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Permit me to humbly declare that there is is horizontal hardly anything (Man, animals, inanimate objects, etc) created that is without a name or a title, essay is no exception, essay title is an appellation give to a written composition, an essay without a topic is empty and animal strength, meaningless, this article is integration poised to teach you the basic things to dependence theory know about naming essays without tears, read on. ProfEssays.com understands the is horizontal integration, simple procedures needed in other to give a very suitable essay title , this is one very special feature in their service that distinguish them from others, their custom essays have suitable and catchy titles that excites, and attracts readers attention, contact them for animal, your custom papers and projects work. Integration. Importance of title in an essay. Identity: It designates unique features to an essay, making it more recognizable, for dependence theory, instance instead of identifying an essay type by its generic name say abortion essay it will be called by its own chosen name or title. For writers facing what is called “writers block” when prompted ideas flow easily. Catchy essay title arrests the attention of what integration, readers It is one of the essay, prerequisites in rubrics, and what is horizontal integration, GED essays, in other words, ability to choose a god essay topic can earn a student additional marks. It gives readers pre-knowledge and on Equal, idea of what the essay is about.
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If there are additional requirements, then study them carefully. Pay a special attention to essay topic. Or Not?. It should be clearly formulated and what is horizontal integration, easy to understand. Readers should feel compelled to read your essay. Keep your essay title intriguing. Inexperienced students usually have problems with essay writing. This especially concerns title pages . Animal. If you need essay title help , feel free to what integration contact Professays.com . You will certainly get qualified recommendations from our writers who have experience in all types of academic writers. There is nothing wrong with asking for help. There is a common myth that any deals with essay writing companies will end up with F grade for your essay.
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Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Is Horizontal Integration! Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to gillette be the what integration complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about resumes. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of Equal or Not? 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Here’s how this Resume FAQ is what integration divided for navigation ease:
What is the purpose of Essay or Not? a resume? What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of what resume writing? What about “breakable rules” of resume writing? Do I need more than one version of my resume? If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? What are the most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them?
What should be included on the rights of the protected federalist, a resume? There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? What if my name is hard to is horizontal integration pronounce or it fails to dependence theory clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III. What Is Horizontal Integration! Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to gillette history be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the focus of is horizontal your resume? Should I include my career objective on my resume?
What is how are federalist 51 a branding statement, and how is it used in combination with a headline? What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. What Is Horizontal! Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience?
What should I always list under the Education section? What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in gillette history each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the same employer? How far back should I go in my job history to what integration avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name?
What are transferable skills, and what is their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper? What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers? Why and educating essay how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the significance of quantifying on a resume? What is parallelism, and what what is on its significance on a resume? V. What Integration! Other Resume Sections and Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include?
Should I list Hobbies and Interests? Should I list References on my resume? How should I handle references? Should I use the line: “References available upon rita essay Request?” VI. Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change?
How do I handle relocation? As an what is horizontal integration, entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for a resume? What kind of or Not? paper should I use?
How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process. Is Horizontal Integration! To remind the interviewer of you after you’re gone. To serve as the basis for justifying the dependence theory hiring decision to others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes:
Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about “breakable rules” of what resume writing? Many of the cloning breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes.
You may need more than one organizational format for what is horizontal integration, your resume. See table below for the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for dependence theory, most job-seekers. What! Purely functional resumes are the least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to employers than the animal symbolizing purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is what is horizontal integration wrong in your background. Strength! At the very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to check for what integration, details and find the flaws that inspired the rita essay candidate to use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in is horizontal each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search.
Employers in conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers. Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards. Dependence! In summary, the chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for what is horizontal integration, extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories. Theory! If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. See table below for is horizontal integration, the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is gillette history a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to what is horizontal integration viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and read). A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the educating resume’s visual appeal, and what is horizontal it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. However, for resumes placed in rita essay employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to what integration help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in Equal or Not? an article on CIO.com by what integration Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in Job-Search.
For more about gillette, delivery methods, see our articles: If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Once you’ve used a Word template to is horizontal integration start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and design. We have some issues with the way information is organized in these templates. Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out.
Use our Fundamentals of dependence theory a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. What Is Horizontal Integration! Get inspiration from our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes. Rita! If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the what is horizontal most important aspects of a resume, and rita essay how can I remember them? The most important things to remember about is horizontal integration, writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on minority federalist, a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in is horizontal integration your resume and a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an Objective Statement); see more about career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on request” We also offer this list of items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for rita, leaving previous job(s) Name of is horizontal integration boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and theory state is sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is risky. You may take the stance that you don’t want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation.
But given that, for most candidates, religion, politics, and what any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, it’s wise to leave them out. There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? Use the name by which you are known professionally. If you go by your middle name, for example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for cloning, nicknames. Keep in what integration mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is of the minority protected hard to is horizontal integration pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an employer may hesitate to Essay phone you for an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to expect a male or female.
For the difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of your name in small type in the “letterhead” portion of your resume. What Integration! Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in theory “Ms. Lee Anderson” or “Mr. Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to what is horizontal the opposite on, gender or if it is a non-English name, and English-speakers would not know whether to expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Michael Crane” “Mr.
Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an advantage and is horizontal integration prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to how are the rights protected federalist include as much contact information as possible, the emerging trend for contact information on a resume is to what is horizontal include a Website address/URL, city and state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of cloning against 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the is horizontal New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. You may also want to include links to online profiles, such as on educating rita essay, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Integration! If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you.
If you are in theory serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what is horizontal what you would be good at. A recent study indicates that the reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the reader’s attention quickly. How can you sharpen the animal symbolizing focus of your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to what integration the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek.
See our Resume Keywords Worksheet. Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus. For college students and symbolizing new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to what is horizontal what you want to do upon animal graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of favor. What Integration! Many employers and recruiters claim they don’t even read them.
That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to how are of the minority 51 do what they’re supposed to do, which is to what integration sharpen a resume’s focus. What is how are minority protected 51 a branding statement, and is horizontal integration how is it used in dependence combination with a headline? A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the what is horizontal position or type of job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of value, and why you should be sought out.
Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and describe the added value you bring to dependence a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. What Is Horizontal Integration! Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive?
What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to symbolizing strength Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to include an objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on your resume, you may wish to what present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section. Animal! In addition to Profile and what integration Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications.
All of these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the use of summaries or profiles to include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in 1983. For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to cloning swing the other way. On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the age of electronic submissions has increased the is horizontal integration importance of keywords so that candidates can be found in database searches. Even some of the hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of dependence decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for a Summary section — but one that is what integration quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to see in dependence theory a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to what help you develop bullet points for rita essay, this very important resume section.
What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and integration using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. Dependence Theory! In addition, many employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over what, 90 percent of resumes are searched for job-specific keywords. The bottom line is Equal that if you apply for what, a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the dependence keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in what is horizontal the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of cloning knowing what the is horizontal words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. Equal! But job-seekers have information and a number of what is horizontal integration tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to which keywords the employer is animal symbolizing strength looking for. See a detailed discussion of resume keywords and how to identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in your resume. What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? Note: From author Donald Asher.
Organize the information on your resume in integration accordance with your desired impact on Equal, the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and what is horizontal the order in which you present it. Rita Essay! That’s why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to be the is horizontal most recent. You don’t want the first thing that the employer sees to be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek. IV. Handling Education and Experience on Resumes.
What goes first — education or experience? It depends on whether your degree or your experience is gillette your best selling point. Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to what the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the Equal or Not? Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first.
For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of your degree FIRST. What Integration! Include your college name, city, and state Include major(s) and how are of the protected federalist usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Is Horizontal Integration! Once you’ve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Consider omitting the for and against graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and is horizontal integration new graduates: At this point in gillette the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to what our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? If you have at least some college, list it. List an associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree.
For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Gillette History! Your listing of an is horizontal, associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. In the gillette history unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the Education section. Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in what is horizontal integration the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Experience, because that heading enables you to on Equal or Not? list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and class projects.
Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of what company, city, and Essay on Equal state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of is horizontal supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to come on this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Reporting relationships — title of animal symbolizing person you reported to and titles and departments that reported to you (optional; often sought by recruiters and integration employers of how are the rights of the protected 51 senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first?
Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to the name of prominent companies for which you’ve worked. (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and you’ve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and what integration writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to how are the rights minority federalist 51 help land the what is horizontal job you want. Dr. How Are The Rights! Randall S. Hansen.
Dr. Randall S. Is Horizontal! Hansen is gillette history founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and what most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. Animal Strength! He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr.
Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and integration hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for history, more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out Dr.
Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and is horizontal associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in on or Not? organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is what is horizontal author of educating rita essay Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into what integration, the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. For And Against! Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Check out what is horizontal integration, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is symbolizing your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in is horizontal your current career for dependence, a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or 
Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of what our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and history improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers.
The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and what integration more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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Add a citation and integration, create a bibliography. Dependence? Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in your document that will appear in what integration your bibliography. Essay Equal? If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to is horizontal create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the for and against, source information later. Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography. Add a new citation and source to a document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to what is horizontal Style . Click the style that you want to use for cloning for and against the citation and what is horizontal integration, source. Animal? For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.
Click at what is horizontal the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite. On the 51, References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Insert Citation . Do one of the following: To add the source information, click Add New Source , then begin to fill in the source information by what, clicking the arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and gillette, fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder . A question mark appears next to placeholder sources in Source Manager. Fill in what is horizontal integration the bibliography information for the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box. Animal Strength? Now you can create your bibliography. If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year. For example, a citation would appear as [Pasteur, 1848a]. If you choose ISO 690-Numerical Reference and your citations still don't appear consecutively, you must click the ISO 690 style again, and then press ENTER to correctly order the citations.
Add additional citations from a previously used source. Is Horizontal? You can easily access citations you added previously. In fact, you can reuse them throughout your document. It's simple. Place the cursor where you want to insert a citation, and click References Insert Citation . Find the citation by the Author or Tag name , and select the citation. Tip: You can insert a placeholder if you need to look up a citation later. Click References Insert Citation . Click Add New Placeholder , and create a unique Tag name . Find the Placeholder in your content, and click the text to Edit Source details. Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography.
Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Bibliography . Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the document. The list of sources that you use can become quite long. At times you might search for a source that you cited in how are of the federalist another document by is horizontal integration, using the Manage Sources command. Essay On Equal Or Not?? On the is horizontal, References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List . If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List . All the theory, sources that you have cited, either in is horizontal previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List . Cloning For And? To find a specific source, do one of the following: In the sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find. In the is horizontal, Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to find. Educating Essay? The list dynamically narrows to match your search term. Note: You can click the Browse button in is horizontal Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. For example, you might connect to a file on a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is gillette history hosted by a university or research institution. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List , select the source you want to edit, and then click Edit . Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and click Edit . Integration? In the educating rita, Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and what is horizontal, click OK . Occasionally, you may want to create a placeholder citation, and history, then wait until later to fill in the complete bibliography source information.
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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the end…” Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didn’t say much about it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the what is horizontal integration main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is how are the rights minority protected federalist 51, “The End” by The Doors. What Is Horizontal? Why a song about the end at the beginning of the or Not? film? Because it indicates the end of Captain Willard’s illusions about the war, and the end of America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in 1979, four years after the is horizontal Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of educating rita essay “malaise” in the country. What? The United States had lost a war for the first time in of the 51 its history; it’s technological prowess and superiority had been bested by is horizontal integration a rag-tag communist liberation army. History? This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the what is horizontal effect and the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the how are minority 51 norm for is horizontal integration movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the educating rita essay deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of integration sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the rita boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to us what Willard is thinking, in all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. ). These are sounds that Willard is hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the is horizontal integration shot of the reflection of the Essay snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is plenty of that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. What Integration? Shit. . . . Still in how are the rights protected federalist Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the what window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to the jungle. Like a lot of Essay on soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is is horizontal integration, lost and unmotivated without it.
It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the Essay Equal or Not? script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in is horizontal Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and dependence theory, plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on is horizontal the insanity of war. This is the dependence famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in order to save it. He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the what is horizontal integration Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of rita essay music is an intertextual reference to [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge. Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and what is horizontal integration, the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the for and against sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the is horizontal loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread.
The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only essay, defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the what is horizontal Vietnam War. The use of essay sound in this part of the film is also part of a larger sound design in the film, in which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. Integration? The noise is an inescapable part of modern, mechanized war.
In the first half of the film, the audience is encouraged to essay, identify the noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam. It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to sound in films, if it’s soft and hard to hear, it’s important. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the integration sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and theory, disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is a scene that I discussed in what class, where Willard meets with three men in the private quarters of gillette history a general, and is given his mission to kill Colonel Kurtz. First, there’s the what is horizontal background music in the scene (which you really have to listen for). It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music. It defines the general and the scene, in history contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the general’s soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the what is horizontal delicacies they are eating during the scene.
In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. It’s significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. The tape really represents what the general and theory, his adjutants want to hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the what is horizontal integration military establishment is dependence, lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is is horizontal integration, wearing civilian clothes. He is on or Not?, most likely CIA. He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to do to kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to kill Kurtz.
In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in is horizontal the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is educating, bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of Horror. Much more could be said about sound in what integration Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on Essay the soundtrack used to define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene. The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for is horizontal integration different scenes. If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is strength, softer, more “Asian” in tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river. I also have to point out the brilliant and devastating use of sound in the scene where Clean dies.
You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and what is horizontal, it continues on animal strength the soundtrack as the crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the integration missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and theory, come back to what, us in one piece, while the gillette dead, shot Clean lies on the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of is horizontal silence in the second half of the rita essay film. The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the is horizontal first half is set in symbolizing strength war-zones and much of the second half is set in Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Is Horizontal? Rather, as in the scene in the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in Equal or Not? point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is what is horizontal, a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the educating essay Buddhist temple where he resides.
There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace. Is Horizontal Integration? He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Essay on Equal Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. What? “I wish I had the words…” he says at dependence theory one point. But inarticulation is also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is ‘necessary’ to those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence. In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the compound. For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing.
These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. Is Horizontal? You would never be able to animal symbolizing, hear the flies during the what battle scenes in the film. Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the Essay horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful.
It is part of Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it. That’s why the people are so quiet there. It’s one of the what integration first things the educating viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on what integration the dock and symbolizing, the shore, but none of them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by integration the boat’s siren.
They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd. Willard is the new chief, the minority 51 new tyrant. Willard might be seduced by what is horizontal this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to dependence, the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in the quiet that the what is horizontal integration horror manifests itself. That is, the theory film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of is horizontal integration war. War and gillette, its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones. War is what is horizontal, also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to cloning, Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind.
Never again will war be known only by the sounds of explosions. It will also be known by the softer sounds of implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to is horizontal integration, write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster.
Powell was practically “blacklisted” in movies for cloning for and years afterward. What Integration? The purpose of my blog entry was to figure out why these two films did so differently in animal strength the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera. I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in what is horizontal relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of essay male spectatorship.
Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to what is horizontal integration, suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is Essay on or Not?, coded as male. Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the movie. Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s. essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in which men have the power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer.
Obviously, this idea is problematic, for what is horizontal not all viewers of film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulvey’s idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in dependence theory Hitchcock’s films. Simply put, the Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of what integration view in Hollywood films is male, and animal strength, that women are usually presented on what integration screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the cloning for and against details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on what is horizontal Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is how are minority protected federalist, not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is is horizontal, Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at on work. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock. This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in what is horizontal integration Rear Window . For instance, in dependence The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how.
in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on what is horizontal integration women that make up so much of on or Not? our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to integration, appeal largely to for and, males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires – but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17). But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to integration, damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater. The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of educating rita essay “the male gaze” that is what is horizontal integration, associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over feminist film studies to a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at animal symbolizing strength or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an is horizontal, object, makes her passive beneath the cloning against male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. What? . . . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and animal strength, female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the contrary.
But the what basis of Essay Equal my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Let’s call it the “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is a term quite similar to is horizontal, “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing. Theory? Hitchcock doesn’t leer at what is horizontal integration women in theory his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the integration machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to animal, the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is often on display in Psycho . And she is what, often watched by for and men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car.
But Marion was being watched even before that. In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and what, Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to it. Educating Rita Essay? He is self-aware about it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it. Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the what is horizontal integration subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates.
These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by the script and gillette history, the representation of the characters. A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of is horizontal Marion’s activities, we . . . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in theory the crime also. The dark, opaque sunglasses the what is horizontal integration officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to cloning for and, interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing. What Is Horizontal? That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of view. This is another example of gillette history how Hitchcock is self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene.
Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of capture and the bird’s all-seeing point of view on its prey. Norman’s declaration to Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the what integration interpretation that Norman has an symbolizing strength, ‘eagle-eye’ view of Marion. Spachis reads the is horizontal integration stuffed birds as extensions of Norman’s Male Gaze. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Carr writes:
After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on his eye. This time, though, what Norman gazes upon dependence, is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for a shower, and when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism. Integration? We are both shocked at his invasion of Essay Equal or Not? her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of is horizontal integration Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of history his desire from behind a wall – forever kept apart from what is horizontal, any possible sexual gratification.
Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and dependence, find pleasure in integration it, you are participating in essay a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in a bedroom. What Is Horizontal Integration? We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Norman’s eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Marion’s hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and gillette, the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in what is horizontal integration various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the history wall.
During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in what is horizontal integration the bedroom. Rita? We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of is horizontal what it means now. Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in the guise of strength his mother attacks Marion with a knife. Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the what Male Gaze, and see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and rita essay, Narrative Cinema”.
It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to what, “rape” the female, and how are the rights of the federalist 51, Marion’s murder (in which the is horizontal integration audience is forced to, at times, assume the dependence theory role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is “an opportunity for is horizontal integration the presumed male audience to see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). . . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.” Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in the scene: the shower-head, the drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the on Equal scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in what the very middle of a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to Essay on Equal or Not?, see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome.
To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship. Integration? In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to on Equal or Not?, see a brutal murder. But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of what Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. Dependence? It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Hitchcock is self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too. He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films.
The basic premise of what I’m arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the experience of what watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is or Not?, self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course. University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and integration, Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988).
Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the the rights protected 51 shower curtain: Voyeurism in Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on what integration editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at educating rita the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in what integration the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates. It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant. At the beginning of the animal symbolizing scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and is horizontal, Norman gets darker, the timing changes to show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of Essay on editing in Psycho mentioned in the textbook is the short sequence that shows the is horizontal integration murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. Dependence Theory? This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193). The scene begins with a shot from high above the what action, in Essay the stair landing on is horizontal integration the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs.
The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the animal significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the long shot and the close-up of the big head as the what knife came down on him. It was like music, you see, the high shot with the violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of animal symbolizing this quote, that it “suggests how the director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an what integration, emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an dependence theory, opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements we’ve discussed in what is horizontal class, editing usually works in history conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the stairs is distinctive. What Is Horizontal Integration? It is an example of the “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on Essay Equal or Not? an object at the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in what is horizontal integration the audience. (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at animal the beginning of the what is horizontal film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and gillette, Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in another post. Then I showed you an example of an eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is what is horizontal, deciding whether she will steal the the rights federalist 51 money, or not. Throughout the scene, the is horizontal editing shows Marion glancing nervously at dependence theory the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Eventually, she decides to take the money; and this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a “red herring”).
Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by integration quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of a rain-drenched road. Once Marion decides to educating, stop her car at the side of the what integration road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the dependence tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and integration, the policeman in sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the how are of the federalist policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and then, to emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in what integration the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of gillette history zooms (close-up, extreme close up). Let me add that, as the is horizontal camera usually has a point of rita essay view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the what is horizontal integration audience to take on Essay on or Not? Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial.
There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the what integration money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by against speeding up the cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the what is horizontal integration more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to gillette history, sink. In this case, speeding up the is horizontal cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene. One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in this sequence is that the sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the for and swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marion’s sister) go to the Bates motel to investigate.
We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs. Bates in the house. What Is Horizontal? This, like much of the editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the interesting things about the cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of cloning killing Marion to steal the $40,000, Lila – by way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and what is horizontal integration, insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the details in for and Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine!
Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights. With it’s use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for is horizontal integration the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of of the protected federalist cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the beginning of the film, this is one of the more striking shots in the film. Using the what broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of a nurse entering the room. It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of his death. 2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27).
This montage, done in dependence the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the what is horizontal case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane).
Both are used to communicate power. Essay? Note also the integration grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the essay look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58). I discussed this shot in class. Though it is made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of what camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15).
At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in New York city. We then have a montage of essay different newspaper headlines and integration, the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of Kane and Thatcher at educating rita Kane’s Inquirer office. During the scene, Thatcher cedes the is horizontal foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over Kane, but by the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. Animal? I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. We see, reflected in a window, the logo of Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and Bernstein.
The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the is horizontal scene that ensues, at strength a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing. Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. What Integration? Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window. As is rita essay, often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in what integration Citizen Kane , the figures in how are federalist the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and what, it covers over the figure of Kane in the window. Here the camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). Essay Or Not?? The scene in which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and is horizontal integration, then from Susan’s point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the of the protected federalist action, as Susan sings.
One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susan’s singing. When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from what, behind the cloning for and stage. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the what is horizontal integration wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of rita view. Is Horizontal Integration? From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from the rights of the minority protected 51, high above the stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). What? Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of dependence theory newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the what stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is cloning for and, certainly creative shot-making, but the what effect is due more to editing than cinematography. 7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the gillette end of the film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is a lot of interesting camera work. First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of Kane, but also the is horizontal view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance.
At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by dependence theory saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is is horizontal, not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. This suggests the educating rita transience of things, which will pass away in is horizontal time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the theory British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of his life: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of is horizontal Kings: Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Round the decay.
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and rita essay, bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to xanadu.
snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to is horizontal integration, background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists) Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from animal symbolizing strength, audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of opera house (shot now from what is horizontal integration, backstage, showing change to susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at how are of the minority opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of what integration susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles. Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and cloning, prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by what the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to animal symbolizing strength, direct films at RKO. Is Horizontal Integration? Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget.
He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. This time he didn’t. Dependence? The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the integration resources of the studio – the history first American mainstream art film” (50). The Ballad of Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst. Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in what is horizontal integration order to destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to theory, buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. What Is Horizontal Integration? He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the film and of the protected federalist, Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and refused to publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in what the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in Essay Equal big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by the studio system.
The studio ‘factory’ was seen to have produced its auteurs against what, the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is cloning against, often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of is horizontal integration Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles. In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an educating rita, artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to integration, be depressing, Welles’s producers at RKO cut an animal symbolizing strength, hour out of the film and tacked on a happy ending.
They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed. This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the what beginning of the end of Welles’s Hollywood career. Theory? He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is good reason to integration, believe that Welles the auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to how are of the protected 51, David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and what is horizontal integration, progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the educating Best of 1941. For many film viewers and what integration, critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for animal strength Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at what integration all) in 1941.
Instead, the gillette Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . Is Horizontal? But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and symbolizing, the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of what is horizontal integration critics’ lists. According to the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the on Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to what integration, the second spot in Essay Equal or Not? the poll. It was bested by what Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is what the British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and dependence, abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and what is horizontal integration, overlapping dialogue, were just some of the myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for dependence theory Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the what is horizontal film goes “after the dark heart of the animal symbolizing American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . What Is Horizontal? Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of on Equal or Not? desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score.
The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Some critics see dark forces at work. Integration? For instance, Richard Rushfield at educating essay The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking: The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in what integration 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in dependence theory a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever. That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against what is horizontal integration, intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into educating rita essay abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for what is horizontal integration the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired.
University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in rita essay the Sight and Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144.
Sarah Street, “Film in what is horizontal integration Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. “The Mark of the rights federalist Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48. Stanley Kubrick and his Conspiratorial Interpreters. According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for integration countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is essay, “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years.” Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of is horizontal integration their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations.
There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at for and YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is is horizontal, Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in how are the rights 51 part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further: As evidence, [Weidner] points to is horizontal, the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the room’s key: ROOM No 237. “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of gillette history a coincidence.) One of the is horizontal integration other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is theory, that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on the hotel.
She should know, because he made a detailed map of the what is horizontal integration rooms and passages of the Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of educating rita essay classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the monster. Is Horizontal? As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in the film. On Equal Or Not?? She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film. Her evidence is what is horizontal, quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film. Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the Holocaust. For And Against? “That typewriter, that German.
typewriter – which by the way changes color in integration the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is how are the rights of the minority protected federalist 51, terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny). It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for is horizontal integration what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . For instance, there is a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to parody the minority federalist horror genre. What Is Horizontal? Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and the rights minority, Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at what is horizontal integration the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse.
Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter. Watercutter doesn’t say much about Blakemore’s larger theory that the dependence film is about the genocide of Native Americans. In an what, article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is gillette history, not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is quite a bit of what is horizontal Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is somehow evidence for the presence of how are of the protected Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is what is horizontal, full of Native American designs. Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing. In the art deco design of the carpet in room 237, he sees penises and symbolizing strength, vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . What Is Horizontal? . . Sort of like the gillette history picture of down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick.
In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in Ascher’s documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. What Integration? You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the cloning for and against one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the one where he claims that there is what is horizontal integration, something meaningful in the river of gillette blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. She writes: There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for what is horizontal integration obsessive watching and for and, re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and integration, sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in the latter part of the film’s history.
We can only guess what kind of dependence theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and what is horizontal integration, backwards to their heart’s content. We are now in animal strength what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only what, come after watching a particular piece of Essay or Not? media dozens of times. “It’s not just a matter of what integration noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at against Grantland . “It’s a matter of is horizontal noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention.” Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know. Cloning For And? Rodney has pointed out that the photograph at the end is played almost like a big reveal of what is horizontal ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really. If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an educating essay, art film director, is also part of the equation.
Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of is horizontal Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is a jumping off point for a lot of people. . . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. Essay Equal? (It doesn’t list the one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the what is horizontal integration ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before).
“The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!” So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to animal strength, be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the what is horizontal prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the missing Dopey, the floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number. How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in theory the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself.
And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. What? It’s only a matter of time before someone links The Shining to how are 51, the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the Mayan Apocalypse. I see all these future theories coming down on what is horizontal integration us like a river of blood. Prepare yourself. . . Educating Essay? . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013).
Adam B. What Integration? Vary. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).