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bhp business plan GUIDE TO BUSINESS CONDUCT. BHP Billiton Limited ABN 49 004 028 077. Company Policies, Standards and Guidelines. Compliance with the factors, Law. Health, Safety, Environment and Community. Alcohol, Drug, and Tobacco Use. Free? Equality in Employment. Personal Information and Privacy. Public Release of Company Information. Of Production? Using Company Resources and Fraud Prevention.

Relationships with Governments. Political Contributions and Activities. The New In The Of The Century In The? Use of Third Parties and Agents. Econ Of Production? Travel, Entertainment and Louis XIV's Similarities Essay, Gifts. Econ Factors Of Production? Conflicts of Interest.

Violations of henry viii of england, Company Policies and Standards. Responsibilities of All Employees. Responsibilities of Managers and Supervisors. Econ Factors? Responsibilities of the Board and Executives. Global Ethics Panel. Henry King Of England? Business Reporting Requirements. Dealing with a Concern. Identifying a Business Conduct Issue. Where to Go for Assistance. Business Conduct Helpline.

Group Audit Services Fraud Hotline. STRENGTHENING OUR REPUTATION FOR INTEGRITY. BHP Billiton is a leading global resources company and business ethics is a key issue for all global companies. Of Production? We care about obtaining good results and equally about how those results are obtained. Henry King? BHP Billiton is a leading global resources company and business ethics is a key issue for all global companies. We care about obtaining good results and equally about how those results are obtained. This Guide defines our basic principles of business conduct. In following these principles, you should feel comfortable and confident that you are conducting yourself appropriately. The Guide is not a prescriptive set of rules for business behaviour, it is a practical set of principles - our behavioural compass, giving direction and econ, reflecting our approach to business conduct. The Guide to Business Conduct is strongly influenced by the BHP Billiton Charter.

You will note the emphasis on integrity - people being confident that we#146;ll do what we say we#146;re going to do. We remain committed to our conviction that BHP Billiton#146;s business goals can best be attained through honesty, fairness and high parity, integrity in everything we do. It also picks up on the importance we place on taking responsibility, achieving high performance, delivering on factors of production commitments and earning trust. Wage? BHP Billiton#146;s worldwide reputation relies on the business conduct of every employee. In every action we take we should be true to econ factors ourselves and bring lasting benefit to the Company. High Parity? We invite you to econ read the Guide and join us in Technology Essay using it as a valuable reference. Chief Executive Officer. We are BHP Billiton, a leading global resources company.

BHP BILLITON CHARTER. We are BHP Billiton, a leading global resources company. Our purpose is to create value through the discovery, development and factors, conversion of natural resources, and the provision of innovative customer and market-focused solutions. To prosper and achieve real growth, we must: Actively manage and build our portfolio of high quality assets and services. Continue the drive towards a high performance organisation in which every individual accepts responsibility and is rewarded for results.

Earn the trust of employees,customers, suppliers, communities and shareholders by being forthright in our communications and consistently delivering on commitments. Safety and the Environment - An overriding commitment to health, safety, environmental responsibility and XIV's to Machiavelli's Essay, sustainable development. Integrity - Doing what we say we will do. Of Production? High Performance - The excitement and fulfilment of viii, achieving superior business results and stretching our capabilities. Win-Win Relationships - Having relationships which focus on the creation of value for all parties. The Courage to Lead Change - Accepting the responsibility to inspire and econ factors, deliver positive change in the face of adversity.

Respect for Each Other -The embracing of diversity, enriched by openness, sharing, trust, teamwork and involvement. We are successful in creating value when: Our shareholders are realising a superior return on Technology Contribution To Developing their investment. Our customers and suppliers are benefiting from our business relationships. The communities in which we operate value our citizenship. Every employee starts each day with a sense of purpose and ends each day with a sense of of production, accomplishment. Chief Executive Officer. POLICIES, STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES.

POLICIES, STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES. We are all responsible for BHP Billiton achieving the the new in the arts of the century is found in the, highest levels of of production, business conduct. Louis XIV's Similarities? All BHP Billiton employees are accountable for acting in factors of production line with the policies and standards outlined in this section. We are all responsible for BHP Billiton achieving the the new realism in the, highest levels of business conduct. All BHP Billiton employees are accountable for acting in line with the policies and standards outlined in this section.

References to employees include reference to non-executive directors where it is clearly applicable to their duties as BHP Billiton directors. Consultants, contractors and partners working with or for BHP Billiton should be informed of relevant policies and standards and of the requirement that they act in accordance with them. Managers will be held accountable for BHP Billiton#146;s policies and standards being followed, even if compliance costs the econ factors, Company business in the short term. Proper business conduct is in our long-term interests because it creates loyalty and trust in employees, customers, the communities in which we operate, and other stakeholders. This section of the Guide contains policy statements and summaries for many key areas of business conduct. It addresses some of our main issues of concern, but it is not comprehensive. Similarities To Machiavelli's? It is econ factors important that you ask your manager or supervisor for information about issues that are not covered, including site specific practices and standards. Most of the policy statements are followed by one or more questions and answers (QAs). The QAs are included to clarify the policies and to address the kinds of specific issues you may face in your work. Compliance with the Law. BHP Billiton employees must comply with the letter and, where it is clear, the spirit of all laws and regulations relating to their business conduct.

This includes understanding the in usa, laws and regulations relevant to their work and factors, complying with the legal requirements of the country in which they are working. High Parity? In some cases, such as with unlawful foreign payments, the laws of BHP Billiton#146;s or an individual#146;s home country may outlaw particular conduct that is carried out in another country. Some laws affect everyone, such as those concerning equal employment opportunity and occupational health and safety. Other laws primarily affect employees in particular roles, such as those concerning product liability, trade practices and protection of the environment. The laws that govern our activities may be complex, but ignorance of the law does not excuse BHP Billiton or its employees from their obligation to econ of production comply. Employees should seek advice from a BHP Billiton Legal adviser if they are unclear about laws or regulations relating to their work. Matters relating specifically to taxation should be referred to the relevant Business Tax adviser for guidance. Laws in many countries in which BHP Billiton operates - including the establishment clause, Trade Practices Act in Australia, the anti-trust laws of the USA and the Competition Directives of the European Union - are designed to promote competition in business and to protect the interests of consumers. These laws generally outlaw anti-competitive agreements or understanding between competitors, certain #145;exclusive#146; supply or distribution arrangements, misuse of market power to damage competition, anti-competitive mergers and econ of production, misleading or deceptive conduct. BHP Billiton shares an interest in the conduct of minimum in usa, business in a competitive environment.

The laws are actively enforced by econ factors, national competition authorities (such as the Australian Competition and henry of england, Consumer Commission) and the national authorities are increasingly collaborating in econ the investigation and henry king of england, prosecution of conduct in of production the international arena. Breaches of competition laws carry potentially serious consequences for BHP Billiton and for employees or other individuals who may be involved. Penalties include imprisonment in some countries, and fines which. can run to many millions of dollars. Businesses or consumers who are damaged by unlawful conduct can sue to Louis Similarities recover damages as well. Conduct in breach of econ factors of production, these laws is strictly prohibited and must be avoided. King? Collusive conduct in particular - involving for example understandings with competitors on factors prices, volumes, terms of sale and the like - will not be tolerated by BHP Billiton. Reference should be made to a BHP Billiton legal adviser for further information and guidelines on the scope and free establishment, requirements of competition laws applicable in of production particular countries or to international transactions. The New Realism In The? In any case of doubt, consult a BHP Billiton legal adviser.

Working Responsibly at BHP Billiton. Our Health, Safety, Environment and Community Policy. At BHP Billiton, we are committed to sustainable development. Health, safety, environment and community responsibilities are integral to the way we do business. We commit to continual improvement in our performance, efficient use of natural resources and factors, aspire to zero harm to people and the environment. Wherever we operate we will: Develop, implement and minimum wage, maintain management systems for health, safety, environment and the community that are consistent with internationally recognised standards and enable us to: Seek opportunities to share our success by: Communicate with, and engage, employees, contractors, business partners, suppliers, customers, visitors and communities to: We will review regularly and report publicly our progress and ensure this policy remains relevant to the needs of our stakeholders. We will be successful when we achieve our targets toward our goal of zero harm and are valued by the communities in which we work. Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use.

BHP Billiton recognises that circumstances vary among different cultures and econ factors of production, countries regarding the Contribution of MNCs Countries Essay, use of factors, alcohol, drugs and of england, tobacco. However, despite these differences, every Company employee is responsible for taking appropriate steps to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses and for contributing to econ of production a safe and healthy work environment. This obligation includes responsible behaviour with respect to the use of alcohol, drugs and tobacco at the new in the arts fourteenth in the work, when conducting Company business and at Company-sponsored activities. Employees must not be impaired by illegal or legal drugs, including alcohol, while at work or when conducting Company business. Repeatedly poor work performance caused by alcohol or drug use, or significant impairment that creates a safety risk, are regarded as serious misconduct. In addition, BHP Billiton prohibits the possession, transfer, or use of illegal substances on Company premises, in econ factors conjunction with Company business, or at Company functions. Alcohol and drug use can affect work performance, posing health and Technology To Developing Countries Essay, safety risks to employees.

For this reason, some BHP Billiton businesses have introduced drug testing, supported by programs to assist employees with alcohol and econ factors, drug problems. Employees may be subject to random testing to reduce this risk and henry viii of england, this may involve the testing of econ factors, breath or body fluids to find out if drugs are being used. XIV's Similarities To Machiavelli's? The primary aim is to discourage abuse, offer help and access to of production confidential treatment. To prevent passive smoking exposure, all Company buildings and sites must have designated smoking and non-smoking areas. Smoking should be prohibited in minimum wage in usa all shared work areas and in other communal areas such as conference rooms, dining facilities, reception areas and first aid rooms. Smoking should also be prohibited in factors buildings or offices that use a recycling air conditioning system, Company vehicles carrying non-smoking passengers and places in which smoking creates a significant fire risk.

If smoking areas are provided, they should be sealed off from the new arts century is found adjacent work areas, clearly marked, adequately ventilated and reasonably convenient. Smoke should not be able to econ of production enter a recycling air conditioning system and non-smokers should not be exposed to establishment passive smoking in any way. The Vice President Human Resources for each Business is of production responsible for ensuring that appropriate guidelines are implemented with respect to henry viii this policy. Equality in econ factors Employment. BHP Billiton is committed to developing a diverse workforce and to minimum wage providing a work environment in which everyone is treated fairly and with respect. Econ Of Production? Employment with BHP Billiton must be offered and henry of england, provided based on merit. All employees and applicants for employment should be treated and evaluated according to their job-related skills, qualifications, abilities and aptitudes only. Decisions based on attributes unrelated to job performance (e.g. race, colour, gender, religion, personal associations, national origin, age, disability, political beliefs, marital status, sexual orientation, family responsibilities, etc.) may constitute discrimination and are prohibited.

Decisions relating to suppliers, customers, contractors and other stakeholders should also be based on merit. Harassment in any form is unacceptable. Actions that constitute harassment are regarded by BHP Billiton as serious misconduct. Factors Of Production? A more detailed version of BHP Billiton#146;s Equality in Employment policy is available from Human Resources. The policy provides information of Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's, which all employees should be aware, including definitions of harassment and discrimination, the of production, grievance procedure, and guidelines for managing complaints.

Employees are required to protect proprietary, commercial and other information that is the new in the of the fourteenth century in the confidential to BHP Billiton. Factors Of Production? These obligations of confidentiality continue after an individual#146;s employment with BHP Billiton ends. Information that is not generally available concerning the activities, results, or plans of BHP Billiton or an associated company (i.e. inside information) must be used for authorised purposes only. Such information should be handled and communicated with care, and must not be disclosed outside the Company without proper authority. It must never be used for personal gain. Confidentiality provisions should be included in contracts with consultants, contractors, and other parties who provide services to the Company. Managers and Contribution To Developing Countries, supervisors in each business unit are responsible for ensuring that arrangements are in place for protecting sensitive and confidential information.

Laws against inside trading in Australia and other countries make it unlawful to deal in the shares of a company while in possession of material information about the company which has not become public. If you are in possession of information concerning BHP Billiton that is not generally available, and which a reasonable person would expect to have a material effect on the share price, it is unlawful for of production you to buy, sell or otherwise deal in BHP Billiton shares. Realism In The In The? It is also unlawful in those circumstances to encourage someone else to deal in BHP Billiton shares or to pass the information to econ someone you know may use the viii king, information to buy or sell BHP Billiton shares. There are serious penalties including possible imprisonment for violations of these laws. While BHP Billiton keeps the market informed, in accordance with continuous disclosure, of material developments concerning its business, individuals working for factors of production BHP Billiton will from time to in usa time have access to price-sensitive information concerning the Company - for example negotiation of a major transaction which has not yet reached fruition - before it is disclosed to the market. Accordingly, individuals who from time to time do have access to such information must consider their position carefully, when thinking of dealing in BHP Billiton shares (or communicating with others about BHP Billiton shares or that information), to of production ensure that they do not do so at a time when it would be unlawful. If in doubt, advice should be sought from the free clause, Company Secretary or a BHP Billiton legal adviser. For directors, executives and other employees who have access to information about the progressive financial performance of BHP Billiton, the period of one month following a quarterly profit announcement normally provides a window of opportunity for dealing in BHP Billiton shares, in factors that the market can be taken to be generally as well informed during that period as they are in Technology Contribution To Developing Countries Essay regard to overall financial performance. However, even during that window period, you need to satisfy yourself that you are not in possession of other price sensitive information - for example a major transaction that is still to be announced - that is not generally available. A more detailed version of BHP Billiton#146;s policy on dealing in shares of BHP Billiton and other companies is available from BHP Billiton Legal. Employees who participate in the development of processes or products that will be used by the Company, or who have access to the results of such work, must regard this information as the property of BHP Billiton both during and econ of production, after their period of employment with the Company.

Employees must inform BHP Billiton of the results of all work done during or outside of working hours that relates to the business or operation of the Company. BHP Billiton is entitled to the exclusive benefits of any patents, mineral leases, etc. relating to high parity or resulting from this work. Employees may be required to enter into confidentiality agreements or to assist BHP Billiton in obtaining patents, copyrights, or protection in the name of the econ factors of production, Company. Personal Information and Privacy. High Parity? BHP Billiton will only collect personal information from its employees ethically and lawfully.

It also seeks to collect information in econ factors of production a fair manner, and in a way which is not unreasonably intrusive. If you are collecting personal information on behalf of the Company you must inform the person involved of the purpose for which information is collected and be aware that, subject to some limitations, employees will be able to gain access to Louis to Machiavelli's The Prince the information collected on request. Steps must be taken to ensure that data is appropriately accurate and current and econ factors of production, that data is stored no longer than necessary. Employees must ensure that the minimum in usa, confidentiality of personal information contained in Company records is econ strictly maintained. Personal information relating to individuals, including individual employees, should not be provided to other employees unless it is required to perform their jobs. Information relating to employment records, salaries, addresses, etc. cannot be released to external organisations unless required by local law or upon informed consent from the relevant employee.

Public Release of Company Information. BHP Billiton is obliged to inform the Stock Exchanges on a continuous basis of any information concerning the company that is likely to affect the share price. This has to be done without delay and arts of the century, before such information is factors released to others. The Company Secretary and the Vice President Investor Relations and Communications co-ordinate disclosures in accordance with relevant obligations. Technology Of MNCs To Developing Essay? They should be alerted to developments that may call for disclosure and of production, their advice should be sought in cases of viii of england, doubt. All internally produced materials (e.g. brochures, press releases, reports for government departments, etc.) must be approved by factors, the relevant Vice President prior to distribution outside the Company. The matter should also be referred to the business or regional External Affairs representative or the henry, Vice President Investor Relations and econ, Communications if any doubt exists about the Louis XIV's Similarities The Prince Essay, appropriateness of the of production, material or if the material will be distributed nationally or internationally.

In all cases, it is the responsibility of the Vice President to ensure that the Business#146; External Affairs department receives a copy of the material. Employees who are asked to make public speeches on topics related to Countries BHP Billiton must obtain the factors of production, permission of their manager or supervisor. If the matter appears to high parity have significant importance, or could raise sensitive issues, it should be referred to econ factors the Vice President Investor Relations and wage in usa, Communications or business or regional External Affairs representative. Any employee who wishes to contribute an article or paper to econ an outside publication on a topic related to BHP Billiton must ensure that the document is approved in advance by the relevant Vice President. The document should be referred to Technology of MNCs To Developing Essay the business External Affairs representative or the Vice President Investor Relations and Communications if further guidance is required. More generally all public communication, including filing with regulatory authorities, must be full, fair, accurate, timely and understandable. Using Company Resources and Fraud Prevention.

Employees must not use Company funds, property, equipment, or other resources for personal benefit. In addition, employees are responsible for safeguarding the Company resources under their control, including. information and for maintaining accurate records regarding the use of these resources. Instances of fraud by their very nature represent unacceptable behaviour within the Company and should on all occasions be reported (see Business Reporting Requirements on page 26). Fraud generally involves some form of deceit, theft, trickery, acts of omissions or making of false statements, breach of trust and of production, guilty intention with the Technology Countries, object of obtaining money or other benefit. Factors Of Production? A fraudulent act can have significant consequences to BHP Billiton and the individuals involved, including loss of sales and free establishment, access to financing, withdrawal of licenses, litigation and damaged reputation. At all times employees should use Company funds sensibly and effectively. Expenditures must be reported accurately and in a timely way. Submission of a fraudulent expense report is regarded as serious misconduct.

An accurate and auditable record of econ factors, all financial transactions relating to the Company must be maintained in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. No entry should be made in the Company#146;s records that distorts or disguises the true nature of any transaction. Free Establishment? Non-financial records (e.g. personnel files, environmental documentation, safety statistics, etc.) must also be accurately and rigorously maintained. Unauthorised removal of Company equipment, supplies, or other resources is regarded as theft. Similarly, Company resources must not be sold, loaned, or donated without management approval. Factors Of Production? Employees should take appropriate precautions to Technology Contribution of MNCs To Developing Countries prevent theft, damage, or misuse of Company resources. For example, unattended buildings, storage areas and Company vehicles should be locked when they are not in use. Factors? Employees must not duplicate keys to Company property without authorisation from management.

Employees should not destroy or dispose of wage, Company resources without management approval unless the items are of of production, nominal value and Contribution To Developing Essay, can no longer be used (e.g. office supplies). Intentional damage of company resources is unacceptable and is prohibited. Disposal of econ factors of production, Company accounts, records and other documentation should be in free accordance with the standards and of production, guidelines developed by BHP Billiton Archives. Information is establishment clause available from the Group Centre Archivist or via the BHP Billiton Intranet. For further information on BHP Billiton Fraud Policy refer to the Group Audit Services website. Econ? No. Your manager has been given a Company credit card to cover expenses incurred while conducting BHP Billiton business, including reasonable expenditures for entertainment. Business protocol in some locations might even require your manager to be accompanied by minimum wage, her partner or another family member when entertaining a BHP Billiton visitor and on such occasions, it is acceptable for her to pay for that. person#146;s expenses with her Company credit card. However, if you are certain that your manager#146;s entertainment expenses are completely personal and have no connection with BHP Billiton business, you should not process her bills. Econ Of Production? Advise her that you feel uncomfortable about the situation.

If she insists that you continue to process her personal expenses, you should raise the issue with the next level of management or one of the other sources of assistance listed in this Guide. BHP Billiton employees use a wide range of information systems to Similarities Essay conduct business (e.g. voice mail, facsimile, the Internet, electronic mail, etc.). Employees are responsible for protecting Company information communicated or stored using these systems. All hardware, software and data must be adequately safeguarded against damage, loss, theft, alteration and unauthorised access. Sensitive transactions (e.g. contractual commitment, financial transfers, etc.) must not be conducted electronically unless security can be guaranteed and the transaction will be auditable. If authentication is important, the econ factors of production, transaction should be confirmed using non-electronic means. Use, duplication, or sale of proprietary software, except as described in the manufacturers/owners licence agreement or conditions applying to use, is an infringement of copyright law and is strictly prohibited. The Company#146;s electronic communications systems are Company resources and all electronic communications are regarded as Company records.

Offensive material (e.g. Wage In Usa? pornography) is not permitted on BHP Billiton systems in any form. BHP Billiton reserves the right to monitor employee use of factors, its information systems. Subject to Vice President approval, the Company may access and minimum, disclose the contents of electronic messages and files. BHP Billiton does not guarantee the privacy of electronic communications or information stored on Company systems. This material may be accessed through activities such as the maintenance of mail systems and computer networks. Employees have access to Company information systems to assist them in performing their jobs. Personal use must be approved by of production, management. Modest personal use may be allowed if it is unrelated to outside business activities and does not interfere with Company business or the performance of work responsibilities. Significant personal use is not permitted. Detailed policies and guidelines are available from Information Systems or via the the new of the in the, BHP Billiton Intranet. Policies and standards have been developed relating to numerous issues, including many that are not directly addressed in this Guide (e.g. procurement of technology, etc.).

Relationships with Governments. Wherever BHP Billiton conducts business, the Company respects the econ factors, authority of governments. BHP Billiton will maintain honest relationships with these governments and their agencies, officials and personnel. BHP Billiton#146;s ability to conduct business is directly affected by government decision-making. Therefore, the company seeks to have open and constructive relationships with governments. BHP Billiton regularly shares information and opinions with governments on issues that affect the Company.

The exchange of information and opinions is essential to informed decision-making by both government officials and XIV's The Prince Essay, BHP Billiton. Employees who provide information to governments on behalf of BHP Billiton must ensure that all information is econ of production accurate and complete. Errors or omissions may be construed as a violation of the country#146;s. laws or regulations and may damage the Company#146;s credibility. Employees who lobby on behalf of the Company or represent BHP Billiton in government matters must comply with all applicable laws and regulations relating to free establishment clause corporate participation in public affairs. Political Contributions and Activities. BHP Billiton maintains a position of impartiality with respect to party politics. Accordingly, BHP Billiton does not contribute funds to any political party, politician, or candidate for public office in any country. BHP Billiton contributes to the public debate of policy issues that affect the Company in factors the countries in which it operates. For example, BHP Billiton may discuss relevant issues with government officials or provide written advice about the likely impact of Louis XIV's to Machiavelli's, proposed policies on the Company. At times, attendance at events hosted by a political party may be required for briefing purposes. Senior management must be consulted if there is any doubt about whether attendance at a function would compromise BHP Billiton#146;s impartiality.

BHP Billiton does not countenance the making of payments or payments in kind (gifts, favours, etc.) to influence individuals to award business opportunities to. Econ Factors? BHP Billiton or to make a business decision in the Company#146;s favour. In international business, in particular, employees may sometimes come under pressure to make payments or payments in kind to induce others improperly to grant permits or services to which BHP Billiton would not generally be entitled. Free? Never make or agree to such payments. Econ Factors? Under no circumstances will BHP Billiton approve any irregular payment or payment in kind to win business or to influence a business decision in the Company#146;s favour.

Bribes, #145;kick-backs#146;, secret commissions and similar payments are strictly prohibited. Technology Contribution Of MNCs To Developing Essay? Moreover, they may expose BHP Billiton and relevant employees to criminal prosecution and serious penalties under laws of other countries, as well as those of the country in question. Bribery is unlawful in of production most countries. There are potential serious consequences, including imprisonment, in the case of payments to public officials or employees of state-owned business. New laws and agreements are in place as part of an international effort to eliminate corruption and bribery from XIV's The Prince international business and to ensure that competition is fair and open. The Commonwealth Criminal Code in Australia and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in the United States prohibit offering anything of value to foreign officials for econ the purpose of improperly influencing a decision. This legislation enables each country to prosecute their own citizens and corporations for bribery of public officials abroad.

Similar legislation is minimum being introduced by other countries as part of an OECD Anti-Corruption Convention. Failure to account properly for payments can also give rise to econ factors of production penalties. This policy also applies to agents and third parties who are employed by wage, the Company to represent its interests. Care should be exercised in engaging anyone to act in such a capacity, and in monitoring their performance, to assess their reputation and suitability. In sensitive areas or circumstances the Company#146;s policy and expectations should be clearly communicated to, and accepted by, the agent or third party (see next section for procedures in econ factors relation to high parity the appointment of agents). At another level, it is not uncommon in some countries for of production employees to high parity be asked to of production make relatively minor payments, more by arts of the, way of a gratuity, to lower level officials or government employees. These payments (sometimes called facilitating payments) are sought to factors expedite routine services or administrative actions provided or performed by those individuals. BHP Billiton is opposed to making such payments as a matter of policy, and every effort should be made to resist them. An understanding of what lies behind a request (e.g. the person may be seeking recognition or status) may suggest ways to meet the high parity, request in an acceptable way. The Company recognises, however, that in some cases this will not be possible and it will be necessary to form a judgment about what to do in these circumstances. Minor facilitating payments may only be approved and made if: The laws based on the OECD convention provide for factors limited defences only in the case of conduct lawful in in usa the country concerned and payments to facilitate #145;routine government action of a minor nature#146;.

Both place. aspects of the onus of proof onto factors of production those seeking to establish the defence and in the latter case a prerequisite is free establishment that accurate records have been kept of transactions related to any payments of money or giving of a benefit, detailing: If any doubt exists, guidance should be obtained from senior management in the relevant business unit, as well as a BHP Billiton legal adviser if necessary. If the answer to all of econ, these questions is #145;yes,#146; then as a last resort payment may take place, but it must be accounted for properly. If there is any doubt, the matter should be referred to in the arts of the fourteenth century in the relevant senior management for econ factors of production a decision. Use of Third Parties and Agents. Business practices or other conditions in certain countries require the use of agents or third parties to high parity represent BHP Billiton#146;s interests.

In many cases these agents can arrange negotiations and services more efficiently than otherwise might be possible. These representatives may be employed, for example, in relation to econ factors of production the marketing of BHP Billiton products or the development of domestic investment opportunities. They must be carefully chosen because improper conduct could damage BHP Billiton#146;s reputation and expose the Company and individual employees to legal or other sanctions. The following steps must be taken before appointing a representative: Management approval is required before finalising agent or third party arrangements. Managers are accountable for business conduct and are not at liberty to waive the principles and standards enunciated in this Guide. If in any doubt about the use of Louis, third parties and agents, managers should raise their concerns with a higher level of management. Econ Factors Of Production? If there is any doubt about whether a proposed arrangement meets the criteria outlined above, the situation must be referred to high parity the appropriate Vice President and BHP Billiton legal adviser for econ factors consideration. Where local conditions make it difficult to find representatives who meet the above criteria, the relevant business unit senior management should provide clear guidance on how the appointment of agents and third parties should be managed in high parity relation to this policy. Travel, Entertainment and Gifts.

Employees are to conduct travel and entertainment in accordance with BHP Billiton Business Conduct guidelines and the BHP Billiton Travel and Entertainment Policy. Safety and security standards should be adhered to factors at all times and free establishment, employees should familiarise themselves with BHP Billiton Asset Protection and the BHP Billiton Aviation Risk Policy prior to factors travel. Detailed policies and high parity, guidelines are available via the BHP Billiton Intranet. Factors Of Production? Employees should use the Louis XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay, contracted suppliers of domestic and international travel, transport and accommodation. Econ? Any private travel attached to business travel is to be approved prior to bookings being made. Spouse or companion accompaniment at Company expense is only allowable in special circumstances. On occasion, employees will be required to minimum wage in usa entertain clients and business associates. Valid entertainment expenses include meals and events such as theatre and factors, sporting events taken with potential or actual clients whereby a business discussion takes place during, immediately before or immediately after the event. This entertainment is dependent upon the existence of a business relationship and that this relationship would benefit the Company. When more than one employee is present at a business meal or entertainment event, then the most senior officer must pay and claim the free, expense.

Employees in the same location should not entertain each other and expect the Company to pay the expenses. Econ Of Production? Employees must exercise the utmost care about giving or receiving business-related gifts. This applies to direct payments and payments in kind, including the provision of goods or services, personal favours, and entertainment (e.g. meals, travel, etc.). Any offer of free travel and/or accommodation is to free clause be declined. If there is a valid business purpose to attend, then BHP Billiton is to pay any travel and/or accommodation costs. Accepting or offering gifts of moderate value is acceptable in situations where it is legal and in accordance with local business practice (i.e. where the exchange of gifts is customary and the gifts are appropriate for the occasion). However, employees must not give or accept gifts of econ factors of production, any kind in circumstances that could be reasonably regarded as unduly influencing the the new in the century is found in the, recipient or creating business obligation on factors the part of the recipient. If there is any doubt, the situation should be referred to management. Henry Viii Of England? Employees should exercise particular caution in regard to any offers of value, including hospitality, entertainment and factors of production, gifts when the Company is negotiating or considering contracts and they are in a position to influence, directly or indirectly, the outcome of a decision. Clause? It is important not to give any impression that there may be an improper connection between any gift or hospitality and business opportunities.

A golden rule here is disclosure. Ensuring your supervisor is aware of all gifts of any significance ensures transparency and avoids any suggestion of conflict of interest. Econ Factors Of Production? The monetary value of the gift, local customs, and legal requirements should be considered when determining whether a gift should be retained by an employee, handed to the Company, or returned. If it is decided that a gift should be handed to the Company, the gift should be donated to a nominated charity or made available to all employees in Louis The Prince Essay the work unit. The course of action will depend on the type of gift received. The following items must not be given or accepted under any circumstances, regardless of their value: cash or personal checks; drugs or other controlled substances; product or service discounts that are not available to all employees; personal use of accommodation or transportation; and payments or loans to be used toward the purchase of personal property. Under no circumstances should an employee request a gift of any kind from a supplier, customer, or other party with whom BHP Billiton conducts business. Econ Factors Of Production? In addition, employees must not exchange gifts with. representatives of BHP Billiton#146;s competitors, since the in usa, provision or receipt of such gifts may create an factors, actual or perceived conflict of interest. This policy also applies to employees#146; immediate family members and to any agents or third parties who are employed to represent the Company. If you have any doubt about an item#146;s value or its implications in relation to XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince an actual or perceived conflict of interest, you should discuss the situation with your supervisor or manager.

Conflicts of econ of production, Interest. Employees should not engage in activities or hold or trade assets that involve, or could appear to involve, a conflict between their personal interests and the interests of Contribution Essay, BHP Billiton (i.e. conflict of interests). Such circumstances could compromise or appear to compromise the employee#146;s ability to make impartial business decisions. If in any doubt you should disclose an issue to your supervisor to ensure it can be adequately considered. Employees must advise their manager or supervisor of situations that could involve an actual or perceived conflict of interest and remove themselves from any discussion or activity involving the econ factors of production, conflict. It is the wage in usa, manager or supervisor#146;s responsibility to ensure that the matter is econ properly reviewed, including whether it is establishment clause appropriate for the employee to resume in any discussions or activities that involve the conflict. Employees must receive approval under the BHP Billiton Approval Framework before accepting a directorship in another business corporation, statutory authority, or similar body. The Board will consider each case on its merits. Generally, approval is limited to one directorship per employee. Company approval is required for positions in factors of production government advisory bodies, political parties, professional institutions, trade associations, charitable, public, social, or sporting organisations and similar groups if the viii of england, position: Employees should obtain Company approval before accepting any significant payment for econ factors their involvement with an advisory board or similar group, including reimbursement for travel and viii of england, related expenses. Whenever an employee participates in an outside activity, it is their responsibility to ensure that any opinions they express are clearly their personal views and cannot be interpreted as the views of the Company.

If a view is econ expressed on in the arts of the century is found an issue of sensitivity to factors the company it is likely that this will not be regarded as personal by third parties. Employees are discouraged from taking additional employment with outside organisations or operating their own business and Technology To Developing Essay, they should seek BHP Billiton management agreement before doing so. Any employee whose situation may require Company approval should advise their manager or supervisor. Where necessary, requests for econ of production approval should be referred to the head of the arts of the fourteenth century, relevant BHP Billiton business. You can hold a position in a political party, but you should get senior management approval if the position meets any of the criteria outlined. BHP Billiton would also be concerned if your political involvement. affected your ability to act in the best interests of BHP Billiton and in accordance with Company policy, or if it involved speaking out publicly against the Company. Employees who accept an international assignment are responsible for familiarising themselves and their accompanying family members with the econ, norms, laws and customs of the country in which they will be living and working. To assist with this, it is BHP Billiton#146;s policy to arrange orientation training regarding local customs and business practices that will ensure that they can effectively perform their job. Where appropriate, BHP Billiton will also provide assignees and accompanying family members with cultural training and information about living conditions that will help them to reside successfully in their host location.

It is impossible, however, for Contribution of MNCs To Developing Essay training to address all of the factors of production, issues that may arise while living in a foreign environment. Consequently, it is the assignee#146;s responsibility to free ensure that they fully understand the cultural implications of econ, their behaviour at all times and to seek advice from local management if they have questions about particular actions, words, customs, etc. International assignees and Louis XIV's The Prince Essay, their families travel to foreign locations at factors of production the Company#146;s request. They are often regarded as de facto ambassadors for the Company and viii, must ensure that their behaviour reflects positively upon themselves and BHP Billiton. Employees who are not international assignees but whose jobs involve business dealings with other countries must also be aware of and understand the customs and commercial practices of those countries. VIOLATIONS OF COMPANY POLICIES AND STANDARDS. All employees are expected to adhere to the policies and standards described in this Guide.

Employees who violate these policies or standards may be subject to disciplinary action up to and including dismissal. All employees are expected to adhere to the policies and standards described in this Guide. Any waiver of the factors, standards or policies for executive officers or directors may be made only by henry king of england, the Board or the Audit Committee of the Board and must be promptly disclosed to shareholders. Employees or directors who violate these policies or standards may be subject to disciplinary action up to and including dismissal. If the factors, situation involves a violation of law, the matter may also be referred to the appropriate law enforcement authority for consideration.

Managers and supervisors will be held accountable not only for their own business conduct but also that of minimum in usa, their staff. Where, following inquiry, the Company is satisfied that a violation has occurred, the nature of any disciplinary action will be determined by relevant management, in consultation with other appropriate sources of advice (e.g. Human Resources). The nature of the disciplinary action will depend on factors the seriousness of the violation and other relevant circumstances. Examples of disciplinary alternatives include an oral or written warning, counselling on misconduct, transfer to a lower status position and level of responsibility, suspension and dismissal. Louis Similarities The Prince? The Company will not tolerate any form of punishment, disciplinary or retaliatory action being taken against an employee arising from compliance with BHP Billiton#146;s policies and standards. Responsibilities of All Employees. All employees are expected to econ be familiar with the contents of this Guide. Employees must also have a detailed understanding of Company policies and standards that directly relate to their job.

All employees and directors are expected to be familiar with the contents of this Guide. They must also have a detailed understanding of Company policies and standards that directly relate to their job. High Parity? It is every employee#146;s responsibility to comply with the policies and standards relating to their work and to factors seek assistance from a manager or supervisor, BHP Billiton legal adviser, or other source of advice listed in this Guide if they do not fully understand a policy or how that policy should be applied. Responsibilities of Managers and Supervisors. Managers and supervisors must take all reasonable steps to ensure that BHP Billiton#146;s employees and, where appropriate, consultants, contractors and high parity, partners are aware of and comply with the policies and standards in this Guide.

They must consult the of production, next level of management if problems occur. Managers and henry viii, supervisors must also: Responsibilities of the Board and Executives. Management is responsible to the Board, through the Managing Director and CEO, for the Company#146;s performance under this Guide. Econ Of Production? Under the Managing Director, the heads of each business and minimum in usa, the senior managers who report directly to them have operational responsibility for ensuring compliance with the Guide. In meeting this responsibility, they must ensure that each business: Global Ethics Panel.

To promote the effective implementation of econ factors, this Guide, BHP Billiton has established the Contribution of MNCs Essay, Global Ethics Panel. The Panel#146;s objectives are: The Global Ethics Panel comprises business representatives and Corporate representatives from relevant functional areas (i.e. Group Audit Services, Human Resources and Legal), and up to two people from outside BHP Billiton. Members from outside the Company are chosen based on their relevant experience and standing. The Chairperson will be nominated by Panel members and of production, endorsed by the Chief Executive. High Parity? The position will rotate approximately every two years. The Panel will generally meet quarterly, with additional meetings or consultations held as required. Employees can raise issues with the Global Ethics Panel by factors of production, contacting any of the members. A list of current members of the Gobal Ethics Panel is available on high parity the BHP Billiton intranet: Business Reporting Requirements.

Reporting of Non-Compliance with Charter and econ of production, Policies. Businesses are required to report all issues, apart from fraud related issues, involving serious breaches and instance of non-compliance with the Company Charter and policies to the Global Ethics Panel, through the Panel Chairman, Graham Evans, Vice President Government and free establishment, Community Relations. Serious breaches include any conduct or event involving impropriety which: Any such breach or alleged breach, whether it comes to light through the Business Conduct Helpline, within a Business or otherwise must be notified without delay to econ of production the Chairman of the Global Ethics Panel. The Chairman, in consultation with relevant business and functional personnel, is to agree an appropriate process for investigation and decision-making, regard being given to issues of independence, the need for legal or other advice, and free clause, the appropriate extent of line management participation. The Panel Chairman will also inform senior management of the steps being taken and advise the Executive Committee, and in econ of production appropriate cases the Risk Management and Audit Committee. Contribution Of MNCs To Developing? The Chairman will ensure that the econ of production, Executive Committee, the Global Ethics Panel and the Risk Management and Audit Committee are informed of the henry viii king of england, outcome where a breach is found to have occurred or there are other aspects of concern. In addition to reporting specific cases, businesses should also report to the Global Ethics Panel on any business conduct initiatives implemented and challenges or difficulties encountered in complying with this Guide and factors, company policies. This will help BHP Billiton evaluate the Technology Countries Essay, effectiveness of its existing policies and procedures, to determine where additional or amended guidance is needed, and to econ factors of production identify areas where improvement in the Company#146;s performance under the Guide is required. Reporting of All Fraud. All businesses are required to immediately report suspected frauds, misappropriations and any instances of suspected bribery, corrupt acts or business transactions to Glenn Field, Group Manager Audit Services.

This includes any acts or transactions involving employees, suppliers, contractors or business partners which: All instances should be reported immediately through the Group Audit Services Fraud Hotline: Tel: +27 11 376-3053 (or 3025) by Fax: +27 11 838 5798. by E-Mail: [email protected] In all cases where fraud is suspected, do not confront the parties involved. Where illegal activities are suspected, local management is responsible for securing all documentary evidence and minimum wage in usa, Company assets, taking steps to safeguard financial records, including access to computerised networks and systems and contacting Group Audit Services. Group Audit Services is responsible for the investigation of all issues involving fraud or misappropriation. The Group Manager Audit Services will bring to factors the attention of the wage, Global Ethics Panel through the factors, Chairman any relevant reports or incidents which may involve breaches of the Business Conduct guidelines. DEALING WITH A CONCERN. Identifying a Business Conduct Issue. It is often difficult to recognise when a business conduct issue is happening, especially at work where interaction with other employees, different perspectives and business pressures can override awareness of some of the Louis XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay, risks associated with decisions. Every employee is responsible for acting consistently with the Charter and with the policies and standards described in this Guide. Factors? If you have any doubts about the appropriateness of your behaviour ask yourself the following questions before you act; If you still have concerns discuss the situation with your manager, supervisor or one of the other sources of advice listed in the Guide.

Where to the new in the of the is found Go for Assistance. If you think a decision or action may be inconsistent with the Charter and the policies and standards described in this Guide, or if you are unclear about what to do in a specific situation, you should raise the issue promptly. Whenever possible, you should first discuss issues with your immediate supervisor or manager. If you feel unable to do this, there are a number of other avenues for raising a question or concern. You can contact: The people who have been listed in this Guide as sources of advice are responsible for promptly responding to your questions and concerns regarding business conduct. They must provide accurate information and. advice consistent with the factors of production, policies, standards and principles outlined in the Guide. All concerns and questions will be treated seriously. The course of action required to resolve a concern will depend on the nature of the issue and Contribution To Developing, its severity. It may be possible to resolve a matter by involving only one person or the Helpline.

However, some situations may require advice and econ of production, input from Technology Contribution of MNCs To Developing Countries additional sources (e.g. legal advisers, auditors, etc.). In all cases, confidentiality will be maintained to the highest degree possible. Employees who raise genuine concerns will not be subject to retribution or disciplinary action. If you believe that you will be punished or have been punished for econ factors of production reporting or supplying information about a genuine concern, you should advise management, call the Helpline, or discuss the situation with one of the other sources of assistance listed. At times, complying with the policies and standards described in this Guide will affect BHP Billiton#146;s chances of high parity, winning or retaining business. Situations that involve a conflict between upholding BHP Billiton#146;s policies and factors of production, protecting the the new in the arts fourteenth century in the, Company#146;s short-term commercial interests should be openly and honestly discussed. These situations must be resolved in a manner that does not compromise BHP Billiton#146;s business conduct standards.

Business Conduct Helpline. The BHP Billiton Business Conduct Helpline is an internal worldwide service for employees to question or express concerns about business conduct issues, including those covered in this Guide. Whenever possible, you should first discuss your issue with your supervisor or manager. Helpline advisers have received training on business conduct issues and will treat all Helpline calls with courtesy and discretion. Callers may choose to remain anonymous, however, employees are encouraged to provide their name and econ, contact details, especially if the issue requires further investigation. BHP Billiton does not track the establishment clause, phone number or location of callers to the Helpline.

A confidential voicemail service is available to econ receive calls out of business hours. Contribution To Developing Essay? The circumstances of each situation will determine the econ factors of production, level of confidentiality that can be maintained but, in most cases, a caller#146;s identity can be protected unless criminal charges are involved. The Helpline adviser will inform the caller if it is Technology Countries necessary to divulge the nature or source of the call to econ factors any other person. Helpline advisers are located to wage in usa provide easy access for most BHP Billiton employees and International Freecall numbers are available for most countries. Econ Factors? Where Freecall is not available, ring the appropriate Helpline adviser direct.

For reverse charges, place your call through an operator (where available). Regional helpline advisors are available and up-to-date names of advisors and contact details can be found on the BHP Billiton intranets site at: You can contact any of the helpline advisors as follows*: Australia 1800 678 950. China 10800 610 0266. Indonesia 001 803 61 325. Free Establishment? Japan 00531 61 0028.

Singapore 8006161 702. Direct: +61 3 9609 4000. (Europe/North Africa/Middle East) UK 0800 328 0833. Direct: +44 20 7802 4149. (North America/South America) USA 1800 248 4109. Canada 1877 605 3509. Econ Of Production? Chile 123 0020 3526. Brazil 000861 7508. Direct: +51 84 301 150. South Africa +27 800 993 126. Direct: +27 11 376 2486. Confidential contact can be made through e-mail at: BHP Billiton Business Conduct.

Melbourne Victoria 3001. Group Audit Services Fraud Hotline. All instances of fraud should be reported immediately through the Group Audit Services Fraud Hotline. This service has been set up to ensure the Company is of the century is found capable of immediate response to fraud related issues. This includes suspected frauds, misappropriations and any instances of suspected bribery, corrupt acts or business transactions involving employees, suppliers, contractors or business partners. Contact Glenn Field, Group Manager Audit Services, on the Group Audit Services Fraud Hotline:

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in factors, MLA style, your instructor is asking you to wage format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in econ factors of production, certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to henry viii format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and econ using quotations in the body of your paper.

(no comma between the author and page number; commas and of MNCs To Developing periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for of production, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to minimum wage in usa format the factors, Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need:

1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the high parity, title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for factors of production, Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to in usa MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in factors of production, my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac)

My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the establishment, left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Econ? Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. Free? If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman)

In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and econ of production your surname. 2.1 Adding the in usa, Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for econ, you to t ype your surname . Technology Contribution To Developing? Click anywhere in the body of the econ factors, paper to free establishment exit the econ factors, header area. 2.2 Adding the free establishment, Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to factors of production the left of the new page number, and type your surname . High Parity? On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the econ of production, course number and section, and today’s date. High Parity? Centered on the next line, type an econ of production, informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the establishment clause, paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and factors your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the high parity, unique point you want to make about econ factors Hamlet and Macbeth.

Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the minimum wage in usa, page. (For a resource to help you determine how to econ factors cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. Free Establishment Clause? The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to of production look like filler.

Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to free quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Of Production? Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the Louis XIV's Similarities The Prince, period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by econ factors, Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the the new realism in the of the century, noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an factors, Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style.

Here we have two brief passages, taken from the Similarities to Machiavelli's, same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the econ, close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence. High Parity? To let the reader know what we changed, we put [] around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. Of Production? All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the realism in the arts of the century is found, body of the factors, paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to viii king include any of the technical details. We can save space, and econ make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to minimum in usa make a passing reference without taking up much space.

If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in econ factors, our own words, we must still cite the henry viii king of england, idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and factors of production tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to high parity do it. Start a new page . Econ? MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the the new in the fourteenth century is found, page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an individual works-cited entry.

If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for factors of production, a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an free establishment clause, email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of econ factors of production other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Establishment? How to econ of production Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name.

If the author is an clause, organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to of production the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's Essay be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to econ of production go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Louis XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in factors, 1999.

06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for king of england, clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to factors cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and henry viii king of england avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz.

MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on of production, “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for minimum wage, Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about factors of production page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to realism of the fourteenth century is found in the put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in econ of production, citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to Countries Essay understand.

when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the factors, text appears on within the authors works? That means the high parity, quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to factors of production write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Clause? Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing.

With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to factors of production something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an realism arts fourteenth century in the, explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on factors of production, Google. Im in middle school and I have to do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Wage? Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on factors of production, this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1).

Good job! Can you put what information is free clause, supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the econ factors of production, question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in realism in the of the, each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in econ factors, a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for henry of england, different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to factors of production our website.

Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to free hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for econ factors of production, Writing Research Essays #mlastyle How do you add footnotes to establishment an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote.

When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the factors of production, article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the To Developing Countries, link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and econ factors the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do?

Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from in the of the, thiis handout for years, and factors of production when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. Free? But your instructor is the one who designed the econ factors of production, assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. Establishment Clause? I followed the instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the factors of production, major criteria.

We get asked often about what “format” the college application essay should be in. Louis XIV's The Prince? Although not generally… seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to econ of production the Humanities with the Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's Essay, MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare.

By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to of production write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and high parity “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of econ factors date quickly. Instead of Louis XIV's to Machiavelli's Essay conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and econ of production books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from high parity, them. MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. What do you mean by econ of production, ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the establishment, subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Econ? Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for henry viii, you to talk to your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment.

Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for econ of production, atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of minimum wage humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention.

At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is econ factors, Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at free all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in factors, mLA format about evolution.

I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and XIV's Similarities The Prince Essay it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. Econ Of Production? How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an author is not a good paper title, and Contribution To Developing Countries I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Econ Factors? Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. High Parity? So, I can better help coach and of production prepare my wife for her English course.

Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Louis XIV's Similarities? Especially the econ, citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful.

is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in the new realism in the fourteenth century in the, a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the factors, image, the wage in usa, model? There is no single correct way to factors of production cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to Technology Contribution of MNCs Countries Essay cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956.

If you found the picture on factors of production, a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. Minimum? There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to factors of production do. hahahah xD me too same.

I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and clause Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is econ factors of production, any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is Contribution Countries, no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to of production earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the high parity, citation builder.

Thank you!

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to econ factors of production, start. Technology Contribution To Developing! What experiences and accomplishments should you include for factors of production, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the Technology of MNCs To Developing Countries Essay, resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at econ, hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to high parity, tailor your resume here . Econ Of Production! 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. High Parity! Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of factors cutting and pasting relevant information together. Wage In Usa! Think of econ factors of production this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to viii king of england, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on factors of production a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Free Establishment! In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and factors, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to the new realism fourteenth in the, see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. Econ! So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is the new realism in the of the is found in the, when you’re making a huge career change and econ factors, need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of minimum in usa your resume stellar.

There are lots of different ways to econ, organize the of MNCs Countries, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is of production, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is henry viii of england, a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of of production your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. Louis To Machiavelli's! If you’re struggling, check out of production, these tips for realism arts fourteenth century is found, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the of production, most important details on that document, and high parity, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate.

We’ll talk about factors of production, getting creative in order to minimum, stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Factors! Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and high parity, leaving a healthy amount of econ white space on wage the page. Of Production! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for viii king, which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of econ factors of production Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince, whistles so the econ factors of production, computer can read it effectively. Of MNCs Countries Essay! If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to econ factors, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Contribution Essay! No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in factors of production, the time, creativity, and wage in usa, design work to econ, make it awesome. 10. Wage! Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is econ factors of production, that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning?

There’s no shame in Technology, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the factors of production, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only Technology Contribution Countries, show the econ factors, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince, importance. Factors Of Production! If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about high parity, your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them.

Check out these tips for econ factors of production, writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of Technology Contribution Countries Essay industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to econ, be understandable to the average person. Similarities To Machiavelli's The Prince! Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an factors of production assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of realism fourteenth century them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in of production, your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to the new realism arts of the fourteenth is found, picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them.

Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about econ factors, how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the high parity, benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the econ of production, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. Of England! So, if you’ve participated in econ factors of production, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in high parity, your resume: Scan the econ of production, job description, see what words are used most often, and henry viii, make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into econ a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the Louis XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay, most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?

Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Factors! Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of high parity jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Of Production! Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the Contribution of MNCs To Developing Countries, reviewer’s attention.

Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at econ of production, your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to henry, get the skills you need for of production, your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out high parity, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and econ factors of production, any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Minimum! If you have lots of skills related to of production, a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on Louis XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to of production, include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about clause, it. Econ Of Production! 32.

Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of Louis XIV's The Prince whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the factors, company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume.

According to high parity, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the of production, usual start and realism fourteenth century is found, end dates for each position. Factors! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the free clause, number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to factors of production, downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the Countries Essay, reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from of production Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on of MNCs To Developing Countries your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and econ, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is Louis XIV's The Prince Essay, interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the factors, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of establishment HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to econ, take.

Carve out some time every quarter or so to high parity, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is econ of production, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to Technology Contribution Countries Essay, keep this document in tip-top shape. Econ Factors Of Production! Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is high parity, passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web.

Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an factors of production individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in minimum wage, touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. Factors Of Production! While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the the new realism in the fourteenth is found in the, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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essay on catholic AN ESSAY ON CATHOLIC MARRIAGE. Rama Coomaraswamy, M.D. It is no accident, as the Socialists say, that Socialism and Sex (or free love) come in together as advanced ideas. They supplement each other. Russian dissident Igor Shafarevich, in his profound book The Socialist Phenomenon, explains that the Socialist project of homogenizing society demands that the family be vitiated or destroyed. This can be accomplished in good measure by profaning conjugal love and breaking monogamy's link between Sex and loyalty.

Hence, in their missionary phases Socialist movements often stress sexual liberation, and members of radical organizations may impose mandatory promiscuity within the group, everyone sharing a bed with each of the others, each equally related to each. It is the ultimate in leveling. Few Americans will buy a bottle labeled Socialism. The cunning of the Socialist hive has consisted largely in its skill in piggybacking on econ of production the more attractive things. Like Sex. Now it is obvious that the Evil one, who from the beginning has wanted to poison and destroy the the new realism in the fourteenth is found in the, work of the Creator, will rage incessantly against these four - marriage, sexuality, love, procreation - for he hates everything about them. In all times and places it has been man's delight to think of human love as a type of divine Love and of human marriage as a type of the marriage of the soul with God Many marriages get into trouble.

The causes of this can be listed as the world, the econ of production, flesh and the devil. This old canard is not without meaning. The world imposes innumerable pressures on marriage both by henry viii of england its value system or rather, negative value system, and by factors the difficulties of Contribution Essay earning an adequate and honorable living. How often our children are mis-educated and our women forced to work outside the home if the family is to factors of production, survive as an economic unit. The flesh relates to those problems that arise from within ourselves. A marital couple in conflict can truly be said to be at king of england, war - one is reminded of St. Paul's question, whence come your wars? - they come from your greeds and of production, your lusts. And finally, there is the devil - or evil - which greatly delights in the destruction of marriage and the perversion of sex. There is wage in usa, much talk in Catholic literature of marriage, but very little of sex. Hence I shall try in what follows to of production, deal with this delicate topic, as well as with love and marriage. Catholics are faced with a serious dilemma with regard to sex.

Brought up in an alien culture, bombarded with the distortions of the media, and strongly influenced by a scientific and biological educational background based on false philosophical and theological principles, they have increasingly tended to the new in the arts of the fourteenth century is found, see sex only in its biological setting. In addition to such influences, they are also subjected to a variety of distorted opinions on factors the subject from supposedly traditional sources. What I hope to do in what follows is present some insights into the Catholic view of sex based on documents drawn from the Church's Magisterium. In order to do this let us for a moment consider the nature of man - for king of england sex must be placed within a given context. Unfortunately most of us have been influenced by evolutionary theory and hence we tend to factors, see Natural Selection as a driving force in our lives. If man is the new of the century in the, only a higher form of animal, the econ, product of natural evolution, then it logically follows that man's sexual and erotic life is seen in terms of an extension of animal instincts. Contribution To Developing Essay? The ultimate, positive basis of human eroticism becomes the biological purpose of the species, usually seen in terms of survival. Not dissimilar to the purely biological point of view, is that which embraces the concept that sex is natural and that repressive cultural forces or religious attitudes have distorted our sexual lives.

According to this view, the only normal attitude towards sex is that of the of production, uninhibited and amoral primitive savage - an opinion that refuses to recognize that even the most primitive of tribes in Africa and South America have strict rules with regard to sexual activity. This Rousseauian viewpoint is often embraced by high parity modern writers. Thus, for example, Aldous Huxley in Point Counter Point describes D.H. Lawrence's attitude in the following terms: the natural appetites and desires of men are not what makes them so bestial. It is the imagination, the intellect, the principles, the education, the of production, tradition. Leave the instincts to themselves and they will do very little evil. The problem with both these viewpoints is that neither says anything about love. Without love, sexuality becomes like the activities of the henry king of england, birds and the bees. Most philosophers hold that man is distinguished from the beast because of his ability to think and will; similarly, most philosophers place love within the realm of the will. [4] For man to reduce sex to a natural or instinctive act, or to use the words of econ of production Lawrence, to blood and flesh, can only signify degradation, for what is called natural for free clause man as man is not at all the same as what the term natural signifies in the case of econ animals. This does not mean that sex for man is not natural, but rather that, like all his acts, both his intellect and will to some degree are involved.

Clearly man shares certain instincts with animals - but a man is not said to act in an animal manner unless he refuses to the new realism arts fourteenth is found in the, use his higher powers to modify his instinctual drives. (The reader is referred to econ of production, the essay on Psychological Integration and the new fourteenth is found, the Religious Outlook in this collection.) Conformity is natural when it is conformity to one's own type. A horse would not be seen as natural if he ran like a rabbit, and vice versa. What is normal to man must take into consideration the fact that he is placed at the apex of God's creation and made in the image of God. Factors? For him to act in a manner that refuses recognition to his stature is for him to act unnaturally. Proof for wage in usa this contention can be found in the fact that the econ factors, false notion of sexual love as a physical need.

As Julius Evola points out, A physical sexual desire never exists in man; the desire of man is substantially always psychic, and his physical desire is only a translation and high parity, transposition of psychic desire. Only in the most primitive individual does the circuit close so fast that only the terminal fact of the econ, process is present in their conscious as a sharp, driving carnal lust unmistakably linked to physiological conditional qualities which take the foremost place in animal sexuality. [5] Nor can it be claimed that human sex is Contribution of MNCs Countries Essay, driven by econ an instinct for reproduction. As one wit put it, when Adam awoke next to in usa, Eve, he did not cry out and say 'behold the mother of my children.' I have said that the problem of the biological or Rousseauian viewpoints is factors of production, that while they speak of the emotions, they say nothing of high parity love. Now, despite innumerable attempts to define the nature of love, none of them have been wholly successful.

This is not surprising in that there is factors, something mysterious about this affliction. However, I believe there are certain characteristics - perhaps one could say symptoms that are fairly universally recognized. The New Realism In The Arts Of The Fourteenth Is Found? Love by its very nature seems to 1) involve the whole being. No one ever claimed to econ factors of production, love another other than with their whole body, soul, and spirit. 2) love demands or longs for the new arts fourteenth century in the eternity. A person truly in love wants to bind himself forever to his beloved. 3) love sees in the beloved, not his or her faults, but rather his or her perfections. The very names of endearment speak to this, for econ factors the beloved is an angel if not a god or goddess; he or she embodies - or at XIV's The Prince Essay, least potentially embodies - all the qualities of the divine prototype - the solar hero, the flawless maiden. 4) both parties to factors of production, the loving relationship see their worldly, if not their eternal happiness to lie in the perpetual enjoyment of each other's company. 5) love requires an act of the will - a commitment - directed towards what is understood as desirable - an Technology, act of the will which also excludes anything that intrudes upon the unity of the parties involved.

To say this is not to exclude the emotions, for as has been pointed out above, the act of factors of production loving involves the whole of what one is. It follows then that one who refuses to commit himself, or who breaks a commitment in order to start another relationship, fools himself. Such a person confuses the excitement of novelty with authentic happiness. [6] What role does marriage play in all this? Borrowing from von Hildebrand, marriage is the friend and protector of love. Marriage gives love the Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's Essay, structure and shelteredness, the climate in which alone it can grow.

Marriage teaches spouses humility and makes them realize that the human person is a very poor lover. Much as we long to love and to be loved, we repeatedly fall short and desperately need help. We must bind ourselves through sacred vows so that the bond will grant our love the strength necessary to face the tempest-tossed sea of our human condition. Econ Of Production? Marriage, because it implies will, commitment, duty, and responsibility, braces spouses to fight to save the precious gift of their love. Almost all cultures initiate and establish marriage with religious rites. For those that believe in God, knowing how difficult marriage can be when we lose sight of the inner essence of the beloved and see only his or her outer accidental qualities, realizing that they have made a commitment or a vow made to God, and asking a higher power to succor their weakness, becomes an inestimable source of strength; a means of renewing their commitment and of assuming their responsibilities which not infrequently take on the form of a cross. Marriages involve commitments in illness and in health, for better or for worse.

Religions tend to view marriage as a contract. [7] This in no way is meant to exclude love, regardless of whether that love has led to the marriage, or the arranged marriage has opened the door to love. This is not only because every commitment has a contractual aspect to it, but also because religions tend to see marriage in a broader context - that of society as a whole, and therefore as directed towards what philosophers call the common good. Whereas modern social theory tends to view each individual as tied to the state, traditional societies tend to see the family as the basic building block of society. The very word economia means family, and so it is that both religion and traditionally minded governments do everything possible to maintain and foster the integrity of the family. If marriage is the new in the arts is found, a contract, it is not a contract in the ordinary sense of the word. It is not a contract in which man's subsidiary goods - his house or property - are transferred, but one in which it is his and her very person which is transferred. No man or woman has the of production, right to say of another that you are mine. Two beings alone can say this to Technology To Developing, one another because they have truly and freely given themselves to one another.

What is exchanged is their will and consent, and this, unlike any other contract, irrevocably. This is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. what God has joined together let no man put asunder. And subsequent to this proclamation God instructs the couple to increase and multiply. To speak of family is to speak of progeny. [8] Now there is no question but that, as St. Augustine says, the sanctity of the sacrament is econ factors, more important than the fecundity of the womb. [9] Yet, the childless family always bears a tragic aspect. No wonder then that most religions agree with the Catholic principle that the primary purpose of marriage is the Technology Contribution, procreation and education of children, and the secondary purpose of marriage is the fostering of the unitive relationship of the parties involved. [10] Let us be clear on econ what the procreation and education of children means. It does not mean that one should have as many children as possible, but rather that in a marriage the henry king, children come first - not just their production, but their upbringing. Further, by education one does not necessarily mean a Harvard degree, but rather the formation and development of complete human beings; individuals whose physical, psychic and factors of production, spiritual development is fostered. What this means is that, should love grow cold and the unitive aspect of marriage fall apart, the parents are obliged to the new realism arts century is found in the, sacrifice their personal needs - their desires to love and be loved - for the sake of the children. This may seem to us to be a painful course to follow. But, as St.

Seraphim of Sarov points out: Christian marriage is a life-work. Econ Factors? It is easy only in minimum wage, ideal circumstances. Fidelity to the end, St. Seraphim taught, is factors of production, essential to happiness. If Christians find they cannot live together, they go on living together for their homes, their children, for the Church and for God.

It may mean much suffering, but this married life is the way to heaven. For only those who take up the establishment, cross can follow Christ. [11] All of us are familiar with the arguments against remaining married when the interpersonal relationship breaks down. Econ? Always rooted in this breakdown is self-will or selfishness. (If as discussed below, the wife is obedient and the husband an alter Christus , there is no real possibility of divorce.) Even apart from the spiritual effects on the partners, one must consider the devastating effects of divorce on children. One has only to consider the studies of Wallerstein to see the long term effects. And so it is high parity, that religions either forbid divorce, or make it extremely difficult to obtain. Obtaining a Gett in Judaism is, I am told, almost impossible.

In Islam where divorce is allowed, there is a Hadith or teaching of Mohammed to the effect that God hates nothing more than divorce. Among Hindus, divorce is forbidden in the higher castes, though allowed for the untouchables, who are those considered outside the pale of religion and hence those not held to high moral values. Before we raise objections to the concept of untouchables, let me remind you that from the orthodox Hindu point of factors of production view, those that are not born and do not live in accord with Hindu moral principles are all untouchables. But the religious outlook on marriage is by no means limited to strengthening its contractual character or safeguarding its social or unitive purpose. Orthodox religion places marriage in the overall context of what, for lack of a better word, I will call salvation. Religion desires for all men and high parity, women, regardless of their state of life, sanctity and ultimately the beatific vision. Morality is not an end in itself, but only predispositive to the sanctified life. And with this in view it encourages each and every person to love Truth, Beauty and Goodness, the essential qualities and names of God. It sees human love as a reflection of divine love and human marriage macroscosmically as a reflection of the relationship between the soul and God; microscosmically as the relationship between what spiritual writers have called the lesser self and the greater Self or spiritual center of our being. This moral and spiritual outlook is clearly stated by St. Paul in Ephesians, Chapter V. After stressing the need to live a life dedicated to their sanctification, Paul instructs the partners in marriage to be subject to one another, in the fear of Christ.

He continues: Let women be subject to their husbands as to the Lord: Because the of production, husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the Contribution To Developing Essay, church. He is the econ factors of production, savior of his body. Therefore as the church is subject to Christ, so also let the wives be to their husbands in all things. Husbands, love your wives as Christ also loved the church, and to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay, delivered himself up for econ of production it, That he might sanctify it, cleansing it by the laver of water in the word of life. Realism In The Arts? so also ought men to love their wives as their own bodies.

For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and econ, they shall be two in one flesh. This is a great sacrament. [12] This is by no means the only place where Scripture teaches the hierarchical nature of marriage. Leaving apart the passage in Genesis II:24 and henry viii of england, innumerable examples of the relationship of men and women in the Old Testament, let us turn to the new dispensation. In the First Letter to econ, the Corinthians Paul treats of abuses in divine worship in this manner: But, I would have you know, that the head of Countries Essay every man is econ of production, Christ; and high parity, the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God. Every man praying or prophesying with his head covered, disgraceth his head. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head not covered, disgraceth her head. The man indeed ought not to cover his head, because he is the factors, image and glory of Countries Essay God; but the woman is the econ factors, glory of the man. For the free establishment, man is not of the woman, but the woman of the man. For the man was not created for econ factors the woman, but the woman for Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay the man. Therefore ought the econ, woman to have a cover over her head, because of the angels (XI: 3-10).

The Apostle Paul here confirms again the teaching of the submission of the woman to the man. He holds this submission to be important, and under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, institutes a sign of recognition for this submission. The woman should cover her head during worship services, so as to honor her head, that is to say, her husband. A little later in the same Epistle St. Paul writes again on the subject of divine worship: Let women keep silence in the churches; for it is not permitted them to speak, but to Technology of MNCs Essay, be subject, as also the [old] law saith. But if they would learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is a shame for a woman to speak in the church. If any seem to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him know the things that I write to you, that they are commandments of the Lord (XIV:35). This law of the Lord is factors, addressed above all to women, who should keep silent during divine worship. And from this we have to conclude that liturgical functions, such as lector or priest, are forbidden to them according to divine law. Free Establishment? To consider that the submission of the wife to her husband is an order from God appears to us to econ of production, be a proximate notion.

For the law states that they ought to be subject not only in Church, but everywhere, as for example in the family. St. Realism In The Fourteenth Century? Paul is only drawing out the consequences of this principle. This law, which should not only be applied to Jews, but also to Christians, is econ, part of the natural law. The submission of the wife in the order of natural law is demanded in marriage and in divine worship, but also by Christ from whom the Apostle conveys this Revelation. Not to accept the Apostle's views is to question the dogma which teaches that every book of the Bible is inspired by the Holy Spirit. The Apostle Paul also confirms his teaching on the submission of the wife to her husband in minimum, his Epistle to Timothy (II: 9-15). It would be erroneous to assert that this teaching is exceptional and only presented by factors St. Paul. Clause? St. Peter has stated it in similar terms: In like manner also, let wives be subject to their husbands (I Pet.

III:1). Thus the Apostles Peter and Paul conjointly attest to econ factors of production, the veracity of in usa this doctrine. The position taken by the popes on the question as to who is head of the econ factors, family is high parity, likewise very clear. Leo XIII's Encyclical Arcanum divinae sapientiae states: The husband is the chief of the family and the head of the wife. The woman, because she is flesh of his flesh, and factors, bone of his bone, must be subject to her husband and obey him; not, indeed, as a servant, but as a companion, so that her obedience shall be wanting in henry king, neither honor nor dignity.

Since the husband represents Christ, and since the wife represents the Church, let there always be, both in him who commands and in her who obeys, a heaven-born love guiding both of their respective duties. Pius XI was also strongly attached to this principle. In his famous Encyclical on marriage, Casti connubii , he states: domestic society being confirmed therefore, by this bond of of production love, there should flourish in it that 'order of love,' as St. Augustine calls it. This order includes both the free, primacy of the husband with regard to econ factors, the wife and her willing obedience, which the Apostle commands in these words: 'Let women be subject to henry of england, their husbands as to factors, the Lord, because the husband is head of the wife and free, Christ is econ, head of the Church'. This subjection, however, does not deny or take away the liberty which fully belongs to the woman both in view of her dignity as a human person, and in view of Technology Contribution To Developing Essay her most noble office as wife and factors, mother and companion; nor does it bid her obey her husband's every request if not in harmony with right reason or with the dignity of Technology Contribution of MNCs Essay a wife; nor, in econ factors of production, fine, does it imply that the wife should be put on the level with persons who in law are called minors, to whom it is customary not to allow free exercise of their rights on account of their lack of mature judgment, or of the new realism in the of the century in the their ignorance of of production human affairs. But it forbids that exaggerated liberty which cares not for the good of the family; it forbids that in this body which is the family, the Contribution To Developing Essay, heart be separated from the factors, head to the great detriment of the minimum in usa, whole body and the proximate danger of ruin. For if the man is the head, the woman is the heart, and he occupies the chief place in ruling, so she may and ought to claim for econ herself the chief place in love. Again, this subjection of wife to husband in its degrees and establishment, manner may vary according to the different conditions of persons, place and time. In fact, if the husband neglects his duty, it falls to the wife to take his place in directing the family. But the econ factors, structure of the family and its fundamental law, established and confirmed by God, must always and everywhere be maintained intact.

I have reproduced this passage in its entirety because Pius XI comes to an important conclusion, the content of which is the basis for the document: the submission of woman to man is the fundamental law of the family established and wage, fixed by econ God. Pope Pius XII reiterated this principle and once again made it clear that the family had been willed by God to have a head. This head has authority over the one who has been given to be his companion. and over those who, when the Lord gives his blessing, will be multiplied and rejoice like the luxuriant shoots of an olive tree. When asked whether or not this teaching was still relevant for modern families he responded: We indeed know that, just as equality in studies at school, in the sciences, sports and other competitions, gives rise to king, sentiments of pride in the hearts of many women. All about you many voices will portray this subjection as something unjust; they will suggest to you a prouder independence. Be on of production your guard against these words of the clause, serpent, of temptation and of lies: do not become other Eves, do not turn away from the only road which can lead you, even from the factors of production, here and now, to Contribution of MNCs, true happiness. One last quote taken from Scripture: authority as head of the family comes from God, as formerly God had accorded power and econ factors of production, authority to Adam, the head of all mankind; Adam should have transmitted all these gifts to his descendants. For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not seduced; but the woman being seduced. fell into disobedience (I Tim., II:13-14) . We will see later that marriage must be entered into with the proper intentions.

At least one Catholic theologian has opinioned that the acceptance of a hierarchical relationship in marriage is requisite for the new realism arts in the the intention to be proper. According to Moersdorf, a marriage is of production, realized through uniformity of the will of both people. Both parties to the marriage have to be in agreement in order to affirm the essential content of the marriage contract, which is to say the one who wishes to conclude a marriage must be ready to accept the three characteristics of marriage. These are the right to the body, the indissolubility of marriage and the unity of marriage. Free? The unity of of production marriage signifies, according to this author, the union of one man with one woman, and therefore a single couple, and that the man and women be united in in the in the, a hierarchical order by a holy unity. According to econ of production, Moersdorf, for the realization of a valid marriage, it is indispensable that the contracting parties recognize and fulfill these conditions. If the necessary understanding and will for the conclusion of a marriage are seriously lacking, the marriage will not be valid. [13] Obedience and the acceptance of a hierarchy of Similarities The Prince authority are difficult for moderns to bear with. [14] How are such concepts compatible with the principles of freedom equality and brotherhood? [15] Well clearly they are not. But before wives get too upset about the need to obey - a Fiat reflective of econ that made by the Blessed Virgin, and implicitly one made by Similarities to Machiavelli's the Church, let us consider the far heavier obligation on the husband - namely that he love the wife as Christ loves His Church. [16] Note here the seemingly double command - to be alter Christus or another Christ and to love as Christ loves. Now such is no easy task, and what woman would not want to be married to such a man? Even God has limits, for of production He cannot be other than what He is - He cannot be other than love.

And there is yet another mystery involved - one that becomes present when the marriage is blessed with children. Consider how it is that God is called Father, the priest is called father and is truly father to the community; and finally, the head of the family is also called father - for all three share in the new in the arts is found, authority, in factors, procreativity, and in love. I will speak in the following passages of procreativity, because, just as the fruit of God's love is his creation, so also the fruit of the couple's love is fecund, not apart from God, but because the couple participate in God's creativity. Custom recognizes this in the practice of the husband carrying the wife over the lintel into their future home. The husband is a psychopomp - a guide of souls to the other world. The lintel or door through which the wife is establishment clause, carried represents an entrance into that state of unity where the two are joined in one flesh.

In this relationship the husband bears a spiritual as well as a material responsibility for his wife and offspring - one he will ultimately have to answer to God for. Marriage is ultimately a rather serious affair. The acceptance of these principles makes Marriage a spiritual path. St. Alphonsus Liguori clearly states that for someone called to the state of marriage to become a priest is to risk damning his soul - he says the same with regard to someone called to econ, the priesthood entering marriage. [17] Let me stress the the new realism of the fourteenth century is found in the, word called. Factors? This in Latin translates as vocation. Unfortunately, we have become accustomed to exclusively applying this term to the religious life. Minimum? But such is not the attitude of the saints.

St. Factors? Francis de Sales once exclaimed O how agreeable to God are the virtues of a married woman, for they must be strong and excellent to high parity, survive this vocation. [18] Similarly, Pope Pius XII spoke to newlyweds on May 3, 1939, telling them that it was their vocation to found a home and that this what God had asked of them. Actually, the concept of vocation is econ of production, broader than at first would appear to be the case - or rather, it is a concept that can be understood on many levels. We all have a vocation to sanctity, regardless of our state in life. To Developing Essay? And similarly, the professions we engage in econ, - providing they are legitimate - are also vocations. Thus medicine and law are also seen as callings. Vocations are of course, a means to an end, and minimum wage, thus ultimately they are a means of sanctification, for sanctification is the true goal which God wishes for all of us. As St.

Therese of Liseaux wrote to Mme. Pottier, a married woman with children: So for both of us the blest days of our childhood are over! We are now in the serious stage of life; we are following very different roads, but the end is the same. Each of us must have but one same purpose, to sanctify ourselves in the road that God has marked out for us. [19] Vocations can be seen as existing on several levels of reference - for example, one's state in life, and one's means of making a living. Strictly speaking, we should all be artists and factors, make our livings by some craft. The craftsman makes useful objects - consider the stone mason who, parallel with his work fashions his soul in view to uniting it with God. How sad that in our day, most of Louis XIV's to Machiavelli's The Prince us are denied the opportunity to follow a craft. By practicing one's vocation, one practices the virtues, or more precisely, one eliminates the vices which are their opposite. [20] The obligation to sanctity falls upon all of us.

When some of the laity protested to St. John Chrysostom that they were not monks, he responded that all the precepts of the Law apply equally to monks and to the laity, with the exception of one, celibacy. [21] And who of us can dare to factors, proclaim that the Contribution of MNCs Essay, sexual act precludes the possibility of sanctity, especially when this act in its proper setting, as will be shown, is a reflection of the true relationship between God and factors, the soul. To speak of vocations however is not to say they are all of equal stature. Just as a loving father provides each of his children with what is necessary for their proper development, so also does Our Lord provide each of us with a vocation suitable to our needs and abilities. A surgeon is a higher calling than that of a plumber - though both can perfect their souls by the manner in which they practice their calling. And so it is that the religious life in which the individual is married to Christ, is a higher calling than the of england, married state. [22] We of course know that there have been many married saints. St. Marcarius and St.

Anthony of the Desert both sent postulants to learn from people in the married state. Of Production? Unfortunately however, many authors writing about married saints convey to us the message that such individuals were saints, not because they fulfilled the obligations of the married state with heroic virtue, but rather, despite the minimum wage, fact that they were married. Sometimes, when I look at the clergy and know that some priests have been canonized, I am inclined to suspect that their sanctity was also achieved despite their vocations. Factors Of Production? But such is Louis to Machiavelli's The Prince, equally absurd. Allow me to string together a few quotations from factors of production St. Francis de Sales addressed to women in the married state: You must not only be devout, and love devotion, but you must make it amiable, useful, and in usa, agreeable to everyone one. The sick will love your devotion if they are charitably consoled by it; your family will love it if they find you more careful of their good, more gentle in little accidents that happen, more kind in correcting, and so on; your husband, if he sees that as your devotion increases you are more devoted to his regard, and sweet in your love to him; your parents and friends if they perceive in you more generosity, tolerance and condescension towards their wills, when not against the will of God. In short, you must as far as possible, make your devotion attractive. Oh my daughter, how agreeable to God are the virtues of a married woman, for they must be strong and econ of production, excellent to last in that vocation. Take particular pains to do all you can to acquire sweetness amongst your people.

I mean in your household. I do not say that you must be soft and Countries, remiss, but gentle and sweet. My God, how holy, my dear daughter, and how agreeable to God we would be if we knew how to use properly the subjects of mortification which our vocation affords; for of production they are without doubt greater than among religious; the free, evil is of production, that we do not make them useful as they do. And of Louis The Prince Essay married people he directed, he said: O my God, what grand souls have I found here in the servitude of God. the state of marriage is one which requires more virtue and econ of production, constancy than any other; it is Similarities to Machiavelli's Essay, a perpetual exercise of mortification. He adds an important caveat which we must all take to factors, heart: And what is it that makes [the commandments of the vocation of henry of england marriage] burdensome to you? Nothing in truth save your own will which desires to reign in you at any cost. a person who has not the fever of self-will is satisfied with everything, provided that God is econ factors of production, served.ADVANCE u 3 [23] St. Lewis of Granada mentions yet another caveat which all of us should keep in mind. Free Clause? He tells us let the married woman look to the government of her house, and take care of her family, please her husband, and do all that a wife should do; when she has satisfied these obligations let her spend the rest of her time in devotion as much as she pleases, but still, let her remember, that the factors of production, duties of Contribution of MNCs Essay her state call her first.

Lest you think I am picking on the women, I shall add the rest of the passage: let those that are fathers of children frequently reflect upon econ factors of production, the severe punishment that was inflicted upon Heli for his neglect in chastising and instructing his sons (I Kings, IV). Consider the sins of the the new in the arts century is found, children are, in some manner, imputed to the fathers, and that the ruin of a son is very often the cause of the father's destruction; nor does he deserve the bare name of of production father who after having begotten his son for this world, does not also beget him for the next. [24] The passage from St. Paul quoted above provides us with the fundamental outline of the the new realism in the arts is found in the, spiritual life. Consider the statement in Genesis to the effect that Adam was made in the image and likeness of God. Why this double description? Why should Scripture be so redundant? Thanks to the expositions of the Church fathers this passage becomes clearer.

Adam was indeed made in the image and likeness of God. But when he fell, he lost that likeness while retaining the image. Now we are, as St. Bernard tells us, incapable of losing that image, but like the fallen Adam, we have lost the likeness. The entire spiritual life is aimed at regaining that likeness. Factors? It is only when we achieve this that we can say with St. High Parity? Paul, I live not I, but Christ within me.

It is only when this state is factors, achieved that both priest and father can truly - that is fully - love. And if the high parity, wife in obeying her husband, obeys Christ; the husband, like any true king, can only rule by divine right, - that is by commanding what Christ would command. When the king, priest or husband commands other than by divine right - which is to say, enforces laws or rules that are not divine in nature - when he commands what he wants apart from or in opposition to econ factors, the divine laws, he becomes a despot. The husband in Similarities to Machiavelli's Essay, the family may rule by factors of production divine right, but never by his own right. By extension, the family is modeled after that established by St. Joseph and the Blessed Virgin - our homes should aim at being another Nazareth. The human being as individual is also a hierarchy in high parity, which the higher powers should have authority over the lower ones. Consider the Lord's prayer.

Thy Kingdom come, on of production earth as it is in heaven. That heaven is described as a hierarchical structure is not a historical accident. Nor is it a manifestation of St. Viii King Of England? Paul's or ancient Jewish misogyny. Christ is of production, our King - both priest and King, and we pay him homage as do the innumerable choirs of angels. Now the saints tell us that this phrase of the Lord's Prayer is one which request this hierarchical relationship to come down in our society, in our families and convents, and above all in our own hearts. It is this hierarchical relationship which explains the statement of to Machiavelli's Essay several saints to econ factors, the effect that all creation is feminine in relation to God. [25] On the microcosmic level - on the level of each of our lives, we are constantly faced with a need to choose between centering our actions and our being - if such were possible, on our little selves or egos, or on God which dwells within us. This is the battle against self love - or if you prefer, selfishness. It is wage in usa, not God - the Holy Spirit - that imago dwelling within our hearts that is selfish, hurt, angry, resentful or unforgiving - but rather our egos, our little selves.

We are constantly at war or as the factors, psychiatrists would put it, in Technology Contribution To Developing Countries Essay, conflict with ourselves. And thus it is that we say to econ of production, the unruly child or adult, get hold of yourself. St. Paul describes this well when he says I see another law in my members, repugnant to the laws of my mind, and capturing me in Similarities The Prince, the law of sin that is in my members (Rom. VII:25). [26] Some exegetes would infer that this statement refers exclusively to a sexual conflict, but reference to econ factors, other parts of Scripture make it clear that by free establishment clause members - note the plural - the sacred writers are referring to all the passions that afflict our souls - thus St. James tells us that the tongue is set among our members which defileth the econ, whole body. (James III, 5,6) It is important then to realize that there are a series of hierarchies involved. Essay? There is God and his bride the Church; There is the husband and his bride or wife, and there is the Spirit of God that dwells within us, and our psycho-physical nature. In each of these there is a hierarchy to which we must conform ourselves. Econ? These three hierarchies are intimately entwined. [27] Consider the following exposition of the Parable of the woman by the well to whom Christ offered the water of eternal life. When the woman asked for this water Christ told her to call her husband.

John Scotus Erigina explains the realism in the of the is found in the, mystical meaning of this parable: The woman is the rational soul [ anima ], whose husband [literally vir or 'man' (with the connotation of 'active power') not maritus or conjunx ] is econ, understood to be the animus, which is variously named now intellect [ intellectus ], now mind [ mens ], now animus and often even spirit [spiritus]. This is the husband of whom the Apostle speaks the henry of england, head of the woman is the econ, man, the head of the man is Christ, the head of Christ is God. Wage? I other words, the head of the factors, anima is the intellectus , and the head of the intellectus is Christ. Such is the natural order of the human creature.

The soul must be submitted to the rule of the mind, the mind to Christ, and thereby the whole being is submitted through Christ to God the Father. Spirit revolves perpetually about XIV's The Prince, God and is therefore well named the husband and factors, guide of the other parts of the soul, since between it and free establishment clause, its creator no creature is interposed. Reason in turn revolves around the knowledge and causes of created things, and whatever spirit receives through eternal contemplation it transmits to factors, reason and reason commends to memory. The third part of the soul is interior sense, which is subordinate to reason as the faculty which is superior to it, and by minimum means of reason is also subordinate to spirit. Finally, below the interior sense in the natural order is the exterior sense, through which the econ factors of production, whole soul nourishes and rules the fivefold bodily senses and animates the whole body.

Since, therefore, reason can receive nothing of the gifts from on wage in usa high unless through her husband, the spirit, which holds the chief place of all nature, the woman or anima is rightly ordered to call her husband or intellectus with whom and by whom she may drink spiritual gifts and withoutwhom she may in no wise participate in gifts from on high. For this reason Jesus says to her, 'Call your husband, come hither.' Do not have the presumption to come to me without your husband. For, if the intellect is absent, one may not ascend to the heights of theology, nor participate in spiritual gifts. [28] It is in econ factors, the light of such understanding that the theologians have said that all creation is feminine to God. [29] Yet another way of envisioning the high parity, relationship between man and women is to recognize that man manifests his Christic nature as Warrior (Hero, King) and as Ascetic (Priest), which is to factors, say, in the realms of Action and Contemplation. (Christ is Louis The Prince, both King and Priest). The woman realizes herself, raises herself to the level of the man as Ascetic or as Warrior, insofar as she is either Lover or Mother.

In the words of Evola, as there is an econ factors of production, active heroism, so also there is clause, a negative heroism - they are the two sides of one and the same ideal; there is the heroism of econ factors absolute affirmation and that of absolute dedication, and the one can be as luminous as the other. Establishment Clause? It is these differentiations of the heroic concept that determine the distinctive characteristics of the ways proper to men and to factors of production, woman thought of as types. To the Contribution To Developing Countries, act of the econ factors of production, warrior and the ascetic, accomplished in the one case by pure action and in in usa, the other by factors of production detachment, whereby these are established in To Developing Countries, a life beyond mere living, there corresponds in the woman the heroism of total self-surrender to of production, another being, of existence altogether for the sake of another being - whether a beloved man (if she is a Lover) or a child (if she is a Mother) - in which she finds the meaning of high parity her own life, her own delight and econ, her own justification. [30] We are all aware of how love can be a transforming experience - even the love of a child for a dog - and certainly the love of one human being for another. In a moment, as C. S. Lewis has pointed out, love has made appetite itself altruistic, tossed personal happiness aside as a triviality, and placed the interests of another in the center of our own being. At one bound, it has leaped over the high wall of our selfhood. We find ourselves as regards the other person really fulfilling the law, really loving another as ourselves. But having done this, the mere falling in love will do no more. Eros has done his stuff. He will not extend this selflessness to others beside the beloved. He may do quite the opposite.

He will not even perpetuate it towards her. He will not of high parity himself remain in that relationship and continue to be the sort of lover he promised to be. He may not remain any sort of lover at all. He may simply die. Econ Factors Of Production? For of course, as we all really know, mere spontaneous feeling will not keep any pair in love even for a few months or weeks. The passion in its total and selfless commitment is intermittent and recurrent. The old self, as after a religious conversion, soon turns out not to be so dead as it seemed. In both the old self may for a moment be knocked flat, but it will soon be up again, if not on his feet, at least on his elbow. If not roaring, at least back to his old surly grumbling or mendicant whine.

The corruptions return. Venus may sometimes slip back into mere sexuality, but what is ten times worse, that desire for free the beloved, for factors of production total unity, may take on a morbid form. It may come to be a sort of imperialism, a desire for establishment absorbing without being absorbed, possessing without being possessed, making the of production, beloved's every thought, wish and interest, a mere reflection of oneself. And since the beloved may often have exactly the same program for you, success, which would be infamous if achieved, is not very probable. At this stage the couple are almost fortunate if they fall out of love altogether, but they may remain in it, in clause, that sort of love which is increasingly a sort of hatred. jealous, exacting and of production, resentful. C.S. Lewis continues: My point is not that these dangers cannot be averted. They are averted daily by thousands of couples, but they are not averted by Eros - by henry king of england love - itself.

If love is to remain, it must be supported by outside help. You need a firm will to justice, you need a will already pretty well formed or disciplined. In the long run you need the grace of God. Its rather like a garden. A garden is a glorious thing, full of econ life, and of england, giving us life.

But you must not trust your garden to weed itself or fence itself, or prune itself, or anything of that sort. It hasn't got that kind of factors of production goodness. A garden left to high parity, nature will soon not be a garden. It is the same with our passions. They also are life giving. But when God planted that garden, he placed a man over econ of production it to dress it and set the minimum in usa, man under Himself. [31] For most of us, being in love is often the best experience of our lives, precisely because the state excludes vileness and involves a surpassing of factors of production our lesser selves. Unfortunately our egos rapidly come to the fore and establishment, the relationship becomes riddled with habit and triviality.

Retaining a sense of the econ, mystery in marriage requires both nobility and a sense of the sacred. As another author has said, a profane man may look back on his youthful love and henry viii king, think that now he is 'beyond' such 'illusions of youth'; but in fact it is he who has succumbed to the illusion and triviality of profane life, whereas in econ, his youth he tasted something of high parity greatness and nobility which he ought to have tried to maintain by leading a spiritual life. Man cannot easily escape the temptation to humanize the factors, sacred rather than sacralize the human. Plato uses many words that we have translated as love. There is storge , best translated as domestic love; there is filia , translated as friendship; there is Eros , or human love, there is Agape , often translated as selfless love, or charity; and there is epithumia which is lust. In the Symposium Plato calls Eros a mighty daemon. being an Technology Contribution of MNCs To Developing, intermediate between the nature of a god and the nature of a mortal. That Eros should have two sides results from the factors, fact that Aphrodite, the goddess of love, has two aspects, labeled Aphrodite Urania and Aphrodite Pandemia. The first embodies love of a divine nature; the second profane love. [32] Now marriage as a vocation or way to henry viii, perfect one's soul requires precisely the commitment and fight not to let the first kind deteriorate into the second.

It involves the constant choice of love over factors of production selfishness, of giving over taking. Despite its joys, marriage is a life of of MNCs To Developing Countries continuing sacrifice - of destroying the old man that the new man might live. [33] Any father who faces the econ factors of production, daily task of earning a living will be acquainted with sacrifice; as indeed, any woman who gets up in the middle of the in usa, night after a long day, to econ of production, breast feed her child. To live in the married state without anger, impatience, resentment, selfishness is extremely difficult - witness the henry, fact that marriages end up in divorce in over 60% of cases and beyond this, even those where the partners stay together, true love not infrequently dies. Lets face it: divorce is the result of selfishness on one or both partners sides. Marriage is a great sacrament. Notice that we are not taught that there is a sacrament in econ factors of production, marriage, but that marriage itself is a sacrament.

As the Council of henry viii Trent taught, it is a grace which perfects natural love, strengthens the union into an absolute indissolubility, and sanctifies the of production, persons married. Similarities Essay? Grace, you will remember from your catechism, perfects nature. Without the sacramental graces, it is econ, a wonder that any marriage survives. With sacramental grace every aspect of marriage can be sanctifying. Plato speaks of the androgyne - the time when man and woman were united or joined together. They decided however that they would attack the gods and Zeus in his anger split them apart. Viii Of England? Now the understanding of Greek mythology is not easy. This mythological story drawn from Aristophanes may well relate to a time before the fall with the econ factors, female soul was united to the male image of God or the divine indwelling. This unity was lost with the fall. And the attraction towards the partner which is said to have resulted from this division - the seeking of wholeness, is but another way of Technology Countries describing the desire of the psyche-soul to be united with the indwelling spirit.

Ultimately Eros or human love must be transformed into Agape, divine love or Charity. The risk is that it will degenerate into mere passion or worse. While in the realm of mythology it is worth considering the story of St. Econ Factors? George and the dragon and a host of variations in which the loathly princess is kissed by the solar hero and restored to her rightful place. St. George slays the dragon, thus liberating the princess. Snow white, poisoned by the apple, is the new realism in the of the century, cured by the kiss of the prince. Econ Factors? We are all in need of this kiss which derives from slaying the dragon of self-love.

Some of you will remember the novel 1984 which describes the new socialist world of future. The story speaks of the reverse possibility. In it a couple make the terrible mistake of falling in love. The state has no objection to their having sexual relations - the children of course to be brought up by the state. However, having fallen in love the high parity, couple proffer their loyalty to each other. This the state cannot tolerate. Econ Factors? In order to correct their errors they are separately tortured. The inquisitor declares himself successful when the individuals concerned come to the point of wishing the suffering on their partner rather than desiring to suffer the torture for Louis to Machiavelli's the sake of the partner.

I have many Catholic patients come to me as a psychiatrist who complain of having a poor self image. How is factors, this possible if we are made in the image of Christ. It is only possible if we ignore this truth and center ourselves in our egos or little selves. In The Century Is Found In The? And this brings me back to one of the most horrible confusions imposed upon the Catholic faithful by econ factors Vatican II. I say horrible because it fosters and approves the satisfying of this little self. You will immediately think of the heresy of religious liberty - and indeed in a sense you are correct. For the concept of religious liberty fundamentally teaches that we - our little selves - are the source of truth. This, incidentally, according to the Jewish fathers, is the worst form of idolatry.

However, the heresy I am referring to is one which affects us, if possible, even more directly, for it enters into and influences our married vocation from the free establishment clause, moment of its inception until death do us part.. It is the heresy about the ends of marriage. The traditional teaching regarding the ends of marriage is encapsulated in Canon 1013 of the Code of Canon Law (1917). Vatican II declared that both ends are of equal value, but reversed the order in which they are stated. Factors? It further declared that the priest was obliged to Louis Similarities Essay, make reference to this in econ of production, his sermon and minimum wage in usa, admonition at the marriage ceremony. Factors? [34] he traditional teaching states:

The primary end of Marriage is the procreation and education of offspring, while its secondary purposes are mutual help and allaying (also translated as a remedy for) concupiscence. The latter are entirely subordinate to the former. Pius XII commented on this in a clear manner in his address to midwives on March 10, 1944. we showed what has been handed down by Christian tradition, what the Supreme Pontiffs have repeatedly taught, and what was then in due measure promulgated by the Code of Canon Law (Canon 1013). Minimum Wage? Not long afterwards, the Holy See, by a public decree, proclaimed that it could not admit the opinion of some recent authors who denied that the primary end of marriage is the factors, procreation and education of the offspring, or teach that the Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's, secondary ends are not essentially subordinated to the primary end, but are on an equal footing and independent of it. This doctrine was declared de fide by econ the Holy Office with the free establishment clause, approval of Pius XII (AAS 36 (1944), 103) Let us look at factors, what the change in free, this teaching leads to: it opens the door to artificial forms of birth control, infidelity and divorce.

The traditional view demands that even the unitive ends of marriage must be sacrificed for the sake of the children. The new view declares that selfishness - for of production as has been made clear above, it is fundamentally selfishness that disrupts both love and marriage - has the right to sacrifice the free, children for of production its goals. The New Realism Arts Fourteenth Century Is Found In The? And make no mistake about econ factors, it. Free Clause? The psychiatric literature is replete with evidence of the effects wrought on the children by econ factors divorce, and that children would prefer to have their parents stay together even if their relationship is far from ideal. And to compound this terrible error, the free establishment, new Church has made divorce easy by declaring that psychological immaturity is grounds for annulment - as if anyone other than the saint is econ, psychologically mature. But what of this mutual help? This does not mean help in any worldly sense - the saving of money for retirement or succoring each other in free clause, illness - though of course such is by no means excluded. Rather, it is econ factors, that mutual help in gaining paradise. It often seems that the Church is only concerned with the children - that she says little about the unitive ends of free establishment clause marriage.

Let us then look at econ factors, this aspect of the XIV's Similarities Essay, married vocation with a little more care. I have already several times pointed to St. Paul's affirmation that marriage is of production, a great sacrament. Free Establishment Clause? The sacramental graces are not only important for the keeping of love alive; they are also there for making that love a transforming experience through which we can sanctify our souls. St. Econ Of Production? Thomas says of this sacrament that it makes you propagators and preservers of the spiritual life according to Similarities, a ministry which is at the same time corporal and spiritual. [35] Again, Pius XII informs us that your place in the Church as Christian couples is not then merely to beget children and offer living stones for the work of priests, the highest ministers of God. The exceedingly abundant graces which flow from the econ factors, sacrament of matrimony have not been given you merely for the sake of remaining fully and constantly faithful to God's law in the august moment of calling your children to life and for high parity facing and supporting with Christian courage the econ of production, pain, sufferings and worries that very often follow and high parity, accompany marriage. Factors? But such graces have been given you rather as a sanctification, light and help in your corporal and Technology of MNCs To Developing, spiritual ministry; for together with natural life it is your sacred duty, as God's instruments, to propagate, preserve and contribute to of production, the development in the children given you by Him of that spiritual life infused in them by the washing of holy Baptism. It is pertinent that the minister of the sacrament of marriage is henry, not the priest, but rather the couple involved and their reciprocal acceptance of each other. [36] The priest acts as the econ factors of production, Church's witness.

Now a minister of a sacrament is but a simple instrument in God's hands. He and she pronounce the words which signify the in the of the fourteenth century is found in the, grace proper to the Sacrament, but it is God alone Who produces such a grace, using man only as a minister acting in His name. Even non Catholic marriages have about them a certain sacramentality - that is provided they are entered into econ with the proper intention. [37] And thus the non-Catholic marriage for those whose ignorance of the faith is invincible becomes a source of grace. In fact, when a Protestant couple become Catholic, they do not receive a second sacramental marriage; rather, just as their entire life becomes sacramentalized, their marriage is XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince, automatically raised to the level of econ factors a Sacrament,. They may receive a nuptial blessing, but the blessing is of england, a gift of the of production, Church not intrinsically necessary to the marriage. Von Hildebrand likens marriage to Holy Orders: with regard to its sacramental character, marriage must be compared to king, Holy Orders.

Leaving aside the internal holiness of the functions implied in the idea of a priest (which of its very nature calls down meriting graces), the factors, priesthood - in its character as a Sacrament - is a source of specific graces, a dispenser of graces. The same applies to marriage. Of England? Holy Orders not only carries graces with it, but produces grace and econ of production, is the channel of special graces. In the same way, marriage has been honored in becoming one of the seven mysterious sources of high parity participating in econ, the divine life. Perhaps marriage as a Sacrament shows the closest affinity to Holy Orders, since it does not effect a rebirth (as do the free clause, Sacraments of Baptism and Penance) nor a perfection of this rebirth and a union with Christ (as does the Sacrament of the Eucharist). Like Holy Orders the Sacrament of Matrimony is at the disposal only of certain people who receive a special vocation to it.

Marriage is in Catholic eyes, indissoluble. Econ Of Production? [38] Such inevitably follows from the fact that it reflects - or should reflect - the divine or metaphysical principles on which it is based. Can the Church be divorced from Christ - Can Christ abandon the Church? Impossible! It is because marriage is a sacred state reflecting a divine prototype that it is indisolvable. This does not mean that there cannot be a separation - usually temporary - in marriage caused by illness such as mental illness. To Machiavelli's Essay? But such a separation is not a dissolution or divorce. And always it becomes another cross. Econ Factors? Those who aspire to a life without crosses, no matter what their vocation, are dreaming of a fools paradise. Once again, to quote St. Seraphim of Sarov: Christian marriage is a life-work.

It is easy only in ideal circumstances. Fidelity to the end, St. Seraphim taught, is essential to happiness. If Christians find they cannot live together, they go on living together for their homes, their children, for the Church and for God. It may mean much suffering, but this married life is the way to heaven. Contribution? For only those who take up the cross can follow Christ. Econ? [39] But what of the phrase that the couple are joined together until death do us part. In The Arts Of The Fourteenth Is Found? Is not ideal human love eternal?

The answer is no. Human love is both a beautiful and at the same time, a pale reflection of Agape or divine love. Of Production? It is only divine love that is eternal. And so it is in marriage that one must accept the high parity, painful fact that the most beautiful and perfect of marriages, like life itself, must see its termination, and econ, that our eternal life is ultimately not of this world. I have already alluded to minimum in usa, the fact that theological writers are prone to admit sanctity is possible in the married state, but almost always imply that this occurs despite marriage and not because of it. When we come to the matter of sex, this becomes even more striking. In fact they almost never write of sex except to warn us that it is corrupted by concupiscence and econ factors of production, hence indulgence in the sexual act almost always involves a venial sin. [40] The idea that the grace of the sacrament stops at the sanctuary of the free, bedroom door is patently absurd. Of Production? [41] Let us pause for a moment to state that if marriage is a sacred state reflecting the unity of Christ and the Church, and microscomically of our souls with that Christ that lives within us, than the same must also, by the very nature of things, be true of the sexual act. There is perhaps nothing with which we can better compare the 'mystic union' of the finite with its infinite ambient, than the self-oblivion of earthly lovers locked in each other's arms where each is Louis XIV's Similarities The Prince Essay, both, or to of production, use the Scriptural phrase, united in one flesh. [42] So much is this the case that in a Mediaeval Nuptial 'Ceremornarium' it is ordered that when a newly married pair are got to bed, the priest and acolytes shall enter, with censer and Holy Water, to give the Church's blessing on their union. [43] Sex has in every religion been surrounded by establishment a host of of production what the anthropologists call taboos.

We tell our children in a thousand ways that sex is somehow evil or dirty, and unfortunately many - both lay and cleric - carry this attitude over into marriage. Louis XIV's Similarities Essay? Sex is not evil or dirty, but rather sacred, and that is why it is econ of production, surrounded with taboos. Sex is beautiful, and as St. Thomas Aquinas teaches, out of the divine beauty, all things are created. Now just as it would be sinful to give communion to individuals publicly known to be non Catholic or not in a state of grace, so also it is Louis XIV's to Machiavelli's, sinful to indulge in factors, a sacred act outside of the married state. Not only is sex beautiful, it is, under the proper circumstances a source of grace. Such has always been the teaching of the Church fathers.

Consider the following: . St. John Chrysostom teaches that thanks to love, the man and the woman are drawn to the eternal life and moreover always attract to themselves the grace of God. [marriage] is the sacrament of love ( Hom. 3 on Marriage ). St. Theohpile of Antioch teaches that God created Adam and Eve in order that they might have the greatest possible love for each other, reflecting the mystery of divine Unity (Ad Autolyc. Minimum Wage? 2.28 ). The German mystic von Baader said that the purpose of marriage is the econ factors, reciprocal restoration of the celestial or angelic image as it should be in the man and woman. Technology Contribution To Developing? In the life of Saint Ida of factors of production Herzfeld, the wife of high parity Count Egbert (Xth century), we find the following statement: at the moment when the two are united in factors, one flesh, there is present in them a single and similar operation of the Holy Spirit: when they are linked together in each others arms in an external unity, which is to say, a physical unity, this indivisible action of the Holy Spirit inflames them with a powerful interior love directed towards celestial realities.

And finally, St. Bernard in his commentary on the Song of Songs says that sexual intercourse ( carnale connubium ) between married spouses is the reflection of the spiritual marriage ( spirituale matriomonium ) which unites the soul with God. [44] St. Thomas Aquinas confirms this doctrine, while specifying the proper conditions involved: The marriage act is always either sinful or meritorious in one who is in realism in the arts of the fourteenth is found in the, a state of grace. For if the motive for the marriage act be a virtue, whether of justice that they may render the debt, or of religion, that they may beget children for the worship of factors God, it is meritorious.

But if the motive be lust, yet not excluding the the new realism in the arts of the fourteenth, marriage blessings, namely that he would by no means be willing to go to another woman, it is a venial sin; while if he exclude the marriage blessings, so as to be disposed to act in like manner with any woman, it is econ factors, a mortal sin. if pleasure be sought in such a way as to exclude the honesty of marriage so that, to wit, it is not as a wife but as a woman that a man treats his wife, and that he is ready to use her in the same way if she were not his wife, it is a mortal sin. if he seek pleasure (as its own end) within the bounds of marriage, so that it would not be sought in another than his wife, it is a venial sin. [45] [46] I have said above that part of the discipline of marriage is the giving of oneself to the other - this is the heart to heart aspect of marriage as opposed to the ego to ego aspect. When we give to Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's, the other we suppress our little selves by always putting the other first and by doing everything in our power to please the other. When we make of the marriage act a selfish act; when we seek in it our own pleasure rather than the pleasure of our partner, or when one or both partners seek pleasure as an end in itself, we act in a selfish manner. Yet how difficult it is to always be without at least some admixture of self-love. Factors Of Production? St Augustine holds that Adam and Eve engaged in sexual intercourse in the Garden of Eden prior to the fall. There was no venality in their act. [47] The venality of self love is the high parity, result, not of the act, but of the fall. Our problem is that we have been wounded by econ factors the fall and few if any of free establishment our acts are free of econ self-love. And so for us there is always a venial aspect potentially if not actually present in the sexual act.

It is pertinent that Canon 1013 speaks of marriage as a remedy for concupiscence. Note that it doesn't say, as a means of indulging concupiscence. A remedy is a cure, and pray God we may all be cured of self love. [48] This does not mean that one should derive no pleasure from the sexual act. To again quote Pius XII: The same Creator, Who in His bounty and wisdom willed to the new realism in the fourteenth is found in the, make use of the work of man and woman, by uniting them in matrimony, for the preservation and propagation of the human race, has also decreed that in this function the parties should experience pleasure and happiness of body and spirit. Husband and wife, therefore, by seeking and enjoying this pleasure do no wrong whatever. Of Production? They accept what the minimum wage, Creator has destined for them. [49] God would hardly create a necessary act - necessary for the preservation of the species - an act ultimately aimed at producing saints - an act from which we inevitably derive a certain pleasure and then make it sinful for us to enjoy that act.

Who can eat, read a book, or do anything else without a certain pleasure. It is factors of production, my belief that God actually wants us to enjoy our lives - to enjoy all that we do, providing we do it IN HIM, and not as an high parity, end in itself. As Peter Lombard, the of production, master of the sentences and the teacher of St. Thomas Aquinas said: Thus if there is any sin in sexual relations, it is due, not to the pleasure, but to. some disorder in the way that pleasure is experienced. [50] The pleasure shared in sexual giving involves the high parity, entire person - body, psyche and spirit. It is or should be, as I have said, an action that is not just physical, not just psychic, but also an action that is heart to heart. Econ Of Production? But that pleasure must not be indulged in as an end in itself. [51] And certainly, sex must never be used as a tool for reward or punishment. Now the problem with sex is that, in its proper place and usage, it is one of the most sacred of acts, one from which as St.

Thomas teaches, we derive abundant grace; it is also one of the most easily perverted of acts. Clause? The very word perverted is of interested. It means to turn something intrinsically good to an improper end. When we make of sex a satisfying of our own pleasure, an act of taking rather than an act of giving, we pervert or misuse one of the greatest gifts of God. If this is true within marriage, and certainly true outside of marriage . [52]

During coitus a man can loose his individuality - forget himself or his little self - in two opposite ways. This dis-individualization can occur in two directions - the econ of production, anagogical ascent above individuality and the catalogical descent below. [53] The parties involved can give or take - in giving transcending themselves; in taking becoming less than human or merely animal. Let me give an Louis XIV's Essay, analogy which may make this clearer. A policeman enters a house of ill fame as part of a raid. He commits no sin because he is protected by the graces of his function. The same policeman enters the same house on his own time. His act of entering the house has a certain neutrality.

But his intention - the ends for which he acts - are sinful. Similarly with beauty. When one sees the beauty of a woman (or music) as a reflection of God's beauty, one can only praise its source. When one sees it as a end in econ of production, itself - something to be enjoyed for its own sake - then its seductive rather than its redemptive character becomes manifest. One and the same beauty can lead us to, or away from God. [54] Nor is the sexual act irrevocably tied to procreation. As St.

John Chrysostom said: But suppose there is no child; do they then remain two and not one? No; their intercourse effects the viii king, joining of their bodies, and they are made one, just as when perfume is fixed with ointment. To reduce the common life of husband and wife and econ factors, the conjugal act to a mere organic function for the transmission of seed would be but to the new in the fourteenth is found in the, convert the domestic hearth, the family sanctuary, into a biological laboratory. [55] Further proof of this lies in the fact that the Church has never invalidated or impedimented marriages where sterility is known to exist or prohibited the sexual act when the woman is beyond the child bearing age. (In passing you may be interested to know that St. Factors Of Production? Cammilus's mother was 65 and not on any hormone therapy.) However, what the Church does demand is that the possibility of conception not be impeded. How so. Well consider the Contribution Essay, couple that engages in sex with the express and only intention of enjoying the pleasure. To do so is to make the pleasure - even if reciprocal - its own end. God did not give us our sexual organs only for pleasure any more than he gave them to us only for procreation.

And so it is that when adequate reasons are present, the econ, parents may use the so-called rhythm method - better called periodic abstinence - but can never use other methods of free establishment clause preventing birth than abstinence. The use of periodic abstinence does not absolutely preclude the possibility of conception. When the sexual act is performed in so-called safe periods of the woman's cycle, one remains open to the divine will. Quite the opposite is the case when the econ of production, possibility of children is absolutely precluded. To quote Father Planque, to henry viii of england, refuse to let one's love result in children, is to commit oneself to the path of egotism, a path which can only lead to the death of love. [56] Moreover, shared abstinence is the only form of econ of production birth control which demands mutuality or a sharing of the sacrific involved; and shared sacrifice always deepens love. Every other form of birth control is both unilateral and carries with it significant medical risks. Allow me to take this opportunity to strongly disagree with Solange Hertz, a woman for whom I have a great deal of admiration.

The first point of disagreement is fundamental. She states that Ascribing sacredness to free clause, the sex act is a Judaic heresy. It partakes of the econ factors, talmudic mysticism taught in the Zohar, where the union of man and wife on the Sabbath is seen as a ritual representation of the union of the male and female aspects of of MNCs To Developing Countries Essay God. I have already given the econ of production, evidence necessary to contradict this; and further, I believe she misinterprets the Zohar, for the Jewish fathers, basing them selves on the Song of Songs, clearly saw the sexual act as reflecting the unity of the soul with God precisely along the lines discussed above. The second point is perhaps more important, for it is her contention that the abomination of desolation is contraception. most particularly as practiced. in the guise of free clause so-called 'natural family planning' or 'natural birth regulation.' In so stating her case, she directly contradicts Pope Pius XII who holds that the use of this method under the right circumstances is entirely legitimate.

To quote him directly, We affirmed the legitimacy and at the same time the limits - truly very wide (my emphasis) - of that controlling of births which, unlike the so-called birth control, is compatible with God's law. It can be hoped that for such a lawful method a sufficiently certain basis can be found, and recent research seems to of production, confirm this hope. Pope Pius XII clearly specifies the wide limits to the use of this method. A marriage entered into with the express intention of excluding the payment of the marriage debt - as the sexual act is called - during fertile periods is invalid because implicit to the contract is that this debt should be paid whenever asked for and because the intention is to preclude the primary purpose of marriage. It is minimum wage in usa, very much a matter of the morality of the intention involved. Thus he states that The mere fact that the husband and wife do not offend the nature of the econ factors, act and are even ready to accept and bring up the child who, notwithstanding their precautions, might be born, would not be itself sufficient to guarantee the rectitude of their intention and the unobjectionable morality of their motives. . to embrace the matrimonial state, to use continually the faculty proper to free establishment, such a state and lawful only therein, and, at the same time, to avoid its primary duty without a grave reason, would be a sin against the very nature of married life.

However, serious motives, such as those which not rarely arise from medical, eugenic, economic and social so-called indications, may exempt husband and wife from the obligatory, positive debt for a long period or even for the entire period of econ factors of production matrimonial life. From this it follows that the observance of the natural sterile periods may be lawful, from the moral viewpoint, and it is lawful in free clause, the conditions mentioned. If, however, according to a reasonable and equitable judgment, there are no such grave reasons either personal or deriving from exterior circumstances, the will to econ factors of production, avoid the fecundity of their union, while continuing to satisfy to Louis XIV's to Machiavelli's The Prince, the full their sensuality, can only be the result of a false appreciation of life and of motives foreign to sound ethical principles. [57] It is this attitude which Chesterton labeled as no birth and less control. This is a matter which couples should discuss with their confessor. There are incidentally excellent books which enable married couples to determine fertile periods with great accuracy. One of the best is The Ovulation Method of Birth Control by Mercedes Arzu Wilson published by Van Norstrand Reinhold, and unfortunately out of print. [58] A proper knowledge of the method makes the old quip to econ, the effect that what you call couples who use the rhythm method is parents, is not completely true. Every form of artificial birth control has a certain failure rate. With condom usage, it may be as high as 25%. Even with tubal ligations there is a 1% pregnancy rate; and certainly the use of hormones is fraught with a significant number of complications - though it must be granted that they are less life threatening than pregnancy can be.

The fact remains however that abstinence is the healthiest form of king birth control, and what is more important, it is the econ factors, only form of birth control where the couples share responsibility. In every other form of birth control the act is essentially unilateral - and we have spoken of the reciprocity necessary in love. Now even with abstinence during the so-called fertile period, there is always a risk of pregnancy and minimum in usa, an openness to econ, the possibility should God so will. God's primary purpose in marriage is not precluded. Viii? The sanctity of the act remains intact. Abstinence can at times require an heroic virtue, but is that not what sanctity is all about? According to Zertnys-Damen's Moral Theology , continence, whether periodic or total, may be practiced under the following definite conditions: a) the of production, practice must be freely undertaken by mutual consent; b) there must be no serious danger of unchastity or loss of conjugal love in either party as a result of the practice; c) there must be a positive and good reason for adopting the practice. the Louis Similarities, presence or absence of these conditions should be decided with the help of a confessor. It is perhaps not out of place to comment on the Virginity of the Blessed Mother. How is this compatible with the teaching of the Church that She is the ideal and econ factors, model for every woman, be she single or married.. First of Louis XIV's to Machiavelli's The Prince all, The Blessed Virgin is the ideal and model for econ both men and women.

As Augustine said, the soul's virginity consists in perfect faith, well-grounded hope and unfeigned love ( Tract. on John, XIII ). Similarly, Cornelius Lapide tells us those whose souls are on Louis XIV's Essay fire with charity, and who are ever exercising themselves in it, enjoy the bliss of betrothal to God and the possession of His nuptial gifts of divine joys. For charity is a marriage-union, the welding of econ factors two wills, the Divine and the human into one, whereby God and man mutually agree in all things. Theophylact says after Chrysostom: brides do not remain virgins after marriage. But Christ's brides [we are all meant to be such], as before marriage they were not virgins, so after marriage they become virgins, most pure in Louis Essay, faith, whole and uncorrupt in life. (Quoted by factors Cornelius Lapide). This is why St. Louis de Montfort says: the more the Holy Spirit. finds Mary, His dear and inseparable spouse in Louis XIV's Similarities The Prince Essay, any soul, the more active and might He becomes in producing Jesus Christ in that Soul.- As many saints have said, if ye would bear Christ, ye must become the Blessed Virgin. It is statements such as these that explain the econ of production, words of high parity St. Theresa of Liseaux to her sister Celine praying may we become virginized, so that we may become pregnant. St. Paul said 'To this man I have espoused you.' For as marriage between man and econ factors of production, wife is binding, so there is eternal marriage between the soul and God.

A maid is given to a man hoping to bear his child. And God did make the soul intending her to minimum wage in usa, bear in econ, her His only-begotten Son. The happening of this birth in Mary ghostly was to establishment, God better pleasing than his being born of of production her in flesh. The woman said to Christ, 'Blessed is the establishment, womb that bare thee.' To which Christ replied ' Blessed not alone the womb which bare me: blessed are they that hear the word of of production God and keep it.' It is more worth to God His being brought forth ghostly in the individual virgin or good soul than that he was born of Mary bodily.' [59] Now the Blessed Virgin is the source of fecundity, both physical and spiritual. Her purity is virginal to in the arts of the fourteenth is found in the, us, but precisely because she is eternally wedded to the Holy Spirit.

For those of us in the married state, it is not so much her physical virginity which exemplifies, but rather this relationship to the Holy Spirit. For us, and indeed even more for those in the religious life, this is exemplified by the Magnificat and above all by her response to the Annunciation - be it done unto me according to thy Word. It is she who is the Janua Coeli - the Gate of Heaven, and econ of production, it is high parity, no accident that it is she who in econ, a sense sacramentalized and continues to sacramentalize marriage, for it was her request that led to Christ's first miracle - the changing of water into wine - always a symbol of the sacred transmutation. [60] It is precisely her purity , chastity and virtue, all the qualities of the Magnificat, brought to the marriage state which vivifies its sacramental nature and virginilizes us. Without her virginal graces - she who is henry viii king, Co-Redemtrix and the Mediatrix of all Graces - none of us could ever sacramentalize our lives, much less our marriages. Hail Mary, full of grace, Blessed art Thou among women, and Blessed is the fruit of econ factors of production thy womb, Jesus. [61] I have, in this paper, attempted to henry viii king of england, share with you some of the principles on which Catholic marriage and sexuality are based. Marriage is clearly a vocation, a calling willed by econ factors God, and as such every aspect of marriage is both capable of reflecting the sacred, and of transforming and sacralizing the participants. Eros is always potentially Agape , but Agape both as grace and henry viii, fruition is econ factors, necessary to transform Eros, or rather to be transformed into Eros. [62] Without this Eros easily degenerates into epithumia or lust which is nothing other than unrestrained self-love. [63] In accordance with the principle that the highest things are the most easily corrupted, marriage can easily become, not a foretaste of heaven, but a living hell. While grace bloweth where it will, it is always within our power to refuse its refreshing breezes. Our human loves - storge, eros , and filia , can all be said to free, reflect and to open the door to Agape . They can be valued as demigods, as long as we recognize that demigods, when made an of production, end in themselves, become idols.

In a true marriage Eros and Agape are not in conflict, for as the poet John Donne said, we are not chaste unless Christ ravish us. Blessed are they who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb. These are the true words of God ( Apocalypse of Blessed John the Apostle, Ch. 19, 3). “After this rather paltry treatment and discussion of mine, I am not ignorant of the fact that the question of marriage still remains very obscure and minimum wage in usa, involved. Nor dare I say that either in this work or in any other up to the present have I explained all its intricacies, or that I can explain them now, even if urged to do so. St. Augustine, ( On Adulterous Marriages ) R Coomaraswamy, 2001. [1] Secular Humanism or The American Way , The Human Life Review, Fall 1982.

[2] The Timeless Christian. He continues: man's participation in factors, God's creative power, something that is denied him - the love between two human beings, the sanctification of nature, and not least, the sacramental character of the married state. He will try to force love to take on free clause an egotistical form, to infect it with jealousy, to destroy its permanence; he will move heaven and econ factors, earth to bring disorder into every aspect of sex, to turn its stream into a raging torrent, or to dry it up altogether, or to divert it into a false bed; he will lead the partners towards divorce, to petty bickering, to a sterile boredom of everyday life, even to mutual hatred; finally he will try to estrange children from their parents and, recalling his own origin, will infuse their minds with the Contribution of MNCs Essay, spirit of vainglory, of factors 'knowing better,' and of ingratitude. [3] Outside the commercial civilizations of the [modern] western world, love and marriage take their place as types of divine union, and everywhere love and marriage are the subject-matter of painters and sculptors. It is true that love is the viii, theme of [modern] western writers also, but, with them, the idea of factors of production love is now entirely free from divine signification, either explicit or implied, and, however much they mays still be under the heel of the old tradition which makes marriage the inevitable 'happy ending,' yet, as religion decays, the inevitability of such an ending becomes less and less and the nootion of a permanent union, 'till death do us part' is more and more frequently relegated to the 'scrap-heap' of outworn ideas. The modern world fondly imagines that it has removed the veil with which a more superstitious generation shrouded reality whereas, actually, it has simply blinded itself to high parity, the reality of which material life is the econ factors of production, veil. Art and Love , Bristol: Cleverdon, 1927. [4] Love is nothing other than the Technology Contribution of MNCs To Developing Essay, will ardently fixed on something good. Econ? William of St.

Thierry, The Nature and Dignity of high parity Love . [5] Much that we label primitive is only degeneration. As Erich Fromm states, What is essential in the existence of man is the fact that he has emerged from the animal kingdom, from instinctive adaptation, that he has transcended nature - although he never leaves it; he is part of it - and yet once torn away from nature, he cannot return to it ( The Art of of production Loving ). [6] Christ loved Lazarus deeply as a friend - it is said that the emotions whelmed up in him on Louis to Machiavelli's hearing of his death. The more modern translations state that he was overwhelmed with emotion, but such is false, for while the emotions have their place, they would never in Our Lord overwhelm the higher functions of factors His human soul. [7] Nowhere is sexual union regarded as marriage unless it is in some way socially sanctioned. C. Augustine, A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law, (1917). [8] Aristotle in his Politics states that a home must possess three relationships if it is to minimum wage, be complete, namely, that of husband and wife, of of production father and the children and that between the master and realism in the arts of the century is found, servants. (Quoted by St. Thomas Aquinas in his Commentary on Ephesians ). [9] De bono conjugali, cap. Of Production? xviii, n. Realism In The Arts Of The Fourteenth Century In The? 21. [10] In the words of St.

Augustine, offspring signifies that children shall be lovingly welcomed. and religiously educated De Gen. ad litt ., 1.9,c.7, n.12. Similarly St. Thomas teaches education and development until it reach the perfect state of man as man, and that is the state of virtue. (III, 41, 1). It is said that a woman who brings up her child in the faith will enter heaven before any theologian. [11] St. Seraphim of Sarov, A Spiritual Biography , Archimandrite Lazarus Moore, Sarov Press, 1994. [12] This hierarchical arrangement is by no means restricted to of production, Christianity. We find G-d in Genesis III telling wives thou shalt be under thy husband's power, and he shall have Dominion over thee.

The same hierarchical arrangement is found in Islam and Hinduism. It is not without significance that the newer catholic translations of the Louis to Machiavelli's Essay, Bible translate This is econ factors of production, a great sacrament by This is a great foreshadowing. . The Constitution Gaudium and Spes produced by the The Second Vatican Council attempted to soften this teaching: Just as of minimum wage old God encountered his people with a covenant of love and econ, fidelity, so our Savior, the spouse of the Church, now encounters Christian spouses through the sacrament of Marriage. He abides with them in order that by their mutual self-giving, spouses will love each other with enduring fidelity, as he loved the XIV's to Machiavelli's Essay, Church and delivered himself for it. Here the teaching of Ephesians has been decisively abridged. Only what is agreeable has been taken from it, namely love. The subordination of women, and correlatively, that of the Church to her Head, the basic outline of which has been presented above, is simply disregarded. Drawing on this statement, the Synod of Wurzurg declared in 1975 that the husband and wife were to be seen as partners, and that the allotment of roles between husband and wife which was strongly patriarchal in character, has been corrected. Econ Of Production? In a parallel manner John-Paul II has persistently insisted that love creates equality.

In his Familiaris consortio (1981) and in his Charter of Family Rights (1983) he teaches that God gives man and woman an henry king, equal personal dignity, endowing them with the econ factors, inalienable rights and responsibilities proper to the human person. Above all it is important to underline the equal dignity and responsibility of women and men. in high parity, creating the human race 'male and econ, female' God gives man and woman an equal personal dignity, endowing them with the Louis XIV's Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince, inalienable rights and responsibilities proper to the human person. The same responsibilities and rights for man and woman clearly exclude man from being the head of the family. John Paul II is of course aware that he is contradicting the constant teaching of the Church. Econ Factors? In an article published in the L'Osservatore Romano he explains that the author of the letter [St.

Paul] does not hesitate to accept those ideas which were proper to the contemporary mentality and its forms of expression. Our sentiments are certainly different today, different also are our mentality and customs, and, finally, different is a woman's social position vis-a-vis the man. High Parity? (German ed., 27.8.82). (In 1953 the Church taught that anyone who, as a matter of principle, denies the factors, responsibility of the To Developing Countries Essay, husband and father as head of the woman and of the family, puts himself in opposition to the Gospel and the doctrine of the of production, Church. - supplement to St. High Parity? Korads Blatt., No. Econ Factors Of Production? 10, 1953) [13] Klaus Moersdorf, Kirchenrecht , V. II, 10th edition, Munich, 1958. While not a dogmatic teaching of the Church, it is clear that failure to recognize this aspect of the marriage relationship clearly vitiates the spiritual aspect of the relationship. [14] The importance of free obedience is shown by the fact that Adam fell because of the sin of factors of production disobedience, while Christ reversed the fall by being obedient unto death. In the last analysis, we are all obliged to be obedient to higher authority, and all authority is from God. Obedience is a moral virtue, and as such of a lesser order than the of MNCs To Developing Countries Essay, theological virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity. In accordance with the principle that the higher takes precedence to the lower, it follows that one can never command what is sinful or against truth. True obedience implies going against our self-will and carries with it the principle of self-abnegation.

[15] We cannot ask ourselves whether woman is superior or inferior to man, any more than we can ask ourselves whether water is superior or inferior to fire. Of Production? Thus the standard of measurement for either of the sexes can be provided not by the opposite sex, but only by the idea of the same sex. In other words, the only thing we can do is establish the superiority or inferiority of a given woman on the basis of her being more or less close to the female type, to free clause, the pure and absolute woman, and the same thing applies to man as well. Econ Factors? The claims of modern woman therefore, spring from mistaken ambitions as well as from an Contribution of MNCs To Developing Countries, inferiority complex, from the mistaken idea that woman are intrinsically inferior to man. It has been rightly said that feminism has really fought not for woman's right, but, without knowing it, for the right of woman to make herself equal to man. it would amount to econ factors of production, a woman having the right to pervert herself and to degenerate. Julius Evola, The Metaphysics of Sex ., p. 54. Others have pointed out that femininity manifests the feminine aspects of the Divine: Goodness, radiating Beauty, Mercy, Love, and Purity, while masculinity incarnates Truth, Axiality, Intellectuality, Strength and the new realism in the arts of the fourteenth in the, Generosity. [16] This fiat goes beyond obedience. A woman, in accepting motherhood, places her life on the line. Continuing the passage from econ factors of production Timothy I just quoted: Yet she shall be saved through childbearing; if she continue in faith, and love, and sanctification, with sobriety. A woman who dies in king of england, childbirth - assuming the factors of production, right disposition of soul - is said to go straight to heaven.

With regard to free establishment, obedience, St. John Chrysostom says St. Paul teaches wives that when you yield to your husband consider that you are obeying him as part of of production your service to XIV's Similarities Essay, the Lord. He further says, a household cannot be a democracy, ruled by everyone, but the authority must necessarily rest in one person. The same is true for the Church. where there is equal authority, there never is peace. Paul places the head in authority and the body in obedience At the same time he tells husbands: Do you want your wife to be obedient to factors of production, you, as the minimum, Church is to Christ? Then be responsible for the same providential care of econ her as Christ is for the Church. And even if it becomes necessary for clause you to undergo suffering of any kind, do not refuse. Factors Of Production? (Homily 20). Obedience in marriage is as essential as it is in the religious life.

[17] This in no way implies that couples that have fulfilled their obligations in the married state cannot enter religion under a variety of forms. Such was much more common in earlier centuries than in wage, our day. [18] Quoted by Msgr. Factors Of Production? Charles Doyle, in Christian Perfection for the Married, Nugent, N.Y., 1964. [20] To quote Pius XI: It is the will of high parity God, says St. Paul, that you sanctify yourselves. What kind of sanctity does he speak of? Our Lord Himself made this clear. ' Be ye perfect as your father in heaven is econ factors, perfect .' No one should assume that this invitation is addressed to a small select number of individuals and henry viii king, that the remainder of mankind are allowed to be satisfied with some lesser degree of virtue. This law obliges and applies - and this is absolutely clear - to all of mankind, without exception. [21] Seventh Homily on St.

Matthew. Both those who choose to dwell in the midst of noise and hubbub and those who dwell in monasteries, mountains and caves can achieve salvation. St. Symeon the New Theologian, Philokalia. A vocation must of course be intrinsically honorable, which is to say, capable of perfecting the econ factors, soul. [22] The comments of henry viii Barbe Acarie are pertinent: If I had but one child and if I were the queen of the whole world so that he was my sole heir and God called him to the religious state I would put no obstacle in his way; but if I had a hundred children and could make no provision for them I would not oblige one to enter religion, because such a vocation must come purely from God. The religious state is so lofty that the whole world together cannot make a good religious if God does not lend his help; it is far better to econ factors, remain in the world by divine disposition than to be a religious through human instigation (Biography, Lancelot Sheppard).With regard to virginity, St. John Chrysostom: virginity does not simply mean sexual abstinence. She who is anxious about worldly affairs is not really a virgin. In fact, he [St.

Paul] says that this is the chief difference between a wife and a virgin. He doesn't mention marriage or abstinence, but attachment as opposed to detachment from To Developing Countries Essay worldly cares. Sex is not evil, but [it and children are] a hindrance to factors, someone who desires [and is called ]to devote all her strength to a life of prayer. (Homily 19). Of pure Virgins none, is fairer seen, Save one, than Mary Magdalene (John Cordelier). May we then be virginized as St. Therese of Liseaux said in a letter to her sister Celine.

[23] St. Francis de Sales, Letters to Persons in the World. [24] Louis of Grenada, The Sinner's Guide , Chapter V. [25] In traditional symbolism, the Technology of MNCs, supernatural principle has always been conceived as 'masculine'; nature and econ of production, becoming as 'feminine'. (J. Evola, Rivolta contra il mondo moderno ). It is not accidental that nature is referred to as mother nature. This principle is in no way sexist or patriarchal. Thus, the Abbess Sarah, one of the saints described by in usa the Desert Fathers stated I am a women in sex, but not in spirit. Similarly St.

Augustine describes some saintly women in these terms: according to the inward man neither male nor female; so that even in them that are women in body the manliness of their soul hides the sex of their flesh. (Sermon 282).This inward man is of course St. Paul's inward man (Rom. VII:22) and St. Econ Of Production? Peter's inner man of the heart (1 Pet. 3,4). Of MNCs To Developing? St.

Theresa of Avila admonished her sisters in these terms: I would not want you, my daughters, to be womanish in anything, nor would I want you to be like woman, but like strong men ( The Way of Perfection, 7:8). Throughout the Old Testament, Jehovah is characterized as betrothed to Israel. Christ is our spouse, telling us in Hosea II: I will marry thee in econ factors, faithfulness. And again, Thou shalt be the spouse of my blood ( Gesta Romanum ). It is in this context that St. Paul admonishes both sexes to play the man. It is in the light of this that the feminine aspect in free establishment clause, everyone of us takes on a seductive quality; when this seduction is successful, when the spirit is subverted by the lower soul, Scripture labels the adulterous result as harlotry. [26] It is often of the greatest importance, says St. Theresa, that you should understand this truth, namely that God dwells within you and that there we should dwell with Him. Let us not imagine that the econ of production, interior of our hearts is empty.

And to understand how God is always present in to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay, our soul, let us listen to St. John of the econ factors, Cross, another distinguished master of the science of the saints: 'In order to know how to find this Bridegroom, we must bear in mind that the Word, the Son of god, together with the the new of the fourteenth is found in the, Father and econ factors, the Holy Spirit, is hidden in essence and is present in the inmost being of the to Machiavelli's Essay, soul. And this is factors, why St. Augustine, speaking to God, said: 'I do not find Thee without, O Lord, because I had no right to seek Thee there, for Thou are within.' God is therefore hidden within the soul. ( A Spiritual Canticle, Stanza I). St. John of the Cross continues later on to explain this more at Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's, length, remarking that God may be present in factors, the soul in three different ways: To explain this, he says, it must be observed that there are three ways in which God is present in the soul.

The first is His presence in the new in the arts of the fourteenth is found in the, essence, and in this respect He dwells not only in econ factors, souls that are good and holy, but likewise in those that are bad and sinful, and indeed, in all creatures; for it is this presence that gives them life and being, and if it were once withdrawn they would cease to exist and would return to their original nothing. Now this kind of presence never fails in the soul. The second manner of minimum god's presence is by grace, when He dwells in econ factors of production, the soul pleased and high parity, satisfied with it. This presence of god is not in econ factors of production, all souls, because those who commit a mortal sin lose it. The third kind of presence of God is by means of spiritual affection; for God is want to show His presence in many devout souls in divers ways of refreshment, joy and gladness. Establishment? St.

Theresa continues: Of the first kind of econ divine presence we can never be deprived. The second we must procure for ourselves with all the powers of the Technology, soul, and we must guard it at any cost. The third isn't within our power. God gives to whom He pleases (St. Theresa's Pater Noster).

[27] Just as Adam's bride was taken from his side, so also was the Church the product of the blood and water which flowed from the side of Christ. [28] Translation of factors of production Christopher Bamford in The Voice of the Eagle , Lindisfarne Press, 1992. Henry Viii King? This is no novel teaching. Econ Factors? Consider Origin: Let us see also allegorically how man, made in the image of god, is male and female. Our inner man consists of spirit and soul. The spirit is said to be male; the free clause, soul can be called female. If these have concord and agreement among themselves, they increase and multiply by the very accord among themselves and they produce sons, good inclinations and factors, understandings.

The soul united with the spirit and, so to speak, joined in minimum, wedlock. '; Scheeben says much the same: Marriage, says the Apostle ( Eph. 5:32) is the great sacrament that is is, that is, it ranks so highly, because it is a figure of the union between God and his Church, and in consequence, of the union also between God and the soul . Reality and type are more perfect than figure and representation; the union between God and the soul is thus incomparably more real than that of man and woman. They are one in flesh; God is one with the soul in spirit ( 1 Cor. Econ? 5:17). The union of God with the soul is as far above the union of man and wife, as spirit is above flesh, as God is above matter. Clause? The union of the soul with God in one spirit is so intimate as to have no parallel in creation and the reasoning of the econ of production, creature cannot grasp it.

God submerges the minimum in usa, soul in the ocean of His light, floods it with the torrent of His delights, fills it with the plenitude of His Being. He clasps it in the arms of His love. He so binds to econ of production, Himself that no power in heaven or earth can tear it from Him. Establishment Clause? ( Les Merveilles de la Grace divine , pp. 170ff.) To love God, says St. Bernard, is to be married to Him. Happy the soul who rejoices in this chaste and blessed embrace which is naught else than pure and holy love, love enchanting and joyful, love as serene as it is true, a mutual love, intimate and burning, which joins together two persons. in one spirit and of the two makes one. (Sermon 84 on the Canticle of Canticles , par. 5-6) [29] Thus too it has been said that the Pharaoh of Egypt was a type of the devil, in econ, that he cruelly ordered the males to be cast into the Nile and high parity, permitted the econ, females to live. In The Century In The? So too, the devil, ruling over the great Egypt of the world from Adam unto Moses, made an effort to econ of production, carry off and destroy the male and rational offspring of the soul in minimum, the flood of the passions, while he takes delight in of production, seeing the carnal and s ensual offspring increase and minimum wage, multiply. St.

Methodius, Treatise on Chastity. [30] Chapter on Man and Woman in factors of production, J. Evola, Rivolta contra il mondo moderno , Milan, Ulricho Hoepli, 1934. Evola further points out that we live in a society that no longer knows either Ascetic or Warrior. The idealized masculine type is characterized by the power that derives from materiality as in the financial tycoon. Feminist demands for equality with the opposite sex inevitably lead to Contribution To Developing Essay, women being driven into the street, the business offices, the schools, the factories and all the econ factors of production, other infected and to Machiavelli's The Prince Essay, infectious cross-roads of modern society and culture. the of production, result is high parity, a degeneration of the feminine type even in its physical features; the atrophy of its natural possibilities, the suffocation of econ factors of production its inwardness. And hence the garconne type, the neuter or mannish girl, sporty, vacant, incapable of any impulse beyond herself, incapable, in the last analysis, even of sensuality or sinfulness. In the Louis Similarities Essay, case of modern women we do not even mention the possibility of maternity., but only that of a mere physical love in which she does not feel even so much interest as she does in beautifying herself, in displaying herself as much or as little dressed as possible, in physical training, dance, sport, money and so forth. The traditional woman in giving herself to factors of production, another, in not living for herself, in willing to live altogether for another and to be all for another than herself, had her own heroism - essentially, she raised herself above the common level to the plane of the ascetic. The modern woman, in seeking to exist for herself, destroys herself.

What can become of these vague creatures, divorced from all connection with the deeper forces of their own nature? From these creatures in viii of england, whom sex begins and ends in physiology, even if abnormal inclinations are not already present.? From these creatures who are psychologically neither man nor woman, if indeed, the woman is not the man and the man the woman, and who boast of being above sex while in fact they are below it? The relations between them can have no other quality than that of econ factors a plaster cast, a virtually homosexual anodyne: can amount to no more than the of MNCs Essay, promiscuity of an equivocal camaraderie, a morbid 'intellectual' sympathy, the banality of a new worship of econ of production nature shared together. Nothing else is possible in the world of Louis to Machiavelli's Essay 'emancipated' woman. [31] From a taped series on Love. It is econ of production, not clear from XIV's Similarities The Prince Essay this quotation that C. S. Lewis fully realized that in Platonic and Greek symbolism Eros metaphysically represents Christ who would be married to Psyche. Despite this, the factors of production, quotation does relate to high parity, the situation in marriage psychiatrists frequently meet with. [32] Here again I have used the term Eros as C.S. Lewis and as common parlance uses it. There is factors of production, of course a more correct understanding of the Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's Essay, “Divine Eros” relating to the Logos, for it is God who is Love.

Thus it is that classical presentation depicts Eros wedding psyche, which equates with Christ wedding the factors of production, soul. [33] St. Francis de Sales states that The state of marriage s one that requires more virtue and constancy than any other; it is a perpetual exercise of mortification. Minimum Wage? ( Letters to Persons in the World .) [34] “The 1983 Code of Canon Law reflects this sacrilegious shift in defining the sacrament. Canon 1055 (1) places the good of the of production, spouses before procreation of children. Spousal self-fulfilment - the total person-gift of spouse to spouse - is the Technology of MNCs To Developing, primary goal of econ marriage in high parity, the New Church (1057, par 2; 1095; 1098).

Sacrilegiously employing this primary goal, the New Church rationalizes its wholesale granting of “annulment divorces”: and factors of production, thus sacrileges the Sacrament of Matrimony. XIV's To Machiavelli's? Cardinal Ratzinger seems to opt for extending this privilege. In the future anyone [with pastoral responsibility] might be allowed to make an extra-juridical statement on the null and void nature of a first marriage ( The Salt of the Earth , 1977. Fr. Trincaid, The Sacraments Sacrileged , MAETA, Metairie, La., 1999. [36] According to the common teaching of theologians, the matter of the econ of production, sacrament consists in the mutual consent of the contracting parties to of the fourteenth century, give themselves to each other; the form consists in their mutual consent to take each other. [37] These intentions are that the marriage is econ of production, insoluble and that the ends of establishment clause marriage would not be frustrated.

Pope Innocent III taught that the sacrament of econ marriage existed both among the faithful and among infidels. He is the new realism of the century in the, quoted to this respect by factors of production Leo XIII in his Encyclical Arcanum Divinae Sappientiae. [38] The indissolubility of Technology Contribution Catholic marriage is directly connected with the econ of production, esoteric nature of the Catholic revelation. It is only within such a framework that one can accept all that happens - both good and bad - as the will of God; the henry viii, accepting of the will of econ God - the uniting of ourselves with this will - allows us to high parity, see all that happens as a salutary blessing. It is in econ factors of production, this sense that the Church teaches that all suffering and king, any sacrifice is useless unless it be for the love of God. Cf quote referred to in footnote 10.

[39] St. Seraphim of Sarov, A Spiritual Biography , Archimandrite Lazarus Moore, Sarov Press, 1994. [40] There is a certain Manichean aspect to this disparagement of sexuality. To quote Augustine: Anyone then who extols the nature of the econ, soul as the highest good and condemns the nature of the flesh as evil is as carnal in high parity, his love for factors of production the soul as he is in his hatred of the flesh, because his thoughts flow from human vanity and high parity, not from divine truth (City of God, XIV, 5). The meaning of concupiscence should be clearly understood.

According to Father Tixeront, by concupiscence, the Bishop of Hippo [and the Catholic Church] does not understand merely the appetite for bodily pleasures; he understands that general tendency away from the highest good and towards the lower pleasures: 'when one turns away from godly things which are truly lasting and econ factors, turns towards things which are changeable and insecure' ( History of Dogmas , Vol. II, p. 469). As the Fathers of the Council of the new in the of the fourteenth century Trent decreed: This concupiscence, which at times the Apostle calls sin (Rom. 6, 12 ff.) the holy Synod declares that the Catholic church has never understood to be called sin, as truly and properly sin in econ factors, those born again, but because it is from sin and inclines to sin. The Church teaches that, as a consequence of original sin, concupiscence is with us - with both laity and religions - till we die. [41] St.

John Chrysostom: A man should love his spouse as much as he loves himself, not merely because they share the same nature; no, the obligation is the new realism arts of the fourteenth, far greater, because there are no longer two bodies, but one: he is the of production, head, she the body. Realism Of The In The? Paul says elsewhere 'the head of Christ is God,' and I say that husband and wife are one body in econ, the same way as Christ and the Father are one. Thus we see that the Father is the new realism in the fourteenth, our head also. Paul has combined two illustrations, the natural body and Christ's body; that is why he says, 'This is of production, a great mystery, and the new realism of the fourteenth in the, I take it to mean Christ and the Church.' What does this mean? The blessed Moses, - or rather, God - surely reveals in Genesis that for econ two to become one flesh is a great and wonderful mystery. Now Paul speaks of Christ as the greater mystery; for He left the Father and came down to us, and Contribution Countries Essay, married His Bride, the Church, and became one spirit with her: 'he who is united to the Lord becomes one spirit with Him.' Paul says well, 'This is a great mystery,' as if he were saying 'Nevertheless the allegorical meaning does not invalidate married love.' ( Homily 20 ). St. Thomas Aquinas makes special note of the factors, fact that the statement 'this is a great mystery' immediately follows upon the statement that 'they shall be united in one flesh' ( Commentary on Ephesians ). Part of this mystery relates to the fact that human love potentially reflects divine love. Consider the Louis XIV's The Prince, following passage from Garrigou-Lagrange: If true love carries us towards another person towards whom we wish some good, it draws us outside of ourselves. It is in some ways ecstatic ( extasim facit ), according to econ factors of production, the expression of St. Denys.

It follows that it is an intense experience with a certain violent quality, and demands the sacrifice of all self love. It is not rare as St. Bernard writes (Sermon LXXIX, 1) 'O love divine, impetuous, vehement, burning, irresistible, which does not allow us to minimum, think of anything other than you.' ( La Vie Spirituelle , Vol. 20, August 1929.) [42] It is a union in virtue of which Christ is bound to the soul by ties of love so close that conjugal affection alone affords a term of comparison. In various passages of econ factors of production Scripture the relation of Louis Similarities to Machiavelli's The Prince Christ to the Church, and to the individual soul, is of production, described as that borne by the bridegroom to the bride.St.

Liguori, quoting St. The New Arts Fourteenth? Bernard explains that singulae animae singualae sponsae - every souls, as spouse. ( Commentary on Psalm XLIV , 11) In the Apocalypse (xxi, 2) St. John sees the Church as the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for the husband. St. Paul, addressing the local Church of Corinth writes: I espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ (II Cor. xi, 2). Econ Factors Of Production? And elsewhere he points out the analogy between the physical union which makes man and Louis XIV's, woman one flesh, and the far higher and yet more intimate bond between God and the bride-soul, in econ, virtue of which he who is joined to Louis Similarities, the Lord is econ, one spirit (I Cor. vi, 17). Matrimony as a permanent state typifies that union. And the same symbolism is present in the mutual consent which is the essential part of the rite of marriage: since the consent is representative of the state which it establishes. George H. Joyce, S.J., Christian Marriage , Sheed and Ward, 1948. [43] Quoted by Contribution of MNCs Eric Gill in Art and Love, op. cit. (No. 3 above) [44] I am indebted to Prof.

Jean Hani, La Vierge Noire et le Mystere Marial for the quotes in this paragraph. (Guy Tredaniel, 1995) [45] Summa III, Q41, Article 4., Q. 49, Article 6. In marriage, the woman takes on econ factors of production the name of her husband, thus symbolically giving up her individual and separate identity, . [47] St Augustine says that Christ confirms at Cana what he established in paradise. The New Realism Of The In The? ( Commentary on Ephesians 5:23) [48] Cf. footnote 14 above. [49] Allocution to Midwives, October 29, 1951. Econ? Allocutions are considered part of the ordinary Magisterium. St. Augustine is often wrongly accused of stating that any pleasure derived in the act of intercourse is sinful. In his book on establishment clause The Goods of Marriage (Chapter 16), he speaks in positive terms of the of production, natural delight that the patriarchs enjoyed in the act of henry of england intercourse. Augustine is only against making pleasure the only purpose of the act.

Prummer's Moral Theology states: Not only the conjugal act itself, but also touches and looks and factors of production, all other acts are lawful between the married, provided there is no proximate danger of pollution and the sole intention is not mere sexual pleasure. Therefore, in ordinary circumstances the confessor should not interrogate married persons about these accompannying acts. Again, Pius XII states: The Church can rightly declare that, profoundly respectful of the free establishment, sanctity of marriage, she has in theory and practice left husband and wife free in that which the factors, impulse of a wholesome and honest nature concedes without offense to the Creator (Allocution, Sept. 18, 1951). [50] According to establishment clause, Father Kearns, S.J., St.

Thomas Aquinas, St. Bonaventure, Alexander of Hales and many other theologians of equal importance concur with this opinion. ( The Theology of Marriage , Sheed and Ward, 1964). Of Production? Denis the Carthusian explains that: pleasure cannot be avoided in sexual intercourse, and yet it is of MNCs To Developing Countries, not a sin when it is not sought after and the act itself is performed as it should be. In the same way the pleasure in food and drink, natural as it is and related to a spiritual goal, is not a fault. As Aristotle says and St. Econ Factors? Thomas repeats, our moral evaluation of an act and the pleasure joined to an act is the same. The New Realism In The Arts Of The Fourteenth Century In The? Therefore the pleasure from a good and virtuous act is good; and to factors, the extent that it is good, it can be desired. ( ibid ). [51] St.

Thomas quotes St. James to the effect that they that use this world (let them be) as if they used it not. Establishment Clause? In each case he (St. Paul) forbade enjoyment. A footnote explains that the Latin fruitionem used in this situation refers to enjoyment of econ a thing sought as one's last end. (Translation by Fathers of the English Dominican Province). [52] One can draw certain parallels between eating and the sexual act.

Both are physiological, at least in part; both are natural. Clearly, excessive indulgence in minimum wage in usa, the sexual act can be likened to gluttony. But, hunger has is a function destitute of psychic counterpart, and under normal social conditions, nothing in regard to food corresponds to the part that the sexual function plays in an individual's life, or to the profound and manifold influence exerted by that function on of production the emotional, moral, intellectual, and, not seldom, spiritual level. As G. K. Chesterton said, sex cannot be admitted to a mere equality among elementary emotions or experiences, like eating and sleeping. The moment sex ceases to be a servant, it becomes a tyrant. There is something dangerous and disproportionate in its place in henry viii king, human nature, for whatever reason; and it does really need a special purification and dedication. ( St. Econ Of Production? Francis of Countries Essay Assisi ). [53] Orgasm, the point at which disindividualization is maximum, is derived from the Greek word Orgy, originally meaning holy or inspired exaltation. It is a sad commentary on the current state of econ affairs that the word now is associated only with the unleashing of the senses. (Cf. In Usa? footnote #22.) [54] An example of beauty leading to God is provided by St. John Climacus where the Bishop Nonnos of Edessa found himself in the presence of a beautiful nude dancer and commented that he took the occasion to adore and glorify by his praises the sovereign Beauty, of which this woman was only factors, a reflection, and he felt himself transported with the fire of the new realism arts of the in the divine love, pouring forth tears of joy.

Such an individual, says St. John Climacus, was incorruptible even before the universal resurrection (The Ladder ). [55] Allocution to Midwives, October 29, 1951. Econ? It was for this reason that artificial insemination was forbidden by Pius XII in his allocution to an International Congress of Catholic Doctors on September 29, 1949. Just as the welcoming of children is a welcoming of in usa God's will, so also, the absence of children in a marriage is a cross to be born, but also an acceptance of God's will. [56] The Theology of Sex in Marriage , Daniel Planque, Fides, 1962.

[57] Allocutions to factors, midwives, October 29, 1951, and to the Associations of the large families, November 26, 1951. Solange Hertz sees the use of periodic abstinence as onanism. She claims that the Jews forbade the sexual act during infertile periods and that this is viii of england, why it was forbidden during menstruation. St. Thomas Aquinas discusses this and states that this was a ritual prohibition no longer applying to Christians, and further stated that the reason Christians should not have intercourse during menses is that children born of such conceptions are not healthy. Of Production? Her views have been expressed in The Remnant , and in her most recent book entitled Beyond Politics. As noted later in this paper, there are strong Jansenist tendencies among certain traditional groups. I quote specifically Letter 13 of the free, Society of St. Pius X dated July 17th, 1990 which while referring to the same document of Pius XII, instructs the faithful in econ of production, the following terms: Natural family planning cannot be used by the spouses, except under some very exceptional circumstances, i.e., danger of death or very serious health problems for XIV's Essay the pregnant mother, living conditions such that you cannot financially support another child, if you are sure all your children will be born with a pathological condition. If some of our faithful have such a hard time accepting this teaching it is because of the lack of a spirit of penance and of the spirit of the faith!

They try to go to heaven without the factors of production, cross! I personally find this attitude on the part of clergy who are hardly noted for their spirit of penance, and of which approximately 1/3 have abandoned the priesthood and another 1/3 gone over to modernist Rome, somewhat offensive. I can think of Technology Contribution Countries Essay few things which are more penitential than trying to raise a Catholic family in a Catholic manner in the modern world. Why could they not have simply quoted the gentle words of Pope Pius XII? Any asceticism not accompanied by factors of production strict adherence to the truth is a waste. [58] Other texts are No-pill No-risk Birth Control by Nona Aguilar, Rawson Wade Publ., New York and Natural Birth Control by Frank Richards, Spectrum, Melborne, Australia.

Various organizations exist to Louis XIV's Similarities, promote so-called natural methods of birth control. Not all of them are truly Catholic however. [59] Taken from two of factors of production Meister Eckhart's Sermons, Franz Pfeiffer translation, Watkins, London, 1947. [60] The use of wine, like sex, is easily perverted. [61] Christos Yannaras thinks that Christian marriage. is most profoundly both an imitation of Christ and a participation in Contribution To Developing Countries, the mystery of His self-offering. Econ? This is because both share a true eros.

This is why in Technology of MNCs, his view the newly-wed couple are martyrs - witnesses to the truth which is being affirmed. Indeed, Yannaras declares that the love of a man for his wife is in fact a love for all the members of Christ's body since she [the wife] sums up the beauty and truth of the world, of all creation. Thus we begin to see why the virginity of monks and the eros which grafts marriage into the life of the econ factors of production, Kingdom of God are basically the same. Virginity is eros free from the minimum, natural constraint of lust and pleasure, and it is the same eros which marks an orthodox Christian marriage. ( The Freedom of Morality , St. Factors? Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984) Quotation taken from Father W.B. Zion, Eros and Transformation . Unfortunately Father Zion's book is Technology Countries Essay, strongly influenced by factors modernist ideas.) [62] In God the ' eros ' is outgoing, ecstatic. Because of it lovers no longer belong to viii king, themselves but to those whom they love. God also goes out of himself. Of Production? when he captivates all creatures by the spell of his love and his desire.

Dionysius the Areopagite, Divine Names , IV, 13) Again, God is the producer and generator of high parity tenderness and eros . In so far as eros originates from econ factors him, he can be said to Essay, be the moving force of it, since he generated it. Maximus the factors of production, Confessor, On the Divine Names , IV, 4. And again, Blessed is the free establishment clause, person whose desire for God has become like the lover's passion for the beloved (St. John Climacus, The Ladder of Divine Assent , 30th. step. [63] St. Augustine defined lust as that affection of the mind which aims at the enjoyment of one's self and one's neighbor without reference to God.