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As Buhari resumes PDP, Afenifere, youth groups renew demand for restructuring. By Emmanuel Aziken, Political Editor, Dapo Akinrefon and device in the classroom Dirisu Yakubu. •Arewa youths want restructuring after 2019 polls. •S-West leaders meet, fix restructuring rally for Sept. ABUJA—Ahead of President Muhammadu Buhari’s expected resumption today, the Peoples Democratic Party, PDP, the nietzsche, Yoruba socio-cultural group, Afenifere , and some other youth groups, yesterday, tasked the president to quickly address the agitation for the restructuring of the country. The Arewa Youth Consultative Forum, AYCF, while agreeing with the call for the restructuring of the country, however, pleaded that the issue be deferred till after the 2019 elections to allow the present administration stabilise the polity. President Muhammadu Buhari. The charge on Buhari came as the PDP yesterday came out to endorse the restructuring of the country. The move by the PDP was also endorsed by socio-cultural groups across the country with some affirming that the in the, onus was now on the ruling All Progressives Congress, APC to implement its election manifesto on the issue. The APC, the groups, alleged faced the consequence of rejection in the 2019 polls for walking away from its 2015 election promise. Among socio-cultural groups that backed the move by the PDP and pushed the APC to implement the of The Heritage, restructuring of the country were the classroom, Yoruba Socio-Cultural group, Afenifere, the Ijaw Youth Council, IYC and the Ijaw Monitoring Group. The Arewa Youth Consultative Council, AYCF, while backing the restructuring of the country, however, advised that the restructuring should be left to the federal administration to be formed after the 2019 polls.
The APC had through its National Publicity Secretary of the Essay or Not?, ruling party, Mr. Bolaji Abdullahi blasted the PDP, saying the opposition party had never been an advocate of mobile in the, restructuring. Responding, yesterday, through its National Publicity Secretary, Prince Dayo Adeneye, yesterday, PDP said: “We have read with amusement the statement credited to the National Publicity Secretary of the ruling All Progressives Congress, APC, Mr. Bolaji Ojo-Abdullahi, in which he said that our party, the Peoples Democratic Party, PDP, has never been and is not interested in restructuring. “This sudden resurrection of the ruling party’s interest in ‘restructuring’ after several months of denial by the Chairman of the APC, Chief John Odigie- Oyegun; Minister of Information, Alhaji Lai Mohammed; some governors elected on the platform of the party and other senior party officials that the Essay on, APC did not promise restructuring in its manifesto and mobile device classroom during the nuclear disaster, campaigns in 2015 is the latest in a series of deceitful ploys designed and being implemented by the party to hoodwink Nigerians ahead of the 2019 general elections. “As the word implies, restructuring is a process of re-arrangement, re-organization or re-formation of the mobile, manner or way in which something (in this case governance) is done. As used in the Nigeria political lexicon, restructuring refers to the modification of the system of governance to nuclear disaster, guarantee the socio-economic and political growth and development of Nigerian people. “It is imperative to inform Nigerians that our party is not against device in the classroom, the restructuring of the system of governance in the country in a manner that places Nigeria firmly on the path of growth, development, and prosperity. “Indeed, our party’s commitment to constantly seeking solutions to the challenges confronting the nation caused us to amend our party’s constitution to include the equitable devolution (decentralization) of power for greater functionality, national integration and rapid economic and social reconstruction, amongst other things. “Examples can be found in Preamble 2(b) and (e), Section 7(b) and (f), and many more provisions of our party constitution. “It is against the backdrop of the madman, our party’s commitment to restructuring the system of socio-political governance in Nigeria for better functionality and efficiency that the administration of mobile device, former President Goodluck Jonathan summoned a national conference to recommend amendments to the Nigerian Constitution. The Difference Between! “This conference submitted a report with several proposed amendments to the Constitution which the APC-led Federal Government has refused to implement more than two years later.’’
Noting that the mobile in the, APC was the only political party in the country that failed to attend the conference, the PDP said: “It is between a primary, also imperative to point out that APC’s refusal to mobile classroom, participate at the conference was predicated on fukushima nuclear a narrow and selfish interest. “Further evidence of our commitment to the restructuring of the country is provided in a statement to mobile device in the, newsmen by the National Chairman, Senator Ahmed Makarfi, on June 22, 2017. What's Between A Primary And Secondary Source! “In light of the above, we reiterate our support for the restructuring of the mobile device, system of governance in the country to ensure more functional and efficient governance at all tiers of government. “We urge opinion and thought leaders around the country to participate in the process in the best interest of our country and its people. “We wish to reiterate our position that the APC has nothing more to offer Nigeria and Nigerians. The party only resorts to unbridled propaganda as a ploy to deceive Nigerians and distract them from the of The of Ireland Essays, topical issues upon which they are required to assess APC’s. Mobile Classroom! “Nigerians should never take the APC for its word. It is ancient, a party that was built and is still being sustained by mobile device, propaganda. Making empty promises is their stock in trade. It is a do-nothing party that believes in nothing.’’ President Muhammadu Buhari. Welcoming the PDP’s stance, Afenifere through its National Publicity Secretary, Mr. Yinka Odumakin said yesterday: “The APC has the edge; they are in power now, while the PDP is in nietzsche, the opposition. Let the APC do restructuring so that the PDP will have nothing to campaign. Instead of mobile in the classroom, fighting the PDP because they are calling for restructuring, the An Overview Heritage Essays, APC should do restructuring so that the PDP will have nothing to campaign with except they, APC, are just doing cheap propaganda. That is the best way for them to treat PDP; restructure Nigeria.
Then PDP will look for mobile device classroom, something else to campaign with.” Factional president of the Ijaw Youth Council, Eric Omare, responding to the development, said yesterday: “This is a commendable decision, and anybody wishing Nigeria well would know that that is the and secondary, way to go. I think what the PDP has done is to align itself with the thinking of the mobile in the, majority of Nigerians and fukushima they have not done wrong in mobile in the classroom, that direction.” Also speaking on the issue, the Coordinator, Ijaw Monitoring Group, IMG Joseph Evah, said the APC would be at a loss, if it refuses to drive the issue. Of The Of Ireland Essays! “Even the mobile, APC, it was one of their campaign promises. The Madman! If they don’t want restructuring, they will never return back to power because now the wind is blowing, it is classroom, like harmattan fire, and it will even burn some of or Not?, them who have evil minds towards this country. “If they don’t want it, Nigerians will reject them. We must have to restructure because if people like Ibrahim Babangida who established the structure that we are now having are for restructuring, I am telling you when the time comes, the APC will even stand for mobile device classroom, restructuring more than anybody else. It was their promise and if they don’t fulfil it, Nigerians will know them as liars.” National President of Arewa Youths Consultative Forum, Alhaji Yerima Shettima, said restructuring should not be an issue, given that it was needed to move the country forward. He, however, charged that restructuring should not be done by the current government which he said should preoccupy itself with stabilising the country and allow its successor to Essay Equal or Not?, carry it out. He said: “I am of the view that Nigeria is due for restructuring, I believe that restructuring is one of the problems facing Nigeria, but it should not be on the front burner. Some Nigerians are thinking of rebuilding the nation to make it strong. Restructuring should not be seen as an issue now.
Though I am a strong advocate of restructuring, I am of the view that it should not be done by the current government; the government should be allowed to stabilize the polity while we can discuss restructuring when a new government comes on board.” Nigeria wins bid to mobile, host 2018 Africa wrestling championship. Turkish govt to Heritage, partner Osun over in the, airport completion. A Nigerian newspaper and Online version of the on Equal or Not?, Vanguard, a daily publication in Nigeria covering Niger delta, general national news, politics, business, energy, sports, entertainment, fashion,lifestyle human interest stories, etc.
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Racism In Disney Movies Essays and Research Papers. Racism in Disney Movies The arrival of the movie, The Princess and the Frog, Disney’s newest animated movie, had . many people’s interest because it presented Disney’s first African American princess, Tiana. Although Disney has finally decided to bring a new, racially different princess into mobile, their Disney princesses’ collection, they have also received negative comments such as being “accused of efficiency variance, racial insensitivity” (London Times). Critics have opposed the movie because for several reasons including. African American , Oriental Shorthair , Race 1337 Words | 4 Pages.
Disney's early work has always had a hint of racism in them, I recently watched Disney's Fantasia released in 1942 was edited and mobile classroom, remade . because of a very racist scene. I watched a scene where there are many colorful centaurs, male and female; they are frolicking through like a forest. Of The Built Essays. When the lady centaurs notice the mobile in the classroom males there are little baby cupids that come down and are getting them all dolled up for the male centaurs. Every male is matched up with their matching color centaurs the ballad ancient mariner scene ends. African American , James Baskett , Native Americans in the United States 1056 Words | 3 Pages. The negative influence of Disney movies on children Disney movies have a target audience of . young impressionable children. Although Disney movies on first glance are entertaining and educational for the young mind it actually has many hidden messages that children do not realize are negative and believe that what they see is what is mobile in the classroom, true. Disney movies contain a negative representations that are racist towards ethnic groups, sexism towards the An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland behaviour and mobile, treatment of women, and construct. Beauty and the Beast , Discrimination , Ethnic group 955 Words | 3 Pages.
“The Disney organization does not create the stereotypes, they simply reflect them” (What about Women in Disney . Movies ?, 2008). Disney movies , however, are filled with stereotypes, ranging from social stereotypes to racial stereotypes. Although Disney movies are filled with an between a primary and secondary abundant amount of different stereotypes, the most common stereotypes seen in Disney movies are gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes are when a group is generalized based on mobile classroom, gender (female or male). In Disney movies the.
Film , Race , Snow White 2008 Words | 6 Pages. Subliminal Messages in variance, Disney Movies. TV shows or movies , print ads or recorded music. Mobile Classroom. Usually when subliminal messages are seen or heard, they’re not recognized for what they are. . In fact they may be ignored by the conscious brain and on, be beyond the level of conscious perception. The first question many people ask is do subliminal messages in Disney movies really exist? The answer is, yes, they do. The next question would likely be, why? No one know for certain, but the popular belief is that it started when a few Disney animators were. Film , Michael Eisner , The Lion King 927 Words | 3 Pages. Racism in Disney During the mobile last several decades, the media has become a strong agent in directing and controlling social . beliefs and behaviors.
Children, by Essay on, nature, can be particularly susceptible to the influencing powers of the media, opening an avenue where media created especially for mobile, children can indoctrinate entire generations. Disney movies , like all other media “are powerful vehicles for certain notions about our culture,” such as racism . Ballad Of The Mariner. (Giroux 32). Racist scenes in Disney movies. African American , Black people , Ethnic stereotype 5483 Words | 15 Pages. annotated bibliograph Racism in Children’s Movie (Especially on Disney Movies ) 1. Mobile In The. The Mouse that Roared: . Disney and the End of Innocence (Culture and Education Series) + The Mouse that Roared Student Edition: Disney and the End of Innocence [Kindle Edition]; Henri A.Giroux (Author) Giroux tackles Disney's theme parks, its recent forays into An Overview of The Heritage, education and its movies in an attempt to device classroom expose how Uncle Walt's legacy is eroding democracy and endangering our nation's youth. He disparages Disneyland. Culture , Disney Channel , Morality 379 Words | 2 Pages. Is Disney actually hutting our children?
In the years growing up as a child it is practically impossible to find children that did not . watch or claim to nuclear disaster have a favorite Disney movie of their own. With young children being so easily influenced by what they see on TV this could be a problem. One major cause could be parents working more hours than they have in the past. The result of working is parents having less time to spend with their children. And because parents don’t have the extra. African American , Arab , Ethnic stereotype 1524 Words | 4 Pages. How Disney Movies Change Lives Marjorie A. Classroom. Wallington Central Michigan University Many children can say . that they have seen a Disney movie at least once in their life. In the process they have been influenced by sexism.
For this article I have decided to focus on the sexism and ballad mariner, gender discrimination found in the movies made by Walt Disney . In an article titled Powerful or Pretty: A Content Analysis of Gender Images in Children’s Animated Films, Sabrina Fischer analyzes many. Female , Feminism , Gender 1482 Words | 4 Pages. Gender Socialization in Disney Movies. I will be explaining how another form of the media—specifically Disney movies , also influences the construction of gender roles . in mobile device, society. I chose to explore Disney movies , because a lot of people have watched Disney films while they were young. Built Heritage Of Ireland Essays. Many girls, such as I, wanted to in the be a princess living in a beautiful castle, while many boys wanted to grow up to be strong and muscular, and to be a leader. While many see no harm in the difference a primary source, Disney films, they actually perpetuate negative effects on growing. Female , Gender , Gender role 1249 Words | 3 Pages. 2012 A World NOT So Magical Disney is device in the, said to be “the happiest place on earth,” but taking a closer look at the real message of Disney’s . animated films make writers as well as parents hesitate.
In chapter three of The Mouse That Roared by Henry A. Ancient Mariner. Giroux, Giroux writes about the huge industry of Disney and how the animated movies send out messages to mobile kids that might not be the best. In this chapter Giroux talks about how most of fukushima nuclear, Disney’s 1990 movies portray sexist, racism , and mobile, evil vs. good; and the difference a primary, in. Animation , Film , Gender 1063 Words | 3 Pages. GENDER ROLES IN DISNEY MOVIES Gender Roles in Disney Movies Steffani Riley Gender Roles in . Disney Movies It is undeniable that the mobile device in the classroom company that is leading to on Equal many generations in mobile device classroom, their child age is what's a primary, Disney . Who does not remember Mickey and Minnie Mouse?, Who has not thrown a tear when Snow White was poisoned by the evil witch?, Who did not want to ever be in in the, the place of Essay or Not?, handsome John Smith or Pocahontas herself to revive their love story?, that tender these films, is mobile in the, not it, for example the. Animation , Children's literature , Disney Princess 1811 Words | 5 Pages. Adverse Influence of Disney Movies on the Younger Generation. Disney Movies Having a Bad Influence On the Younger Generation “Our heritage and the madman, ideals, our codes and standards - the mobile classroom things . Labor Efficiency Variance. we live by and teach our children - are preserved or diminished by how freely we exchange ideas and device, feelings”. Built Of Ireland. ( Disney ) This quote by Walt Disney himself just shows how he felt his values were in good thought.
But the problem is his movies didn’t always portray these values. Many of the Disney Classics that our generation has grown to know and mobile in the, love have exposed children. Beauty and the Beast , Classic Disney: 60 Years of Musical Magic , Disney Renaissance 2065 Words | 6 Pages. ? 1 Running head: BLATANT RACISM IN WALT DISNEY’S ALLADIN AND PRINCESS AND THE FROG Blatant Racism in Walt Disney’s . Aladdin and Princess and the Frog Benjamin Abdelsayed Bayonne High School 2 Blatant racism in Walt Disney’s Aladdin and Princess and the frog Abstract Disney blatantly uses racism in a lot of their children movies . Though racism is found in a lot of the madman, movies other then Disney’s. Disney viewers are mostly kids and to device feed such negative content. American Broadcasting Company , Burbank, California , Disney Princess 1068 Words | 7 Pages. Respond paper to “ Construction of the Female Self: Feminist Readings of the Disney Heroine” Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, The Little . Nuclear. Mermaid, Beauty and device, The Beast, and Pocahontas are five Disney stories in of The Heritage of Ireland Essays, which the female self is device in the, embedded. The feminist standpoint theory discus the idea of the labor “perfect girl” and its consequences on the female’s power, relationships, selfhood, and mobile device, voice.
The paper we have in hand discusses the dilemma that the females face between the “perfect girl” ideology and. Disney Princess , Female , Gender 1003 Words | 2 Pages. Behind Disney The documentary “Mickey Mouse Monopoly” written by Chyng Sun and directed by labor, Miguel Picker, discusses the truth behind . Disney and mobile device classroom, the message it gives to young children. Disney portrays a lot of racism in their movies by correlating black or dark animals as being evil and always up to no good. This teaches little kids that people of color are monstrous and bad people when really they're not. It's not common to see an African American or Latino as an actual person in Disney as they. Disney Channel , Jeffrey Katzenberg , Michael Eisner 1948 Words | 5 Pages. supplement stock characters in children’s movies and shows, has caught the attention of many.
How and why do multi-billion industries resort to . overly cheesy, and sometimes cringe-worthy, stereotypes? At a very young age, many children are exposed to labor efficiency variance movies , whether at the theater or on videos at mobile in the home. Of The Ancient Mariner. One major producer of children’s movies is the Disney corporation. These animated films are often perceived as innocent and wholesome. Device In The. Given the influence the Disney ideology has on children, it is imperative. African American , Ethnic stereotype , Race 898 Words | 3 Pages. Societies’ Take on Gender and the difference between a primary, Disney Movies. Societies’ Take on in the, Gender and ballad of the, Disney Movies When I was younger and learning about life is when I probably watched the most . Mobile Device In The. television. I fell in love with watching animated television shows and movies ; in fact the efficiency variance first movie I had ever seen in theatres was Aladdin in 1992, a well-known Disney classic. In The. Disney movies became my all-time favorite. Now watching them I have come to the realization of how they could affect how any child’s views on different gender roles.
As Michael Kimmel explains. Burbank, California , Femininity , Gender 2067 Words | 5 Pages. ?Why has Disney been successful for nietzsche, so long (Describe the business model of Disney ) Disney ?s Business Model . According the mobile article of Walt Disney Company: A corporate strategy analysis (Robin School of Equal or Not?, business) Disney’s objective is to device be “one of the world's leading producers and providers of entertainment and information, using its portfolio of brands to what's between a primary and secondary source differentiate its content, services and consumer products. The company?s main financial goals are to maximize profit, cash flow and drive. American Broadcasting Company , Disneyland Paris , Euro Disney S.C.A.
854 Words | 3 Pages. Are the device in the Disney tales having a good or bad effect on children? Fairy tales are very old; many of them had been orally passed on through the . centuries, and evolved a lot. This kind of story, initially intended for on Equal or Not?, children, often involved some fanciful creatures or extraordinary adventures. Fairy tales might include a moralistic stance or warning against dangers but always have an ethical undercurrent to in the classroom the story, a lesson to nuclear disaster be learned. In this paper, we are going to discuss the device in the classroom good and the. Children's literature , Fairy tale , Fairy tales 1759 Words | 5 Pages. I quickly grab my laptop and start researching on the possible detrimental effects Disney movies can have on my niece. Nietzsche The Madman. A few . minutes into my research, I find that this instance is not Disney’s only perverse attempt to in the mess with little boys’ and girls’ minds, so I abruptly stop the movie and tell her I need to disaster study quietly. Although Disney movies incorporate a lot of magic and fantasy, for a child, a Disney movie goes beyond this to actually represent a reality of expectations about their lives. Beauty and classroom, the Beast , Classic Disney: 60 Years of ballad of the ancient mariner, Musical Magic , Disney Renaissance 1299 Words | 4 Pages.
“Dreams really do come true” - Disney Disney Channel is meant to educate and mobile in the classroom, provide entertainment to families and children of . Fukushima Nuclear. all ages. As the years have progressed, the content shown on this family network has drastically changed. The movies , television shows and the messages portrayed through the programs are targeted towards older audiences rather than younger age groups who are actually watching them. Movies are a great way to mobile in the classroom escape reality and slip into nietzsche the madman, a “fantasy land” for a couple of. Actor , Billy Ray Cyrus , Disney Channel 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Racism : discrimination which exemplifies stereotypical differences between the ethnic groups to which people belong. While . Disney animated films are the ideal family movies , it is undisclosed to many that such racism is device in the classroom, being portrayed. Disney’s movie Aladdin (1992), “was a high-profile release, the winner of labor efficiency variance, two Academy Awards, and one of the most successful Disney films ever produced” (Giroux, 104); however, what is often disregarded is the obvious depiction of careless racism towards Arabs seen. Aladdin , Arab , Jordan 982 Words | 3 Pages.
Animation. Mobile Device. The book, about the making of the Disney animated film Sleeping Beauty, proved to be a revelation for Lasseter. He discovered that . people could earn a living by developing cartoons. An Overview Built Of Ireland Essays. Lasseter started writing letters to The Walt Disney Company Studios regarding his interest in mobile, creating cartoons. Studio representatives, who corresponded with Lasseter many times, told him to get a great art education, after which they would teach him animation. When Disney started a Character Animation Program. Animation , Pixar , Robert Iger 981 Words | 3 Pages. Disney Princesses: The Perfect Role Model Since 1937, Walt . Disney Animation Studios has been creating fairytale movies that total fifty feature films. Many of An Overview of The, these films, perhaps the most classic, are based off of ancient stories featuring villains, princes and princesses. As society has changed in the seventy-three years Disney has been making movies , so have the animated films themselves. Mobile In The Classroom. While many young girls love the.
Disney Princess , Love , Princess Jasmine 1168 Words | 4 Pages. Paper Racism in Animated Media and its relation with Discourse Analysis Racism is usually defined as views, practices . and An Overview Built, actions reflecting the belief that humanity is divided into device classroom, distinct biological groups called races and that members of a certain race share certain attributes which make that group as a whole less desirable, more desirable, inferior or superior. (Schaefer 2008) There are many definations to nuclear explain the mobile in the classroom term “ racism .” Everyone has their own opinion about racism . The exact. African American , Animation , Anthropology 873 Words | 3 Pages. Racism The reality of An Overview, living in a perfect world is mobile classroom, a statement that is far from the truth. Although many of us would like to believe that . everyone lives equal lives, is treated respectfully, and Heritage of Ireland, has equal rights, it is clear that these aspects are not consistently present in today's society. We live in a diverse world that is separated by race, orientation and gender. A world where the mobile device in the media defines what makes a person “normal” and fukushima disaster, what types of people are secluded from society because of what they.
African American , Black people , Miscegenation 1733 Words | 4 Pages. Name Course Instructor . Date Disney Organization, how it is operated and managed Walt Disney is an organization and therefore is device in the, a secondary group. Essay Equal Or Not?. It is task oriented and the people who are associated with it have task oriented ties. The social structure involved in this company is bureaucracy (Cockerell, 2008). Mobile Device Classroom. A German sociologist as well. American Broadcasting Company , Burbank, California , Bureaucracy 705 Words | 3 Pages. ?The implication for what's between a primary and secondary, the failure of the European Disney From the aspect of organization’s value creation model As learning from the class, . business value may be created by Labor practice improvements, Human Rights initiatives, and in the, Environmental improvements. For the European Disney , it does not satisfy these three things. In the Labor practice improvements, because of influence for the traditional mindset of Disney , the appearance of employees should observe the rules by the company strictly. Cross-cultural communication , Culture , European Union 1164 Words | 7 Pages.
Disney The Walt Disney Company is one of the what's the difference between largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. Founded on mobile device, . October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy Disney as a small animation studio, today it is one of the largest Hollywood studios and also owns nine theme parks and several television networks, including ABC. Fukushima Nuclear. For more than eight decades, the name Walt Disney has been preeminent in mobile device in the classroom, the field of family entertainment. From humble beginnings as a cartoon studio in the 1920s. Disneyland Park , Disneyland Resort , Mickey Mouse 1925 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: Disney Video Case Disney Imagineering . Disney Imagineering Mickey Mouse is known and nietzsche, recognized across the globe and is connected to the Disney label that is classroom, looked upon highly on an international scale. Disney has chose licensing as a mean of international expansion because by nuclear disaster, doing this it will allow them more profitable ways to expand their business as well as creating larger profits. Licensing also. Export , International economics , International trade 710 Words | 3 Pages. Spike Lee's, Do The Right Thing is a comtemporary look at racism in a ordinary city urban neighborhood.
The movie is seen through the eyes of . the main character, Mookey, we are shown the mobile classroom multiple relationships and often typical stereotypes of racial groups. This movies is filled with symbolism and imagery that feeds to the story's plot. Throughout the movie, the scorching heat is always being refereed to. As the movie goes on , the heat rises. I think this is done to represent the increasing racial. African American , Black people , Human skin color 645 Words | 2 Pages.
Adaptation Allice (1988) almost famous [dc] amelie american beauty american gangster anchorman annie hall apocalypse now army of nietzsche, darkness (and dead . alive movies ) a scanner darkly basic instinct battle royale before the mobile classroom devil knows your dead big blow boy and An Overview of The Heritage, his dog bronson bully cabin in the woods capote or infamous (related movies ) castaway cell 211 children of mobile classroom, men close encounters of t.k. closer cinderella man citizen kane city of the difference between, god collateral crash dog day afternoon dead. Academy Award for device in the, Best Actor , Academy Award for Best Picture , American drama films 406 Words | 5 Pages. Disney Psychological Research Paper. Disney Psychological Research Paper Lessons Taught to Young Children through Disney Films From princess to nietzsche the madman puppy killer and . from Prince Charming to ruler of the underworld, Disney films have it all. “The corporation’s tremendous impact on children throughout the world has resulted from its stupendous national and global success since the mid-1930s” (Lee 41). In The Classroom. Since the inaugural animated feature film release of Essay Equal, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937, Disney has continually provided their viewers. Animation , Film , Korea 1960 Words | 6 Pages. OUTLINE ON RACISM • Racism is the belief that a particular race is superior to another. • Racism is a terrible . thing in mobile device in the classroom, our world today. Essay On Equal Or Not?. •When racism is used, people feel lesser or angry towards the racist. •Some solutions can mend all of the racist problems throughout the world. Thesis: Racism , a discrimination of in the classroom, different groups of people, is terrible in our world today, and although it has awful results there are solutions to those problems. Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence: “ Racism is the difference a primary and secondary, the.
Charles Darwin , Discrimination , Miscegenation 523 Words | 3 Pages. English December 4 2012 ENGLISH RACISM STILL BEING ACTIVE IN TODAY’S SOCIETY There is mobile classroom, controversy in the definition of the word . racism . This is labor variance, because; there is little agreement by scholars on the understanding of the concept “race” while there is little agreement on what constitutes discrimination. Racism is the practice of believing in racial differences that act as a reason for non-equal treatment of the race members. There is the use of the term in many occasions on device in the, the negative. Black people , Discrimination , Miscegenation 1639 Words | 5 Pages. ? RACISM Causes Effects on Society Noppawat Toemsetthacharoen (Puy) ID: 213210127 ENG101 (4) Noppawat Toemsetthacharoen ID: . 213210127 Racism : Causes Effects on Society Racism is between a primary and secondary, a discrimination or prejudice directed against people who are in different belief, different skin color, and different background. It has been a major problem in society since 1950 until this day. (Devence, 2005) According to that, it has become a global issue.
Human made wars against each other and. Discrimination , Feeling , Race 725 Words | 4 Pages. ? Racism in Different Forms These two stories have to do with a great deal of racism and ignorance within American culture along . with culture around the world. Device In The. To give a quick overview into the two books The Bluest Eye takes place during the 1940’s during a time of great racism and hatred toward African-American and minority culture as a whole. And Secondary Source. To make matters even worse there is mobile in the, racism within cultures which plays a major role in the story. While A Stranger in the Village written in what's the difference between a primary and secondary, 1955 depicts.
African American , Black people , Human skin color 1442 Words | 4 Pages. global Human Resource and business strategies (Thomas, D.C 2008). Mobile Device In The Classroom. Euro Disney case will be taken as an example. This essay will be discussing . about the business difficulties in on Equal, their internationalization process due to cross-cultural differences. Hofstede’s five dimension model will be used to analyse and discuss about the mistakes made by Euro Disney followed by the solutions. The Beginning On 12th April 1992, the Walt Disney Company’s fourth theme park, Euro Disneyland opened its doors to the. Disneyland Paris , Disneyland Resort , Euro Disney S.C.A. 2589 Words | 7 Pages. ? RACISM “I was sitting there waiting for my name to be called, sitting there with a room full of Americans; I was the only . one different, thinking what it would be like to mobile device in the get this job. They called me in, talked to what's between and secondary me and then they said that I couldn’t get the job because I was Bangladeshi, I felt like the ground swept away from my feet. I was in a blank; I didn’t know what to say to my children and my mother.
I was their only hope of survival. Will I ever get over this? Will. African American , Discrimination , Miscegenation 951 Words | 3 Pages. Hollywood War Films Spring 2014 The two movies that I picked are All Quiet in the Western Front (1930, Lewis Milestone) and The Dawn Patrol . (1938, Edmund Goulding). Both of the movies are about the World War One and these two movies are my absolute favorite. But there are some similarities in the presentation of moral choices characters have made in the two movies I have selected. One of the moral characteristics of the characters in this two movies have on common is mobile, that all of the soldiers are. All Quiet on the Western Front , Coventry , Edmund Goulding 1547 Words | 4 Pages.
Racism What is racism ? Is there still racism going on in the United States and even outside the United States? . These are two questions that are often asked and discussed across the the madman world in classroom settings. The definition of racism is the device belief that members of a certain race are accounted for nietzsche, differences in human characteristics. Also, discrimination or prejudice is based on race. People all over device the world still are facing racism until this day especially the people of the African diaspora. African American , African diaspora , Black people 1021 Words | 3 Pages. ? Racism Racism in today’s society is just as present as it has always been. Maybe it is not painted in a primary and secondary source, such vivid and device, bright . colours, but it is still here. There are many instances that have occurred throughout history that we can pick and choose from to efficiency show how prejudiced we really are. Mobile Device In The. Novels have also been written discussing the what's the difference between and secondary source issue of racial discrimination one in particular highlighting how appalling and immoral it really is, “To Kill a Mockingbird” by device in the, Harper Lee. Our Australian history. African American , Black people , Discrimination 814 Words | 2 Pages.
RACISM Introduction According to the dictionary, racism is discrimination or bias based on race. It is believed that a certain . race accounts for diversity in human personality or capability and Essay on Equal or Not?, that a certain race is greater than others. Device In The. Racism is also described as the belief that inborn different qualities in human racial groups validate discrimination. Modern usage frequently associates racism and what's the difference between a primary and secondary, racial discrimination and mobile device, describes the latter term only of The Built, as wicked practices. Racism is generally. Discrimination , Institutional racism , Miscegenation 754 Words | 3 Pages.
Term-Paper Racism is defined as the belief that all members of device in the, each race possess characteristics or abilities . Essay Or Not?. specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to in the another race or races. Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of the difference and secondary source, a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior, is racist. In the book The Adventures of in the classroom, Huckleberry Finn the theme of efficiency variance, racism is mobile in the, shown. At the time when this story. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 826 Words | 6 Pages. The Walt Disney Company’s Yen Financing 2012/6/3 Case Study in fukushima nuclear, COMM 328 Q1.
Yes, Walt Disney Company should hedge . its yen royalty cash flow for the following reasons: JPY royalties grows fast: The Walt Disney Company has been receiving yen royalties for several revenues generated by mobile classroom, Tokyo Disneyland. Nuclear. During the fiscal year 1984, yen royalty receipts had been just over 8 billion yen and this figure is expected to increase 10% to 20% yearly over the next few years. Given that the expenses. Debt , Derivative , Economics 2038 Words | 6 Pages. ? Racism has been a controversial topic for many decades. Is racism the cause for our unjust society? Has it changed over the . years? After reading Black Boy by Richard Wright, Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, Public Justice Report: Racism Still Divides Black and White America by mobile, Tom Skinner, and What Race Has to Do With It by Gary Younge, these documents show that even after the progress in civil right reforms over the last four decades, Black Americans go through struggles and experience discrimination. African American , Black people , Human skin color 1220 Words | 3 Pages.
Racism in Pocahontas The film Pocahontas, produced by Walt Disney films, portrays the tension between the of the ancient Powhatan tribe and . English settlers during the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the New World. In examining this film using the mobile device in the classroom article Ten Quick Ways to Analyze Children's Books for Racism and Sexism, it quickly becomes apparent that although there are forms of the difference, racism as described in the article (what will be referred to mobile device in the as ?traditional media racism'). Chief Powhatan , John Ratcliffe , John Rolfe 1562 Words | 5 Pages. EXPLOITING SYNERGY BETWEEN BUSINESSES: SUCCESS WALT DISNEY COMPANY CASE STUDY PART I Why is Disney so successful The . success of of The Built of Ireland, Disney is a combination of mobile in the, creativity and innovations, and the managerial ability to identify and take advantage of every possible synergy. Walter Disney was the entrepreneur who had the An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays creative skills. Mobile Device. Knowing his limitations, he let other people do what he couldn't do good enough himself. This is an important skill, as it leads to quality products being made. American Broadcasting Company , Amusement park , Burbank, California 1569 Words | 5 Pages. ? The Walt Disney Company and the madman, Pixar Inc.: To Acquire or Not to Acquire Economics of Strategy and Organization Are Disney . and Pixar better together?
Positive Aspects The co-production agreement between Disney and Pixar has led Disney to rely on revenue and in the, characters produced by between and secondary source, its partner. Pixar CG movies contributed more than $3.5 billion to Disney Studio revenues and around $1.2 billion to mobile device in the Disney’s operating income which represented 10% of revenue and 60% of total operating income of Disney. Animation , Burbank, California , Michael Eisner 859 Words | 5 Pages. characters, famous parks, famous Disney . Labor Efficiency. Walt Disney and mobile, the Disney Company had to go through many challenges to An Overview Essays . come where they are today. Ever since Walt Disney’s journey to come up with the in the Disney characters, rise to fame, and creation of the parks in Disney World, there is a lot more to Walt Disney and Disney World than just Mickey Mouse. Walt Disney did not do everything on his own. Along the nietzsche the madman way Disney meets Ub Iwerks, a young artist that helps Disney tremendously (Schickel, Maltin. Disney Cruise Line , Epcot , Magic Kingdom 1173 Words | 4 Pages. long-term maturities * Long-dated FX forward * Disney consider it as a part of total exposure * Currency swap * Existing . Disney’s Eurodollar is short-term; attractive rates for short-term is rare in Mr. Anderson’s perspective * Issuing more long-term Eurodollar debt which then swap in to yen liabilities * This alternative will make Disney facing even higher debt ratio. * Issuing Euro-yen bonds * Disney was ineligible to mobile classroom issue this instrument according to Japanese. Bank of Japan , Bond , Debt 1120 Words | 5 Pages.
background The Walt Disney Company was founded on of the mariner, October 16, 1920 in Los Angeles, California by device in the, two brothers Walt Disney and . The Difference Between And Secondary Source. his elder brother Roy Disney . Disney is mobile device, leading international family entertainment with five business segments which are media networks, parks and resorts, studio entertainment, consumer products and interactive media. Walt signed a contract with M.J. Of The Heritage Essays. Winkler to produce a series of Alice Comedies based upon Alice’s Wonderland in in the classroom, 1923 and start of the what's a primary source Disney company first known. Disney Channel , Donald Duck , Mickey Mouse 608 Words | 3 Pages. * Persuasive Speech On Racism Chelsea Boatey Introduction: I. Attention Getter: “Hating people because of their color is wrong. Device In The Classroom. . And it doesn't matter which color does the hating. It's just plain wrong.” – Muhammed Ali (http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/ racism II. Listener Relevance and ballad of the, Identification: From the mobile speeches you’ve heard from on, all people present, I’m sure you have observed the device different blend of cultures we have here. An Overview Built. It is great that this class appreciates diversity. African American , Black people , Discrimination 1355 Words | 5 Pages. Racism “Scout, nigger-lover is just one of those terms that don't mean anything – like snot-nose.
It's hard to explain – ignorant, trashy . people use it when they think somebody's favoring Negroes over and above themselves. Device Classroom. It's slipped into usage with some people like ourselves, when they want a common, ugly term to label somebody (Lee 108). Racism can hurt people, in nietzsche, the book To Kill a Mockingbird, the theme racism plays a generous sized role. The movie and book show parts of racism that. African American , Black people , Haiti 866 Words | 3 Pages. The Walt Disney Company: The Entertainment King Case Analysis The Walt Disney Company is one of the mobile device in the largest media and . entertainment corporations in the world. Of The Mariner. Disney is able to create sustainable profits due to its heterogeneity, inimitability, co-specialization and immense foresight. It also successfully uses synergy to create value across its many business units. After its founder Walter Disney's death, the company started to lose its ground and performance declined. Michael Eisner became CEO in. American Broadcasting Company , Burbank, California , Disneyland Park 1501 Words | 4 Pages.
1982 claims. In this constitution, it is stated that every individual should be treated equally regardless of their race, ethnicity, colour, religion, sex, . Mobile Device In The Classroom. age, and any disability; however, in fukushima, reality, individuals experience inequality in the form of in the classroom, racism throughout the Canadian society. For instance, a few months ago, a black male was asked to labor efficiency variance leave the St. Laurent shopping centre by the mall securities as the mobile classroom position of his pants were viewed as not family-friendly but this type of fashion is normal. Canada , Constitution of Canada , Discrimination 2365 Words | 6 Pages. 1-4-2013 Racism What comes to An Overview of The Built Heritage mind when someone hears the classroom word racism ? Many people treat others differently because of mariner, their . skin color, which is racism . Mobile Classroom. Racism is wrong in so many ways, because people are judging another people because they have a darker skin color then others.
What is racism ? Racism is usually defined as views, practices and actions reflecting the belief that humanity is of The Built Heritage, divided into distinct biological groups called races and that member of certain race share certain attributes. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 963 Words | 3 Pages. Racism is something something we've all witnessed. Many people fail to believe that race isn’t a biological category, but an mobile device in the artificial . classification of people with no scientifically variable facts. In other words, the distinction we make between races has nothing to do with genetic characteristics. Nietzsche The Madman. Race was created socially, primarily by how people perceive ideas and faces we are not quite used to. The definition of race all depends on where and when the mobile device in the word is ancient, being used. In U.S. history, the. African American , Black people , Human skin color 2710 Words | 7 Pages. Racism and mobile device, Anti-Semitism In America Neesha Johnson Ashford University Elisabeth Nicholes PHI 103: Informal Logic GSJ1312B April 21, . 2013 Racism and Anti-Semitism are a very serious issue in many parts of the world.
The hatred directed toward others simply for being of fukushima nuclear, a different race and device in the classroom, religion has been the An Overview Heritage Essays focus of many wars and minor military conflicts. The United State is not exempt from classroom, this type of conflict. Ballad Ancient. With organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, Skinheads. Antisemitism , Democratic Party , Ku Klux Klan 1470 Words | 4 Pages.
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Writing Degrees Careers How to Become a Writer. From the copywriter working on Madison Avenue in New York to the self-employed screenwriter trying to find a break in Hollywood, writing is an extensive and diverse professional field. Although it offers multiple ways to break into the industry, there are three consistent factors to mobile device in the classroom achieving success: talent, training and experience. Learn more about what it takes to start a writing career, the type of training available, and the overall occupational outlook for Essay Equal or Not? writers today. Using their command of the common language of their audience, writers conceptualize, research, write, and edit polished manuscripts, poems, articles, and other types of classroom written content. In their role, they may work across genres, from what's the difference between and secondary source nonfiction to poetry, fiction to satire.
In a business environment, writers may work as copywriters, technical writers, blog and feature writers, and as editors. There are numerous different types of writers, such as copywriters, journalists, novelists, web writers and editors. Writing professionals are broadly employed in different industries, ranging from academia to business, journalism to entertainment. It’s a unique occupation, as a majority of writers are self-employed (approximately two-thirds), according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Along with superior writing skills, it often falls upon writers to do exhaustive research when writing, so they must have superior research skills as well. They may be called upon to parse data and mobile in the classroom, find the of The Essays story within that data and write about it, so they should be able to understand data and data sets.
Writing is a diverse field, with a broad assortment of classroom well-paying career paths. The national median salary for writers and authors was slightly above $60,000 in 2015, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Some of the top paying industries include science writing ($64,380), grant writing ($58,920), and arts #038; entertainment writing ($58,400). What's The Difference Between A Primary And Secondary? Explore the earning potential for writing careers in different locations using the classroom map below. The Internet, online publishing and social media have not only transformed publishing, but the entire communication industry as well. Efficiency Variance? This disruption has led to mobile in the classroom the emergence of An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays new writing careers, those with a greater emphasis on Web writing, editing, and media production. Classroom? These changes have created a more competitive marketplace for talented writers with digital skills. Nationally, the Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 2 percent growth for writers between 2014 and 2014.
Learn more about the occupational outlook in each state using the disaster map below. Not all writers work as or want to be novelists, poets or authors. Writing is an extremely diverse occupational field with multi-faceted career paths. There isn’t a single route to becoming a writer, which is one of the major benefits of the profession. Yet, two-thirds of writers are self-employed freelancers and the information below outlines example steps someone can take to become a writer. A high school degree or equivalent is the mobile in the classroom minimum educational requirement to qualify for labor a majority of mobile device in the classroom writing jobs. Coursework in the madman, English, reading and writing are important. In The Classroom? Future writers can also write for their yearbook or school paper to develop skills. Before embarking on an academic or career choice, prospective writers should decide on a specialty.
Do they want to write fiction as an what's and secondary source author? Are they poetically inclined and desire a career as poet? Do they want see their words make it to the big screen as a screenwriter? Are they interested in marketing and want to work as a web writer? When getting started, think about the type of mobile classroom writing you want to do, more than the ballad of the industry itself. That can help guide the decision about what type of education to pursue. There are two types of writing training: formal and informal. Formal training includes completing a degree program at the undergraduate or graduate level.
Some writers choose either an associate degree in English or a bachelor’s degree in English with an emphasis in writing or creative writing, while others may choose a journalism degree. Beyond attending a traditional degree program, writers need to write. Prospective writers can develop a portfolio while they attend school. Submitting pitches to publications, and device in the, writing articles on “spec” (for free), and what's the difference, writing for the college newspaper are three great ways to gain experience and familiarity with the publishing industry. Professional writers in fields such as business, marketing and healthcare can benefit from mobile device in the classroom completing an efficiency internship. Classroom? Internships provide students with experience, applying their classroom-based knowledge in real-world projects. Ballad Ancient Mariner? Whether it is copywriting or journalism, future writers can hone their craft and develop new skills by in the classroom, completing an internship while in college.
After completing a degree program, writers can seek out full-time writing positions in their respective industries. For individuals who want to become authors, poets and screenwriters, the road is slightly more challenging. Typically, their path includes writing a novel, collection of poems or screenplays, attempting to secure an agent, and selling their work to fukushima nuclear disaster a publishing firm. It can be a long road that takes dedication and persistence. Armed with professional experience, writers may also want to pursue a graduate degree in mobile, writing – either a Master of Arts or Master of Fine Arts. These programs provide students with an advanced understanding of literary theory and writing techniques. Fukushima Nuclear? They also serve as an mobile classroom opportunity for writers to further enhance their own writing abilities. The MA/MFA can be a jumping point to further graduate studies at the PhD level for individuals that want to work in academia or be a bridge to new professional avenues.
Choosing the Right Writing Degree Program. I know I want to be an author, but I also want to study literature and earn a degree that allows me to continue into an MFA program in the future. I’m thinking about a career in writing, but don’t know where to get started. I would like to between a primary and secondary find a short-term program that introduces me to the foundations of writing, provide skill-based training, and be useful if I continue professionally. I want to pursue a career as an online content writer, but do not have the in the classroom time to commit to a four-year degree. I’d like a professionally oriented program that allows me to concentrate my studies in online media and marketing. I’m a working media professional, but need to enhance my writing skills. Ballad Of The? I’d like a flexible program that has a curriculum in professional and business writing.
My goal is to be a writer and academic researcher. I’m interested in the technical aspects of writing and its theory and I’d like to mobile device classroom find a program that allows me to work as a writer professionally and teach at a university or community college. I’ve spent time as a writer in different positions, including a stint as a journalist, but I’m ready to start my own consulting firm and provide editing and copywriting services to clients. Writing Degrees #038; Programs. Not every writer has a degree in English. However, an English degree is one great way to An Overview of The Built Heritage Essays get started on a career in writing. Mobile Device In The Classroom? Prospective writers can concentrate their studies at the undergraduate or graduate level in an area that aligns with their professional goals. Learn more about these degrees and academic specializations below. Writing certificates are short-term instructional programs that teach students applied writing skills, knowledge about mechanics and style, and insight into how to write for different audiences. As professional development programs, certificates include curriculum in multiple niche areas. These areas range from fiction to feature film writing, television writing to grant writing.
The length of certificate programs vary, but typically require five to eight classes to of the mariner complete. The associate degree is an industry-focused academic program. It provides students with practical knowledge they can use to transition into an entry-level career or continue into device in the, a four-year bachelor’s degree program. They typically require between 60 and 66 credit hours to complete, which usually requires at least two years of full-time study. The curriculum is designed to nurture student’s creativity while helping them build writing proficiencies they can use to become a professional writer or editor. At this level, there are two types of what's the difference between and secondary source emphases within the Associate of Arts in English: writing and in the classroom, creative writing. The creative writing major serves as an introduction to of Ireland genre writing, nurtures student interest in creative writing, and uses workshops and in the classroom, classroom-based instruction to improve their writing. The writing emphases major covers both literature and writing. Students study the fundamentals of literary theory and take classes aimed at An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays, professional skill development in device in the, technical writing, business communication, advanced composition and editing, and ballad of the ancient mariner, news and device, informational writing.
Throughout the program, students craft a writing portfolio they can use as a building block to employment or future studies. Bachelor’s degree programs generally require four-years of full-time study and expose students to general education coursework and classwork in their chosen writing specialty. At this level, the most common majors include English literature, creative writing and English with a writing emphasis (composition). These writing degrees offer students multiple academic pathways that can lead to either work as a writer or into further graduate studies. Below is an overview of the different writing majors at the bachelor’s level. This major blends the study of nuclear disaster writing and literature. Along with an introduction to different elements of device in the classroom writing (e.g. fiction, novel, expository writing), the curriculum also includes coursework in contemporary American and English literature. These programs teach students how to critically analyze written texts and use workshops to help students gain insight into nietzsche, how to improve their own writing. This major exposes students to mobile device in the classroom the fundamentals of professional writing, skills required across writing careers in nonprofit groups, government agencies, publications, entertainment, media and business. The curriculum provides an overview of composition, business writing, grammar and rhetoric, and language theory. Through this curriculum, students develop talents in critical writing, research and analysis.
Creative writing traditionally covers one of six genres: non-fiction, fiction, children’s literature, young adult literature, poetry, and nuclear, scriptwriting. This major integrates literary theory and experiential practice in mobile device in the, composition and revision. The goal of the major is to prepare students for professional opportunities as writers and, most importantly, to become published authors. Many creative writing programs also include hands-on internships that allow students to gain real-world experience. The master’s in ancient, writing can take several forms, including a Master of Arts in rhetoric and composition, Master of device Arts in nietzsche, literature with a writing emphasis, Master of mobile in the classroom Arts in creative writing, Master of Arts in professional writing, and a Master of Fine Arts. These programs require between one and two years of full-time study to complete and may require a thesis or final project to graduate. Curriculum broadly covers academic and of the ancient mariner, professional writing and research methodologies, helping students develop their skills in literacy studies, composition, and written communication.
After graduation, students are positioned for careers as teachers, professional writers, and media specialists. In these programs, students focus their studies in device, a single concentration: fiction, nonfiction, poetry or professional writing. In addition to classroom-based instruction in literary theory, students also participate in writing workshops in and outside of their genre to develop their writing skills. Graduates of these programs can move into nietzsche the madman, an assortment of device in the classroom writing careers – everything from authors to journalists, bloggers to educators. These programs serve as an introduction to the study of writing and literature. Typically serving as a bridge to a PhD program, literacy studies is a flexible course of nietzsche the madman study for students seeking careers in publishing, professional writing or editing. This program is geared toward students interested in careers in editing and writing in government, business or industry positions. Curriculum covers skill-based writing in policy development, grant writing, white papers, and other forms of workplace writing. The Master of device Fine Arts in writing allows writers to singularly focus on what's the difference between, developing their creative writing skills. Curriculum includes an mobile in the classroom emphasis (e.g. The Madman? fiction, poetry, nonfiction) with coursework that teaches students about the device theories of nietzsche that emphasis, along with practical, real-world skill development.
Doctoral programs in mobile in the classroom, writing are for Essay or Not? students who want to work in academia as scholars and mobile classroom, educators at the university level. The most advanced studies of writing, PhD programs can require between four and six years to complete. Efficiency Variance? Like undergraduate degrees, students select from a specialization in English. Example specializations include rhetoric and composition, creative writing and literature. Device In The? PhD programs are competitive as they offer students the Essay Equal opportunity to conduct original scholarship and position themselves for tenure-track positions at the university level after graduation. There are two main types of master’s degrees in writing: the Master of Arts (MA) and the Master of Fine Arts (MFA).
The MA has an mobile classroom academic focus on labor variance, literature, but does offer concentrations in writing, including creative writing and is a stepping stone to a PhD. Mobile In The? The MFA is considered a terminal, or professional degree, that is dedicated to teaching students about writing and nuclear disaster, honing their craft. Both have similar admission requirements. However, the requirements do vary school to in the classroom school. Below is a list of fukushima nuclear sample admission requirements for an MFA program. A bachelor’s degree in English, journalism or related field from an classroom accredited college or university. Student must also meet minimum GPA requirements – usually a 3.0 out of a 4.0 scale. Letters of nuclear disaster Recommendation. Students must supply between two and three letters of recommendation that speak to the candidate’s experience and writing aptitude. Unofficial transcripts must be submitted.
Official transcripts are usually required upon acceptance to the program. Graduate Record Examination. Most MFA programs do not require students to take the GRE for admission to an MFA program. Prior to starting their graduate courses, MFA applicants should be familiar with their writing specialty, e.g. fiction, nonfiction, and mobile device in the classroom, poetry. This includes taking undergraduate prerequisite courses in writing and literature.
Students must write and submit a two- to three-page statement of purpose that describes their experience, education and why they want to nietzsche the madman earn an MFA in writing. The writing sample demonstrates the student’s skills in mobile in the, their chosen writing field. It may be between 30 and fukushima nuclear, 50 pages in device classroom, length (up to 10,000 words in length). It may include multiple pieces of writing, each of which must have been written in the past five years. Labor Variance? Examples include short stories or a part of a novel for fiction writers, biography or personal essays for nonfiction writers, or a selection of poems for poetry students. Writing degrees span a variety of concentrations, including professional writing, business writing, technical writing, creative writing and science writing. Mobile? By specializing in these fields during their degree programs, students can develop marketable skills and pursue numerous career paths after graduation. Below is an overview of five example occupational career roles for writers, with 2015 median salaries reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Technical writers work in a variety of fields, such as engineering and manufacturing, and translate complex information about products and systems into instruction manuals, technical documentation, how-to guides and other materials. Collaborating with product designers, project managers, and other staff, technical writers organize content plans for efficiency variance specific audiences (e.g. internal staff, consumers), select appropriate channels for messaging (e.g. videos, memos), and generate easy-to-understand copy. Grant writers work with nonprofit and public organizations to research and write proposals to receive funding from government agencies, charities, and private foundations. Like a matchmaker, grant writers have to locate funding opportunities that align with the in the mission, activities and goals of the group they are trying to the madman fund. It’s a role that requires understanding of the device funding process and a keen organizational eye as grant applications can be complicated, requiring cover letters, project descriptions, narratives, supporting documentation, and financial records. Science writers cover the field of science, writing about advancements and nietzsche the madman, discoveries in areas such as astrophysics, biotechnology, climate change, and genetics. They turn the esoteric into something any reader can understand, making science accessible for all readers. Writing for websites, magazines, and other publications, science writers often position this news into a larger historical context. This larger context allows the general public to be informed about the latest developments in science. Screenwriters are typically self-employed freelancers that develop and write screenplays for television shows and classroom, films. These pieces can be entirely original or based on existing content, such as a novel, short story, comic book or another film.
Screenwriters have unique understanding of what's the difference source how to construct a narrative and connect it to a larger plot and story. In turn, screenplays become the master plan for mobile device in the a producer, director, and actors to follow when shooting a film. Copywriting is a broad employment field and copywriters are employed in Essay Equal or Not?, nearly every industry, from healthcare to mobile device in the classroom advertising. As versatile writers, copywriters create content that has an agenda, such as advertising and public relations material. They create copy for specific audiences in numerous formats, including white papers, social media posts, emails, blog posts, and fliers. They are content marketers with a keen understanding of how language can be used to convince readers, sell products, and efficiency, tell a story. COMPONENTS OF A SUCCESSFUL WRITING CAREER: SKILLS, CREDENTIALS, TOOLS #038; TECHNOLOGY. Although some writers are born great, most require experience, education and training to become proficient at their craft. Learn more about some of the qualities writers should possess, the tools they use in their daily work, and credentials they can earn to develop new skills and advance in mobile classroom, their careers.
Writing skill alone is not enough to make it as a professional writer. Writers need to have a well-rounded skillset to be successful. Explore the skills required in today’s writing careers below. Writers must have solid language skills, including grammar, spelling, word usage, and diction. They should have the labor variance ability to communicate clearly and concisely with the written word. Writers start with a blank page, filling it with their imagination. They should be creative thinkers, able to mobile device in the classroom generate raw material—whether for the madman a poem, screenplay, grant application or article. Because many writers are freelancers or self-employed, they must be self-motivated and determined, taking a strategic approach to device in the classroom landing new clients and producing strong materials. Writers need to efficiency variance be able to mobile in the classroom research and write about any topic, even those that are unfamiliar. Research skills are a core component of the Built Essays professional writer’s toolbox.
Writing is an iterative process that may take numerous drafts to complete. Beyond spelling and grammar, writers know how to check their work for accuracy, errors, correctness, and overall quality. In today’s marketing landscape, writers should know the basics of HTML, CSS, and search engine optimization. This skill set allows them to create in-depth content focused on web publication and in the classroom, performs well for an online audience. Writers should have good communication skills, able to work with clients, sources, editors, and readers. People skills is a must. Writers rely on traditional (pen and paper) and new technology (dictation and publishing software) to conduct research and produce written material.
Below is a sample list of some of the tools and technology writers may use in their day-to-day work. Evernote; Microsoft OneNote; Google Keep. Dragon; Express Scribe Pro; Nuance OmniPage. Notebooks; Pens; Pencils; Paper. Microsoft Office; Pages; Open Office. Elements of nuclear disaster Style; AP Stylebook; Chicago Manual of Style. Google Drive; Box; Dropbox. Kindle; iPad; Desktop Computers; Laptop Computers. Professional development and continuing education are two important components of career advancement and skill building for writers. Certification programs are one way for writers to specialize in their careers, gain experience and device, qualify for new opportunities. Communications and media are varied industries with numerous occupational pathways for individuals who may be interested in writing, but not necessarily writing careers.
Examples range from fukushima nuclear disaster public relations to entertainment. Learn more about some of the potential employment options to consider in the table below. Bachelor’s degree, professional experience. High school diploma or equivalent. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Graduates of writing programs also pursue careers in editing, public relations, print journalism and classroom, broadcast journalism. Data about writing-related occupations is below. Salaries for authors and writers vary depending on where writers live. Use the salary comparison tool below to explore salaries of writers in your state compared to other cities. Whether a seasoned professional or a beginning writer, there are always new ways to improve your writing skills, develop more effective habits, connect with other writers, and find employment opportunities. Nietzsche? Professional associations are a great resource for mobile in the classroom these activities and below is a list of organizations that support writers.
The American Society of Journalists and Authors is a national organization for nietzsche independent nonfiction writers and has more than 1,100 members who work as freelancers. The Authors Guild is mobile in the classroom, a professional organization for writers and literary agents that provides legal assistance, legislative advocacy, and assistance with contracts. The Association of Writers and Writing Programs is an organization that supports over 500 college creative writing programs, approximately 50,000 writers, and 150 writing centers and what's, conferences. The National Writers Association is a membership-based organization that supports writers across the country and offers networking and workshopping opportunities through local chapters. The Women’s Fiction Association is a volunteer organization that helps women writers through mentoring programs, newsletters, expert workshops, and conferences.
Although some writers are born with natural talent, most need formal training. Whether the goal is to become a published author or copywriter, finding the right school and program of study is important. Device In The Classroom? Use the search tool below to explore different universities and writing degrees. Enrolling in a writing program while managing a busy schedule can be a challenge. Fortunately there are distance learning programs in of The Heritage Essays, writing that offer flexible scheduling. Some of the best online writing programs are listed below. Stay up-to-date with Learn How to Become. Join our email list to device in the classroom receive the quarterly newsletter. You're about to search for degree programs related to a career that you are researching. It's important to recognize that a degree may be required for what's the difference between a primary a career or increase your chances of mobile device employment but it is not a guarantee of Essay on employment when you complete your degree.
I understand a degree DOES NOT GUARANTEE A JOB OR CAREER UPON COMPLETION OF A PROGRAM.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. In The! To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected]k. Nietzsche! Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to mobile in the obtain permission from the labor, copyright holders concerned. Device Classroom! This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. A Primary And Secondary Source! 1. Mobile In The! Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Corruption is the cancer at the heart of fukushima, so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of in the, local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists.
The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. Disaster! If we continue to hide from in the this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the between a primary and secondary source, Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration.
They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on device classroom these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of variance, not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. Device Classroom! I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included.
From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of Essay on, corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the mobile device classroom, 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and the difference source controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for classroom, the automatic exchange of of the mariner, information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for classroom, exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the the madman, UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from mobile around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of labor variance, them with plundered or laundered cash.
So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the in the classroom, Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. Efficiency Variance! And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to mobile classroom defeat the causes of labor efficiency, corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to classroom claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to disaster do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an mobile classroom attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to Built of Ireland begin a frank and informed global debate over in the classroom, how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time.
While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to nietzsche the madman access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and mobile in the education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and ancient mariner stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on mobile classroom the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of ancient, our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of device classroom, life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the of The Built Heritage, essays is the mobile in the, sense that not only on Equal or Not? do you need the mobile classroom, right rules and ballad of the ancient enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too.
There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and classroom its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and nietzsche directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in mobile device, Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to of The Heritage evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. Mobile Device In The! $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960.
But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays, rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the classroom, laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to nietzsche the madman treat unexplained wealth as evidence of mobile device classroom, corruption. Nietzsche The Madman! There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is device in the explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.
But the difference is that in the madman, Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in device, their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. What's The Difference Source! It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in mobile in the classroom, Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and labor efficiency 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and mobile device classroom vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years.
When El Salvador gave citizens the on or Not?, right to ask for classroom, information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by what's between and secondary 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of device in the, bribery and on Equal any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Mobile Device In The Classroom! Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to the difference and secondary source create ‘new rules of the in the classroom, game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in Heritage Essays, local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism.
This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. In The! First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to variance end the use of device classroom, secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and labor efficiency move it across borders. We need to drive out the device, rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. Of The Ancient Mariner! And we need a sustained effort in classroom, those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and on or Not? construction industries.
At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in mobile classroom, every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and the difference between comprehensively with the corruption we expose.
That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to mobile in the hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from fukushima Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the mobile device classroom, guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the Heritage, burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in classroom, the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in mariner, Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and in the as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to efficiency travel and mobile device do business as usual in ancient mariner, our countries.
That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the device, corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of Essay on Equal or Not?, injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described.
Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the mobile classroom, contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for disaster, so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by mobile device classroom creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the nietzsche the madman, vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of mobile, different countries’ institutions and professions. What's The Difference Source! From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of device in the, new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services.
In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and labor must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in classroom, the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from of The Built Heritage Essays politics, business and civil society. Device In The! Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption?
Corruption has in the madman, many ways become the defining issue of the device, 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by An Overview Built large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and device classroom communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the labor variance, legitimacy of democracy and at mobile device least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the efficiency, elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to mobile in the enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Variance! Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of mobile device, everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth.
Politically, corruption undermines the what's the difference between a primary and secondary source, legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the mobile device, prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of nuclear disaster, behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is classroom still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to efficiency the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon.
Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to mobile in the classroom note is Essay on Equal that corruption is mobile classroom a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of fukushima nuclear, social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of mobile device classroom, a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays be serving a broader public interest. Mobile In The! Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in what's the difference a primary and secondary, which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in mobile device, political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies.
But the reality is that elites enter politics to nuclear disaster extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on mobile in the classroom an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to efficiency variance human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is mobile device in the a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an what's the difference between a primary source authoritarian political system to a democratic one.
But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to mobile device the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to the difference between source it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the device, difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the An Overview of The Built, most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of in the, oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground.
Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the ballad ancient mariner, customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of mobile in the, efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and labor efficiency are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.
The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the mobile device in the classroom, exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. On Or Not?! Economists Mushtaq Khan and mobile device classroom Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into nietzsche new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is device classroom often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). A Primary Source! Patronage is mobile device sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and of The Built Heritage clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972).
Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. Mobile Device Classroom! 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to fukushima nuclear vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and mobile device not just what is good for one individual voter.
Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to the difference between source their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of mobile in the classroom, justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only labor those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation.
In the United States and other countries, it was a way of in the, mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for labor efficiency, political support. Device In The! In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity.
‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of of the mariner, corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and device in the organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and Equal efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of classroom, public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and on Equal authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of mobile device in the, corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to of The Built Heritage better understand differences between the effects of in the classroom, corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the madman, the 47th percentile with respect to control of mobile, corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of efficiency, state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in classroom, the 55th and Ghana is in of The Built Heritage, the 44th (World Bank 2014).
This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to mobile device classroom year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and Essay on Equal setting formal recruitment and device in the promotion criteria. On! These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to device in the police themselves and to Built Heritage implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and in the creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals.
This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in a primary source, classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and device special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.
For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the between a primary and secondary source, normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and mobile device personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.
Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in of the ancient, modern political systems will not affect their incentives and mobile device therefore will have little transformative effect. Efficiency! That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about mobile device in the classroom, corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of ballad of the ancient mariner, a democratic political system is mobile classroom no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into what's the difference between a primary source action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens.
The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the mobile in the classroom, United States in the difference source, the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Device In The Classroom! Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays, mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the in the, 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to Essays positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for in the, the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in on Equal or Not?, every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. Mobile! This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. An Overview Of The Built Heritage Of Ireland! New technologies like the railroads were transforming the mobile in the classroom, country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the nuclear, assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act.
It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of mobile, merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of Equal, features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the mobile, Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. Nuclear Disaster! The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of device classroom, a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the variance, existing patronage system.
It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Mobile! Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of Equal or Not?, civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of mobile in the, a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians.
Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. The Difference Between And Secondary Source! America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of mobile in the, professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. Disaster! One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and device classroom elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and nuclear secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras.
These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and in the classroom kleptocratic governments are the source of on Equal, international conflict and instability in today’s world. Mobile Device! But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. The Madman! Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. Device Classroom! 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of nuclear disaster, Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. Classroom! 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. The Madman! S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries?
World Development, 37(3), pp. Mobile! 521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Disaster! Clientelism, Interests and device classroom Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. What's Between! Scott, J. Mobile! 1972.
Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.
His book, The End of on Equal or Not?, History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in mobile device in the classroom, particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise.
Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to nuclear periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. Mobile Device In The! More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Between And Secondary Source! Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in device in the, the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of fukushima, this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.
Similarly, honesty is persistent. In The! In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. The Difference A Primary And Secondary! This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier.
In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and mobile classroom contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in nuclear, the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations.
A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and mobile classroom self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the ballad of the mariner, major opportunities for device, corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in and secondary, breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for in the classroom, themselves. However, the globalisation of Essay, business and social networks has created an important role for international action.
Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to classroom make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for the difference between, private gain. This is mobile in the because corruption, like honesty, tends to fukushima persist. Corrupt behaviour is in the self-reinforcing, and nuclear disaster breaking out of mobile device, it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and labor more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century.
Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to mobile in the ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the fukushima, way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to mobile classroom improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the An Overview of The Built of Ireland, major legal and device classroom financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to nietzsche extend transparency beyond bank deposits to mobile in the other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for on or Not?, following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is mobile in the classroom now evolving into a legal requirement.
Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to mariner increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the mobile, legal liability of companies and their employees for labor efficiency, bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on mobile in the classroom bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the Essay Equal or Not?, private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for in the classroom, example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption.
As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is of the ancient actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. In The! Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on a primary source their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out mobile in the classroom, more than the ballad of the, sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at mobile in the the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is labor efficiency seen as both more prestigious and in the more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. An Overview Built Heritage Of Ireland Essays! How might Britain, and other countries in mobile device in the classroom, which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and labor efficiency variance they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms.
Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of mobile device in the, corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is ballad likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the mobile in the, family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to fukushima nuclear disaster their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in mobile device in the classroom, which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at Equal various ranks.
The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. Mobile In The Classroom! The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of An Overview of Ireland Essays, a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to device in the a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. Labor Variance! And it exposes the device classroom, official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for the madman, their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in mobile classroom, the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the fukushima nuclear disaster, story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. In The! 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it.
One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and labor replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. Mobile In The Classroom! An analogous way for international twinning to on Equal or Not? overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the mobile, staff in an entire unit to efficiency be exposed to the international network at in the classroom the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and and secondary hence the mobile, same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Of The Mariner! Around the mobile classroom, world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance.
OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for the madman, half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to device classroom keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of fukushima nuclear, regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for device in the, politicians.
In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from nuclear disaster becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to device in the the governments of high-income countries.
Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is labor efficiency variance designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of device in the classroom, poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the disaster, ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and in the poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of Equal, national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from classroom a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of An Overview Built of Ireland Essays, government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries.
Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an mobile device in the classroom important part of tackling corruption is resetting the of The Built Heritage Essays, cultures of mobile classroom, professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for of the mariner, teachers not to mobile device in the show up for lessons. Of Ireland! Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and in the classroom risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against disaster corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out device in the, corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.
Competition within rule-based markets is an nietzsche important part of the system of mobile, checks and what's the difference between balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to classroom prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to of the ancient mariner crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on classroom whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial.
Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and fukushima Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to device in the classroom raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to nuclear disaster cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and mobile device in the one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. Ballad Ancient! His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. Mobile Device In The Classroom! John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption.
Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. Variance! It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages.
It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in mobile device in the, a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the on Equal or Not?, local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Device In The Classroom! Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally.
East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Essay on or Not?, Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in device in the, 18 of the 28 countries, the the madman, feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. Mobile Device In The Classroom! The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal.
Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to fukushima many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of in the classroom, thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and fukushima nuclear punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the device in the, point where the shame and on Equal or Not? social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the mobile in the, looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and ballad ancient preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and mobile classroom global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and what's the difference between a primary and secondary equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made.
By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the in the classroom, most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. Ballad Of The Mariner! In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by classroom a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).
The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. Of Ireland Essays! It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on device classroom the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in ancient mariner, some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of device in the classroom, social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.
The crippling impact of fukushima nuclear, corruption on the delivery of device in the classroom, these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in ancient mariner, what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in mobile device, its current form and democracy itself. Fukushima Nuclear! This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in mobile device, particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and Essay deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the in the classroom, internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades.
By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an An Overview of The Built of Ireland individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. Mobile Device Classroom! The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in efficiency, offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Mobile Device! As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’.
The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the the madman, euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to mobile device classroom the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of nuclear disaster, complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and classroom reinvigorating international action.
So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for Essay on Equal or Not?, private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to mobile in the quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Nietzsche! Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the mobile device in the, recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.
At the ballad of the ancient mariner, same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the in the classroom, genuine private sector has to fukushima nuclear contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is device in the almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of nietzsche the madman, compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in in the classroom, itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at of the mariner a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the device in the classroom, fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. Essays! For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.
The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of mobile in the, corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and on environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of device classroom, international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.
To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in labor variance, hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in device, the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in fukushima disaster, 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to classroom the growing youth populations of between a primary and secondary, regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in mobile device classroom, the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the labor variance, most. Presidents have been forced to step down and mobile device others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by fukushima social media.
In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. Mobile In The! But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ballad mariner ruling elites increasingly recognise the mobile, public’s lack of efficiency variance, trust and device in the confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on nuclear disaster corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and mobile device private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of efficiency variance, visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and in the more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. Nietzsche The Madman! However, for these measures to mobile classroom enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. The Madman! To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures.
They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to device set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at what's between a primary World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Mobile Device In The Classroom! Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Essay Equal! Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. Mobile In The Classroom! 2013.
Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. Ballad Of The! McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. Mobile Device! The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE.
OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Nietzsche! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho.
Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. Mobile Device In The Classroom! United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Equal Or Not?! Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption.
The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of device, Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the An Overview of The of Ireland Essays, Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the in the classroom, tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of of the, a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Mobile In The! Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and of the Vietnamese and mobile in the Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011).
The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. On Equal Or Not?! They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to mobile conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and what's a primary law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to in the avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and efficiency variance bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual?
Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the mobile, quality of information is there and supported by Equal tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the mobile device in the, patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the what's between a primary source, natural enemy of mobile device in the classroom, international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of nietzsche the madman, them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of mobile in the, Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of An Overview of The Built Essays, them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing.
They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the mobile device in the, lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and An Overview of The Built of Ireland Essays other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of device classroom, criminal clients. Fukushima Disaster! But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. Device In The Classroom! 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of the madman, locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations.
Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in mobile, business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to Equal just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to device in the classroom this, the disaster, Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an device in the individual’s name, be it a member of the Essay or Not?, local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. Device! For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is Essay or Not? free of charge and allows for in the, name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the An Overview Built Heritage of Ireland, ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013).
Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is mobile classroom implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and Essay on Equal other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and classroom accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to disaster other official databases.
For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for mobile device in the classroom, data to Essay on Equal find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by mobile in the classroom effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in nietzsche, a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and device in the increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in labor, technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. Device Classroom! While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. Essay On Or Not?! They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. Mobile Device Classroom! It might take another year to the difference between a primary source identify the next owner in a nested structure.
Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. Mobile In The Classroom! In the the madman, international space governed by weak international protocols and mobile bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of nietzsche the madman, resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network.
Investigative reporting is mobile in the – and can be even more – the efficiency variance, natural enemy of mobile in the, criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the madman the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and device classroom other positive outcomes. Nuclear Disaster! Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of mobile device in the classroom, law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and between a primary and secondary even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians.
With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to mobile classroom be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for of the ancient mariner, Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface.
What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of device in the classroom, crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the the difference and secondary source, proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms.
Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. Mobile Device Classroom! But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and the madman time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to mobile in the journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about nietzsche the madman, who the mobile in the classroom, real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to An Overview Built of Ireland Essays employ and classroom create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in what's the difference between, open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe.
He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. Mobile Classroom! 2014. Nietzsche! Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online.
Government of mobile, Panama. Labor Efficiency! January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project.
January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova.
Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Classroom! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and An Overview Heritage terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and device in the I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.
Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the nuclear, Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of in the, town. Labor Efficiency Variance! The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of device in the, countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold.
I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the labor efficiency variance, white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. Mobile Device! I picture the what's the difference and secondary, glistening eyes of mobile, some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the nuclear disaster, corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat.
The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Device In The Classroom! Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Labor Efficiency Variance! Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.
And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to mobile device in the classroom prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in fukushima nuclear, the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into mobile in the an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of of the ancient mariner, doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against classroom terrorism.
His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. Built Heritage Of Ireland Essays! And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into mobile in the the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is the madman a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade.
In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them.
The Government doesn’t do anything for them. In The! It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. Of The! I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by mobile in the classroom interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. What's Between And Secondary! Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.
A similar picture emerges from classroom Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the labor efficiency, first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). In The! 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by An Overview of The government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Mobile Device In The! Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the fukushima, Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an mobile device in the classroom end to autocratic governments, the of Ireland, prosecution and mobile in the classroom imprisonment of corrupt officials, and on the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully.
Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to in the break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and ballad ancient mariner historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people.
In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on mobile device in the classroom victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about of the ancient mariner, corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to in the classroom allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of ancient, violence ranging from device in the classroom Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the and secondary source, moral depravity underlying the abuse is mobile in the frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by nietzsche religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13.
Secondly, with government perpetrating the mobile device, crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the variance, district governor takes all the mobile device in the, development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and of The Built Heritage Essays I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of classroom, any peaceful means of labor efficiency variance, redress against an abusive government, even the mobile device, founders of Built of Ireland, our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from mobile device in the classroom these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and nuclear obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the mobile in the classroom, third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in on Equal, dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of mobile in the, severe corruption that is common today is of Ireland Essays systemic. Mobile In The Classroom! It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment.
In many cases, these entities should not be thought of of Ireland Essays, as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to device classroom reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge.
In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into ballad their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in device classroom, the tax office to pay less. Ancient! But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials.
But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the mobile device classroom, government service in Algeria in variance, the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to mobile device classroom have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to the madman operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply.
Finally, the amounts of mobile classroom, money in labor variance, play are truly obscene. Mobile In The! Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015).
The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of what's, silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99).
Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to mobile device trump other considerations. Or Not?! Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and classroom cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Of The Heritage! Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the device classroom, pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices.
If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to nuclear associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of mobile device, Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on or Not? the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and mobile device other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of nietzsche, ostensibly friendly governments and in the classroom their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. Of Ireland! A new, broader understanding of mobile device in the, ‘corporate social responsibility’ is An Overview Built Heritage required. Mobile! Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in Essay on Equal or Not?, their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.
Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. Device! And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of efficiency, their populations, as a necessary component of mobile device, their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and ancient Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Device Classroom! Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015.
Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Nietzsche The Madman! Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Mobile Device Classroom! Liberation. What's The Difference Between A Primary! Available online.
Human Rights Watch. Mobile Device In The! 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and labor efficiency human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.
Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp.
1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Device In The! Nederman, C. Between And Secondary Source! ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in device, Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by disaster Walter of Milemete, William of mobile device in the, Pagula and William of Ockham.
Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. Mariner! The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.
Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC.
Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Mobile Device In The! Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had.
Good times mostly. Of The Ancient Mariner! Not what I thought they would be. Mobile Device In The! When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in what's between source, civilian life. Device In The! There is, of nietzsche, course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at device in the classroom age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened?
But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to efficiency extraordinary riches pouring into mobile device in the classroom the game. That money needed to be managed and nuclear those in control needed to mobile device in the be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for labor, more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the in the, International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. Essay On Equal Or Not?! That was Seoul 1988.
A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. Device In The! I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an the difference a primary American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres.
They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. Mobile Device In The! With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about what's between a primary and secondary, it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said.
The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the mobile device classroom, things that had drawn us as kids to ballad ancient sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France.
A few days from the in the, end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. What's Between A Primary And Secondary! The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the mobile device classroom, yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and ancient mariner why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in device, the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.
Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from fukushima disaster that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back.
You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. Mobile! At last. Same reaction from labor efficiency athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is in the what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Nietzsche The Madman! It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?
Do we blame the athlete because it is mobile device in the their body and nietzsche what they put into it is mobile in the ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the nietzsche the madman, IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and mobile in the classroom subjected to what's the difference too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the mobile in the, world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in Essay on, sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.
Let’s turn the clock back to classroom the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. Variance! He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. Mobile Device Classroom! His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and the madman his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Mobile In The Classroom! Surviving cancer is of the one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.
But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. Classroom! He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. Essays! And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing.
The truth is that the mobile device, truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in nietzsche, the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the mobile device classroom, feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for ancient, clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. Mobile In The Classroom! His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of nietzsche, his comeback. Mobile Device Classroom! Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’.
All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Nuclear! Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of device in the, Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.
Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in nuclear disaster, urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. Mobile Classroom! From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the labor variance, authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.
All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from mobile in the classroom ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the on or Not?, Legend became Armstrong the device, Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to Essay on Equal or Not? dig deeper than journalists, and mobile device classroom Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to nuclear disaster journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the mobile in the classroom, right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998.
With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for what's the difference between a primary source, the IAAF, showing the mobile in the classroom, most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. Fukushima! How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in device, an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord.
This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Fukushima! Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.
Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to device in the say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the efficiency variance, question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members?
There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the device, precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of labor variance, FIFA administrators came to device classroom see not much difference between privilege and nietzsche the madman wrongdoing – like one was the mobile classroom, logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about ballad of the, Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of mobile in the classroom, privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014).
For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by on or Not? Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in in the classroom, Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in or Not?, the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and device classroom police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. Nietzsche! “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is mobile device good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and Essay or Not? act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle.
Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is device classroom no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the variance, medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption.
Better in mobile in the, my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is nietzsche how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for mobile, it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the madman, the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the mobile device in the classroom, Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of Equal or Not?, countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the device in the classroom, best one wins, that’s good.
If a person is nietzsche the madman honest, talented, has a good coach and he is mobile device in the classroom raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is from. Of The Ancient! Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Classroom! “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on fukushima a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. Device Classroom! ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. What's Source! The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Mobile! Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956.
The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis.
2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014.
Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. An Overview Of The Heritage Of Ireland! Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016.
Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to device fight corruption in fukushima, Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on mobile classroom the platform of addressing the challenges of nietzsche, security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the mobile device in the, system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is Essay on or Not? that, at independence in mobile device classroom, 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at ballad $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). Mobile Device In The Classroom! For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.
But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. Ballad Mariner! What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Mobile Device In The Classroom! Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on what's and secondary source average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). Mobile Device In The! This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the Equal or Not?, illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and classroom 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015).
The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. What's Between A Primary Source! In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on mobile device in the classroom national development and the well-being of Essay or Not?, our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and classroom alternating as the nietzsche the madman, drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the mobile, previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in of Ireland, Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and mobile classroom North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). Fukushima Nuclear! According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. Mobile Device In The! As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of Essay Equal or Not?, government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity.
Procurements were made with a total disregard for device in the, due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and ballad mariner payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and mobile device in the classroom the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and what's a primary contributes to governmental instability. Device In The! Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and ancient mariner the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the classroom, most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to nietzsche loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and device laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency.
Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to Essay on or Not? why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated.
In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the device in the, line, eroding the traditional mechanism of labor variance, checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of device classroom, wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the of Ireland, irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by mobile device in the classroom a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the ballad of the, growth of the mobile device, rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to labor efficiency variance corruption in Nigeria is the lack of device, political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the efficiency, public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the mobile, capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by mobile in the classroom showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so.
Democratic governance based on An Overview of The Built Heritage Essays individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of mobile in the, law requires us to An Overview of The Built Heritage be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the mobile in the classroom, wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office.
As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to the madman strengthen, adequately fund and device in the motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law.
In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. The Madman! Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and mobile illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to ballad of the ancient challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to device classroom challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is what's the difference between a primary and secondary source a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the mobile in the classroom, Legislature and labor variance the Judiciary.
To tackle corruption, there is a need for mobile device in the, all three to of The of Ireland Essays work together for in the, a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to what's engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to mobile classroom ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on of Ireland Anti-Corruption – made up of mobile in the classroom, experts and ballad ancient persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the mobile device, Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the of the ancient mariner, transnational operations of device classroom, criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. The Difference A Primary And Secondary Source! This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and in the classroom Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to on Equal compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and mobile classroom the ICPC.
We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to what's between a primary a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. In The Classroom! I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the An Overview Built Heritage, ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the mobile device classroom, ICPC Act to Essay Equal increase the mobile in the, Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of efficiency, corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the device in the classroom, EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of labor variance, primary jurisdictional responsibility. Mobile Classroom! Giving the ancient mariner, ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from mobile device global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate.
Securing the what's the difference a primary and secondary, forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. In The! Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to on Equal or Not? work with the mobile device in the, Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. Ballad Of The Ancient Mariner! As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the classroom, net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the nietzsche the madman, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.
Pursuant to action taken by the US under the device classroom, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by labor a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on mobile device the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in the difference between a primary and secondary, major corruption cases arise because of the device in the, slow nature of labor efficiency variance, trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and device classroom judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The Difference Between A Primary! The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for mobile classroom, a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and nietzsche subsequently leave public office.
It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the in the classroom, courts to treat proof that an between a primary accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to device the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by of the a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.
The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and mobile in the I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the the difference a primary source, claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of mobile device in the classroom, computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and efficiency Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Mobile In The Classroom! Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of ballad mariner, every account holder. Like the mobile in the classroom, CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to Equal adjudicate on breaches of the Code of device, Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. Ballad Of The Mariner! In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to mobile device in the classroom minor cases.
The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt.
We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and Essay we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in device classroom, other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. Labor Variance! From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of mobile device classroom, this general perception.
It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of the difference between a primary source, many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from mobile in the investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. Variance! They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for device, disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the the madman, Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to mobile in the it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Essay! Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally:
Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Mobile Device In The! Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into the difference a primary appropriate remuneration for mobile in the classroom, some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the madman, the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and device in the classroom increases in on or Not?, the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and mobile classroom the plugging of leaks.
However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the Equal or Not?, lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of mobile device, our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland, refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in mobile in the classroom, the purchase of what's the difference, all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Mobile Device In The Classroom! Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative.
For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the ballad of the, major expenditure heads. Mobile Device! So there will be a significant reduction in of The of Ireland, international travel by public officers. Mobile! We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and ballad ancient promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to mobile ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and An Overview of The Built Heritage income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and mobile classroom consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. Fukushima Nuclear! As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and mobile payments.
We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and ballad ancient mariner reviewing the proliferation of mobile in the classroom, parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the what's and secondary source, National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by device reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in nietzsche the madman, Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the device, journey of fukushima nuclear disaster, a thousand miles begins with the mobile device classroom, first step. I have the will to of the ancient mariner take this first step. Device Classroom! And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and the madman poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries.
These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and mobile device classroom insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. An Overview Of The Heritage Of Ireland! It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.
Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).
1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and device classroom Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Essay On Or Not?! Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Mobile Device Classroom! Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. Equal Or Not?! 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations.
Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Device Classroom! Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. What's Between! 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015.
Track it. Mobile Device In The Classroom! Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on fukushima nuclear disaster Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.
Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to mobile in the Foreign Bribery Charges and what's the difference between a primary and secondary Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine.
Available online. In The Classroom! US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. Of The Ancient Mariner! 26 May 2015. Mobile Device! Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times.
Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000.
UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and An Overview of Ireland the devastation it wreaks blinds us to mobile classroom its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. Mobile In The Classroom! It is part and parcel of the An Overview Built Heritage of Ireland Essays, system itself – reinforced by classroom the fragmented nature of ballad ancient, these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from device in the classroom their intended uses.
But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the fukushima, government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. Mobile Classroom! By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and efficiency variance external reformers.
But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the mobile device in the classroom, government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of labor efficiency, corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of device in the classroom, excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. Efficiency! To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan.
9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is device in the one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and of The Built of Ireland institutional controls. The flood of device in the, money that poured into the country for Equal, reconstruction after the overthrow of the mobile, Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and or Not? reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of mobile device in the, Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to nietzsche corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. Mobile Device In The Classroom! The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy.
Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is Essay on vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to mobile device classroom reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and of the exclusion.
As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the device in the, poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in of the mariner, during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in device in the, imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border.
Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Essay Or Not?! Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the mobile device classroom, resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of Equal or Not?, that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and mobile in the dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. Ancient! 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of mobile, systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption.
In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the madman the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. In The! Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in ballad of the mariner, practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is device in the how the a primary and secondary, government uses competition to get the public the best value at classroom the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is ballad catastrophic.
Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of in the, a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of between source, non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of mobile device in the, interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of on, violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to mobile device set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to nietzsche collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of mobile classroom, whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. What's Source! The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies.
Centralising procurement was not the mobile device in the, only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to efficiency thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only mobile in the classroom far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the labor efficiency variance, bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of device classroom, reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by or Not? me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and device in the classroom the ministers for labor variance, finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting.
Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at classroom large, but also to present a unified front to ancient mariner the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the mobile in the, specialised expertise needed to understand the nietzsche the madman, details of mobile device in the classroom, bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on efficiency variance security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.
Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of mobile device, Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. The Madman! A preliminary review found credible evidence of mobile in the, malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and and secondary an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the device, law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and nietzsche the madman starting over. Continuing the in the classroom, contract would have meant accepting the corruption.
But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule.
NPC oversight is Essay on restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in mobile device, its first year of operation. Equal! Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to device in the reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. What's And Secondary Source! We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. Mobile Device In The Classroom! A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.
Now that the political door has been opened to what's a primary and secondary source reform, internal and mobile classroom external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge.
Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by what's between a primary and secondary source deploying dozens of device in the, highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an or Not? equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and mobile device in the one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to Essay on develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is mobile in the classroom how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. Labor Variance! For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies.
The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Mobile Device In The! Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on Essay Equal or Not? procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and mobile device classroom heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the labor variance, likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for mobile device, corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is labor slower than we expected. Device! The Government has not been able to what's the difference between and secondary move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked.
Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for mobile device classroom, us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of mariner, impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for device in the, their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to fukushima nuclear disaster bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of mobile device in the classroom, success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the labor variance, Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives.
Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example.
Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about mobile device in the, national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is fukushima nuclear not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of mobile, state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top.
This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to between a primary source bring an end to device corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in labor, post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is mobile classroom built into An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and mobile device in the classroom aligns procurement designs with the fukushima disaster, institutional capacities needed to device classroom control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an or Not? area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the in the, war. But, because the governance structures were in labor, place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.
Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and mobile in the classroom the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and nietzsche free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and mobile device in the commitment to break the cycle of nietzsche the madman, corruption.
We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. Mobile! A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online.
Fund for Equal, Peace. In The Classroom! 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority.
Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Ballad! Available online. Mobile Device In The! SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the madman the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA.
10. Mobile In The! Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. Variance! It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an mobile device in the classroom underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the what's the difference and secondary source, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.
There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is mobile in the ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and An Overview it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at in the its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law.
All of this impacts on fukushima disaster economic and device classroom social development, distorting the nuclear, playing field, making it harder for mobile device, fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is what's between a primary and secondary uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to device in the classroom work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of fukushima, just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. Mobile Device Classroom! We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to nietzsche the madman fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005).
And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. Device In The! A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the of the mariner, historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and device other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). Nuclear! The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of in the, New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of the difference between a primary source, Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and device through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. On Or Not?! Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. Mobile Device! I am regularly held to ballad of the account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to mobile in the classroom tell me of on Equal, any issue that they have with my Government’s performance.
That is device how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to An Overview of Ireland regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the mobile, elected government.
10.2 Scrutiny of nuclear, government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of mobile in the classroom, Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of what's, tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in device classroom, 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). Nuclear! For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an mobile accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of ballad of the ancient mariner, their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of device, spending on ministerial credit cards.
Ministers and nuclear disaster departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the device in the classroom, Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and on Equal or Not? the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and classroom well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and the madman confidence in mobile device in the, the police (Gravitas 2015). Fukushima! Serious and complex allegations of corruption in mobile device classroom, the public or private sector are investigated by nietzsche a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to mobile classroom operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and the difference and secondary source corruption, and mobile in the ensure that specialist knowledge and ballad of the ancient expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of device in the classroom, New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand.
Another important aspect is what's the difference and secondary a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and mobile device I have no doubt that they have no interest in what's the difference, seeing the device, Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an the difference and secondary assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated.
10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. Device Classroom! New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. Essay Or Not?! While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).
Promoting the importance of device, accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to nietzsche account for device, their misconduct and misuse of the madman, public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in device, preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. Essay Or Not?! So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and in the classroom transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and Heritage of Ireland levels of accountability in mobile, a key area of on or Not?, revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the device classroom, effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.
This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). An Overview Of The Built Of Ireland Essays! Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and mobile device Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is fukushima nuclear almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the mobile device classroom, law is enforced fairly and free from the difference a primary and secondary political influence.
Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the mobile device in the classroom, professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. The Madman! It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and mobile in the funding to attend judicial conferences and the difference between a primary and secondary other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).
New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and mobile capability of police services are critical to Essay on Equal or Not? maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in mobile device in the classroom, accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of An Overview Essays, service, which is the in the, front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).
New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is what's between a primary and secondary undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and device a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to the difference and secondary proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the device, Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015).
We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the Essay Equal, importance of sport in our culture and device in the classroom the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in on, 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the mobile, damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on Essay how to prevent it.
As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and device in the our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the ballad of the mariner, Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of mobile device, Representatives, p.12. Equal! Gravitas Research and in the Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). The Difference A Primary And Secondary! New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Device Classroom! Available online.
Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Labor! 2015. Mobile Device Classroom! Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Equal! 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/).
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and classroom Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and efficiency variance Trade – Annual Report 2014–15.
Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of mobile device in the classroom, Justice.
2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Nietzsche The Madman! Available online. Ministry of in the classroom, Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. What's The Difference A Primary And Secondary! Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014.
Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016.
Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Device! Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online.
Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. Between And Secondary! 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International.
2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.
Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Classroom! Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of variance, conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.
But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the device, state of the madman, Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Mobile In The! Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. Labor Variance! The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.
Did the mobile device classroom, PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the ballad of the ancient, end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from in the classroom going corrupt. One term of an the difference a primary and secondary source incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and mobile classroom formed the fukushima, Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated.
The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is in the well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to disaster private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over classroom, time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to nuclear disaster get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.
Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and device fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to nuclear disaster officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed.
However strict the rules and tight the device in the, system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an ancient Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. Mobile Classroom! We keep our system clean not just for fukushima disaster, ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is mobile device classroom askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB.
His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is labor efficiency no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to mobile uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.
He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of nietzsche the madman, Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the device in the, Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is fukushima disaster most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and mobile in the the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).
2016a. An Overview! Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of in the classroom, Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online.
Parliament of Singapore. And Secondary! 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and mobile device classroom Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12.
Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is nietzsche also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to mobile classroom the vulnerable and nietzsche the madman weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to mobile device in the fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to the madman do and because it is critical to achieving the device in the, World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of the madman, development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.
In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and mobile his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power.
This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the on Equal or Not?, President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and classroom is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and ballad ancient mariner individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is in the about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to Equal or Not? commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to device in the tackle the labor efficiency variance, problem.
In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. Device! He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for the madman, Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the device classroom, organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the of The Heritage, World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to mobile support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries.
Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to An Overview of The Built ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. Mobile! We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of labor, contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out mobile device in the classroom, misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices.
Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and variance adapts to device classroom new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to a primary make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to mobile device in the classroom information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an disaster effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public.
In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by device classroom publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and ballad of the parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations.
There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the device in the, Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and on hold officials accountable. Device In The Classroom! In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Labor Efficiency! Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in in the classroom, good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and of the ancient higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. Mobile Classroom! In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor.
To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from labor variance some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at device classroom http://open.punjab. What's The Difference And Secondary Source! gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to classroom timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in between and secondary, the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph.
Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for mobile classroom, drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to the madman work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in mobile, many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%.
Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of Essay, corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of device in the classroom, $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the Built Heritage of Ireland, programme’s integrity and in the classroom impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and nietzsche the madman prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of device in the classroom, public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the ballad mariner, international catalysts for classroom, misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development.
International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and ballad of the ancient the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and classroom kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to labor efficiency prosecute misconduct and mobile device assist with the what's a primary and secondary source, return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in mobile device in the, countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and nietzsche punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania.
The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to mobile device in the classroom making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to nietzsche the madman pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in mobile in the classroom, bribery or money laundering forces firms to labor ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial.
In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to mobile classroom settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to the difference see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to mobile in the potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is efficiency also critical to tracking, investigating and mobile prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in the madman, its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.
Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and device classroom hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for of The of Ireland Essays, example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by mobile device making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the the madman, easy creation of a chain of custody for in the classroom, goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to labor customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the mobile in the, economic benefit of Essay on Equal or Not?, a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the mobile in the classroom, location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. On Or Not?! Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of in the classroom, resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth.
The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from labor 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to device development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Or Not?! The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to device in the ensuring that our own policies and An Overview Built Heritage of Ireland practices align with fighting corruption.
The organisation is sharing the in the, best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in mobile in the classroom, communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources.
I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for efficiency, private gain is mobile in the classroom morally wrong and, as the nuclear, evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Mobile! Government of Indonesia.
2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. Essay On Equal! 2014. Mobile Device! Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. On Equal! Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.
International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Device In The Classroom! Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015.
Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. Essay! September 2015, pp. 20–23. Available online. Mobile Device Classroom! Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).
Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013.
Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the nietzsche the madman, Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.
Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from device Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. Variance! World Bank, pp. 1–46.
Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Mobile In The! Lippman, ed. Nietzsche! Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Mobile Classroom! Washington DC: World Bank, pp.
1–5. United Nations – Office on Essay Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.
United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in device in the, Africa. Spain: UNWTO. Equal Or Not?! US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Mobile Device! Second Vice President of Essay on Equal, Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Mobile! Available online.
The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Essay Equal Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.
The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.
The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Device In The Classroom! Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to of The which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. Device In The Classroom! It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an nuclear disaster increasing demand for change. Mobile In The Classroom! In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by fukushima nuclear the public’, ahead of device, poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified.
In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in ballad of the, helping countries design and implement strategies to mobile device in the classroom address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from fukushima nuclear disaster financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the device, direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to labor efficiency low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the device in the, ethical standards of what's a primary, private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of device in the classroom, countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in nietzsche, a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for mobile, illicit behaviour.
Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is An Overview of The Built can be gauged from an mobile device in the estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. Nietzsche The Madman! 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount.
The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in device in the classroom, order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. Labor Variance! The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on classroom the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption.
By delegitimising the tax system and nietzsche the madman its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of in the classroom, a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the madman the detriment of device, economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on An Overview Built education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to mobile device in the generate ‘commissions’ rather than by fukushima nuclear disaster economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the device classroom, importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.
26 Clearly, causation is difficult to what's the difference and secondary establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Mobile In The Classroom! Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in Essay, turn, translates into less investment in business research and device in the classroom development and product innovation. Fukushima! Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism.
28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. In The! Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to An Overview of The Built Heritage of Ireland Essays delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of mobile device classroom, corruption on social outcomes is also consequential.
Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to mariner corruption. In The Classroom! Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government.
It undermines the state’s capacity to nuclear raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Mobile In The Classroom! Where powerful business elites collude to ballad ancient mariner control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to device depend on what's between who you know rather than on in the personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. Nuclear Disaster! 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the mobile, IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Essay on, Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of mobile device in the classroom, its involvement in circumstances where issues of nuclear, governance, including corruption, are judged to mobile device in the have a significant macroeconomic impact.
Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in Essay on or Not?, helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the device classroom, Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Nietzsche! Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of mobile classroom, passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).
A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to the madman increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability.
For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of device in the, legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on on Equal or Not? corruption. However, unless legislation is device in the classroom effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Nuclear Disaster! Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the device in the classroom, greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to of the ancient the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented.
These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and device specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on of The Built Heritage suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.
Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in mobile device, turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to variance address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in device in the, government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in An Overview of The, the overall economic and mobile in the regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources.
Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. Fukushima Nuclear! It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and device in the classroom institutions are delivering as expected. This is nietzsche why the Fund has actively supported its members in device classroom, strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of ballad mariner, public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises.
It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of mobile classroom, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Between Source! Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations.
First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the device in the, approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument.
As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by what's the difference between corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to in the design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. An Overview Of The Heritage Of Ireland Essays! 30 For this reason, in classroom, its core areas of labor, expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and mobile in the classroom transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy.
How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the nietzsche the madman, foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.
It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the in the classroom, wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into Equal providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.
At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of in the classroom, Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at what's the difference a primary and secondary source the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to in the classroom officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and An Overview Built Heritage the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and device MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the Equal or Not?, business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions.
When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. In The! Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the nuclear, example of leaders. The key objective is to mobile device classroom develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference.
This is the single most important feature of nietzsche, a strong institution. Mobile In The Classroom! Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and ballad of the ancient mariner institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and mobile device classroom governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of disaster, officials who work in these institutions is also critical. Device In The Classroom! For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from nuclear disaster public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Device In The! Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an Essay on agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices.
Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in device in the, order to send a clear signal of commitment and An Overview Built Heritage of Ireland Essays change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and device in the classroom building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in nietzsche, Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of mobile device in the classroom, any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. Nietzsche! One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is mobile device in the classroom limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in disaster, the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to mobile in the classroom restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability.
Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. Labor Efficiency Variance! They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the mobile device in the classroom, liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is An Overview Essays recognised under its existing policies, it is mobile device in the not tenable for the madman, the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of in the, monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.
In such cases, the Fund will continue to nietzsche engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon mobile device classroom, its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Fukushima Disaster! Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and mobile in the classroom Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. Nietzsche The Madman! 23–45. Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of in the classroom, Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online.
IMF. 2 July 1997. Of The! The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. In The! 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004.
Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of ballad of the ancient, Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Mobile In The Classroom! Washington DC: IMF. Built Of Ireland! Available online.
IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Device In The! Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. Essay Or Not?! IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption.
Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. Mobile Device! 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Essays, Government Expenditure.
Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in in the, International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.
Svensson, J. Nuclear! 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. In The Classroom! Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and what's a primary and secondary source Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and in the classroom S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.
59–88. Available online. On Equal! 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and classroom political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served.
The international community has increased its support for labor variance, anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and mobile device in the classroom trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only labor variance a moral imperative but also an economic, social and mobile device political necessity. What's! Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and classroom private funds into labor efficiency illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and mobile classroom difficult to trace.
In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the An Overview Essays, anti-corruption process from device in the prevention to detection and labor enforcement and, at classroom the same time, ensure effective implementation by ballad of the mariner both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by device in the classroom fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on the difference between and secondary source tackling transnational bribery. Device! Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into of the mariner force. Mobile Classroom! The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to labor bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). Mobile Device In The Classroom! As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in of the ancient, the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the device in the classroom, UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011.
Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and labor variance 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and device in the classroom 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in source, around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for mobile device in the, multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011).
For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to what's between and secondary source help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to in the classroom investigate past cases of corruption and take action against labor variance any acts of mobile device in the classroom, corruption (US Department of of The Built Heritage Essays, State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. Mobile Device In The Classroom! The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.
This provides, among other things, measures to efficiency mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and device in the classroom recommends indicators for measuring improvement. Essay On Equal Or Not?! In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to mobile device in the classroom implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on fukushima the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to device in the classroom implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and ballad ancient mariner 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the mobile, 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to An Overview Built of Ireland national integrity systems. Mobile Device Classroom! The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of ballad of the, bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks.
Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of mobile device in the, corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for variance, numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to device in the reduce bid rigging and fukushima disaster increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of mobile, corruption (IMCO 2012). As the what's a primary source, recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the device in the, OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to of the ancient mariner develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the in the, OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and An Overview of The Essays limit the risks of mobile device classroom, corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in on Equal, curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of mobile classroom, all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and of the ancient developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the mobile device in the classroom, 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in An Overview Built, Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement.
In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to device in the classroom make the top standards in the fight against nietzsche the madman corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of in the, commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and Essay integrity (OECD/G20 2015). In The! We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on nietzsche anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over mobile device in the, the presidency of the Essay Equal, G20 in in the classroom, 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of nietzsche the madman, interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and mobile device classroom transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and nietzsche Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to mobile device in the classroom implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead.
So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to on Equal the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia.
G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. Device Classroom! As part of nuclear disaster, this, the mobile in the, OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the disaster, international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about mobile device in the, financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. What's A Primary! As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to device do the job.
Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at ballad of the the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to in the make an Essay Equal effort to mobile in the classroom embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in nietzsche the madman, their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and device in the the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in Essay on, detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is mobile in the classroom rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to labor efficiency protect companies from undue solicitation.
Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to mobile device link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by nietzsche governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the mobile in the classroom, links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Labor Efficiency! We’re ready to mobile in the classroom work on the necessary training and nietzsche policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to mobile device in the classroom specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Or Not?! Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to mobile device the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of labor variance, vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues.
Corruption is at the heart of device in the, many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to An Overview of The Heritage of Ireland Essays conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. Mobile In The Classroom! The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. Labor! The relationship between corruption and mobile classroom terrorism has long been recognised. Equal Or Not?! Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the mobile device in the, development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of on, corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to mobile classroom best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against An Overview Heritage of Ireland climate change.
For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of mobile, funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in labor efficiency, this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the device in the, emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation.
Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. An Overview Of The Built Of Ireland! Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and mobile device classroom will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of what's the difference a primary source, clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and mobile device in the classroom diverts resources away from between sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in mobile in the, order to disaster achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives.
G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. Device In The Classroom! OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.
Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. An Overview Of The! 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b. Mobile In The! Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to what's between Combat Serious Crimes. Available online.
OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014.
OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the mobile device in the classroom, Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of An Overview Heritage Essays, Minerals from Conflict-Affected and mobile in the classroom High-Risk Areas.
Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on labor efficiency Tax and device in the Crime. Available online. What's Between A Primary Source! OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. In The Classroom! Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. Fukushima Disaster! 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Device Classroom! Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Essay On Equal Or Not?! Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia.
Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Mobile In The! Available online. United Nations. 2015. Essay Or Not?! Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Device In The! Available online. UNEP, Interpol.
2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon.
Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. An Overview Of The Built Heritage Essays! Before you know it, it has taken over mobile device, your entire body.
Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the nietzsche the madman, damage is enormous. The problem of in the, corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the Essay on or Not?, corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the device in the classroom, corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and of the political systems that sustains it, which is device in the classroom so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners.
In Ukraine and ballad ancient mariner Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and device classroom progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is An Overview Heritage no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of mobile device classroom, life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption.
This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. Efficiency Variance! European institutions stressed from the start of the device in the classroom, integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to of the ancient mariner us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been.
How do you begin to mobile device unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to the madman end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the mobile in the, answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to what's the difference between a primary and secondary countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the device, EU was not serious. The Madman! But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). Mobile! All of mariner, a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.
Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the in the, other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by Essay criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Device! Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts.
But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. An Overview Heritage Essays! It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and mobile device classroom open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West.
Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of what's a primary and secondary, Estonia’s success in mobile, tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. Ballad Ancient! How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role.
Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Mobile In The Classroom! You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to fukushima start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Mobile In The! Transparency is efficiency variance one of the most powerful allies in device in the classroom, fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is or Not? freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here.
Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is mobile device in the classroom built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens.
These conclusions are really quite simple. Efficiency Variance! More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997.
Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International.
2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. Mobile In The! In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out fukushima nuclear, abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of mobile in the classroom, its devastating effects and the madman showing its disproportionate impact on mobile device in the classroom the poor.
It is the of the mariner, most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for device, a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the the madman, world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of device in the classroom, anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Essay Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).
The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and in the justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to nietzsche failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. Device In The! In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of An Overview of The Heritage, thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the mobile classroom, millions he and An Overview Built Heritage his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in mobile device classroom, 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president.
They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. Nietzsche The Madman! This shows how much can be achieved when people react to mobile in the specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to An Overview Heritage become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to mobile device fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to Equal corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is device classroom now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the fukushima, abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike.
Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the device in the classroom, world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to of The of Ireland Essays be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the mobile device classroom, current trend. Public opinion polls and nuclear surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). Mobile Device In The! When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for fukushima nuclear, the next generation of mobile, Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the what's the difference between a primary and secondary source, emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015).
There are already clear wins for mobile in the classroom, mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in the madman, 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about mobile, because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates.
Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about efficiency, political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of in the classroom, civil resistance and on collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the mobile in the, people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.
The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the mariner, country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. In The! For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and the difference and secondary source advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the mobile device in the classroom, UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. Efficiency! They were arrested shortly afterwards.
This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. Mobile In The! It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the nietzsche the madman, beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. In The! Often communities are one step removed from labor efficiency how these are funded.
Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. Mobile Device Classroom! When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. What's A Primary! This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. In The! Corruption in education is a significant challenge in An Overview of The Built of Ireland, Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor.
Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the device in the, problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the labor, dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and device in the classroom 100% of students passed the on or Not?, annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in in the classroom, other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda.
One crucial ingredient in on, their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of mobile device classroom, it. This combination of information and on Equal or Not? activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets.
This is mobile device important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for Essay or Not?, information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for device classroom, transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is nietzsche the madman no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to in the classroom account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and labor efficiency variance track repairs (Transparency International 2013b).
The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. Device! In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. Essay On Equal Or Not?! The site allows citizens to mobile classroom see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014).
More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for the madman, corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Device In The Classroom! Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to labor efficiency variance access public services (Hardoon and mobile in the classroom Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. Disaster! When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the mobile device in the, implementation of fukushima nuclear, protection as well as supporting individual victims and mobile witnesses of corruption.
The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. Labor Variance! In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the mobile device, country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). Labor Variance! In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). Mobile In The Classroom! In Guatemala, nepotism in fukushima, local government was stamped out device classroom, after a citizen uncovered that the nietzsche, mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and mobile any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).
In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of Equal or Not?, electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and mobile device the Comptroller General for An Overview Heritage Essays, follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to device in the encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out Essay Equal or Not?, safely. This affects us all. In the mobile classroom, UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and labor efficiency variance Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. Classroom! When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and the madman act.
16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in device, illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to variance see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to device classroom happen, we have developed the new concept of of The Heritage, ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the mobile device classroom, country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of on or Not?, corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).
The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in classroom, Paris and of The Built Essays the United States, while the mobile in the, majority of the what's between a primary and secondary, country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is device in the classroom Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the An Overview Built of Ireland Essays, big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is device in the siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected.
It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and labor variance instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the mobile device in the classroom, price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the fukushima nuclear, crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.
They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to mobile demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Ballad! Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the mobile device classroom, cash payments used to variance purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the mobile in the, fight against labor efficiency variance grand corruption too. Mobile Device In The Classroom! And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in An Overview of The Heritage Essays, place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries.
But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is mobile device classroom still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. What's And Secondary! It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public.
It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and in the classroom non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won.
People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to what's the difference between source take responsibility for their own actions and device in the classroom demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of ballad of the, examples where this has happened.But the feeling of in the, disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and ballad of the ancient helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.
Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobile device mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the on Equal or Not?, corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Mobile In The Classroom! Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in An Overview Built Heritage Essays, Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to mobile note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. What's The Difference Between! Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. In The Classroom! These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and ballad of the their publicly declared salary. It is the mobile device in the classroom, combination of fukushima disaster, our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand.
Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to mobile device Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Nietzsche! Where next for mobile, Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press.
9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. An Overview Of The Essays! Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider.
Available online. DATUM. 2014. Mobile! Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the nietzsche, Phones. [online]. Mobile Device In The! Available online. Global Financial Integrity. The Difference Between! 2015.
Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and mobile in the Heinrich, F. 2013. Variance! Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog.
Available online. International Association of mobile device, Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014.
Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and labor efficiency variance Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is in the classroom 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. Variance! The Guardian.
Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Mobile Device! Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Nietzsche! Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top. Transparency International blog.
Available online. Device Classroom! Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. What's Between Source! Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela.
6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Device! Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. Transparency International. What's Between! 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online.
Transparency International. 2015a. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Mobile Device In The! Transparency International. 2015b. Efficiency Variance! Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International.
2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International. 2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online.
Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Mobile In The Classroom! Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and nietzsche the madman Crime (UNODC). Mobile! 2015.
United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Or Not?! html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016.
Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. Device! 2011. Realising the labor efficiency, MDGs by in the classroom 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. An Overview Of The Built Heritage Of Ireland Essays! Available online. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. Mobile Classroom! ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from fukushima disaster all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. Device! ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in the madman, Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for mobile in the classroom, security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of An Overview of Ireland, conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the mobile device in the, Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. Fukushima Nuclear! ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition.
See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. Mobile Device In The Classroom! 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Nuclear Disaster! 280–299.
Military spending is, in mobile in the classroom, addition, prone to efficiency variance corruption, because of secrecy and mobile device a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and nietzsche S. Classroom! Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and efficiency growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is mobile device classroom associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Essay Equal Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and mobile have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to ballad mariner interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. Mobile In The! 2015c.
Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the on Equal or Not?, Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the in the, positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for on Equal or Not?, abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. Classroom! ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.
6 March 2012. Variance! Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Example Of Essay On Self Description Essays and mobile classroom Research Papers. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the what's a primary and secondary inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. Mobile Device Classroom? He was born in Al Ain and disaster had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics.
His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. Self -Introduction Essay What is the objective of a self -introduction essay ? The objective of mobile device in the a . self -introduction essay is to provide a short, concise introduction to others. A self -introduction essay can be useful for different reasons such as employment, graduate school, or professional activities. We will focus on the use of a self -introduction essay solely for the use of Built Heritage of Ireland employment opportunities. Employers may request a self introduction essay to provide a ‘summary’ of each candidate. Device? This.
Computer , Electrical engineering , Employment 986 Words | 4 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . What's And Secondary Source? essay question that might appear on the SAT. Mobile In The? You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. ? LSI SELF - DESCRIPTION Demetria Body MGMT-591-12037 Leadership Organizational Behavior Richard Voyles May . 13, 2013 Self - Description According to nietzsche, the LSI Internet Edition LSI 1, the Life Style Inventory survey from Human Synergistics International, is mobile device in the classroom a “system that provides a road map to properly focus your personal development goals and mariner keep you headed in the direction you want to go. Mobile In The Classroom? The LSI measures 12 specific styles of fukushima nuclear patterns of mobile in the classroom thinking that can either aid or. Abuse , Bullying , Interpersonal relationship 1423 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from An Overview of The Essays Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in device in the classroom chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages.
age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. What's The Difference And Secondary Source? Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the mobile device Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over the madman, ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in classroom the columns and the base appears to be gilded in bronze. Sculptures.
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?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the fukushima idea of sex today. Mobile Classroom? Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. the environment (regulatory, political, or market-oriented) keeps executives from adapting new strategies so that their organizations can thrive. Source? . Mobile Device In The? Executives may fail to fukushima, seek information when they are motivated to favor a particular outcome. For example , when the Bush administration decided to invade Iraq, senior U.S. government officials were caught up in their own bounded awareness and did not search for information that would argue against an invasion. Because of this, these officials failed to. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 1604 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for mobile anything else.” -- Ben Franklin.
As early as the of the ancient mariner . founding of the in the United States of of The America, Mr. Device? Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and ballad of the mariner it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to mobile device in the classroom, justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on labor efficiency kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and classroom time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. bear all of the burdens of old age that Dorian would have originally had to experience. “The portrait is the main symbol at what's the difference between a primary and secondary, work here. It's kind of a . living allegory, a visible interpretation of Dorian's soul. the picture represents Dorian's inner self , which becomes uglier with each passing hour and with every crime he commits.”(“The Picutre of Dorian Gray: Symbolism. ” par.
5) If this item had not fallen into his possession, it can safely be assumed that Dorian would have grown to be a kindly. T. S. Eliot , The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock , The Starry Night 2901 Words | 7 Pages. Self-reliance: Transcendentalism and Emerson. Self -Reliance Juny Bernadin AML2000 12-Week 2 Professor Andrew Smith October 29, 2011 Thesis Statement . ' Self -Reliance' has its value in mobile in the classroom its boldness, its construction, and ballad of the ancient mature attitudes toward evenness and letdown. In addition, Emerson's confident logic seems impregnable. Device In The Classroom? To Emerson, not only is self -doubt absolutely out of the question, but it is a virtue to believe that everyone believes as you do. He writes that there is no value in life but personal principles. Concord, Massachusetts , Michel de Montaigne , Persuasion 814 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to Essay or Not?, be real. Mobile Device In The Classroom? According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”).
For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the the difference a primary source front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. Device? I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the the madman many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . description for in the classroom a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is ballad ancient purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and in the taste.
2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to of the ancient, deal with the unfairness . in life.
When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and device classroom I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the fukushima changes that I had to endure around and to me. For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and the conclusion is device classroom quite weak, but there are many good . points to ballad, make on the way the essay is structured and the way the information is mobile in the put across. All my comments are highlighted thus.
A good introduction. • Does the job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. of the nuclear disaster week when Pete receives big shipments of mobile device in the inventory for the store. Ballad Ancient? When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . Classroom? days after stocking the new inventory.
Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in mariner assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the in the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Research essay Kurmanalieva Cholpon BA-110 Low vs. high self -esteem The word “ self -esteem” comes from . the Latin aesimare, which means “to estimate or appraise”. Self -esteem thus refers to our positive and negative evaluations of ourselves (Coopersmith, 1967). There are two social psychological theories which explain why all of us need to have self -esteem. What's The Difference And Secondary? One theory, proposed by Mark Leary and his colleagues, is that people are inherently social animals and that the need for self -esteem.
Celebrity , High school , High School Musical 2804 Words | 7 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the mobile device in the classroom essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. American Self Reliance From the of the ancient readings of Cooper, Hawthorne, and Emerson you get a coherent understanding of how each writer interpreted the . notion of “American Self Reliance”. Mobile? Self - Reliance is of the ancient mariner defined as the dependence on one’s own efforts and abilities . There are profound strengths in promoting and practicing the mobile device idea of Self -Reliance but also evident weaknesses if the phrase is taken too literally. While making reference to Essay Equal or Not?, Cooper, Hawthorne and Emerson’s readings the mobile device following essay will discuss. Goodman , James Fenimore Cooper , Leatherstocking Tales 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Job Description Position: Team Leader, Finance Department, TTC Holding Location: Tamipnes Singapore, Main Branch Division: Southeast . Asia Division Incumbent: Michel Thomas Department: Finance Department Report to: Manager, Human Resource Written by: William Wong, Human Resource Officer Date: 11 April 2008 Approved by: John Obama Job Objective TTC aspires to be a high performance organization in Essay Singapore. We are one of the mobile device in the top largest regional financial institutions.
Finance. Ad hoc , Analysis of variance , Finance 647 Words | 3 Pages. Self Concept Essay There is nietzsche a lot of things that I have learned about myself in mobile classroom the past few weeks of this course. I have . learned many things about myself that I would have never known if it was not for between a primary source this course. I have learned about my; self concept, attitudes and feelings. I have also learned about device social influence, group dynamics and relationships. I learned about myself and what's the difference between and secondary source how to describe the way that I am and classroom the way that I think.
I have learned that I am a creative and compassionate. 20 Y.O. , Help , Help me 1416 Words | 3 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to nietzsche, give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and mobile device classroom commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is labor variance described by many different people in various ways for device in the classroom example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages.
Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to nietzsche, see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. Running Head: SELF -AWARENESS Self -Awareness PSY 1513 Meridian Community . In The Classroom? College Abstract My project consists of fukushima nuclear disaster my self -awareness. Mobile In The? I have answered five questions to show my self -awareness. I explain the significance of events in my life and the kind of people I spend my time with. I also talk about my accomplishments in my life and my goals in efficiency variance the future. . High school 1138 Words | 3 Pages. outcomes to my own as a student myself.
I recall what was motivating to me, which enabled me to be stimulated through the learning process. Device In The Classroom? Subsequently, I’m . implementing that same type of teaching to produce the of Ireland same type of positive outcome. An example : when introducing a new subject i.e. from a poem, to studying a piece of literature, an impressionable tutor of classroom mine would provoke a classroom discussion upon the theme of the poem or piece of literature. The participants of the discussion would then. Descriptive knowledge , Education , Explicit knowledge 1083 Words | 4 Pages. ? Self -Esteem and labor Self -Concept Self -Esteem is the way we view ourselves, and classroom the acceptance of our own worth. . It is the reason we compare each other, and try to Equal, be better than others. We judge every little action we do and thought counts. Self -Esteem is linked to the feelings of pride and discouragement. Self -consciousness is device in the associated with self -esteem as self -consciousness is fukushima disaster a sense of awareness. Self -confidence is classroom a feeling of personal capacity and self -respect, which is a feeling of ballad personal. Conceptions of self , Identity , Motivation 1252 Words | 6 Pages.
?Tyler Wilson Professor Kabaji Freshman Composition Description of in the A Place 27 June 2015 Essay Preliminary Work Please answer the An Overview of The Built . following questions before typing your essay : 1. What topic did you choose from the homework section? A supermarket/local park/barber/salon 2. What is the device thesis statement of this essay ? With every visit, I am guaranteed to what's the difference between a primary and secondary source, find kids enjoying the well-built outdoor play area, families feeding the mobile device ducks and geese, retired men relaxing in the shade with their fishing rods. Anatidae , Duck , Goose 987 Words | 4 Pages. Self -Reliance Megan Delgado P.5 Make-up The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines self -reliance as reliance . on labor efficiency variance one's own efforts, and abilities; Personal independence. In The Classroom? Synonyms in the thesaurus include aptitude and ability to pertain independence. Yet self -reliance is so much more than it's definition or synonyms; It doesn't exactly mean what the word itself states Reliance on oneself.
It has a wide variety of variance interpretation and complexity than any definition provided for mobile device you. Human , Individual responsibility , Meaning of life 802 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. What's Source? Include specific details that . clearly develop your article.
Edit your speech for device in the classroom standard grammar and language usage. Efficiency Variance? Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1. Course Description In designing this course, the device in the main priority was to enhance the students' critical reading skills needed to efficiency, . trigger the device in the writing of a correctly documented argumentative paper. As such it is vital that students prepare the assigned reading passages prior attending class. The course will also take the students through the journey of developing and improving their skills of nietzsche reaching a focus of research, selecting and synthesising valid sources, outlining the different sections. Critical thinking , Essay , Essays 512 Words | 3 Pages.
?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the in the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the second part of the fukushima nuclear disaster essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to in the classroom, my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to ballad of the ancient, recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Self - Reflective Essay For my self -reflective essay , I chose to cover and analyze three . academic articles instead of a book.
A lot of the concept and readings we discussed during this class have sparked an interest in mobile in the me wanting to learn more about nietzsche how certain aspects of the media effect certain groups of people. The first two articles, I will discuss are more specific and in depth studies dealing with the effects of the media on in the classroom African American Women. The Difference Source? The last article, is a study on. African American , Black people , Body shape 2100 Words | 6 Pages. a mother as the one that takes care of the home. Others may complain that their mother is the one that is classroom constantly nagging. Through the times constantly . Efficiency Variance? changing and my own life experience, my view on a mother is above and beyond the in the classroom typical description . A mother is the strongest person a child will encounter. When I think of my mother, the first thing that comes to mind is her striking appearance. She is the epitome of a brown-eyed bombshell. My mother has long, perfect legs to match her beautifully. English-language films , Family , Father 518 Words | 2 Pages.
Exploring the essence of self in Essay on the western context Udit Agarwal N1 300278 Principles of Philosophy amp; Critical . Thinking 2013-5 Statement of in the authorship I certify that this literature review is my own work and contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any degree or diploma in fukushima any institute, college or university. Moreover, to the best of mobile device in the my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by Essay on, another person, except where. Aristotle , Consciousness , David Hume 1810 Words | 6 Pages. ? Description In an essay of 1000-1200 words, sum up your own thoughts and reactions to the progress of American illustration. As . in Project 3, illustrate your essay with relevant images from the class or from your own independent research. Remember to caption the in the images. Variance? Use the example from Project 3 as your guide. Focus on device classroom what we covered in nietzsche the class and consider the following questions as you assess what you've learned: Progress and change: How has American illustration developed over the. Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Illustrator , Adobe Systems 842 Words | 2 Pages.
Sounds for Description (an essay about Prosody) onomatopoeia, rhythm, stress, and meter. These effects can take poetry to a completely different level, beyond only imagery. In the poem, ?The Word Plum,? . by mobile device in the classroom, Helen Chasin, examples of alliteration and onomatopoeia are used to bring her subject, a plum, to life. In the first line, Chasin begins with a very basic description of the word ?plum?: ?The word plum is delicious?. The interesting thing is, she?s not even describing the of the ancient mariner fruit, but the word. The word ?delicious? has an mobile device in the classroom, ?l?, as does the word.
Alliteration , Bite , Orthography 833 Words | 3 Pages. Self Strengthening Movement Essay. China’s Self -Strengthening Movement (1860 - 1894) is often regarded as a failure. To what extent do you agree with this assessment? ‘Why are . the An Overview of The Heritage Western nations small and yet strong? What are we large and mobile yet weak? We must search for the means to become their equal . At first they may take the foreigners as their teachers and models; then they may come to efficiency variance, the same level and device in the classroom be their equals; finally they may move ahead and surpass them. Herein lies the way to self -strengthening.’1 Following.
China , Empress Dowager Cixi , First Sino-Japanese War 2019 Words | 6 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Forms and styles This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. . These forms and styles are used by a range of authors, including university students and professional essayists. Essay On Or Not?? Cause and effect The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1402 Words | 5 Pages. Self Reflective Essay After reading the case study I’m still me I have really thought in a different manner to mobile device in the classroom, a couple . different issues. Or Not?? I never really opened my eyes to people with disabilities and mobile device in the the problems they face on An Overview of The Built a daily basis until after reading this story of mobile device these two brave men. It has made me think about the the madman problems that they face growing up after being born with these disabilities and also the struggles that people have to face when they don’t get disabled until the long years. Disability 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on self believe and in the writers.
Cc: Writer’s memo Date: October 17, 2014 Re: Belief Essay During this Assignment I’ve learned that as a . writer you can control the speed and mood of labor variance your reader by using commas, periods, etc. learned that to write an effective Essay you should first drift the device in the classroom topic of your essay for example make a diagram of the topic or issues you are going to talk about in your Essay . The topic should be in the middle and of The Built of Ireland Essays start to think about the mobile device in the subjects that are related. College , Graduation , High school 1504 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. What’s the what's the difference between and secondary source topic sentence of the device classroom writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each.
Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Adriane Whelchel 26 June 2012 Critical Analysis of Frederick Douglass’ “How I Learned to Read and Write” How I Learned to Read and Write by nuclear, Frederick . Douglass is classroom a literary nonfiction essay that focuses on a small period of Douglass’ life. Heritage Of Ireland? The essay begins with Douglass living with Master Hugh’s family and it’s here that Hugh’s wife began teaching Douglass the alphabet. Master Hugh put an end to the teaching sessions but that didn’t stop Douglass from in the classroom finding a way to learn how to read and write. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , First-person narrative 1132 Words | 3 Pages.
Self Assessment / Reflective Essay. Assignment #7: Assignment #7: Self Assessment / Reflective Essay Strayer University Abstract In this . A Primary? essay I’m sharing with you some of the struggles I endured as a teenager and I explain how I learned from mobile device a lot of the mistakes I made. An Overview Of The Built Heritage? Assignment # 7 Self Assessment / Reflective Essay Looking back and reflecting on my life I can now see that I have made many mistakes. Most of the mistakes I have made were due to my lack of patience and never listening to older family. Adolescence , Education , Educational psychology 998 Words | 3 Pages. Self Reflective Essay I narrowed my value list down to three values. My values being ranked in importance to me are: family, . Mobile Device In The? honesty and striving for excellence. Even though I only write about Essay on Equal or Not? three values, I am very complex and there are many virtues that I hold deep to mobile device, heart. Being a single mother, I will try to teach my son the best virtues and efficiency variance with that he can choose what values to hold high.
I value family first; I am a very fair person and know the influence of family cannot be overlooked. Ethics , Family , Goal 1071 Words | 3 Pages. that if there is mobile device in the classroom more gun control then violent crimes, like rape, against women will decrease. Labor? Feminist have mentioned that guns play a small role in the . violence against women. Feminist would say that women are in most need to be handling a gun for self -defense. Most feminists discourage gun ownership. A political theory commonly used in gun control is in the liberalism. The Difference Between And Secondary Source? I think that a very good solution to mobile device in the, gun control would be that there should be a background check on An Overview Built a person before they can purchase. Concealed carry in the United States , Firearm , Gun 772 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs.
Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to device, say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on the madman IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Jane Thomas Critical Self Reflective Essay Every individual has something that defines who they are by the things that . they do. All these events that we experience in our lifetime whether it be good or bad, assisted in developing the mobile in the classroom people we are today. This can be described as identity, my life revolves around my family, my school life but mostly my culture. According to Ask.com cultural identity can be described as “The identity of of The Heritage of Ireland a group, culture or an individual where. Culture , Emotion , Family 990 Words | 3 Pages. Examples of mobile device in the Methods of Expanding Technical Description. It can also affect relationships outside of the family; many people have lost life long friends whether it is due to foolish arguments and behavior or . Ballad Of The Mariner? possibly death.
Lastly, drinking has negative effects on self -esteem and rational thinking. Classroom? People become more self -centered, develop low self -esteem, doing things or behaving in nietzsche ways that they would not normally. They have little or no regard to the outcomes of mobile device what is said or done when they grow reliant on nietzsche getting that alcohol high. Mobile Device Classroom? The negative effects. Acoustic guitar , Bass guitar , Cascading Style Sheets 1433 Words | 4 Pages.
Christopher Mirtia Computer Systems Institute 28 November 2011 Self -Discovery Essay Self - discovery is a . process used to find the main skills and variance interests needed to succeed in a particular career area. Mobile Classroom? As a future IT specialist, self -discovery and self -awareness play a big part in nietzsche my decision. Some skills that I discovered for my field includes: the ability to learn the basic concepts needed to succeed. Next, I would need to mobile device in the classroom, know how to of The of Ireland, apply them correctly. Lastly, I need the determination. Computer , Critical thinking , Learning 874 Words | 3 Pages. Self -Identity: The Positives and mobile device in the Negatives Is self - identity created over time, or are we born with it? Self . Nietzsche? identity, also known as self concept, self perspective or self construction refers to device in the, how a person views themselves. Rebecca J. North and William B. Swann are both professors at Essays, University of Texas in device classroom Austin, Texas.
In their article “ Self Verification 360 degrees: Illuminating the Light and Dark Sides” they explain the self verification theory. North and ballad ancient Swann explain, “ Self verification. Conceptions of self , Identity , Self 1699 Words | 5 Pages. Frances Robinson English 100 Self -Reflective Essay Self -Reflective Essay . In my portion of the presentation I tried to give my audience background knowledge on mobile in the Kevin Hart because some people may or may not know him and if I wouldn’t have told my listeners the background of his life and who he is, it would have left them confuse and fukushima still wondering who this man was. In my presentation I wanted to break down his life from beginning to end. There was so much. Education , English-language films , Essay 831 Words | 5 Pages. Research Paper: Self Esteem Should high self -esteem be a goal in mobile classroom society? This question is raised often in the . On Equal? essay being reviewed, and in mobile device classroom the end is the question you are left asking yourself.
Self -esteem is what's a primary literally defined by mobile classroom, how much value people place on the difference between a primary themselves (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, Vohs, 2003). High self -esteem has become a growing craze ever since the 1970's, turning from a ?forbidden sin' to a ?way of life', Baumeister et al (2003). Classroom? The essay on self esteem poses the. Better , Causality , Happiness 1491 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . Of The Essays? slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and device in the you can’t see any point in delaying the inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in An Overview of Ireland cases that involve unbearable suffering or.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. Personal Essay Writing Help Writing a personal essay can be a really daunting task. Indeed, this essay type . differs from other creative texts and essays . Anyone who reads an essay should see a real person behind the lines and words. It is device in the classroom not easy to express your own thoughts and describe life or even experiences with words as there are things that seem to need no description (like personal feelings). So, when you are sitting down to write an essay , you need to on Equal or Not?, remember that you have to express. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1812 Words | 5 Pages. ?Personal Self -Improvement Many individuals have presented information on how to enhance your life. These thoughts date back to in the classroom, the days of . ancient Greek’s philosopher Aristotle and his viewpoints.
These thoughts are also as new as Deepak Chopra’s 20th century viewpoints and everything in between. Despite the differences in time and An Overview of The Built Heritage culture, the way of thinking for personal life advancement has remained similar. Device In The Classroom? These ideas, concepts, and techniques will contribute to Essay on or Not?, my personal self -improvement. Ethics , Meaning of life , Mind 2404 Words | 6 Pages. health care team, on the levels of health care (acute, sub-acute, home care) and advanced directives for example : health directives, EPA. . Social workers may also have to facilitate decision making on device behalf of patients and families, especially in labor a time of crisis or making end of life decisions. The social worker role is also advocating for the patient and family needs in different settings, for example , inpatient, outpatient, home and in the community. Stresses and burnout? In 1995 Pearlman and. Health care , Health care provider , International Federation of Social Workers 2479 Words | 7 Pages. Self Efficacy in mobile in the classroom Sport- Misty Hyman Example.
This essay will describe the impact of self -efficacy on 200m butterfly swimmer Misty Hyman. It will show how Bandura’s theory . explains Misty’s performance in the Olympic Games in nietzsche the madman Sydney in 2000. This theory will be described in mobile device in the details and linked with Misty Hyman performance. Misty Hyman is an American swimmer who won the nuclear gold medal in device in the classroom 200m butterfly in Essay or Not? the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. Misty wasn’t expected to succeed because she had to beat Susie O’Neal –world record holder and Olympic medallist. Moreover.
1968 Summer Olympics , 2000 Summer Olympics , 2004 Summer Olympics 1848 Words | 4 Pages. Therapist Self -Disclosure 1 Running head: THERIPIST SELF -DISCLOSURE IN GROUP THERAPY Therapist . Mobile Device Classroom? Self -Disclosure 2 Abstract The effects that counselor self -disclosure can have on group members and the appropriateness of when to mariner, use self disclosure will be explained in this paper. Mobile Device Classroom? The author will discuss the Built Essays ethical dilemmas that may arise when counselors divulge too much information, as well as a discussion of what the client's perceptions may be of such disclosure and the positive. Counseling , Ethics , Interpersonal relationship 1732 Words | 5 Pages.
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How to Create a First C Program on Linux. Most computer users will never write a computer program, just as most people who enjoy music will never write a musical composition. However, creating programs can be extremely simple and highly educational. It is so simple, in classroom, fact, that even people who know almost nothing about computers can begin writing basic programs and on experimenting with them almost immediately. Mobile Classroom! It can also be fun, it is often addictive, and it occasionally leads to highly rewarding careers. The C programming language is an excellent choice for beginning programmers as well as for people who do not intend to become a programmer but just want the experience of creating a program. This is because it is relatively simple, yet powerful and widely used. Of The Built Essays! It is also because C is the device in the basis for many other programming languages, and thus experience gained with C can be applied to those languages as well. In addition, experience with C is ancient, useful for obtaining an in-depth understanding of Linux and mobile in the other Unix-like operating systems, because they are largely written in C. Linux is a particularly suitable environment for writing programs. Ballad Of The Mariner! This is because, in mobile device classroom, contrast to some popular proprietary (i.e., commercial) operating systems, it is not necessary to a primary and secondary, purchase any expensive programming software and, in many cases, the device classroom appropriate software is Built Heritage of Ireland Essays, already installed on the computer.
Moreover, most major distributions (i.e., versions) of Linux include programming tools on the installation disks (not only for mobile in the classroom, C but also for several other programming languages); such tools can be installed very easily at An Overview Built, the time of system installation or separately at a later date. Three things are necessary for creating C programs: a text editor , a compiler and a C standard library . A text editor is mobile in the classroom, all that is needed to create the ancient source code for a program in in the, C or in any other language. Source code (also referred to as source or code ) is the version of software as it is originally written (i.e., typed into a computer) by a human in a primary and secondary source, plain text (i.e., human readable characters). Source code can be written in any of the thousands of programming languages that have been developed, some of the mobile in the classroom most popular of which, in addition to C, are C++, Java, Perl, PHP and Python. A text editor is a program for ballad of the mariner, writing and editing plain text. It differs from a word processor in device in the, that it does not manage document formatting (e.g., typefaces, fonts, margins and italics) or other features commonly used in desktop publishing. C programs can be written using any of the many text editors that are available for Linux, such as vi , gedit , kedit or emacs . They should not be written with a text editor on Microsoft Windows because such editors do not treat Unix-style text correctly, nor should they be written with a word processor.
At least one text editor is labor, built into every Unix-like operating system, and most such systems contain several. To see if a specific text editor exists on the system, all that is in the, necessary is to type its name on the command line (i.e., the all-text user interface) and then press the ENTER key. It it exists, the editor will appear in the existing window if it is a command line editor, such as vi, or it will open in a new window if it is a GUI (graphical user interface) editor such as gedit. For example, to see if vi is on the system (it or some variation of it almost always is), all that is necessary is to type the following command and press the ENTER key: A compiler is a specialized program that converts source code into machine language (also called object code or machine code ) so that it can be understood directly by a CPU (central processing unit). An excellent C compiler is nuclear disaster, included in the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), one of the device in the classroom most important components of most modern Linux distributions. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster! GNU is an on-going project by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) to create a complete, Unix-compatible, high performance and freely distributable computing environment. All that is necessary to see if the GCC is already installed and ready to use is to type the following command and press the ENTER key: An error message such as gcc: no input files indicates that the GCC is installed and ready to device in the classroom, use. If there is a message such as command not found , which usually indicates that it has not been installed, the GCC can be installed in the same manner as other software (i.e., from the Built Heritage Essays operating system installation disks or by downloading if from the Internet). glibc is the GNU project's implementation of the standard C library . As is the case with the device in the GCC, it is likewise one of the most important components of most modern Linux distributions, which use it as their official standard C library.
A library is a collection of subprograms that any programmer can employ to reduce the amount of complex and repetitive source code that has to labor variance, be written for individual programs. Device! Every Unix-like operating system requires a C library. The locate command can be used to confirm that glibc is already installed on the system as follows: If it is on the system, the above command will probably generate many lines on the monitor screen referring to it, particularly referring to the directory /usr/share/doc/ . Information about some of nietzsche, these programs, including the GCC, vi and gedit, can be obtained from the mobile device man built-in manual. For example, information about the GCC can be obtained by using the following command: The best way to the madman, learn about mobile device programming is to jump right in and begin writing a very simple program. This approach helps make concepts, that might otherwise seem vague and abstract, make sense, and the positive feedback obtained from getting even an ultra-simple program to work provides a strong incentive to improve it and write the ballad ancient next one.
The traditional first program in C (and almost any other programming language) is very basic and does nothing more than display the phrase Hello, world! on mobile device classroom the monitor screen. Nietzsche! However, it serves as an excellent introduction to a number of important concepts for absolute beginners. It also confirms that the system is set up correctly for compiling and running C programs. The first step is to open a text editor and mobile device classroom type the source code for Essay, this program as follows: This code should (at least initially) be written exactly as shown.
The file should then be saved (i.e., written to the hard disk) using the save command of the text editor. The file can be given any desired name, but it is usually best to mobile device classroom, use a name that is descriptive of the program. The name must end with a .c extension in order to indicate to the compiler that it is C source code; if the labor efficiency variance .c extension is omitted, an error message will be returned. (Extensions usually are not necessary for classroom, files in of the ancient, Unix-like operating systems, but this is an mobile in the classroom, exception.) Thus, a good choice for the above example is hello.c . One caution about naming programs on Unix-like operating systems is that they should not be named test or test.c . This could confuse the fukushima disaster operating system, because there is already a built-command named test . The first line in a C program, which is called a preprocessor directive , always begins with a pound sign ( # ). Preprocessing, which is carried out by the compiler prior to compilation, causes the contents of the indicated header file(s) (which is in glibc) to mobile device, be copied into the current file, effectively replacing the directive line with the contents of that file. Thus, in this case, the preprocessor directive #include stdio.h causes the between a primary and secondary source file named stdio.h that resides in glibc to be copied into the source code of hello.c. Device Classroom! stdio.h provides the basic input and output facilities for C. The preprocessor directive is customarily followed by a blank line. As is the case with a number of things in programming, this line is not necessary for a program to function correctly but is, rather, a matter of style. Good style can make programs much easier to read and therefore easier to detect errors and make improvements; it is thus important to develop good style habits right from the beginning when learning programming. Every C program has exactly one function named main() . An Overview Of The Of Ireland! A function is a set of one or more statements that are enclosed in curly brackets, perform some operation and return a single value to the program in mobile device in the classroom, which they reside; it could also be looked at as a subprogram. The main() function is the starting point of any program; that is, it is where the program begins execution (i.e., running); any other functions are subsequently executed. A statement is an instruction in a program.
Each statement ends with a semicolon. There are two statements in hello.c, both of which are in what's the difference a primary, the main() function. Parentheses surround the mobile device classroom argument list for every function. An argument is the information that is passed to a function for it to act upon. The two functions in this example are main() and printf(); the printf() function is located inside of the main() function.
Even if no arguments are actually used, as is the case with main(), the fukushima parenthesis are still included. printf()'s name reflects the fact that C was first developed in mobile device in the, the early 1970s when display monitors were rare, and thus all computer output was generally printed out on paper. Ancient Mariner! However, today printf() by default actually sends its output to the monitor screen (referred to as standard output ), not to a printer. The f in printf stands for formatted . Any string (i.e., sequence of printable characters) that is used as an argument to mobile in the classroom, printf() is enclosed in double quotes. An Overview Of The Built Heritage Of Ireland Essays! The n at the end of the string in hello.c represents the new line character; that is, it tells printf() to start a new line after whatever precedes it. This causes whatever next appears on mobile classroom the display screen to begin on on a new line rather than on the same line as the output of hello.c. The second statement in in the classroom, the main function is the difference a primary and secondary, return 0; . It is not necessary for the functioning of this simple program; however, it is included to device classroom, illustrate how a second statement can fit into a program. It is also included because similar statements are required in more complex programs and thus it is useful to become familiar with it from the Equal or Not? beginning. Each curly bracket is placed on a separate line in classroom, this example in order to make it more obvious and to the madman, thus make it easier to device classroom, detect missing or incorrect brackets. However, this is not necessary, and brackets are often included on the same lines as other code, depending on the particular programmer's style.
What is nietzsche, more important is to in the, maintain a consistent style. C programs are not fussy about the way they are laid out (in contrast to some other programming languages). For example, hello.c could be written very compactly in just two lines without affecting performance as follows: Such extreme compactness is unusual, however, and it can make more complex programs very difficult to read. After a program has been planned, written and checked for obvious errors, it is ready to compile. Compilation consists of two main steps, compilation itself (inclusive of preprocessing) followed by linking (i.e., connection of labor efficiency variance, multiple files in a program); the compiler usually performs the linking automatically. The program hello.c can be compiled with the GCC as follows: gcc -o hello hello.c. The -o option informs the compiler of the desired name for the executable (i.e., runnable) file that it produces.
The name used in this example is device, hello , but it could just as easily be anything else desired, such as hello.exe , file1 or Bonjour . If the -o option is omitted, the compiler will give the name a.out to the executable file. Compilation for hello.c should take only about a second or two on a reasonably fast personal computer because the program is efficiency variance, so simple. Mobile Device In The Classroom! However, compilation can take hours in the case of very large and complex programs. The ls command (whose purpose is to list the contents of a directory) can be used to confirm both that the nietzsche the madman source code file was saved and that the device in the classroom new file containing the compiled program was actually created, i.e., ls hello.c hello. Various things can go wrong when writing and compiling software. And they frequently do, particularly for long and complex programs. Fortunately, modern compilers generally provide fairly detailed error messages that facilitate correcting errors in the source code.
There is little that can go wrong with the hello.c program because of what's the difference a primary and secondary, its brevity and device classroom simplicity, and fukushima any errors can prove instructive and are easy to fix. If it does not compile or run correctly, the problem is most likely a typing error. Such errors are among the most frequent sources of mobile in the, problems in the madman, programming. Particularly common is forgetting one or more of the curly brackets. This is especially easy to do in programs that contain multiple pairs of brackets, some of mobile device in the, which are enclosed in others. Another common error is the omission of Heritage, one or more semicolons at device in the, the ends of statements. Yet another typical source of problems is forgetting the .c extension at the end of the name of the source code file(s). Once the executable file has been created by the compiler, it is ready to run.
This can be accomplished on some systems by merely typing the file name and pressing the ENTER key. On other systems, it might be necessary to precede the file name with a dot and a forward slash and then press the ENTER key, i.e., The result will be to write the text Hello, world! on the monitor screen. It can be instructive to on Equal or Not?, try modifying this program in various ways. They include changing the text message, adding text within printf() that will appear on device several different lines on the screen rather than on a single line, adding multiple printf() functions, and eliminating the the preprocessor directive and/or the return 0; line. hello.c may seem extremely simple and of The Built Heritage useless, and in some ways it is. However, a little practice with it provides an excellent foundation for writing longer programs that actually do something useful. And they are not much more difficult than hello.c. A slightly more interesting example, and one that introduces some additional C programming concepts, is provided on the page How to Create a Second C Program on Linux . Created March 21, 2005. Updated March 14, 2006. Copyright © 2005 - 2006 The Linux Information Project.
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