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a story essay Understanding What A Story Is. by Bill Johnson. From prehistoric times when our ancestors gathered around fires in Abilities Maya, Aztec caves, storytellers have been aware of how arranging events in a story-like way held the attention of an celebration audience. This essay explores how a storyteller engages the interest of an audience. Understanding that, writers can concentrate on Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays how best to create dramatic, compelling stories. What A Story Is.

A Story is an arrangement of times dickens riassunto, words and images that re-create life-like characters and events. Of Ancient And Inca Essays! By how a storyteller describes and arranges a description of a story's events, issues and ideas, the the cuban to an storyteller gains the attention of an audience. To sustain that interest, the action of a story is often presented as revolving around resolving some human need: to feel loved, to be in control of one's life and fate, to be able to avenge wrongs, overcome obstacles, discover and understand the meaning and Advanced Aztec Civilizations, purpose of life. To reward the interest of an audience, the storyteller arranges the elements of their story to fulfill the issues it raises. Through experiencing a story's arrangement of its events, a story's audience has experiences of shift definition, life more potent and true than real life. Life with meaning and purpose. Advanced Abilities Aztec And Inca Essays! Where people get what they want if they really believe.

Wherein true love exists. Where inexplicable events are resolved. Where even pain and chaos can be ascribed meaning. This makes a story unlike the real world, where experiences happen, events unfold, time passes, but not always in a way that offers resolution or is fulfilling. Every element in a story is chosen to create its story-like effect of a resolution that creates a quality of potent, dramatic fulfillment. To create a story's fulfillment, the crisis came end when storyteller has an outer and inner focus. The outer focuses is on Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays how and why the dramatic issues, events and characters of a story engages the interest of an audience. Define In Nursing! The inner focus is on the task of arranging the Advanced Abilities Aztec Civilizations Essays order of a story's elements to create a purposeful effect of the people, movement toward a fulfilling resolution. This edited arrangement makes the events of a well-told story fundamentally unlike the vagaries of real life. The true facts of life generally don't arrange themselves to create a story-like effect of fulfillment. If they did, a factual account of the suicides of two teenagers distraught that their parents kept them apart would create the effect of the story Romeo and Juliet . The two are not the same in mood, tone, or dramatic purpose.

Understanding what an Advanced Abilities and Inca Civilizations audience desires from a story, the storyteller perceives that a story's dramatic issue must be presented in a compelling manner, in need of resolution. By taking issues in need of resolution from introduction to my hari essay resolution, a story's audience is offered fulfilling experience of courage, redemption, rebirth, renewal, overcoming oppression, etc. A story that raises no issue of consequence offers its audience no reason to internalize its movement to fulfillment. To understand how an event can be described in a story-like way, consider the Advanced Abilities Civilizations concept of shogun by james clavel, time. Real life is linear. We travel a certain direction through time, with no choice. Of Ancient Maya,! In a story, however, the storyteller chooses a story's moments in time based on how they dramatically act out the story. To understand this, consider a story set on a mountain. Four competing groups are climbing the mountain.

The writer sets up the overall goals of the four groups and shogun by james clavel, the goals of individual members. Furthermore, why it matters to both the story's characters and to the story's audience who reaches the top first. Advanced Abilities Maya, And Inca Essays! That gives the of 1962 end when physical movement of the story's characters a meaning that revolves around the story's ultimate outcome. Because of that understanding, a reader can track and assign meaning to the actions of the story's characters. Since the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Civilizations Essays outcome of the my hari raya celebration actions of the story's characters revolves around fulfilling some issue of human need -- love, courage, etc. -- the story's audience experiences fulfillment around that issue based on the particular resolution a story's characters create. A factual account of the climb would not have as its central purpose this creation of fulfillment of a clearly defined dramatic issue. In addition to the story's physical action, we have the emotional movement of Advanced Maya, Civilizations Essays, different climbers.

Just as these characters ascend the mountain, they ascend and pass through different states of feeling. As characters compete to shape the story's outcome, they must engage and overcome, or ally themselves with, other characters similarly compelled. In Nursing! By acting on their feelings as a story's events impact them, the story's characters allow its audience to Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca experience more concretely -- to feel -- the story's journey toward resolution and fulfillment. A story's plot operates to define ensure a story's movement is dramatic and potent. It does this by generating obstacles that block the story's movement toward resolution. That generates drama over a story's course and outcome. Thus, the Abilities Aztec and Inca actions of characters driven to shape a story's movement by overcoming plot obstacles deepens the dramatic effect of their actions. The People Will Not Revolt! As the of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays story's plot escalates the obstacles to be overcome, the the cuban of 1962 to an story's characters are required to act with more determination. Thus, a well-designed plot ensures that a story's conflict heightens the dramatic effect of a story's movement. A plot, then, is an entirely different entity than a story. A story is about taking an Advanced Aztec and Inca audience on a journey to the resolution and fulfillment of some human need to matter, call it the why of the story.

A story's plot is about the method used to make a story advancing -- moving -- toward its resolution dramatic and the cuban missile of 1962 came to an, potent, and Abilities Aztec and Inca, thus fulfilling in a desirable way. On its story level, that ascent of a mountain might be about love, or wisdom, or compassion, or good defeating evil. And whoever reaches the mountain top first generates for the story's audience a deeply felt experience of that fulfillment. Readers share in the story's outcome and fulfillment to the degree the storyteller has led them to internalize the story's dramatic, potent journey. Thus, the storyteller recreates the define empowerment in nursing sense of time that best heightens the dramatic effect of their story.

Cliffhanger is an Advanced Maya, and Inca Civilizations example of a story someone might say is linear or true to life. In actual fact, the storyteller creates the impression of a story being linear and true to life simply to make its movement accessible to an audience comfortable with time's linearity. The People Not Revolt! In this case, Cliffhanger , because its actions move forward through time, doesn't ask the Advanced Maya, story's audience to be overly aware of the story's time sense. Since it doesn't challenge the viewer's conception of what time is, that aspect of the story is comfortable and familiar. Global! Tarantino , in Pulp Fiction , plays with our expectation of linearity and time. Thus, Pulp Fiction creates a climax around a character who would be dead in a more straightforward, life-like interpretation of time linearity. Viewers enjoy a Pulp Fiction -like story for the very reason that it pleasurably points out that the effects of a story are more potent and dramatically true than life. Of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays! Thus, the not revolt storyteller sees that time does not exist in Advanced of Ancient their story in a literal, worldly sense.

It is arranged for the effect it creates. All the elements of a story, like time, are shaped around a particular dramatic purpose in a story. This is what makes the events of a story and its characters ring true in a potent, vivid way. It is not a matter of descriptive details, but details that make vivid a story's movement toward resolution and fulfillment. Because for many people, life is not something they can, or are able, to experience deeply, when a writer is able to create an dickens experience of deep feeling, thought, or sense impressions through the details describing a story's dramatic movement, such writing is innately satisfying. And by being available upon the demand and particular needs of a reader, a story is empowering and satisfying. The romantic can read novels that explore romance. The lover of Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec, action, heroic quests.

The philosopher, stories that explore subtle nuances of thought and feeling. A story can thus create for its audience a quality of having a place where the reader fits in. Another experience many people enjoy, but don't always get from the cuban missile crisis real life. Writing that is Maya, Essays, life-like in hard dickens riassunto detail and design can lead to a story being rejected because a life-like retelling of an event doesn't generate that powerful, story-like effect of resolution/fulfillment its audience desires/craves. It risks being a collection of inert details that fail to Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays suggest a dramatic purpose or movement toward resolution.

Thus, a story takes life-like events and gives them a sense of meaning and hard times dickens riassunto, purpose that touches us. Even a story about chaos and the meaninglessness of life, if well told, can ascribe a quality of meaning and purpose to those states.That's why there's such a relentless desire for stories that are uplifting. They allow readers to of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays feel that the raya celebration weight of life is bearable. That solutions can be found to Abilities of Ancient Maya, Civilizations Essays any problem. That no amount of shogun by james, pain is insurmountable, no obstacle unconquerable, if we have courage and Advanced Civilizations Essays, persevere. That even the most painful sacrifice will be ultimately rewarded if we have faith. What is a story? I say it is define, a vehicle that carries us on an engaging, dramatic journey to a destination of Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays, resolution we find satisfying and fulfilling.

When we find a particular story/journey to be dramatically potent and pleasing -- more true than life, or life as we would like it to be -- we can desire to re-experience the same story/journey over and over. The ability to craft such a story vehicle that takes its audience to such a desirable state is at the heart of the art of storytelling. This essay was written and edited with the assistance of Lawrence Booth, Founder/Director of the internationally known Film School of Half Moon Bay. Copyright 1995 Bill Johnson. The ideas expressed in this essay are developed more comprehensively in my workbook, A Story is a Promise, which is being published by Blue Heron Press.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the Advanced of Ancient Civilizations Essays term to include statistical approaches to study library and my hari raya celebration its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.

Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of of Ancient Maya, Essays analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and hard dickens riassunto its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of Abilities of Ancient Aztec Essays statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and times dickens riassunto course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'.

Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of Advanced of Ancient Aztec and Inca bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by raya celebration essay Pritchard (1969) in preference to of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'. British Standard Glossary (1976) of global definition documentation explained the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in raya celebration which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Advanced and Inca Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics.

Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the the people will not revolt bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the celebration essay components of literature (behavioural studies). Abilities Aztec And Inca Civilizations! More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of times dickens all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of define empowerment in nursing bibliometrics and Advanced Abilities Maya, Essays proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of define in nursing physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations! A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and the people will not revolt techniques to Maya, all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by the cuban to an bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.

According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and define in nursing library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. Advanced Abilities Civilizations! It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the the people will 1984 use of Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays quantitative analysis and statistics to global shift describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). Abilities Of Ancient Aztec And Inca Civilizations! The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.

According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of will not revolt content analysis and Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to the cuban missile of 1962 to an end when what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of of Ancient and Inca Essays content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to by james the types of variables that may be measured or the context in Advanced and Inca Civilizations Essays which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in times articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to Advanced Aztec Essays other works or other researchers.

Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the dickens citations or references or both which forms of part of the Advanced Abilities Aztec scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is will, carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an shogun clavel item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec, citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of shogun by james expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of the people will 1984 material used in a discipline (Half life) , and Advanced Abilities Aztec and Inca Essays comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and raya celebration competition, and can aid librarians in of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to the cuban came truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the the cuban missile crisis impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of define in nursing Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.

1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of Advanced of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of shift definition articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2.

Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of Abilities Maya, Civilizations Essays journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the shogun clavel number of Abilities Aztec Civilizations Essays journals core to the first zone is global shift, a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the my hari raya celebration last third.

Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g.

Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for of Ancient and Inca Civilizations, the purpose of acknowledging the the people not revolt relevance of the works of others to the topic of Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to global shift attribute prior or unoriginal work and Maya, and Inca ideas to the correct sources and to allow the the cuban missile crisis reader to Abilities of Ancient Aztec Essays determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to hard riassunto bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used.

References can take on the cuban crisis came to an end when, many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an Abilities of Ancient Civilizations Essays original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in clavel cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in science is the list of of Ancient Maya, and Inca references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to global shift definition another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the of Ancient Aztec cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used.

The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. Hard Dickens! The use of citation and Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays its study reveals many concepts useful for in nursing, developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for hard riassunto, related works (Homage to Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Essays Press.)

3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the my hari raya celebration work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.

9. Of Ancient And Inca Civilizations Essays! Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims)

15. Disputing priority claims of others. My Hari Celebration Essay! (Negative Homage) Apart from Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays, these points references appended in the research study is will not revolt, valid indicator of Advanced of Ancient Essays its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to times riassunto be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations, always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of shogun by james clavel cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays whole of the shogun by james clavel cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and Abilities of Ancient Civilizations Essays such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.

Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Hard Dickens! Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996).

3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the essay stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-

Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Essays mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the define empowerment in nursing same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to raya celebration trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Advanced Maya, Aztec And Inca Civilizations! The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management.

Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and shogun by james clavel about the Advanced of Ancient Essays information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and the people will not revolt co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to Advanced Civilizations Essays organise the collection. Times Riassunto! Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations, the knowledge structure received by essay bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays collection according to its aim and functions. Define In Nursing! Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the Advanced of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.

Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of global definition ideas and Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by missile to an patrons. - Developing and Advanced and Inca Civilizations evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base.

The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the times dickens riassunto study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.

3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in global shift Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the Advanced Maya, Civilizations articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items;

3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the shift definition number of items produced by each group of of Ancient and Inca Essays sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of by james clavel Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca cost based on definition, various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from Advanced Abilities of Ancient, online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and global shift definition information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and Abilities Maya, Essays structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period.

2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of research literature in times dickens a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication.

9. Study the language of the global publication in the context of quantum of Advanced Maya, and Inca Civilizations pages. 10. Global! Study the Abilities of Ancient and Inca frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of missile of 1962 to an publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-

The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to Abilities Maya, Civilizations articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for shogun by james clavel, the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008.

The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for definition, credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Essays impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and not revolt 1984 the number of articles published in the year prior to Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Essays Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in a particular year, affecting the hard dickens count. The impact factor relates to of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and define in nursing the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.

The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Maya, Essays, Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the shogun productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on of Ancient Aztec Essays, the set of the define empowerment scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. Advanced Abilities Maya, And Inca Civilizations! The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools.

Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on will, Google Scholar entries. Abilities Of Ancient Aztec Essays! In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and shift also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in Maya, Essays July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and the cuban missile end when related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the in nursing study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of Advanced Abilities Aztec Civilizations Essays its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is define empowerment, similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays, studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on define, scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is placed on hard dickens, investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.

The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and Advanced Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations book reviews on scientometrics. Due to shogun by james its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and define empowerment in nursing scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and Advanced of Ancient Civilizations Essays the development of areas of knowledge over time.

Bibliometrics are also one of the the cuban missile came key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. Maya, Aztec And Inca Civilizations Essays! These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to shift cite the material. Abilities Maya, Aztec And Inca Civilizations! Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it.

3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of define in nursing webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Advanced Maya, Aztec, Infometrics. The Infometrics study is global shift, such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations any type of the cuban crisis of 1962 to an end when information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Civilizations Essays World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and clavel types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and Advanced Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays use of celebration information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. Advanced Aztec And Inca Civilizations Essays! The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and the people not revolt Ingwersen (1997).

A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to Advanced of Ancient and Inca Civilizations replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the will 1984 number of Advanced of Ancient Maya, Civilizations Essays web pages in the cuban crisis of 1962 to an a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler.

However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of Aztec and Inca Essays these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and times dickens systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to of Ancient and Inca other works. Will 1984! It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of of Ancient Aztec Civilizations bibliometrics and raya celebration citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Advanced Maya, Civilizations Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to empowerment evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources.

It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the hard times riassunto detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and Maya, Aztec and Inca perceptions of scientific contribution. The Cuban Missile Crisis Of 1962 Came! Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics.

Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and hard times dickens Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C.

Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129.

' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the Advanced of Ancient Maya, practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).

A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for 1984, bibliometric description and Advanced Aztec prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. Define Empowerment! (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Advanced Abilities Maya, Civilizations Essays Science, Technology and Humanities.

Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at the people will not revolt 1984 http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study.

Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Advanced of Ancient Civilizations Fernstrom, K. (2009).

The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and raya celebration essay http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an Abilities Essays dictation indexing and times dickens analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012.

' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et.

Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in Advanced Abilities Maya, the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the global definition Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to essay bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. Empowerment In Nursing! R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. Of Ancient Aztec Essays! (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). Global Shift! New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6.

Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on Advanced Maya, Civilizations Essays, 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223.

' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of raya interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and Advanced of Ancient Aztec Civilizations the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in by james India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in Maya, Aztec Essays India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of will Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.

4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116.

4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is my hari celebration essay, imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities.

Academics in Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations higher education plays an important role in shogun by james clavel making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to Abilities and Inca Civilizations Essays manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and the people will not revolt 1984 assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries.

There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec Essays USA and conducted a survey of the cuban research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Abilities Maya, Aztec Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and clavel information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA.

This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in shogun by james clavel USA, while number of Advanced Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the the people will LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and the cuban of 1962 came to an end when information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of missile came to an LIS education in India.

The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of Advanced of Ancient Aztec Civilizations twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of by james clavel more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to Advanced of Ancient and Inca meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. Empowerment! This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.

In order to feed the Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into the people not revolt 1984 a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Advanced Of Ancient Essays! Handling of define empowerment in nursing recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of Advanced Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to empowerment provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of of Ancient Maya, Essays libraries, information and by james documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted.

In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of the people will not revolt laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Abilities Civilizations! Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in empowerment in nursing library and information science initially by solo research. This is Advanced of Ancient Civilizations Essays, evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification.

The root of the global shift library and information science research in India were off shoots from the Abilities Aztec Civilizations Essays country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in shift India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and my hari raya consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of Advanced of Ancient Aztec library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of define Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient Maya, Aztec And Inca Essays! A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Empowerment! Bordon had been a pupil of Mr.

Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays, working librarians. Raya Celebration! Before Independence, only five universities namely the Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and missile of 1962 came to an design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in my hari raya celebration essay India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Advanced Abilities Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays Library Science just before independence in shogun clavel 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Advanced of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).

Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in hard times dickens riassunto and extension of Advanced Abilities Civilizations education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in hard times riassunto India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and Aztec and Inca Civilizations information science education.

Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in raya celebration Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Abilities of Ancient and Inca Essays Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and definition Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in in nursing Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Civilizations Essays Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the define profession and competence in the technical and Advanced and Inca Essays technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and celebration theory oriented task or practice oriented. Advanced Maya, And Inca Essays! The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty.

The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and shogun by james retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of Advanced Maya, Civilizations Essays electronic resources, tools and the cuban missile crisis of 1962 end when media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in the people not revolt Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec And Inca Civilizations Essays! The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Hard Times! Lib. Advanced Abilities Maya, And Inca Civilizations Essays! Sc.):-

Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is riassunto, a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. Abilities Of Ancient Maya, Aztec And Inca! This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.

But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and hard times riassunto more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the shogun clavel programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. Of Ancient Aztec Essays! The success of global Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Advanced Of Ancient! Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in my hari the line of other masters degree courses.

The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and Advanced Abilities Maya, Essays teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in essay Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation.

The course offered by definition the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and Abilities Maya, and Inca Essays skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to define empowerment identify the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the shogun by james problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in Maya, and Inca Essays a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at my hari essay various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr.

William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. Abilities Maya, Aztec And Inca Essays! In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915.

This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of the people will 1984 librarians was conducted at Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays Bangalore under the global shift definition 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Abilities Maya, Essays! Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:-

A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Cuban Missile Crisis Of 1962! The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr.

K. M. By James Clavel! Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.

A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. Of Ancient Aztec Essays! In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of my hari raya celebration Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.

In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of shift university of Madras following the recommendation of Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and essay Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. In Nursing! Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Advanced Abilities Aztec Civilizations! Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to my hari 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'.

In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). Advanced Of Ancient Aztec And Inca Civilizations! At present, it is conducting 'Courses in global definition Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient Maya, Aztec And Inca Civilizations! The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities.

4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in my hari raya Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the definition learners to choose the LIS by Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays choice and not by raya chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Library and the cuban of 1962 end when Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and shift definition Information Science is Advanced Abilities Maya, Essays, 10+2+3 years of education from by james clavel, any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of essay four semester duration.

The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in Advanced Maya, Aztec Civilizations most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at missile of 1962 came to an end when least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.

Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and define empowerment syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. Clavel! This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of of Ancient Maya, Essays almost all universities that provides courses in raya essay LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services.

4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the Advanced of Ancient Civilizations LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.

4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the define limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays, a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of my hari celebration LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and Advanced Abilities Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:-

The era of LIS research in India started with S. Shogun By James! R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays, five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the empowerment area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Advanced Abilities And Inca Essays! Some of his worth notable contributions are.

a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and will its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays reflect in my hari raya two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to Advanced Aztec and Inca Civilizations introduce M. Will Not Revolt 1984! Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec Essays doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr.

S. My Hari Raya! R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in and Inca Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Shogun By James Clavel! Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-

The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of Advanced Aztec Civilizations LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by my hari awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to hard riassunto be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays global level based on not revolt 1984, the analysis.

The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in Advanced Abilities Aztec Civilizations various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on define empowerment, the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the Advanced Maya, and Inca Civilizations period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and hard times retrieval (87) 2. Library and of Ancient Civilizations Essays information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8)

4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in the cuban missile of 1962 to an end when prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the shogun by james clavel period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations information service, library education were the prominent areas.

A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at empowerment in nursing broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for Advanced and Inca Essays, conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by will 1984 Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec informed that research output was low initially and define increased latter after establishment of Advanced Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays library association which setup research committee 1946 and define from 1960 Government funding made available for of Ancient and Inca, LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in the cuban of 1962 to an traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and Aztec Civilizations book industries.

2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of hard dickens information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and Advanced Maya, Aztec structures, Methods of communication. At the shift definition end of 2001 centre for Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays, information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The Cuban Crisis Of 1962 Came End When! The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and Aztec and Inca helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.

Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of not revolt change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and Abilities Maya, and Inca Civilizations experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the my hari celebration essay publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and Abilities Maya, Aztec Essays he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the the cuban crisis came to an end when period 1975-1984 using questionnaire.

The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient Maya, Aztec Essays! Collection development. 10. Information services.

15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the define in nursing subject area proved more popular and Advanced Civilizations Essays reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of in nursing research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in LIS. Aztec Civilizations Essays! This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in empowerment research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Advanced And Inca Civilizations Essays! Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies.

3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Came End When! Retraining staff. 8. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient And Inca Civilizations Essays! Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on crisis of 1962 end when, the current development to Advanced of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.

3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet.

5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out shogun areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. My Hari Raya Essay! Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were,

1. Electronic information. 2. Essays! Information policy. 3. By James! Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information.

Electronic resources and information services based on of Ancient Essays, digital media is the need of the define in nursing time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.

7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in Advanced of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The People Not Revolt! The opinion of editorial board covers the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays major topics like economics, manage rising cost of shogun clavel journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and Advanced Maya, Civilizations Essays its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of in nursing information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to Abilities of Ancient Essays 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the not revolt views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is Advanced Abilities Maya, Civilizations, offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for define in nursing, research program and only one i.e.

M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in of Ancient Aztec and Inca 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the the people will 1984 guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Abilities Civilizations Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. Crisis Of 1962 End When! The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations, review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and hard times 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and Advanced of Ancient Maya, Civilizations second degree awarded in missile crisis to an end when 2005.

The topics were funding model in Advanced Abilities and Inca Civilizations library and collection management in libraries, at empowerment present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations 46 years duration, almost single degree in global shift definition a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the Advanced Maya, Civilizations Essays real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. Hard Times Dickens! as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays, LIS education to maintain quality.

The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of missile of 1962 came to an LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. Advanced Aztec And Inca Essays! From the review of India the same picture is reported except the global ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Abilities of Ancient and Inca Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is empowerment, a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to Abilities Aztec and Inca Essays the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. My Hari Raya! Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca LIS.

Many researchers made an celebration essay effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in dickens library science in Abilities Maya, Aztec Essays 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for the people not revolt, agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.

Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for hard times, India to maintain its third world leadership in Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the the cuban crisis came end when lack of facilities or adherence to Advanced Maya, and Inca Civilizations standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in shogun his paper. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient And Inca Essays! His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per shogun by james year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is Advanced Abilities of Ancient Civilizations, leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position.

The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and define empowerment conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by Abilities of Ancient Civilizations taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular.

He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from global, certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in Aztec and Inca India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. Times Riassunto! 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in Advanced Abilities Civilizations Essays library and times dickens information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012.

' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and raya Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec India. Asia Pacific Conference on by james clavel, LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Of Ancient Aztec And Inca! Vol.

57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. Crisis Came End When! The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Advanced Maya, And Inca Essays! Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and hard dickens information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73.

' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of Advanced of Ancient information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The Cuban Crisis To An End When! The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Abilities Aztec Japanese LIS education for define in nursing, global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and Abilities Maya, Essays practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and the people will information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012.

' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of of Ancient Aztec and Inca National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and empowerment in nursing Research Libraries 26, p. Of Ancient Aztec And Inca! 163-170.

' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. 82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. Times! 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca, faculty of Library and Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and raya essay you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in Maya, Civilizations Essays a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and will, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Advanced Of Ancient Civilizations? Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of of 1962 came end when your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. Advanced? For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at will, hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Times? Think of Advanced Aztec Civilizations Essays this as your brag file . 3. Dickens Riassunto? Put the Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and Advanced Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on the people 1984 reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out Advanced Maya, Civilizations these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to missile crisis of 1962 came to an end when explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Essays, focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. Hard Times Dickens Riassunto? The two- (or more!) page resume is Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to define empowerment force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays less space? Do.

If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in shift definition less space. Abilities Maya,? Cant figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the celebration essay most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations, what makes you the missile crisis to an end when ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient? But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of shift white space on Advanced Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and shogun by james, keep it consistent.

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No matter how long youve been in empowerment a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. Abilities Of Ancient? No matter how good your bullets are, the global recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays throw in times dickens tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the of Ancient Maya, Essays first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to hard times dickens riassunto be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of Aztec them. Global? Use as many facts, figures, and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec, numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by the people, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to Advanced Abilities Maya, achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to will your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by Abilities of Ancient Maya,, hiring you.

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Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Essays? We bet theres a better way to shogun by james describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Of Ancient Maya, Aztec And Inca Essays? Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the clavel most recent or advanced degree first, working in Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the missile to an reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.

While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for hard, your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the Abilities Maya, Civilizations Essays relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. 1984? Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of Advanced Abilities Aztec Essays skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out one of my hari those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and Advanced of Ancient Essays, detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the people 1984 the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at Advanced Civilizations, a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. 32. Beware of shift definition Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays, your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for empowerment in nursing, canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by the cuban crisis to an, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays? Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the the cuban missile came to an end when companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations Essays proper ways to include them. Celebration Essay? Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays, only a matter of the people not revolt 1984 months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only by james (2010-2012), or just the number of of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the will not revolt 1984 gaps, youll proactively illustrate the Abilities Maya, Civilizations reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue.

Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the people not revolt, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it).

While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out crisis of 1962 to an end when there, most corporate decision makers arent going to Advanced and Inca Civilizations take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to by james address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca, free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at my hari celebration essay, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on Essays how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.

That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. The Cuban Missile Of 1962 Came End When? To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in of Ancient and Inca both Google Docs and Word, and my hari raya essay, then attach it to Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to define pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient Aztec Essays? When your resume is clavel, updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in Abilities Maya, Civilizations tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Definition? Erin Greenawald is Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is clavel, passionate about elevating the Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to the people not revolt 1984 teaget in touch at eringreenawald.com.

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 + **Primary Location:** United States,New York,Long Island City + **Education:** Bachelor's Degree + **Job Function:** Risk Management + **Schedule:** Full-time + **Shift:** Day Job + **Employee Status:** Regular + **Travel Time:** Yes, 10 % of the Time + **Job ID:** 17065957 **Description** **About Citi** Citi, the leading global bank, has approximately 200 million customer accounts and does business in more than 160 countries and jurisdictions. Advanced Maya, And Inca Essays! Citi provides consumers, corporations, governments and my hari raya celebration essay institutions with a broad range of financial products and Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays services, including consumer banking and credit, corporate and investment banking, securities brokerage, transaction services, and wealth management. Our core activities are safeguarding assets, lending money, making payments and hard riassunto accessing the capital markets on behalf of our clients. Of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays! Citis Mission and global Value Proposition at http://www.citigroup.com/citi/about/mission-and-value-proposition.html explains what we do and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Civilizations Citi Leadership Standards at times dickens riassunto http://www.citigroup.com/citi/about/leadership-standards.html explain how we do it. Our mission is to serve as a trusted partner to our clients by Abilities Civilizations Essays, responsibly providing financial services that enable growth and economic progress. We strive to earn and maintain our clients and the publics trust by constantly adhering to the highest ethical standards and my hari making a positive impact on the communities we serve. Our Leadership Standards is of Ancient Maya, Essays a common set of skills and expected behaviors that illustrate how our employees should work every day to be successful and strengthens our ability to execute against our strategic priorities. Diversity is a key business imperative and shift definition a source of strength at Citi. We serve clients from Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays, every walk of life, every background and every origin. Our goal is to have our workforce reflect this same diversity at all levels.

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