the longer job? (Sometimes that makes sense — for example, if it’s a contract job that falls under the umbrella of a consulting period of burning poem work experience, if it’s a different position at the same company as the job that you are combining it with, etc.) How should you “address this issue” on who invented the kodak your resume? I’m not sure what that even means. If you are asking me to tell you how to explain the short stint — I have no idea! Only you know the answer as why you left that job after only 6 months.

Oh, and why not simply change the format of your entire resume to using only years and philosophy not months at all. Camera. Would that solve your problem? Sorry about the Essay confusion. Say I worked at company A from Jan to the kodak camera Apri in 2005. Then I started at B from May 2005 until now. So officially I work at B for 7 years. However, I put down 7 years and 4 months on therapeutic client my resume for who invented, company B under the advice from my wife. So, the question is in bath, how do I explain the “gap” when an employment verification is done and camera if my future employer finds the vs Natural Essay gap. You should re-read the who invented two paragraphs in the blog above under the heading: “Unexplained Gaps Between Jobs.” As I explained there, a resume is not a legal document, and does not have to list EVERYTHING you’ve done. For Animators. Just list years, and not months.

Don’t include the 4-month job at camera, all if it was not significant. (Your wife’s advice was well-intended, but wrong — you should not combine unrelated jobs or change employment dates.) On the other hand, filling out a formal job application is another story. That must include everything, and it must be accurate — including the actual start and end dates of each and every job you’ve had. Therapeutic Nurse Client. A background check will, indeed, include employment verification which must match that application you fill out. Discrepancies between your application and your actual job history will kill your chances of getting hired. The only “gap” you should have to explain is if you had an extended period of who invented unemployment. Great info!! I recently had a job and was let go. It lasted less than a year and I’ve now been unemployed about as long. I am really concerned as to the negative connotation and want to just leave it off my resume.

Will this “bite me in the ….” if I do? In over tiger tiger burning bright poem, 30 years, I have had many, many successful work experiences, but lost 2 jobs (after all, how can you go through life and not make any enemies, especially in who invented senior management of politically charged companies) – but they seem to be “cursing” me in moving forward. Love In La. I could really use some advice here. Thanks. It seems to me that if you leave off your last job, you’ll end up appearing to who invented the kodak camera have a 2-year period of current unemployment instead of just one. Obviously that would not look too good! Better to offer up a simple explanation of philosophy why that last job ended — if such an explanation exists. Thanks for your great advice! After over 8 years of working with the same company, I recently had two short stays in new companies which are hurting my chances for a job. I’ve an camera, excellent record of accomplishments at Childbirth, my 8 year job.

The short stays were not what I planned for at the kodak, all and were unexpected. Tiger Tiger Burning Bright Poem. The first stay was 4 months at a well known firm. I was being given greater responsibility but got let go when I noticed my supervisor underbilling clients and naively brought it up to management. There was some internal politics (half the who invented the kodak firm was let go during this period) and I was asked to resign. The 2nd stay I found 6 months later. Vs Natural Essay. They paid me twice the market salary but it lasted 1 month. How do you advise I cover the period after my 7 year job on my resume? Should I leave these two short stays off and state I was consulting? My stay of who invented the kodak 4 months is in a firm relevant and taoist well known to who invented what I currently seek. I’ve learnt to be really careful about a good fit with the cno practice standards nurse relationships firms I join.

These events are really hurting my chances for another position. Based on what you’ve written, I’d say you should list the 4-month job (especially if it’s relevant to your niche) and leave off the 1 month stint — that’s probably too short to put on who invented the kodak a resume, and it might raise more red flags than you can explain. If you just list years, and not months, then the shortness of that 4-month job will not be so obvious. I would not say that you were “consulting” unless those jobs were actually contracts as opposed to permanent direct-hire positions. I’d also try to list brief, neutral-sounding explanations for why you left the 8-year job as well as the 4-month job. Something like “company-wide layoffs” might work. Save the wetherspoons more detailed explanations (your underbilling boss and the politics, etc.) for a live interview. Hope that helps. I have resigned from two jobs this year (the first one after 4 days and the second one after 4 months).

I recently resigned from a job after 4 months because the job was not at all what I expected and I was not equipped to camera handle the stressful environment with absolutely no training and no support/guidance from computers for animators management. Before that, I was unemployed for another 4 months because the company I’d been with was acquired by another company and my team was moved to another city. I was able to who invented the kodak find another job and resign a few weeks before the acquisition; however, that job did not work out and I made the decision to leave after four days because, again, it was not what I expected. I’d stayed with the philosophy company that was acquired for who invented, a year and a half and another company before that for wetherspoons in bath, around two years. Camera. If I leave off both short term employments from wetherspoons my resume (4 days and 4 months), I will have around 8 months of who invented the kodak camera unemployment on my resume.

In the love in la meantime, I have gone back to school for additional training in my field and and hope to earn a certificate soon (I already have a master degree). Who Invented Camera. As you can imagine, I am not getting any responses to my job applications. Is there still hope for me? Should I leave these two jobs off my resume? Include only the 4 months one?

Please help. I’m not sure what to tell you. Computers For Animators. You are right — two 4-month stints in who invented a row do not look good to computers most reviewers. (The 4-day stint is a no-brainer … leave it off!) Saying that the who invented the kodak camera one company was acquired as a reason for wetherspoons, you leaving is very much acceptable … but the second one where you left because “it was not what you expected,” etc., is a tougher one to easily explain. Leaving one or both jobs off your resume is certainly one option — and you could legitimately say you were in school during the 8-month “gap.” That might get you in who invented the kodak the door for more initial interviews. But sooner or later those jobs will need to computers be revealed and explained. Who Invented. Good luck! how about when you just work at a bank for tiger burning bright, two months, do i need to put it in who invented the kodak my resume? because i don’t know if my future employer will eventually know about it if i will not put it in my resume, then would think that i’m hiding something and would be the cause of my disqualification from the position. or if i’m going to declare that two-month-job, if that will be my disadvantage in landing a job. pls help. Leaving a 2-month job off of your resume is not a big deal. Resumes are not legal documents, and there is love in la, no requirement that they include every job you’ve ever had. However, at who invented the kodak, some point you may be asked to fill out and sign an official job application for a potential employer which includes a complete job history. You will certainly have to taoist philosophy disclose that 2-month job on such an who invented camera, application, since unlike the resume, that application form is philosophy, a legal document.

Background checks will uncover any discrepancies on the kodak camera such a job history, and for animators anyone can disqualify you if you lie by who invented the kodak camera omission. Love In La. The more important question for the kodak, you to answer/explain to any prospective employer is why you left that bank job after only 2 months?! Sooner or later you’ll need to have a satisfactory answer to that one! I resigned job 6 months before. i worked on executive level in commercial dept. I don’t get a job from last six months similar to my job profile. Now i have 6 months gaps in two jobs. Pls advice me how i justify to employer with good reason . As I wrote in the blog, you need to explain WHY you “resigned job 6 months before” … and what you’ve been doing between jobs (other than looking for work.) I cannot advise you further based on the minimal information you wrote here.

My first job is 3 years and did my masters degree and had a job for cno practice therapeutic nurse client, 1.5 yrs, coz of fiancee i moved and got a job n stayed der for 3.5 yrs. The Kodak Camera. Now i am in a diff job for 2.5 yrs. Is this considered as a short stint, coz one of the VP asked me this question in philosophy an interview “looks like my average tenure is only 3 yrs, so vl u leave the company after 3 yrs”. Do u think this is who invented, normal? No, I do not think that two or three years at different jobs necessarily looks bad. That’s probably more the Childbirth average than longer stints. Who Invented The Kodak. I’d be more worried if there were multiple jobs that lasted one year or less. And by the way … I certainly hope that you don’t use those lazy text abbeviations (“coz” instead of “because” or “u” instead of “you”, etc.) in normal business communications. It makes you look extremely unprofessional, and can be a huge turnoff for potential employers. Thank you for such a great selection of nurse relationships information. I am attempting to who invented the kodak camera re-enter the work force after an extended absence.

I haven’t worked for approximately 5 years. I left my previous employment because my husband needed to move for wetherspoons, work and then we had several children. I was wondering how to who invented the kodak camera handle this big gap in either a resume or cover letter. Prior to our move, I had worked for the same company for bright, approximately 7 years, advancing from an entry level position to the kodak VP. There are several ways to approach your situation on a resume and/or a cover letter. Tiger Bright Poem. On way would be to simply not list anything after your last position, and hope you are not eliminated before you have the who invented the kodak camera chance to explain it. Of course, the danger in that approach is that someone may like your prior background, but might be wary of the “red flag” of the missing last 5 years. Personally, I’d advise simple honesty. I’d explain that 5-year period for taoist, exactly what it was. Say: “Took time off to raise a family.” Then just be clear about the fact that you are now ready to camera re-enter the wetherspoons work force — and explain why, if possible. Sooner of later that truth will come out.

I think it’s better to be up front about it and let the reader decide if such a scenario is camera, acceptable to tiger bright poem them. You may not land at the same VP level you left … but you also need to state that you are OK with that (if you are) and shoot for who invented camera, a realistic re-entry point in your field. Computers. You should also anticipate, and be prepared to overcome the objection you’ll probably get that your skills are not “current” after being away from the work for the kodak, so long. I hope that is helpful advice. hi michael i am currently looking to return to work after a year and a half out after being pregnant and wetherspoons in bath having my son i am writing my resume and i am struggling with how to include this. The Kodak Camera. thanks in advance. My answer to you is about the same as the tiger burning one I gave to who invented “Nicole” a few comments back: There are several ways to wetherspoons approach your situation on a resume and/or a cover letter. On way would be to simply not list anything after your last position, and hope you are not eliminated before you have the chance to explain that recent gap in work time. Of course, the danger in that approach is that someone may like your prior background, but might be wary of the “red flag” of the the kodak camera missing last year and a half.

Personally, I’d advise simple honesty. Wetherspoons. I’d explain that recent period for exactly what it was. Say: “Took time off to raise a family.” Then just be clear about the the kodak fact that you are now ready to re-enter the standards therapeutic relationships work force — and explain why, if possible. Sooner of the kodak later that truth will come out. Tiger Tiger Burning Poem. I think it’s better to be up front about the kodak camera it and Childbirth Essay let the reader decide if such a scenario is acceptable to them. You should also anticipate, and be prepared to overcome the objection you’ll probably get that your skills may not be “current” after being away from the work for so long.

I hope that is helpful advice. Thanks for your information, very helpful. Camera. Below is my situation, need your further advice if possible. I have been working under one company for 12 years and in 2010, I decided to resign and went to pursue a degree. After almost two years, I graduated and managed to therapeutic relationships get a job in May 2012 but I worked only for about 5 months as I found a higher pay job and joined another company in Nov 2012.

But never expected, after 5 months, I resigned again due to the boss not really appreciate my hard works still claim my performance not to their expectation. If I include these two short term employments in my resume, it will reflect a two 5-months stints in a row in my resume, so should I include both ? If yes, what’s the who invented the kodak best way to tiger tiger bright poem present in my resume and what to state for the reasons of leaving for both jobs ? Leaving both short jobs off your resume would give you a 10 month gap to explain. That will be a problem. And neither of the two reasons you gave for leaving each of those jobs after only 5 months sounds very reasonable. Leaving the first one because you found a higher paying job will raise a red flag to camera any recruiter or potential employer: if they hire you, won’t you just leave again after a short time if you find something better that pays more? And leaving that second job because your employer claimed your performance was not up to their expectation is an even bigger red flag! Past performance issues will always be a huge concern to anyone considering hiring you, no matter how long you worked somewhere. Philosophy. I would advise you to leave such explanations OFF your resume, and wait until you are asked in an interview to provide the details. Good luck. I have question on how to explain a gap of camera 10 months where I was a part-time student and it also include the summer months. During this time I went to school and standards nurse was very actively looking for employment.

I was having difficulty because of my limited availability wasn’t as open as the the kodak camera companies wanted. Also, I have a couple of short gaps 2 and Epidural 3 months that occur at times that I am having difficultly explaining. One gap (2 months) was just after being let go and who invented the kodak I was simply looking for employment. Wetherspoons. Another 2 month gap was just after working during the holiday season for 2 months. The Kodak. I was a a student as this time and love in la also very actively looking for employment. The last 3 month gap was just this last year after graduating from college. I was vary actively looking for employment it just took longer than I expected mostly because of the economy and so many other job seekers also applying to the some position.

Thanks. I wouldn’t worry about short stints that occurred during your college years. Most employers understand the nature of the kodak college students’ schedules and work-study, part-time, summer or holiday jobs, etc. Those situations should not need further explanation. Likewise, spending a few months after graduating looking for a job is also very understandable, and should not raise concerns. Thank you. This helps a lot. I have another question that is not related to Epidural vs Natural Essay employment gaps. I worked as a nanny for a lady.

The end was very messy and I am unsure if I should put that I quit or that she let me go. The Kodak. Both things happened at the same time and love in la I didn’t find employment again for who invented the kodak camera, 10 months due to tiger bright being a student. How is the best way to explain this on an application? Unless you plan a career as a Child Care professional, your work as a nanny for an individual family probably does not need to be on your resume at the kodak camera, all. I don’t know what your career goals are, but I imagine you should be creating a professional resume aimed at the business world. Only include things that directly relate to the field in which you are pursuing employment. Don’t focus so much on gaps during your student years or jobs outside of your field. Think more about what you want to do, career-wise — and love in la then try to fill your resume with things related to that career … things that would demonstrate your skills and attract an employer in that field. Thanks for your advice, Michael. One more question, can employer’s find out our job history if we omitted from the kodak a job application? An omitted job may or may not be discovered if the employer does a background check on you.

It depends on how thorough the tiger burning bright poem background checking company’s methods are. It is who invented the kodak, always safer to be honest and complete on any official job application. I was laid off in computers for animators 2011 from a company that I was employed with for 19 years. I was called back after 6 months to do some contract work for camera, them which lasted about 4 month. Then I have another gap of therapeutic client 9 months of unemployment, during that time I helped my mother care for her husband who had cancer and went back to school. I have been in my current position for who invented, almost 6 months and in bath really want to the kodak change jobs. I have two reason’s I want to change jobs, (1) I want to go back into the industry I work in for wetherspoons, over 19 years and camera (2) I was told that the new job would be “occasional” nights and weekends. The reality is I work full days plus multiple nights a week and some weekends. It is difficult to juggle work, family and school.

So I would like to find something that has more consistent hours in taoist my old industry. I understand all jobs will require some overtime and I am willing to jump in who invented the kodak camera and make sure I get the job done. However I don’t know how to address this if I get an interview. In an tiger burning bright poem, interview situation, I would simply be honest. Tell a brief version of the kodak camera your story — and I do mean brief! (Don’t make the mistake of dragging it out into a long detailed saga of your persoanl history — simply saying what you wrote in wetherspoons your comment here is plenty.) Most people would be understanding of the kodak your situation where caring for a family member takes priority. And pursuing additional education is also a very understandable reason for being out of the job market for vs Natural Childbirth, a period of time. Finally, having a job that now requires that much night and weekend time that was not disclosed when you were hired is also something most people would understand — especially if it’s outside of your prior industry. Those 19 years spent at one company should be evidence enough that you are not a “job-hopper.”

I recently discovered your blog-site, and the kodak am very thankful! Your insight and advice is helping me get properly focused. I’m currently “in transition,” and trying to love in la figure out how much my last couple years are hurting me. Who Invented. I was in the US Air Force for 7 years, and then worked three years as an IT contractor/manager in vs Natural Childbirth Afghanistan – broken up (after the first year in Afghanistan) by a year-and-a-half stint trying to break into who invented the residential construction business (right before the recession, not the best move). As a pretty young guy, I was quickly promoted several times and cno practice therapeutic nurse became the overall manager for over 100 highly-paid, highly-skilled IT contractors. High visibility, high stress, long hours (72-90 per week), etc.

I was very successful, but left that job after two years to go back home, get married, and spend some time being “normal.” After that my wife and the kodak camera I tried to wetherspoons in bath go back international, which took a year. I ended up following her to who invented the kodak camera Australia, where I only worked about 6 months as the Childbirth IT Coordinator and chaplain for an Aboriginal school. Who Invented Camera. During that entire time I was a full-time bachelor’s student (2010-until now). We just got back to the US, and I just finished my degree. Tiger Tiger Bright. Does that time hurt me, and if so, how do I unpack that in my resume to the kodak camera show that I wasn’t just goofing-off? I’m sure that being currently unemployed, even though we just got back to the US (long story, there), isn’t doing me any favors.

I’m looking into volunteering, but not sure what kind of volunteer work to do (job related, or stuff I’m passionate about). Also, I’m planning on taoist getting some part time work that is who invented the kodak, outside of my industry, until I find something more permanent. Do you have any thoughts or advice? Thanks, again, Michael! I’m glad to hear that my blog has been helpful to wetherspoons you! Your story is quite unique, and very interesting. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. Certainly, military service should be something that looks great on cno practice standards therapeutic nurse relationships any resume. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. And time spent in wetherspoons in bath school pursuing a degree should not be a problem either, and should not be viewed as a “gap” in who invented the kodak camera employment that requires further explanation. As far as all the other experiences you described — well, what you choose to show (or not show) on your resume, and how you characterize those things depends on exactly what type of wetherspoons in bath job or career you plan to pursue now. Don’t feel that you have to list everything you’ve ever done. For example, being a chaplain for an Aboriginal school sounds fascinating … but would be an irrelevant distraction on a resume aimed at an IT career path.

Just concentrate on camera filling your resume with things that directly relate to your chosen career — whatever that may be. And as to volunteering — ideally you should be “passionate about” job-related volunteer work. Standards Nurse Relationships. If you are not, then perhaps you should consider trying to pursue something that you actually are passionate about. Who Invented The Kodak. Just my two cents. thanks for the great blog. Epidural Essay. I’ve had 3 jobs with probationary period and didn’t passed any of them. 1. I was a consult and my boss said I did not identified myself with the position I was given. And shortly after that the company down sized and many employer was cut loose. 2. Who Invented The Kodak. I was also on a probationary period at this job and it was ended at the same time the wetherspoons CEO left the company. I was given the reason that they would outsource the job I was doing and they were looking for someone more senior in a similar position and they don’t think I can fit the profile since I was junior in my field and it was in a similar field they were searching for people. 3. The Kodak. I was also on a probationary period at a start-up company.

I was cut loose and was first given the reason that my performance was not good. So I argumented about Childbirth it showing my performance met the bonus goal so it must be quiet good performance at least. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. And they owner admitted that it had to do with one of our customer did not pay the vs Natural Childbirth Essay bill and it was economic reason. I am planning to tell next employee that I have had unfortune to who invented the kodak find stable company financially and a value same as me. Do you think it’s good idea? Or should I do as you mention and just add to wetherspoons the cv that I was laid off, with 1. “economic circumstances”, 2. “job outsourced” and who invented camera 3. “economic circumstances”. In general, I think it is best to say as little as possible about short stints. Taoist Philosophy. The more you explained about each probationary situation you described, the worse it made you sound! As long as it is truthful, I would stick with the short answers you listed. Then I should not list the who invented the kodak camera reasons in the cv, but instead tell them when they ask?

If the jobs are listed on your cv, then you should provide the short explanations there also. As a young adult, I was a very poor worker. The jobs I had were menial at best (Target, Walmart, etc.) and didn’t last long, both because of the workplace and Epidural vs Natural Essay because of camera my own shortcomings. Now that I’m all grown up and I’m trying to reenter the job market, how can I overcome my past? My resume is skill-based with previous employers listed below, very briefly, because I hope to put my best foot forward rather than have them disregard my resume from the beginning. Is this an acceptable way to go? Thanks. It’s difficult for me to comment without actually seeing your resume. Remember — you don’t have to list every job you ever had … only the ones related to your future career focus. If, on the other hand, every single one of love in la your prior job experiences was “menial” and has no connection to your current path … well, that will be a huge challenge for you in writing an effective resume, to say the least!

You could try lumping them all together under the heading “Prior Work History” and call them something like “Retail Positions” without listing actual names of who invented the kodak places you worked. Standards Client Relationships. Hope that’s helpful. I’m so glad I came across your blog today, it has been very helpful! I would just like a bit more clarification and advice. I am about to camera rewrite my resume. Computers. In 2005, I received my Associates Degree in Radiography and immediately secured a job, with a rotating schedule. I had twin babies, and being single, the rotating schedule was difficult with finding childcare. One year later I took another Rad Tech job which offered a straight shift (mid nights). Camera. Although it was not a perfect answer, it was easier to handle childcare. After 4 years, the midnight shift took a toll on my health.

I developed a sleep disorder and after several tardies, I was let go (in spite of glowing evaluations for wetherspoons in bath, 4 years). One month later I was hired by a clinic. That job lasted 8 months and ended with a company-wide layoff in who invented December 2010. The recession was in taoist philosophy full swing. The market for Rad Techs in our regional area is completely flooded. I took a job as a cashier/cook at a local retail convenience store, at minimum wage, to be able to who invented camera provide for my family, and have been there 16 months. Two Rad Tech jobs have now opened up at two nearby hospitals.

I have always used a chronological resume. In this case, the present job (retail) will be right at the top of cno practice standards therapeutic client experience! Are you saying that I can completely leave this job off my resume (I will include it on who invented the kodak the application of course). Then I would have to explain what I’ve done for the last 16 months. Tiger Burning. Or, would it be advisable to place the Rad Tech positions at who invented the kodak, the top under “Professional Experience,” and add the retail job under a title of “Prior Work History?” I just want the interview… I know I will have to be forthright during an interview about the firing as well as how I ended up taking a menial, minimum wage job. I AM a Rad Tech, and a darned good one.

I won’t give up until I’m employed in my field again.Thank you for love in la, any advice you can give me. Your situation is rather complicated. My gut reaction is that your last suggestion is correct: you should list your Rad Tech positions at the top, and minimize the retail job somewhere near the end under a heading like “Other Work History” — or simply don’t list it at all, and wait for the question to come up about what you’ve been doing for the past 16 months. You might also consider calling your main work section something like “Relevant Work History” to indicate that it’s not a complete chronology, but rather a listing of jobs you’ve had that are connected to who invented the kodak camera your chosen career goals. If you are pursuing Rad Tech jobs, then let that experience be the first thing anyone sees on your resume — front and center. And by the way … don’t list months in vs Natural Essay your chronology — just years. Who Invented Camera. That tactic tends to disguise gaps without being untruthful. I hope that’s helpful advice. I stumbled upon this post due to my Internet search to love in la deal with two short employment gaps in the kodak my recent job history.

The first was from 10/11 to 1/12. I am currently unemployed and was in the position for love in la, less than a month. Who Invented. In both circumstances I had left my previous employ which had been two or more years for a promotion and salary increase. Epidural Essay. My profession is an camera, early childhood educator so not your typical business environment. On my resume I already list my tenure in computers for animators years only, however when I am required to complete an application, always online, I am required to the kodak camera list both the month and Epidural Essay year. I also do not include these short term positions on my resume or on the application. The Kodak. On the cno practice client application when asked why I left the longer term positions I list “job opportunity” which turned out to then be the short term position.

In the first circumstance I left the position because of poor management. The program director did not possess the necessary skill set to camera be effective in in bath all aspects of her position. I was the fifth person to the kodak leave in less than 2 1/2 months. This was a Head Start federally funded program. Wetherspoons In Bath. I found out a few months later that the program was in camera violation of love in la several federal laws and had to recompete for camera, federal funding. In my recent circumstance the in bath position was working for a privately operated early childhood learning center. Again, I found myself in a similar situation and the owner did not have the most appropriate skill set to have the knowledge needed to who invented the kodak camera be effective. Love In La. Also, similarly the employer was in violation of who invented the kodak camera state law in how she expected me to handle state funding for qualified children and in poem violation of best teaching practice in handling a situation with a young child.

In both circumstances my supervisors were in the kodak violation and since I decided it was in my best interest to resign I did. These circumstances lead me to several questions. Should I go ahead and add the short term positions? If not, what should I put on an application for leaving longer term positions since the short term positions did not work out leading to a short term gap? Experts advise that when answering questions about previous employers to not “bad mouth” them. How do I handle these sticky circumstances? Do you have any other insight to add? I would advise you to be as complete as possible on an official application form, since that is the document that will be used by any background checking company to Childbirth verify the truthfullness of who invented camera your work history.

Whether or not to include those short stints on a resume is philosophy, your choice. Personally, I’d leave off both of those jobs you described that are under 3 months. As far as what to camera say about your reasons for leaving (without “bad-mouthing” your former employers) … the less you say the better. Try something general and non-descript like “Managerial Restructuring” or “Staff Reorganization,” and Childbirth save the more detailed explanation for a live interview situation. Who Invented. Even there, tread carefully when describing those prior situations. Computers For Animators. Again, the less you say the better.

Just stress that your leaving was your own idea, and not due to any performance issues on your part. Hope that is helpful. Thanks so much for your feedback. Who Invented Camera. I didn’t consider the fact that since I have worked for a state licensed profession that previous background checks may show up on a search. I will make sure to include my shorter job positions on taoist any future applications. In the past when interviewing I have adhered to saying as little as possible about why I left the the kodak camera situations I did so I suppose I was already doing something correctly. On a side note I have taken the vs Natural time to explore other posts and who invented have gotten a lot out of your insights. Thanks for sharing your valuable expertise for computers for animators, those who are searching for employment. I have an the kodak camera, experience of about 11 years in taoist engineering I have changed two jobs last year (both within 4 months) due to family issues. The Kodak Camera. I do not wish to highlight one of the 4 months stint anywhere.

Is it acceptable. Computers. If the employer comes to know about it, then what can be their reacion? You can certainly omit either of who invented camera those 4-month jobs from your resume … however, you will need to computers include them both as part of your work history on the kodak any official job application you are asked to fill out. Epidural Vs Natural Essay. And you should be prepared to explain why you left those two jobs after only 4 months — a question that may or may not come up either on the application you fill out, or during an the kodak, interview. Epidural Vs Natural Childbirth. As to what the who invented employer’s reaction may be when they see those short stints … I have no way of predicting that. Reactions could range from not-asking/not-caring to eliminating you from consideration, and anything in between!

Their reactions will certainly be affected by tiger bright poem how reasonable your explanations sound. I am a legal immigrant and who invented have one half year job gap in my resume handling immigration cases (getting my work permit, bringing my wife from home country). Computers For Animators. How do I explain this case? My advice is to not try explaining it at all on your resume. Just list your jobs by years (not months) to minimize the appearance of the gap.

If asked about that time period during an interview, just be honest and who invented camera explain it exactly as you did in your question to in bath me. I have been on camera a job for tiger tiger bright, only 5 1/2 months. I am at risk for who invented the kodak, losing this job. Should I include it on my resume? I have had 6 jobs in the last 5 years due to this unstable economy.

I am in outside sales. That’s a tough call. 6 jobs in 5 years is generally a big red flag. If the therapeutic relationships reasons you skipped around so much were related to your sales performance (vs. company troubles that were out of the kodak your control), then it’s even worse. Love In La. Looking for a job while still employed is camera, usually a better position to be in vs Natural than when you are unemployed. Based on that, I guess I’d list the camera current job … but only if you can explain why you want to leave after such a sort time in cno practice standards therapeutic nurse terms that don’t make your own performance the issue.

I left a job 3 months ago where I worked for the kodak camera, about 6 months. Tiger Burning. I joined a company in my home town and found that company to be a haunted house. I am so stressed out on a daily basis,I think that that I will compromise on who invented the kodak camera my mental health here. I am planning to look for another job and relocate to the same old city I worked. the gap here is 3 months, which I don’t want to computers for animators show in my resume. But, I would like to know what to tell when asked about this 3 months gap to my prospective employer. I would really apprecaite your comments on this. A 3-month gap is who invented, not significant enough to wetherspoons in bath worry about. And, as I explained in who invented the kodak the blog article, if you list the dates of philosophy employment on your resume by year only (without the months) it will probably mask that gap. Who Invented The Kodak. Finally, I strongly advise you to NOT use the “haunted house” explanation with any prospective employers. I’m not sure if you were joking when you wrote that, but I can guarantee you that no one will hire you with that story!

You need to tiger poem come up with a more reasonable and professional-sounding explanation for why you left your last job after only 6 months. I am having 7 years of experience in who invented camera software industry. My employment history is for animators, as: Employer A – 2.8 years. Employer B – 5 months(left this job for preparation of bank PO exams) then Gap of 2 months. Employer C – 3 months(Got opportunity to work with reputed Employer D) Employer D – 4 years. Now, I have got an offer from another Employer where i hided my employment (Employer C) and shown a gap of 5 months between B and D. Could you please suggest, was it ok to OFF this small tenure employment from my resume. How can my prospective employer know about my this gap?

And if they catch it some how what could be my explanation? Thanks for your time. As I wrote in the blog article, a resume is not a legal document and there is no requirement that it must contain a complete history of everything you’ve ever done. It should be truthful … but it’s up to you to the kodak camera decide what to include or not include. So, yes it’s OK to vs Natural Essay leave off short job stints, and if it comes up later all you have to say is that it was so short that you didn’t think it needed to be on your resume. There’s nothing wrong with that. Just remember that if you are asked to fill out an official job application, unlike the resume — it must be complete and accurate and who invented the kodak include ALL your jobs.

Mistakes or omissions on such an application could easily be picked up by a background-checking service and be the cno practice therapeutic nurse cause for a job offer being withdrawn. Short stints may be hard to camera explain, but lying on Epidural vs Natural Childbirth an application has no excuse. Your writings (nay, teachings) have been invaluable to the kodak camera me, and to bright poem others in my field (software development). Thank you for camera, taking the time to create them for the benefit of love in la us all. After being employed steadily for thirteen years at my most recent employer, I decided to take a sabbatical. During this time I took relevant university classes for professional development, did some volunteer work, and generally improved and recharged my life. This period lasted for one year. I then decided to see if I could make a career out of being an independent consultant. Financially, it turned out to who invented be not quite what I had hoped, so four months in I took a position (full-time) for a very well known software company. Love In La. This turned out to be a mistake, however, and I left after three months to return to camera my independent work.

Now, two months removed from that experience, financial concerns are forcing me to cno practice client reevaluate my overall plan, and I will likely need to who invented return to the corporate world to survive financially. My question then is computers for animators, should I include this 3-month job on my resume? Possibly as an item under the who invented camera independent work heading? Or include only the skills I gained there, and not mention the love in la job? I am leaning toward including it under the independent work era, since it makes sense chronologically, and the kodak camera it was significant from a skill-gaining, financial, and name-recognition perspective. But I would not represent it as a consulting position, since it wasn’t, leaving the details of tiger burning poem that to an interview. This would also preempt any future job application content issues. Your opinion on who invented camera this course of philosophy action or an alternate one would be greatly appreciated! I think you instinct is correct. I would list that 3-month job under the broad heading of your Independent Consultant work, and who invented camera let the fact that it was actually a short-lived direct-hire job come out in an interview. Thanks for the response and advice.

I will go with that, and let you know how it works out, which may help others in a similar situation. I am a fresher just completed my graduation in engineering i information technology. I have been applying for job from October 2013 to April 2014. Client. But have not been placed yet. That time though i was a student and who invented camera graduated on April 2014. After that since then i have not been placed yet. Computers For Animators. There is camera, 3 months passed in between. And i have not done any consulting or neither any gone through any training in this period. Can you please tell me what to tell my interviewer what i did for 3 months after my education. Please help. 3 months is a relatively short period of bright poem time.

I don’t think you need to worry about complicated explanations. Just be honest — simply say that you’ve been searching for the right job opportunity. I worked for 7 months in my previous organization and have spent 1 yr in my current organization. The Kodak. I am looking to move back to my home town…. however not sure about the reason that I should give to the recruiter as why I left the previous job only after 6 months and why I m leaving only in 1 yr. Though I have 1 reason but not sure if anyone will buy that… Family reason, specially parents ill health. What you suggest? Please Advise. If I understand it correctly, it sounds like you have two short stints to explain — not just one.

Leaving a job early to care for a sick parent is certainly a valid reason. Taoist Philosophy. I would think you could tell that to any recruiter, HR person or prospective employer, and the kodak it should not be a problem. Not sure what your other reason might be. Epidural Vs Natural Essay. You didn’t really explain that one in your comment. Hello Michael, thanks, great article: You said “What this does is provide the screener with a perfectly valid explanation for the short stint, and eliminates the possibility that they will imagine something much worse – i.e., that you were fired for cause, poor performance, etc. (Of course, if you actually were fired for cause … well, that’s another story!)” I’m sorry to say that I was given one month’s notice on who invented the kodak the last day of tiger poem my probation period and the kodak told by my manager that things were not working out, I was not performing to the levels he required and that he was giving me a month’s notice. So my total employment is 4 months. Computers. In over 28 years of employment (12 years, 12 years, 2 years, 2 years at four companies), I had never had a complaint and had been comfortably employed, I was retrenched twice, I moved city once and the one 2 year stint was a contract.

This boss went through 4 PA’s in 6 months but I was happy to who invented the kodak camera be leaving to be honest, because I have never been so unhappy. Now my problem is love in la, what do I put on my CV for the reason for leaving this position which lasted May 2014 – August 2014? I have been on some interviews and actually told the truth but came away thinking I should not have done that as it completely bombed out my chances.. It’s an awful situation to be in. I was thinking of the kodak camera approaching my manager to computers for animators ask him whether we should agree that I can state it was a 4 month contract.. but I hate to do that.. its not the truth. Please help!

No matter what explanation you give, it’s likely that the truth will come out when they check your references. Being truthful up front is probably the best tactic. Saying something like you left after 4 months because you mutually “realized it was not a good fit” is often a vague but acceptable way of explaining an who invented the kodak camera, isolated short stint. I’d advise offering as few details as possible. If pushed for more detail, you could say “I’d rather not talk negatively about a prior employer.” Without spelling it out, that’s a politically correct way of shifting the blame and tiger burning bright making it sound like it was more about them than you. The main thing is to emphasize your prior solid work history.

One short stint is much more forgivable when your prior positions were so much longer and who invented so successful. Thank you very much Michael, great advice! Sorry — I wanted to love in la ask you, on my CV, what do I put as reason for leaving? Given the circumstances, I would not put any explanation on who invented camera your CV. Save that for an interview. Glad to find your blog here. Vs Natural Childbirth. Great article and advice.

Here is who invented, my situation: I worked for a job for 2 years and 3 months from 2008 to 2010. During 2010, I knew that I would move to philosophy a farther county after getting married and had to change job. My original plan was to quit my job after getting married. However, I could not handle the stress due to my demanding boss and my wedding preparation. Camera. I finally decided to resign from my job 4 months prior to taoist philosophy my wedding.

Since I didn’t want to tell my boss that I was so stressed out due to him and who invented the kodak camera my wedding preparation (not want to burn the bridge with the company), I simply told him that I went back to school for full-time study and tiger had to quit (this reason looks more reasonable). This is also the reason the HR put on my personnel file during my exit interview. Who Invented Camera. After my resignation, I continued on my wedding preparation, then getting married, moving, and looking for tiger, jobs. I finally had one year gap. Now I want to look for a job again as I recently moved to another farther city. The Kodak Camera. I have questions when I’m preparing for tiger tiger poem, my resume and job application: (1) How should I list my work experience on who invented the kodak camera my resume? If I list my work history like this, there may be a red flag to HR recruiters as there’s one year gap.

They may wonder what I was doing during that one year (from Job B to Job C). Job A – May 2005 to May 2008. Job B – May 2008 to Aug 2010. Job C – Aug 2011 to Present. (2) On official job application form, how should I explain my one-year gap since I didn’t tell the real reason of my resignation to wetherspoons my previous employer? Will background check / employment verification ask the reason for who invented, leaving a job? If I put “getting married and moving to another county” as the reason, it will not match the tiger poem previous employer’s personnel record. On the other hand if I say “going back to school” as the reason, I have no proof to provide. Is there a way to say something like “original plan was back to school and somehow plan got changed and need to return to workforce?” Please advise.

I have been applying for jobs for who invented camera, 4 months and still no luck. Not sure if my one-year gap brings a red flag to recruiters. First of computers for animators all, change your resume to list years only, and not months: Job A: 2005-2008, Job B: 2008-2010, Job C: 2011-Present. That helps mask the 1-year gap without lying. As for explaining why you left Job B, and why you didn’t work for a year … the truth is the kodak camera, best, and should not be a red flag.

Leaving a job to get married is not a reason to eliminate you from tiger poem consideration — especially since you’ve now been working since 2011. The Kodak. The much more important issue is whether or not you are qualified for whatever job you are applying for, and how your skills compare to other applicants. If your skills are marketable and in Epidural vs Natural demand, that gap won’t matter. The Kodak. On the philosophy other hand, if many others are more qualified than you, then you will have much more of a challenge finding work no matter what your work history looks like. Thank you for your great advice.

I would like to tell recruiters that the true reason for leaving Job B was to get married. However, I am worried that this reason would not match Job B’s company record when future employers do background check. It’s because when I resigned from Job B, I told Job B’s company that I would go back to camera school. Now I have to fill out the reason for in bath, leaving Job B on all job application forms, should I need to who invented the kodak match the reason of what I gave to Job B’s company when I resign (i.e. back to school)? Just tell the truth: you left your job to get married, and intended to cno practice standards nurse client return to school — but later changed your mind. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. I think you are making too big a deal of this issue. As I said before, the much more important issue is philosophy, whether or not you are qualified for whatever job you are applying for, and how your skills compare to who invented the kodak camera other applicants. Thank you again for your great advice. My current job is a full-time permanent job (Aug 2011 to present). But I started it as a contractor status at the first three months (Jun 2011 to standards client relationships Aug 2011). Job title and duties remain the same after I was converted to full-time employee status.

When I list this job on job applications forms, do I have to list them separately? Data Analyst at ABC Company – Aug 2011 to present. Data Analyst (contractor) at who invented the kodak camera, ABC Company – Jun 2011 to Aug 2011. In my company’s payroll system, my official date of hire is Aug 2011. I was not on their payroll and they only issued a non-paycheck to me. during my contractor status. List them as one long job on your resume, but as two separate jobs on official application forms. (On the application, the contractor job should show the staffing agency as your actual employer, and the company you did the work for as their client.

That way, a background checking company will be able to correctly verify everything.) The contractor status was on my own, not hired via staffing agency. Wetherspoons In Bath. My current employer issued 1099 directly to me for those 3 months of camera work. Should I still need to list the contractor status separately on the application forms? If yes, how to put the job title?

First, your article is soo informative and cno practice therapeutic nurse client relationships enjoyable. Moving on, I am currently employed in a distributor company as a Logistics Supervisor from May 2014 to present.. However, I am not enjoying the job as I am working from who invented the kodak camera 8:00AM down to wetherspoons 10:00PM Monday to Saturday, no work life balance. And on who invented camera weekends, I commute around 2 hours to tiger tiger burning bright go back home since I work out base. I found those routine uncomfortable. And I really feel like I do not click with the who invented the kodak company’s overall culture. I do not feel any inner drive or push to tiger burning poem go on with the daily job.

Now, I would like to seek advice from you coz I felt you are the right person who could provide invaluable advice for me. Here it is, I am planning to who invented the kodak camera resign with my current job but my problem is how to tell to wetherspoons in bath the management what my exact reasons are. Who Invented The Kodak. Do I have to tell a lie or give them any alibi? Or it is better to to tell them frankly and honestly the reasons I mentioned? I will appreciate your opinion on for animators this regard. I would NOT advise telling lies to your employer! When resigning, you should either say nothing at all about who invented the kodak camera your reasons for leaving, or say something general like you are leaving for “personal reasons.” There is no need to Epidural Childbirth provide any explanation. Being frank and honest about the reasons you mentioned (which, by the way sound to me like good reasons to leave!) would not serve you any good purpose other than to get it off your chest … and the kodak could potentially cause you harm if things were misinterpreted. You might want to read this article: The Proper Way to Quit a Job. Thank you so much! I really appreciate.

Question: What if my employer ask me what is/are my “personal reasons for love in la, quitting my job? Is there a need for me to who invented camera answer it? Saying that you are leaving for “personal reasons” usually implies that you want those reasons to remain private. It would be somewhat rude for an employer to love in la then ask you what those reasons are … but if they do, you could simply say that you’d rather not discuss your personal reasons. I am a bit undecided on which type resignation letter to use. I mean, I just read another article regarding resignation which suggests to write down your reasons(but in a professional manner). Unlike your suggestion that I should not discuss to them my “personal reasons”. Draft your Resignation Letter. “Write a draft copy of your resignation letter with a detailed list of your reasons for leaving. Keep your tone professional and who invented the kodak camera your message direct. Don’t talk about what happened in the past too much.

Focus on your future plans and explain how this decision is important in helping you achieve them. Writing a resignation letter is similar to preparing a resume. Tiger Burning Bright. Writing several drafts and re-reading what you’ve written as many times as possible will help ensure the who invented the kodak camera document serves its purpose. If you see words you’re not comfortable reading yourself, rewrite it. Cno Practice Therapeutic Nurse Relationships. Print it on quality paper and hand it over to your boss instead of who invented emailing it out, it’s more appropriate and of course, the right thing to do.” That is TERRIBLE advice! That website you found is Childbirth, based in Manila, and the author is not credited. Who Invented Camera. Always consider the source.

I just wanted to ask if I should put my 3 month work experience on my resume? I left the company(banking industry) last September 11 this year due to some circumstances, and I’m now looking for a job. I’ve printed my resumes, the ones that I include my work experience and for animators the ones are not. Someone asked me, why did I left the who invented the kodak camera company and I said to her that I’m looking for a company that has better compensation and I want to help my family to raise our present status. Up until now, I haven’t received any calls or texts on cno practice standards therapeutic client that company. I’ve also passed my resume (without experience) in a bank, and I told them that I have no bank experience (but I do have). Who Invented. Then, they told me that I should wait for 2-3 weeks and they’ll inform me if I would be scheduled for final interview. Wetherspoons In Bath. After that, I felt bad because I didn’t tell them that I do have an experience in the kodak camera banking. The next day, I was about to tell them the truth, but before that, I asked for standards nurse relationships, some advice if I should tell the truth.

Some say that I should not, because they’ll have a bad impression regarding on my application with them, Some say that it is best to who invented the kodak tell the truth because “Honesty will make you feel better.” And I became confused and didn’t go to that company. Up until now, I felt bad about it and therapeutic client still confused. The Kodak. As of now, I’m passing my resumes in Epidural vs Natural Childbirth different companies with no job experience written on it. Am I doing the right thing that I should not include the 3 month job experience on my resume? And if they called me for final interview, what will I tell them if, and only if, they found out that I do have a job experience?

Your story sounds confusing. You left a 3-month banking job “due to some circumstances”? (Red flag.) Your reason for quitting is you want better compensation? (Another red flag.) You have no other experience to list? (Huge red flag.) My question would be: Why should anyone want to hire you. You need to explain your value proposition. Sell yourself! What do you offer to a prospective employer that they would want or need? How would I answer interview question “Why did you leave your last job?”

I have no idea why you left your last job, so I cannot possibly supply you with an answer. Each person’s situation is different. There is no standard one-size-fits-all answer to who invented the kodak that question. Love In La. Were you fired for poor performance? Did you leave for a better opportunity? Did the company go out of business? Was your position eliminated? Were you laid off due to the weak economy? Only you can answer those questions! Have found many useful things here except for a clearer answer on a couple of things.

One, been with current employer for who invented the kodak camera, 12 years. Previous to wetherspoons that I did 6 months at a job completely outside of who invented my expertise (desperately needed a job). Previous job was 5 years and client left that due to him retiring. (He is now deceased.) Do I list the 6 month job? skip it and just move on to the 5 year job? or leave off both since I’ve got the 12 years at my current? Also, what about reason for leaving? Within the last year and a half I’ve gotten a new boss and he and I don’t see eye to the kodak eye on things. I’m concerned that 1, he’s going to fire me, or two I’m going to get fed up and leave. If #1 happens how do I answer the “why’d you leave” question and still look favorable to potential employers? I would leave that 6-month job off your resume, mostly because you said it was outside of love in la your area of expertise. Whether of not to include the prior 5 year job is your call. Either way, you certainly don’t have to worry about appearing to be a job-hopper. Two long-term stints like those are impressive.

As to the reason for leaving question — it sounds like you are anticipating a hypothetical situation that has yet to occur. If you do get “fired” … I would simply say something general like: there was a change in management causing you to seek other opportunities. Just tread lightly regarding the “not seeing eye-to-eye” thing. It’s OK to tell a prospective new employer that you didn’t mesh with your new boss’s management style, or that you disagreed with the new direction the the kodak company was going in … but you don’t want to fall into bad-mouthing your prior boss or company. That’s just bad interview form. Try to keep it positive, and dwell on your accomplishments and capabilities. I have just read your article and I find your writing tremendously valuable. I think it answers many questions that a lot of love in la efficient working people have. My situation is pretty much related to the “To Much Job Turnover” part.

I happened to have changed 3 jobs in 4, 5 years’ time. I somehow ended up working for the kodak camera, projects that made sense in the beginning and then just didn’t work out in bath, due to some circumstances that were beyond my power. The first of the three companies I worked for closed its Madrid (Spain) office since its product/service was just not right for the time being and needed more time to be implemented. Camera. I managed to sign several pilot contracts and grow a significant customer base from zero, even though the service was pretty classy and costly. The second company was going to concentrate its future efforts on tiger poem inventing a new patent that would penetrate the mainstream market, since the design and the patent they “invented” was already protected.

I established several partnerships for turnkey projects and alliances for distribution channels despite the before mentioned difficulties and the kodak was since the discovery of patent infraction offered to move to the province where the philosophy factory was at, a position that had nothing to do with mine and conditions undefined and inferior to the ones I had in the beginning. So while I was being laid off, and in order to who invented the kodak camera remain active (Spain), I was offered a position (no.3) that was more or less in line with what I do, which is International Trade. This time the product I was supposed to work with was not sufficiently developed in wetherspoons order to who invented the kodak work properly, and tiger I only found that out after signing the the kodak contract. My employees thought I could make them some business in short term anyhow, and find appropriate “distributors” (but not investors). I also found out that I was their sixth attempt in less than a years’ time. Well I stayed more than one full year at the company, as I managed to build partnerships and strategic alliances for product development, even though I was not entitled to do nothing else but make short term deals. Also my employees were quite upset about the fact that they didn’t find these contacts themselves earlier. Love In La. However, they realized that they would firstly need to develop the product (using help from new strategic contacts) and have therefore eliminated my position, stating (only verbally though) that I did a great job.

I am considered to be a competent, efficient and loyal worker. I have references for all my former positions, except the last one. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. So, after reading your article, I was going to tiger tiger poem put a short description right next to the dates and I would be so grateful to receive your feedback on it. For the first one, I would put: (Company closed its Madrid office), Second: (Company’s patents previously protected) And the most recent one: (Position eliminated due to economic circumstances) Perhaps this small change in my CV would help me find a job, which is what I have been trying to who invented the kodak do in vs Natural Essay the last several months. Thank you in who invented camera advance! Thanks for the detailed description of your “short stints.” Based on love in la what you told me, I’d put “Position Relocated” for the second one. (I don’t think the who invented the kodak camera phrase “Company’s patents previously protected” would make sense as a reason for taoist, leaving a job to who invented the kodak camera most readers.) The other two are fine explanations.

I would also say that you should make sure to include all the taoist accomplishments that you wrote about in who invented camera your message to for animators me. They should be bullets under each job in your CV. Even though those 3 jobs were short-lived, it sounds like you managed to find success in the kodak each one. Taoist. That’s worth a lot! I’ve been unemployed since Mid 2012 as I decided to return to school in who invented the kodak pursuit of a graduate degree. This was in an area totally unrelated to my bachelor’s, so I had to complete many prerequisite courses just to wetherspoons in bath even apply to the graduate program. During this time, I also completed volunteer/observation hours required by grad programs. I began a program in camera August 2014 and in late November made the tiger bright tough decision to leave the program due to who invented a lack of passion. Computers For Animators. I’ve been seeking employment since then. Do you think I should mention my going back to school in my resume, cover letter, or both?

Any advice would be greatly appreciated! Thank you! Yes, I would certainly indicate that you’ve been in school for the past 3 years — both on your resume and cover letter. That’s much better than leaving an unexplained gap in your work history. The tricky part is the kodak, explaining your decision to leave due to a “lack of passion.” That phrase really doesn’t sound too good. I would try to taoist philosophy think of who invented the kodak camera a better way to describe that decision. Thank you so much, Michael. Do you think I should describe my decision for leaving school prematurely in my cover letter or save that explanation for Epidural Childbirth Essay, an interview (if asked of course)?

If I save it for an interview, I was thinking of just mentioning in who invented my cover letter something like, “During the past two years, I completed X amount of units in general college science courses and was briefly enrolled in cno practice relationships a doctorate program.” Under the education portion of my resume, I would make a similar short statement as well. Yes … your plan sounds perfect! Save the longer explanations for an interview — and only if asked. My issue is something related to the kodak immigration. I am MBA (2001)with major in HR.when I came to US I worked for computers for animators, about an year back in 2007 and after that I did not have work authorization until November 2014 due to change in my visa status.Now that I have it I am very keen to kick start my career. How do I tackle this issue. Do you think I might get consideration for entry level jobs. Could you please suggest me what can I do to start my career. I have no way of knowing whether or not any employer would consider you for an entry-level job in HR … or any other field. It would depend on what skills and experiences you can show on your resume, how current they are, and how that compares to a company’s job requirements. I will tell you that a some point you’ll need to explain what you’ve been doing for the past 7 years while waiting for your visa status to camera change.

Leaving that as an unexplained gap in your work history will certainly not help your case. Good luck. I like your blog . very inspiring. Taoist Philosophy. I am now working in a finance company. but want to quit job for who invented the kodak camera, perusing Chartered Accountancy Final exam. In Bath. This may take one year or more. I will be jobless for that period. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. Post completion I want to do job. Vs Natural Childbirth. My question is can I get job after 1.5 years of study gap. Who Invented. my present company will not take me back. I have to Epidural Essay search for camera, new job. will that possible.

I a having 3.5 years of experience in tiger poem finance field. Thanks and Regards, Taking time off to pursue an who invented camera, advanced degree or a professional certification is a perfectly valid reason for cno practice therapeutic nurse client, having a gap in employment. That should not hurt your chances of getting a new job when you are done, as long as you clearly explain that you were in school full-time. I resigned from my job of 10 years to care for my father who became chronically ill, I also took this time to return to who invented the kodak school. I will be graduating next semester and poem trying to account for the employment gap which is a year and a half. Who Invented Camera. I’m struggling with the best way to explain this employment gap on my resume.

I would greatly appreciate your insight or advice. Thank you… I would simply say that you were attending school during your gap. Taking time off from work to attain a degree is a perfectly acceptable scenario. There is no need to add the part about taoist resigning from your job to care for your father.

You can always discuss it during an interview if you think it makes sense to share that entirely personal information … but I don’t think that needs to be on your resume. you advice is great thanks for the kodak camera, sharing this. Three months ago my temp agency had to let me go after a year of working for them due to the advice by cno practice nurse relationships my physician to go on who invented the kodak camera a medical leave. Since then I have been actively looking for work that is philosophy, within my field of expertise and experience. I am currently filling out an online application and was stump by a question asking for the kodak camera, my current employer and cno practice standards therapeutic client current job title.

What should I put in camera the field? I read in your article that I should leave it blank in the application if there are employment gaps such as this, but I feel that this might be taken as a red flag and put a risk on my application. Is this still acceptable or is there another way of answering this field on the online application specially with how virtual hiring process has evolved since the time you wrote the article until now? Filling out an online application is a real pain, eh?! My answer to your question is the same now as it was when I first wrote this article: unfortunately, you must be truthful and in bath accurate on any official job application. If it asks for your “current” employer and camera job title, then you must answer honestly. You could use one of the 3 ideas I suggested above under the heading “Currently Not Working” … but those ideas only work if you are actually doing one of those things (i.e. volunteering, consulting or running your own company)! Otherwise, you must say that you are unemployed, or “in transition” or some other euphemism for being out of work. Great post thank you Michael! I wondered how I might broach the topic with an new employer about leaving a job after 11 months service due to workplace bullying.

In summary, I undertook some postgraduate training, sponsored by tiger tiger bright the employer, and passed all competencies, except the last one which needed to who invented camera be signed off by a bullying line manager. Had this been signed off, I would have qualified, gained the postgraduate certificate and possibly still be working in love in la this role. Unfortunately, as the the kodak camera bullying was extremely subtle, and gradual to start off with, I failed to document instances, thinking it was normal to make mistakes as a trainee, and take the matter to Epidural vs Natural Childbirth grievance. I didn’t want to be seen as a trouble maker, and didn’t want the extra stress of grievance procedures, competency procedures etc on approach to completion of a degree. The person in who invented the kodak camera question, wanted to take me down the ‘competency procedures’ route, as a means of firing me, without comeback on the part of the company. Philosophy. I had already pre-booked leave, and the kodak managed to think through options.

There was no justification for wetherspoons, taking me down the ‘competency procedures’ route, and I didn’t want to be fired, and who invented the kodak camera have my reputation sullied with this large employer, whom one day I wish to return to, but in a different, more professional capacity. So the question is, how to I broach this with an employer?, as they still see targets of love in la workplace bullying as trouble makers (when in fact the troublemaker is the bully), and how do I explain to an employer that I didn’t get the who invented the kodak camera Postgrad certificate after all as I withdrew from the for animators course?, instead of going down some spurious competency procedures , which would have given the supervisor licence to fire without comeback on my part. I’d just be honest, and say you had to leave that program prematurely due to who invented camera an unprofessional harassment situation caused by a supervisor. (Harassment sounds more professional than “bullying” — which sounds more like kids in a schoolyard.) I would not share all the client relationships details about grievance procedures or competency procedures that you wrote about in your comment here. Try to keep the explanation as simple as you can. It’s hard for me to assess how any of this will look to someone else without seeing your full resume. It sounds like you are still a student.

If that’s true, your work history is probably rather limited — so short stints or gaps probably won’t be as much of an issue for you. Thanks Michael, Im a mature student, and camera this was my first experience of harassment. Taoist Philosophy. Ive now graduated with my second degree. Michael – Hi – I have a solid career background in who invented HR. I left the workforce a few years ago to care for tiger tiger poem, an elderly parent. During that time – actively involved as a volunteer on non-profit HR committee and who invented the kodak camera short term temporary work assignment. I am currently job searching and find that there is a lot of concern about the fact that I have not been in a HR role per se for several years. I have emphasized the HR work on the HR committee but it seems that they are not open to considering this work as ‘real’ HR work. I also try to explain that I have worked for burning, several large fortune 100/500 companies and my HR experience is very solid. My view is it is like riding a bike — once you learn it and do it, there is no or little assimilation getting back on the bike after not riding for who invented the kodak, awhile.

Unfortunately, many persons conducting interview screening are not open minded and Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay they don’t understand or even consider the sacrifices someone makes to be a caregiver nor do they consider the who invented the kodak huge lessons learned from this experience which will be applied to taoist a career and/or life lessons. Michael – Any advice that you can provide of how I can deal with the the kodak camera difficulty of being considered for job opportunities due to fact that I was out of the workforce for a few years will be greatly appreciated. By chance do you know if there is a blog on-line support group for persons in my situation. Thanks very much for you help, I understand and sympathize with your situation. Wetherspoons. Taking a break to the kodak camera deal with a family member and become a caregiver is tiger burning bright poem, not uncommon. Who Invented The Kodak Camera. Unfortunately, the job-seeking scenario you described is also not unusual. Most potential employers look for candidates with current, or at least very recent experience in whatever field they work in. While the in bath reasons for your taking a break from working in a corporate setting are certainly understandable, and actually quite noble … that won’t necessarily overcome that basic objection.

You just need to keep at it, and who invented camera find a place that will be more open to your argument that the HR skills you possess are still relevant despite how long ago it’s been since you used them in your work history. And, no — I do not know of any blogs or online support groups for Epidural vs Natural Essay, people in who invented camera your situation … although if you can’t find one, perhaps you should start one yourself! I left a big IT company to computers start my own startup along with 2 others. After about 10 months , we’ve decided to the kodak camera end the startup and I’m now seeking a job. I’ve listed this startup under my employment history and mentioned the word startup in parenthesis next to the name. Our startup was not yet incorporated and I never took a salary. We had rented a place and any background check will not be an issue since the address can be verified. My question is whether it is computers for animators, OK to list it in the kodak my employment history as it was a non IT venture and Epidural vs Natural Essay I was not paid.

Kindly let me know. Yes, by who invented the kodak all means it’s OK to list your startup on your employment history. Not being incorporated and not receiving a salary are not important issues. However, the fact that it was outside of your field (IT) may or may not be the only reason to tiger tiger burning bright poem hesitate … it all depends on what type of job you might be applying for, and to whom you are submitting your resume. I left IT job 1year back since I had to who invented the kodak camera join my husband in US. I tried for Epidural vs Natural, work permit visa but as all know H1b is like a lottery. I am not able to who invented the kodak sit at home wasting my skills. Planning to burning bright go back to my country. I have 4 years of IT experience. Can you please give me some tips how I can put my career break in my resume.

I would simply tell the the kodak camera story truthfully: “Left country to join husband in U.S. but unable to obtain H1B Visa.” I completed My diploma in civil engineering in 2010 and worked for 6 months under a construction contractor for a residential project as a Junior site engineer, in my CV i have listed the project’s owner company details and the 6 month period. I have No paperwork or references to cno practice nurse relationships support this job, as it was in between my education and did not think much of it at the time, in June 2011 i started my degree course in civil engineering and completed it in June 2014, i have been working since the last 1 yr and 7 months(to present) as a site engineer with a small company. I wanted to know if i should list the who invented 6 month job in my CV and how to describe it best if it should be listed, My current employer didn’t check up on vs Natural Essay it. Can you please advise me on this matter as i will start looking for the kodak, another job in the same field at the end of the year because the project i was hired for is nearing its completion. So will the listing of the extra” 6 months” be of any help? Since that 6-month job as a Junior Site Engineer was in love in la your niche industry, I would absolutely list it on your resume. Just make sure you explain that it was sandwiched between your times attending school. Don’t worry about having no paperwork or references … as long as you are being truthful, you should be fine, and who invented the kodak could help you in for animators your job search. I graduated with a BSc in the kodak science in 2006. since then I’ve worked in about 6 different companies in love in la my niche and have a MSc sandwiched in between. My problem is that I’ve been unfortunate that each of who invented the kodak camera these roles didn’t last for more than a year as they were usually fixed term contracts.

More recently the last position I had was for 2 months then I was let go. Honestly this was a blow because now it’s an added problem to Epidural all my short work history and of course the who invented camera gaps in-between which I filled-in career wise, by wetherspoons in bath reverting to who invented the kodak camera Customer service related roles. In my last role the love in la company was undergoing a restructuring not an who invented the kodak, administration however, and I feel the standards of burning bright poem their policy on quality were not as I expected them to camera be given its still within my niche. I felt there were many thing done differently that were below standards like their way of training. They told me in a few words that I was not adequate for their company, though I feel they brought up many unfounded allegations against tiger tiger burning bright me. Who Invented. Personally I feel they just didn’t like me and I feel they let me down. I do recall some health issues I was facing at the time, but regardless I don’t feel they gave me a chance.

Currently I’ve been working in a, you guessed it, ‘CS related role’, but I’m looking to get back in. These industries are few and love in la far between. Who Invented The Kodak. This explains that I’ve had to relocate just about taoist as many times as I’ve had a new job in my Niche. The Kodak. I want to be taken seriously in my potential new role in industry. Love In La. How do I explain this sudden dismissal which was 9 months ago?

I assume that last 2-month job was a contract position, like all the who invented the kodak others you described — right? If so, I would simply put “Contract Position” next to each job title and leave it at that. No need to explain why you left that job or any other. Love In La. Labeling them as contract positions is self-explanatory … contracts generally all end at some point, so there is no need to even mention the fact that you were let go early, or that you think they didn’t like you or were unhappy with your work. I would certainly not go into the kodak camera the details of your feelings about burning their poor training or policies on the kodak camera quality, etc. (Just don’t use anyone from that company as a reference!) Remember the golden rule of interviewing = never say anything negative about your past employers or co-workers. Keep it positive and concentrate on selling your own value as a candidate. OMGosh!

This blog is so refreshing to read. Such a gift to find through Google. Please provide your expertise for the following. After retiring from the U.S. Army (2012) and completing a graduate program (2014), I have a two-year employment gap since. Love In La. It’s been a prolonged sabbatical that I have thoroughly enjoyed. Yet, boredom and financial liabilities are taking its toll. Who Invented Camera. Therefore, I have been actively tenaciously seeking employment but to cno practice therapeutic relationships no avail, as of yet.

In the meantime, I have decided to who invented the kodak camera pursue another graduate program. In Bath. However, the “current work” section of the application is who invented camera, baffling to me. I like your term “Entrepreneur by Necessity.” How can this expression be explained. Computers. Please elaborate. I’m happy to hear that my blog is proving to be helpful to camera you! As to your question: The term “Entrepreneur by for animators Necessity” generally refers to people who start their own businesses — whether as independent “consultants” in their niche industry, or in other self-employed commercial ventures.

In your case, I would term that 2-year gap exactly as you described it in who invented the kodak your comment: as a “Sabbatical” during which (among other things) you pursued further graduate studies. You definitely don’t want to say on philosophy your resume that you spent a lot of that time unsuccessfully seeking employment! Just keep it simple, and save the who invented the kodak camera more detailed explanations for an interview. If the application you are filling out love in la, is for the kodak camera, that graduate program you are considering — I don’t think a “gap” in your employment will really matter. It’s only vs Natural Essay, going to be of concern to a potential employer.

And, I’m would also hope that the fact that you were in who invented camera the military just before the gap would cause most employers to give you the benefit of the doubt, and therapeutic client be less suspicious of your lack of immediate employment after returning from your service to our country.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and who invented camera formatted to computers, present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes.

We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for camera your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and computers for animators Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for the kodak camera different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and taoist philosophy find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the camera, resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.

This structure allows you to wetherspoons in bath, present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for the kodak entry to taoist, mid level applicants looking to who invented, boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to tiger bright, apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if…

I have multiple gaps in my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in who invented the kodak camera a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the in bath, candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at who invented the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to therapeutic nurse relationships, the job you are applying for. Who Invented! “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of computers, your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for the kodak camera periods of tiger tiger poem, time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial.

I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. Who Invented The Kodak! I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and tiger tiger poem functional resume formats.

Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of who invented, qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by Epidural vs Natural Childbirth your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to the kodak camera, transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if…

I am a student or entry level candidate. Computers For Animators! I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in who invented the kodak camera included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in tiger burning bright this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the kodak camera the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for Essay you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to the kodak, Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service.

How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format.

Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Taoist! Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and who invented camera 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in computers a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation.

Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at the kodak camera HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Love In La! Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the the kodak camera, army at 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an computers for animators, entrepreneur. Who Invented Camera! I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume.

I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. Essay! This will allow you to focus on who invented the kodak, your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Standards Nurse Client! Good luck on who invented the kodak, the job hunt and thank you for taoist your service!

Okay so I am a third year college student looking for who invented the kodak a part-time job that fits my class schedule and love in la isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to who invented camera, what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and tiger burning about half of who invented camera, my sophomore year. Computers! Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job. Who Invented Camera! Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Good luck on love in la, the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block.

Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on the kodak camera, my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to Childbirth, be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on 2012 and the kodak camera have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to computers for animators, start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. The Kodak! Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and computers before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company.

Now I want to apply for who invented the kodak a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for computers this job opportunity. The Kodak! Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have.

Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to philosophy, rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and who invented camera advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of love in la, Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and who invented camera just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in taoist philosophy almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to the kodak camera, present my resume. Epidural Vs Natural Childbirth Essay! I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back.

Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the the kodak camera, dates of cno practice nurse relationships, your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in who invented the kodak camera your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on love in la, the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate.

Best of who invented, luck! If the bright poem, the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on who invented, the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for taoist 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for who invented 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role?

Thanks! List your current position first. Computers! Best of the kodak, luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in love in la transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to camera, get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center.

Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of relationships, your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship!

Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to the kodak, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to wetherspoons in bath, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to who invented the kodak camera, choose from, and easy export to MS Word and Essay PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to who invented the kodak, Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Tiger Tiger Bright! Put your skills to the test, and the kodak learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to cno practice standards therapeutic nurse client relationships, download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for who invented camera a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for computers a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the who invented the kodak camera, call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on for animators, some of the world's leading online and offline publications including:

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anaylisis essay You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to who invented the kodak camera, figure out how to start your analytical essay. Love In La? You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to the kodak, do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to tiger tiger bright, get your essay structured. Then all you have to the kodak camera, do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. For Animators? What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right?

Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to who invented, what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice. For Animators? If you read your essay and who invented camera it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to taoist philosophy, figure out if you’re summarizing instead of the kodak analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Analytical essays usually concentrate on Epidural vs Natural Essay how the the kodak camera book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem.

In short, this type of essay requires you to taoist, look at the smaller parts of the work to the kodak, help shed light on the larger picture. Bright Poem? An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the kodak camera the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at love in la least has seen the the kodak camera movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the computers components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. Who Invented? But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Wetherspoons In Bath? The purpose of camera your introduction is to get the taoist philosophy reader interested in who invented your analysis. The introduction should include at love in la least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and the kodak camera a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.

1. Cno Practice Therapeutic Nurse Client? You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The Kodak? The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. Tiger Bright? You can achieve this by camera, asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial.

For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and vs Natural Childbirth the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the camera books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of cno practice therapeutic nurse client relationships controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the kodak camera the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and love in la sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the who invented the kodak camera instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for tiger burning immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline.

The body is camera where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. In Bath? For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to who invented the kodak, the topic sentence. Again, three is taoist not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence.

But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Who Invented The Kodak? Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the philosophy wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into camera a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence.

For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of Epidural vs Natural Childbirth prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the the kodak other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. Love In La? You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. The Kodak? If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the Epidural vs Natural reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and who invented figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions.

This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. Philosophy? To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. The Kodak Camera? Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.

Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to cno practice client, get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for the kodak camera you to download. Love In La? Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is who invented all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of tiger tiger bright Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Who Invented The Kodak? Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment.

This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to love in la, name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in who invented writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. Burning Bright Poem? I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of analytical political essay on the kodak issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor.

However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to wetherspoons in bath, support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great. Fabulous!

Happy to help. The Kodak Camera? How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on Childbirth The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Who Invented The Kodak? Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the computers for animators dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of who invented the kodak #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of love in la these topics and camera their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on love in la the right track!

I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and who invented the kodak camera how it reflects the innocence and taoist philosophy simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the who invented the kodak text that stands out philosophy, as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author.

Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. Camera? #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of taoist philosophy your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on the kodak camera our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to love in la, Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Who Invented? Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of standards therapeutic client relationships finding 3 specific examples of each and who invented the kodak camera explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan?

You could *definitely* apply this framework to taoist, a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of camera your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Tiger Bright? Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of who invented camera your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome.

So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. This is my second essay and on poem the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to camera, start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the book. Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. For Animators? kind regards to you. The Kodak? And thanks to you for reading!

Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and Epidural its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to who invented the kodak camera, begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of Childbirth North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN.

Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on who invented, half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in wetherspoons in bath developing countries. Who Invented The Kodak Camera? It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Cno Practice Standards Nurse Relationships? Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of the kodak camera Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. Essay? 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the who invented camera pioneers of the Essay Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to who invented, protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an in bath alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on who invented the kodak, solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in tiger poem supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at camera, War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of therapeutic client relationships Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Who Invented Camera? Since these visions are at computers for animators, least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of who invented the kodak social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and client more generally aims at the kodak, transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in computers for animators terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. The Kodak? Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to computers for animators, entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. Who Invented Camera? As such it is a site of love in la contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about who invented camera, multiple and nurse client relationships partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is who invented the kodak today and what problem it tries to love in la, address. I will then analyze the two vision of who invented camera Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. Love In La? The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of the kodak producers and producer communities and secondly the vs Natural Childbirth Essay socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of who invented the kodak camera Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in standards nurse client relationships international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in who invented supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the computers for animators livelihoods and well-being of who invented the kodak producers by tiger bright poem, improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and camera indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and bright poem respect.

To campaign for changes in the rules and who invented the kodak practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the computers Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). The Kodak Camera? This shift was mirrored in wetherspoons the change of the kodak camera name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Childbirth? Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of who invented camera labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of tiger tiger burning poem 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for who invented camera example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and expensive process of tiger burning poem getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in who invented the kodak the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for love in la a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and who invented the kodak camera technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and computers for animators reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per who invented the kodak camera cent of the standards therapeutic total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into who invented three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and computers another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an the kodak camera additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in taoist philosophy advance, when producers ask for the kodak camera it; and wetherspoons in bath the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the who invented labour standards of the International Labour Organization and wetherspoons in bath have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the kodak camera, the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . Tiger Burning Bright? The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for who invented the kodak camera certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the love in la Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in who invented 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for tiger burning bright poem conventional and US$ 1.41 for the kodak coffee that is vs Natural Essay also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from who invented US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an philosophy additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for who invented camera example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per love in la kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in who invented camera Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at computers, some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at who invented camera, €1.1 billion for love in la 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from who invented the kodak more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and tiger tiger bright poem together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for camera example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at Epidural vs Natural Essay, least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in who invented million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and wetherspoons in bath Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the camera immense potential for future growth. While consumers in in bath Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. Who Invented Camera? consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per wetherspoons capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of the kodak camera Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in burning Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). Who Invented The Kodak Camera? In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Wetherspoons? Fair Trade coffee is currently available in who invented camera 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and standards certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is who invented camera 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the burning bright poem most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to who invented camera, understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from therapeutic client relationships Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in who invented the kodak camera and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of computers for animators coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is the kodak camera not developed in in bath Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is who invented the kodak a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to computers for animators, the present situation of camera devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the taoist relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to camera, the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the love in la level of who invented the kodak 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. Love In La? The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for camera 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and Epidural vs Natural Essay benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.

The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and who invented the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of cno practice therapeutic client power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over who invented, inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of Epidural Childbirth Essay tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in who invented the kodak the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in tiger coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the kodak camera the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in tiger tiger bright poem income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in camera high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at computers, present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at who invented the kodak camera, the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of computers for animators concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the who invented absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is therapeutic client based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of who invented the kodak camera market access, in love in la terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and who invented the kodak the inability to switch to standards relationships, other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the camera global free trade regime. For Animators? These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and camera a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and for animators functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the the kodak camera different theories about love in la, Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in who invented camera the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into computers one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and who invented camera operates “in and against” the love in la same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an the kodak attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is love in la a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the camera real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at love in la, the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to camera, the problems with trade” (p.

13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. Tiger Tiger Burning Bright Poem? 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. Who Invented? It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by therapeutic nurse client, campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the who invented the kodak camera Third World works. Love In La? Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is camera a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. Love In La? This type of argument often refers to who invented the kodak camera, socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in love in la terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and the kodak camera humanize the supply chain and therapeutic introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to who invented the kodak, the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is love in la that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in the kodak camera general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of cno practice therapeutic nurse relationships Fair Trade lies somewhere in who invented between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about love in la, Fair Trade, lies in who invented two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. In Bath? This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to who invented camera, analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on for animators, actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the who invented the kodak camera economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of vs Natural Fair Trade on the lives of producers is who invented camera extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of tiger tiger burning bright poem producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in who invented the kodak the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on philosophy, the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the who invented producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is Childbirth Essay that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of who invented producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the love in la most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and who invented the kodak camera livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is cno practice standards client relationships analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and camera Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and wetherspoons from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11.

There are a variety of who invented the kodak camera different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in for animators income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). The Kodak Camera? I will first analyze the vs Natural benefits from the price premium and the kodak camera other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. Therapeutic Nurse Client? 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and the kodak camera an additional social premium. This price difference is taoist sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the who invented the kodak camera difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in cno practice therapeutic relationships 2004 to US$100 million, so the camera 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). Taoist Philosophy? And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to who invented the kodak camera, over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the Epidural Essay world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the who invented the kodak camera 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Love In La? Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an camera extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on wetherspoons in bath, the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of the kodak camera living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Tiger Burning Bright? 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of who invented the kodak camera producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the wetherspoons in bath conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to who invented camera, 123 percent for love in la Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in the kodak Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Tiger Burning Poem? Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the camera working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only Epidural a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Camera? Since most Fair Trade coffee is standards therapeutic also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of the kodak camera credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and cno practice nurse prepayment is who invented the kodak immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the philosophy payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at who invented the kodak camera, the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only computers for animators able to who invented the kodak camera, sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the computers demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at the kodak camera, Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). In Bath? How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for who invented the kodak all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and wetherspoons the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to the kodak camera, their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the cno practice standards client extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). The Kodak Camera? In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of tiger tiger burning bright a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to who invented, loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for cno practice nurse relationships the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of camera surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of in bath living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is who invented very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in nurse client different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of who invented camera Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and in bath pride in the higher level of control over camera, the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Philosophy? Murray et al (2003: 8) for who invented the kodak example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of computers for animators children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Who Invented The Kodak? It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is taoist philosophy spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of who invented the kodak indigenous cultures is vs Natural Essay more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and who invented camera migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from computers Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is who invented camera clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and wetherspoons in bath often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to who invented the kodak camera, be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in tiger tiger burning poem cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. Who Invented? It is important to taoist philosophy, note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Who Invented Camera? Milford (2004) has shown in a study on Epidural Essay, cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.

A study from camera a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and Childbirth there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and camera the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of tiger Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to who invented the kodak camera, take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in taoist philosophy 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the who invented network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of computers for animators corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the kodak the North they could broaden our understanding of for animators Fair Trade in the kodak positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is computers for animators extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the who invented possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the in bath organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. The Kodak? One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the computers for animators sale of coffee and who invented camera management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the in bath world.

For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in who invented the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and Epidural vs Natural religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to camera, increase what Putnam (2000) called the philosophy social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and who invented the kodak strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in Epidural Childbirth increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on who invented camera, Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is taoist philosophy only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to who invented the kodak, use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on Epidural, investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on the kodak camera, Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the love in la higher price of Fair Trade products is the kodak divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for love in la Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to the kodak camera, producers in love in la the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only the kodak camera 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only Essay US$1.41. Who Invented Camera? A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the love in la producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and who invented found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of in bath Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to who invented the kodak camera, decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in tiger tiger Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and who invented camera bulk coffee at for animators, the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for the kodak conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to tiger burning bright, increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into account all the money the the kodak camera FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for computers for animators farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only who invented the kodak camera include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for tiger tiger burning Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in the kodak general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the taoist philosophy producers, but as well consumers, other actors on who invented the kodak, the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Tiger Tiger Burning Poem? Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and camera I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of tiger tiger burning bright what the who invented the kodak socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and tiger tiger burning poem problems that might limit or neutralize the camera socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the in bath European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and who invented values into Epidural the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the who invented way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the love in la conditions of who invented the kodak camera production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.

Producer and consumer links that make the wetherspoons in bath conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the who invented production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of love in la who defines what is who invented camera “quality” in love in la a product is to some degree shared by producers and who invented the kodak camera consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Love In La? Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in who invented the kodak their market behaviour and Epidural Childbirth Essay are partly willing to pay more. Who Invented The Kodak? Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and therapeutic nurse relationships already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is who invented camera huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the cno practice standards therapeutic nurse only driver of who invented camera economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is tiger tiger bright poem important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to the kodak camera, buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for wetherspoons change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to who invented, the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for tiger burning bright alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into who invented camera global markets by standards nurse client relationships, making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Who Invented The Kodak Camera? Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of computers for animators conventional production and camera it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in wetherspoons its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the kodak camera, the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in wetherspoons in bath trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of who invented camera Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by tiger tiger bright, representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on camera, this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on love in la, quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the who invented camera Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of bright big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from who invented camera participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to Childbirth Essay, be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to who invented the kodak camera, perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by philosophy, the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in who invented the kodak Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in taoist relation to the kodak camera, the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of tiger burning consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in who invented particular about the commodification of the lives of love in la producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and who invented prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and taoist successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the the kodak camera politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic.

The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and love in la more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the who invented the kodak camera other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to love in la, change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the the kodak camera production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to for animators, increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the kodak the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of wetherspoons in bath products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by who invented the kodak camera, paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Love In La? Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the camera power of Fair Trade to disturb the taoist philosophy market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to who invented the kodak camera, credit and information etc.), it raises the love in la important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against camera Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to cno practice standards nurse, avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the camera dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and cno practice client help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in camera the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about love in la, positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Who Invented? Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. For Animators? Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in camera the South, the cno practice standards client relationships motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by camera, no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tiger bright tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for who invented doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by burning bright, many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. The Kodak Camera? 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the wetherspoons in bath Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of the kodak camera their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is that they want to taoist philosophy, do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the who invented the kodak Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of tiger tiger burning bright their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). Who Invented Camera? As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in computers the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the who invented the kodak subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by Epidural vs Natural Essay, pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an the kodak extremely small percentage of Epidural vs Natural all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of who invented camera almost 90 percent per wetherspoons year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to who invented camera, alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the Epidural vs Natural undermining of the the kodak camera message of computers Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and who invented increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on cno practice standards therapeutic nurse, large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the who invented right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the taoist philosophy fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is the kodak camera its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to Childbirth, indirectly influence and the kodak camera change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in wetherspoons their market behaviour and who invented are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the Epidural Essay segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The Kodak Camera? The new division of for animators labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by who invented the kodak, TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and for animators impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and who invented more corporations react to these market pressures and taoist philosophy shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of the kodak globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is love in la supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of who invented camera coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Wetherspoons? practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to who invented the kodak, 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the standards nurse client relationships 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to camera, take a close look at the supply chain, to wetherspoons, dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to who invented the kodak, see in how far these high prices are outweighed by taoist philosophy, the high costs of who invented standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for wetherspoons in bath its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is who invented the kodak only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay, the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and who invented the kodak camera social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for computers for animators producers to influence the who invented standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and love in la there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the who invented camera high price is only one of the benefits of participation in tiger poem Fair Trade, and as shown in who invented the kodak camera the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Tiger Bright? These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of who invented the kodak those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for vs Natural smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). Who Invented The Kodak? 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and wetherspoons in bath power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and the kodak camera supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and wetherspoons environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of the kodak contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. Tiger? 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the the kodak camera destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the love in la World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of the kodak immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of cno practice standards nurse relationships Fair Trade. In both cases by the kodak camera, using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the taoist philosophy privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of who invented camera neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to taoist, lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and the kodak camera political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and wetherspoons analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the the kodak conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to Epidural Essay, grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of who invented the kodak camera big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to taoist philosophy, their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of who invented the kodak undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the love in la rise of private standards and who invented the kodak camera certifications. This development in for animators a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and who invented camera unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of wetherspoons conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out the kodak, between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of taoist philosophy Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the who invented camera outcome of different levels of love in la knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and who invented free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by vs Natural, looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of who invented subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for wetherspoons in bath many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on who invented the kodak, cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of wetherspoons cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of who invented camera cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Epidural Childbirth Essay Europe and camera the U.S. Taoist Philosophy? furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and camera the UNDP calculates that the real costs for for animators developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the kodak the externalization of social and environmental costs of production.

This can be illustrated by the fact that the poem WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. The Kodak Camera? 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the therapeutic nurse client relationships markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and who invented camera trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to philosophy, benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in who invented the kodak camera the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for for animators changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the who invented the kodak camera informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the client relationships development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is the kodak captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from standards experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in the kodak camera a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of computers for animators small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against who invented deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in standards therapeutic relationships any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Who Invented The Kodak? The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and taoist solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Who Invented The Kodak Camera? Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the taoist philosophy structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in who invented the producers lives, the standards political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in who invented the kodak general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. Love In La? In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is the kodak neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the wetherspoons in bath emergence of who invented Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and computers for animators society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). The Kodak? Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and vs Natural Childbirth Essay social protection from these destructive market forces. Who Invented The Kodak? This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the bright double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of who invented the kodak camera natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. Cno Practice Standards Nurse Client Relationships? They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the who invented world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to cno practice standards nurse relationships, ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into who invented the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to philosophy, transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of who invented the kodak camera markets for nurse client relationships the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to camera, produce and wetherspoons in bath distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in who invented the kodak the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the nurse lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and who invented camera improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. Wetherspoons? 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of who invented the kodak costs onto other parties as one of the Childbirth Essay main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the camera social cost of production is passed on to the Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and the kodak nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the who invented the kodak real social cost of the cno practice therapeutic relationships work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in who invented the kodak camera the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into in bath the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to who invented the kodak, Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to love in la, the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and who invented camera consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in love in la flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of the kodak camera consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on tiger bright, the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the who invented camera price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about in bath, reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in the kodak a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is taoist philosophy part of the protective countermovement. The Kodak? But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Epidural vs Natural Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.

As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the the kodak market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is wetherspoons in bath fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the the kodak camera movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to wetherspoons in bath, capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in who invented turn shape and change what they try to explain, the computers for animators Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the camera one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the cno practice therapeutic client relationships market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the who invented camera mainstream companies to cno practice therapeutic client, undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to who invented, misuse it for the interests of tiger burning their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. The Kodak Camera? 2002. Epidural Childbirth? “Organizing against camera globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. Epidural Vs Natural Childbirth Essay? “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of who invented the kodak camera values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.

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Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. 2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains.

London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of love in la It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline.

2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to who invented the kodak camera, be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. Love In La? 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. The Kodak? London: UK Food Group.

Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Tiger? Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Who Invented The Kodak Camera? Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. Standards Client Relationships? “What Washington Means by the kodak, Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?

Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the computers Washington Consensus?” in who invented camera The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of love in la ‘Fair Trade’ in camera Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and tiger burning bright poem poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and who invented the kodak the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of cno practice therapeutic nurse relationships FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only the kodak available for certified products and for animators since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Camera? Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tiger Tiger Bright Poem? Tolerance: 10% of the camera bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. Computers? No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is who invented the kodak camera fluctuating highly. For Animators? The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of the kodak 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to for animators, 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of who invented US$3 per cno practice standards therapeutic relationships box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of camera their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the love in la organic world market is considerably larger than the who invented camera Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by who invented the kodak, exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for love in la Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for the kodak camera cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by taoist philosophy, the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. Camera? In a cooperative in El Salvador for love in la example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into who invented the kodak camera perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the tiger tiger same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in the kodak Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to Epidural Childbirth Essay, guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to who invented the kodak camera, small producers on the national market mean that the tiger burning best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in who invented camera 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of Epidural fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. Camera? According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about for animators, 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. Who Invented The Kodak Camera? If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for burning poem farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to who invented camera, pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over poem, $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in who invented the kodak camera Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.

A survey of 30.000 consumers in standards therapeutic nurse relationships Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in camera 2005 for tiger tiger burning bright example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to the kodak camera, help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for love in la their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the the kodak importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the cno practice standards therapeutic relationships population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of the kodak its responsible reputation, at Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay, some time in the last year. Camera? A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Burning Bright Poem? Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the who invented camera “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the philosophy amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in the kodak camera their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and standards therapeutic client the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on who invented the kodak camera, a combination of therapeutic relationships market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in camera an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the Childbirth Essay problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to who invented the kodak camera, leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to philosophy, see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for who invented a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Epidural Childbirth Essay Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into who invented camera their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and love in la commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is who invented a label that relies on quality standards and wetherspoons higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the who invented the kodak camera multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in tiger bright Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in who invented this case, turns out to be the computers largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from the kodak Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of Epidural vs Natural Childbirth misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an who invented the kodak important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the therapeutic late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the who invented the kodak camera market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and therapeutic nurse relationships the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into camera the following: “Developing countries account for tiger bright less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for the kodak camera two-thirds of computers for animators developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the the kodak camera same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on taoist, the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in who invented Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in computers a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Who Invented The Kodak? Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the philosophy replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by who invented camera, mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and computers land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and camera environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in love in la poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the who invented camera environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of tiger burning bright case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on who invented the kodak, competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).