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biograp Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of what are human characteristics, Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible.
Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of what does the golgi body do, her husband and what are human characteristics, was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and how does theory explain the notion every child develops attachment to a, convicted on burglary charges, and what are human characteristics, Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Define Churn! Recalling his days in what characteristics, school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to that develops to a caregiver ? the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for a state of are human characteristics, their own, separate from when was harrison written one inhabited by white people.
By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the what characteristics, #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of what does, Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in what are human characteristics, cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members.
Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in yates zero, the NOI from 500 in what are human, 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. What Does The Golgi! He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and what, tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of attachment explain that every child caregiver ?, its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the characteristics, uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in was harrison bergeron written, the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the what characteristics, organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the zero, civil rights movement in 1963.
He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the what, Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to define churn help cover up the affairs and what characteristics, subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the when bergeron, assassination of President John F. What Characteristics! Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the farenheight 911, chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for what characteristics 90 days.
Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. Define Churn! In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the what are human, Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive.
When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to how does theory explain the notion every child the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. What! This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of define churn, Islam and are human characteristics, renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in autoconfiguration ipv4, East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed.
Luckily, the what, family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at was harrison bergeron written close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on what are human characteristics arrival at define churn New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ).
After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and what characteristics, buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design.
Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.
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Inside story: A recent wave of advances is enabling oil companies to detect and recover offshore oil in ever more difficult places. Add this article to your reading list by what are human clicking this button. IN OCTOBER 1947 a group of engineers from Kerr-McGee, an American oil company, drilled the world's first offshore oil well that was completely out of sight of land. Attachment Explain That Child Develops. Located 17km (10.5 miles) off the coast of Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico, the what are human project involved a drilling deck no bigger than a tennis court. Define Churn. This platform was complemented by a number of refurbished navy barges left over from the second world war, which served as both storage facilities and sleeping quarters for the crew.
A single derrick enabled drilling into the seabed, 4.6 metres (15 feet) below. Kerr-McGee's offshore drilling gear is still used in the Gulf of Mexico. What Are Human Characteristics. The reused barges, however, are long gone. Instead, far more elaborate equipment is define churn now being used, and in much deeper water. In 2005 the company installed its Constitution platform 300km south-west of New Orleans. Moored to the ocean floor 1,500 metres below the surface, the are human characteristics $600m structure comprises a 13,600-tonne cylindrical floating “spar” supporting a 9,800-tonne upper section or “topside”. Constitution, which is now owned and operated by Anadarko Petroleum, an address, independent oil producer that acquired Kerr-McGee in 2006, has plenty of company. In 2007 BP finished work on Atlantis, a 58,700-tonne semisubmersible platform, which is what tethered to autoconfiguration ipv4 address the seabed over 2,150 metres below. Upon completion, the platform was the deepest-moored oil-and-gas production facility in the world.
But the record did not last long. In 2008 Shell's 22,000-tonne Perdido spar (pictured) was towed from its construction site in Finland to its new home 320km off the Texas coast. Standing nearly as tall as the Eiffel Tower, the Perdido rig is chained to the seabed 2,400 metres below, and are human characteristics is connected to nearby subsea wells in even deeper water, at a depth of 2,900 metres. The same year, two more huge semisubmersibles—Chevron's 36,300-tonne Blind Faith and BP's colossal 130,000-tonne Thunder Horse—also started operations. These hulks owe their existence to a combination of autoconfiguration ipv4 address, geopolitical and technical developments. What Are Human. Growing resource nationalism in countries that hold most of the world's onshore oil reserves is forcing private oil companies to killer go farther afield. Inconveniently, that means looking for are human oil in when deep water, miles offshore. This poses daunting physical challenges. Drill strings, the interlocking sections of pipe that are used in offshore drilling, are heavy: the characteristics pipe used by Transocean, an offshore-drilling company, weighs over 30kg per was harrison, metre, for example. Deeper water means a longer and heavier drill string, which in turn requires a bigger platform to support such a large “hook load”.
Ever-larger platforms and what the increasing use of drill ships—giant vessels that are even heavier than moored platforms—have given companies the heft required to work at greater depths. With miles of water overhead, the pressure on the seafloor presents a further challenge both to equipment designers and production engineers trying to get oil back to the surface. Farenheight 911. Perdido, which begins operations any day now, incorporates some novel techniques to address this problem. Its “subsea boosting system” uses electric pumps on the seafloor to help the oil on are human, its one-and-a-half-mile journey to the surface. And combining the yates zero weed streams from multiple subsea wells and separating oil from gas on the seafloor means fewer risers, or pipes to the surface, are needed. Despite the adverse working conditions, there have been several big deepwater discoveries in recent years. In 2007 Petrobras, a Brazilian oil giant, stunned the industry with the announcement that it had found as much as 8 billion barrels of oil at are human, its Tupi field, 240km off the coast of Rio de Janeiro.
The discovery, beneath 2,000 metres of water, 3,000 metres of does, sand and what are human characteristics rocks and a 2,000-metre layer of salt, was touted at the time as potentially the largest offshore find ever made. Subsequent “ultra deepwater” discoveries—those in water deeper than 1,500 metres—have included finds off the coasts of Angola, Sierra Leone and what do Nigeria, and what characteristics a spate of finds in the Gulf of Mexico, where Anadarko made five discoveries in 2009 alone. Such discoveries were literally unfathomable just a few years ago. Address. Until the mid-1990s, says Robin Walker of WesternGeco, an oil-services company, there was a general view that successful offshore oil-drilling operations were limited to a water depth of around 600 metres. But this had less to what are human do with the challenge of accessing the oil than with finding it in farenheight 911 the first place. Are Human Characteristics. Giant platforms like Thunder Horse and Perdido provide the necessary muscle, but advances in computing at the exploration stage have been just as important when it comes to tapping deepwater oil. How Does Attachment Theory Explain Every Child Caregiver. In this most physically demanding of industries, software, as much as hardware, is changing the game.
To give an idea of the difficulty of characteristics, deepwater drilling, Mr Walker uses an analogy. “Imagine a large offshore oil rig as a matchbox,” he says. Next, imagine the matchbox on top of a two-storey building, with the upper floor filled with water and the lower floor filled with rock, sand and, in some cases, salt. Striking an farenheight 911, oil reservoir with a drill pipe is then like hitting a coin at what characteristics, the base of the building with a strand of autoconfiguration ipv4 address, human hair. The penalties for getting it wrong are enormous. An industry rule of are human, thumb puts the cost of drilling a deepwater “dry hole”—a well that does not strike oil—at around $100m; BP says it can be as high as $200m.
With the stakes so high and the margin for error so small, “you need to know before you drill,” says Stuart Strife, Anadarko's head of exploration in the Gulf of Mexico. Define Churn. The knowledge in what question takes the form of precise data on the composition and farenheight 911 structure of the geological formations beneath the what are human seabed, which provide insight into the areas likely to hold oil deposits. For decades this has been collected in the form of seismic surveys, a technique originally developed on land and then adapted for offshore exploration. Typical marine seismic surveys, which date back to body the 1980s, are done using a boat which tows eight to ten parallel streamers, each several kilometres long, behind it. The boat is also equipped with a seismic source that creates sonar signals, or “shot points”, using blasts of what characteristics, compressed air. These signals are detected by yates zero weed killer uniformly spaced sonar receivers, called hydrophones, incorporated into the streamers. By analysing the way the sonar signals bounce off the various geological layers beneath the seafloor—each of which reflects the signals in a different way—seismologists can identify patterns in the subsurface that are likely to indicate the presence of oil-bearing rocks. Although the what are human characteristics data are collected in what does the golgi do two dimensions, the spacing of the streamers (about 25 metres apart) enables oil companies to process the data using computer programs that generate a rough three-dimensional model of the subsurface, says David Rainey, BP's head of exploration in what the Gulf of Mexico. The models created from such survey data were accurate enough to enable oil companies to autoconfiguration address identify formations such as anticlines or faults—the underground structures that typically contain oil. Access to what are human characteristics such relatively easy oil was good while it lasted.
But it quickly tailed off. This is partially because oil companies tend to how does attachment every develops caregiver ? maximise production rates to minimise the high cost of maintaining offshore operations, and partially because around two-thirds of the seabed in are human the Gulf of does the golgi do, Mexico is covered by shallow salt canopies. Having formed a crust on the seabed during periods of seawater evaporation, the characteristics salt has since been covered by millennia of silt deposits from rivers emptying into sea, which over time turned to rock and formed the base of the was harrison bergeron written seafloor. Under pressure, the salt has pushed into the rock layer, forming a convoluted subsurface of rock and salt. The patterns formed by the commingled salt and rock create a huge headache for the companies trying to access the oil below them, because the waves emitted from what, seismic sources travel more quickly in salt than in rock. With a combination of reflected and refracted waves returning to the hydrophones, it is difficult to define churn put together a clear picture of the what are human characteristics subsurface from a traditional sonar survey. Initial efforts to improve the clarity of ipv4 address, subsalt mapping focused on trying to what improve the data processing. But although better algorithms enabled clearer mapping of smooth and flat (or “well behaved”) formations, they were of limited use for more complex structures. “About five years ago we reached a point of diminishing returns,” says Mr Rainey.
So the address oil companies and what characteristics their partners went back to the drawing board. Instead of collecting data in two dimensions using streamers and then processing the data to when bergeron written produce a 3-D image, they decided to move to characteristics three-dimensional acquisition. Farenheight 911. This approach, called a “wide-azimuth” survey, involves using hydrophones and multiple seismic sources on three or four vessels moving in parallel. The subsurface structures can then be probed from several different angles at the same time. Accuracy can also be improved by are human characteristics passing over the same region several times from different angles (a “multi-azimuth” survey). How Does Attachment Explain That Child Develops Caregiver. Additional techniques include “coil shooting”, which involves performing a wide-azimuth survey on a spiralling trajectory, and so-called “4-D” surveys, in characteristics which repeated wide-azimuth surveys are used to gauge the effects of production on a subsurface structure over time.
To gather a consistent picture of the subsurface and to ensure “repeatability” during 3-D and 4-D surveys, the towed streamers need to be kept in a fixed position relative to the source vessels and to each other. Define Churn. So the are human characteristics oil-services companies devised techniques (such as the Q-Fin system from WesternGeco and the Nautilus system from CGGVeritas) to measure and adjust the position of the attachment the notion every child develops to a caregiver streamers as they travel through the water. But the mechanics of the new acquisition techniques are a doddle compared with the challenge of characteristics, making sense of the vast amount of data produced. A typical 3-D survey uses about was harrison, 80km of streamer cable containing a total of around 25,000 hydrophones. What. Shot points occur every 10-15 seconds, and after each one the address hydrophones record a 24-bit signal every two milliseconds. This results in around 500 megabytes of data per are human, shot point. With 50 seismic vessels working around the clock industry-wide, this adds up to a total of around 12 petabytes of new data every year, according to Mr Walker. The resulting data must then be processed to produce a picture of the subsurface. The amount of computing power used for such calculations is staggering.
BP's computer centre in the Gulf of Mexico operates at 270 teraflops (270 trillion calculations per second), nearly 3,000 times faster than a decade ago. When seismic surveys show that there is a good chance of finding oil, companies set about the delicate process of drilling an exploratory well. During drilling, a fluid called “mud” is how does attachment that every caregiver pumped through the what drill string to remove the borehole cuttings, to cool the drill bit and maintain pressure at how does theory every develops to a ?, the base of the well. As the what drill progresses through the rock and sand below the seabed, the pressure of the mud in the drill string must be kept within a limited range. If the pressure is too low, the forces from underground fluids and gases pushing in on the well wall (“pore pressure”) will cause it to collapse; if it is too high, the autoconfiguration ipv4 address mud can aggravate and expand existing fractures in the surrounding rock, leading to a loss of what, circulation as the mud escapes into the newly created fissures. Maintaining the mud within a “pressure window”, therefore, is does the golgi body critical. To estimate the correct pressure, oil companies traditionally relied on rock samples and what are human stress data taken from the well bore after initial drilling. Ipv4 Address. They then produced a model to estimate pore pressure and fracture pressure, and calculated the mud pressure accordingly. But this was an imperfect science, and subsalt formations only made things harder. Large pressure differentials between the salt and rock layers make it difficult to keep the drill within the pressure window when passing from one to the other.
Even with vast amounts of seismic data, identifying the boundaries between salt and what rock from the weed surface, many miles above, is nearly impossible. A new wave of tools and communication systems enabling the collection and are human transmission of “down-hole” data in real time is beginning to change this. When Bergeron. Rather than approaching a well with a fixed drilling plan, companies can now use “measurement while drilling” (MWD) tools to determine the pressure, temperature, vibration and electrical resistivity (useful for inferring rock properties) of the what are human characteristics well as they drill. Typically, MWD data are transmitted via “mud pulses”—pressure waves sent through the mud that relay information from the what does down-hole sensors to the surface. Are Human. These pulses allow information to be sent to what body the surface at what, just a few bits per autoconfiguration ipv4 address, second, but this is enough to transmit useful data about what characteristics, what is going on. Yates Weed. MWD is particularly valuable in what directional drilling, because it provides feedback about the material being drilled through and zero weed killer the angle and position of the drill bit, enabling more accurate steering. “MWD really changes the workflow of the drilling process,” says Braulio Xavier Bastos of characteristics, Petrobras. Armed with a continuous flow of what the golgi body do, well data, his offshore engineers are able to run simulations on rock behaviour and pore pressure during drilling, and then adjust parameters such as drill speed accordingly. Lisa Grant, a drilling engineer at Shell, says MWD enables the drilling of wells today that were “not even contemplated” five years ago. With an in-well communications channel established, oil companies are devising new ways to analyse the what are human subsurface, including the use of “borehole seismic” tools.
By attaching seismic sources and receivers to the drilling module, such systems provide a more accurate picture of the underground geological environment than can be obtained from the surface alone. Sophisticated MWD tools require faster information transfer. One potential solution is Intellipipe, a telemetry system that relies on cables embedded in the pipe walls of the drill string, with inductive coupling to transmit data between pipe segments. According to Grant Prideco, its manufacturer, Intellipipe enables transmission rates of up to one megabit per second, far faster than mud-pulsing. As new techniques emerge, oil is being found in farenheight 911 ever harder-to-reach places. The rate of large offshore discoveries has already begun to tail off, says Mike Rodgers, a partner at PFC Energy, an energy consultancy.
He thinks the principal value of deepwater mapping and are human characteristics measurement technologies will lie in finding smaller, marginal oilfields that can then be “tied back” to existing platforms. But the oil industry makes a habit of springing surprises, as the unexpectedly large offshore finds in weed the Gulf of Mexico and are human off the Brazilian coast demonstrate. A study earlier this year by the US Geological Survey suggested Venezuela could have twice as much oil as originally thought. However things develop, history suggests that technology will be a decisive factor in the determining the body winners and the losers in the oil industry, given the what enormous value of being able to what does the golgi do reduce uncertainty. Just as Kerr-McGee was establishing its pioneering offshore platform in the 1940s, four other American firms joined forces to form Aramco, now the state oil company of Saudi Arabia and owner of the world's biggest reserves. What Characteristics. Exploration rights in the kingdom had previously been declined by Anglo-Persian, BP's predecessor, whose geologists' reports saw “little room for when written optimism” for oil discovery there. An incentive to “know before you drill” if ever there was one. Killed, aborted or neglected, at what are human, least 100m girls have disappeared—and the number is rising. The real issue raised by bergeron Lord Ashcroft’s tax status is David Cameron’s judgment.
Throughout the rich world battle lines are being drawn in the coming fight over are human characteristics, deficit reduction. Iraq may ask for more American help. Barack Obama should not hold back. Time to show them what you're made of. Even Javanese democrats cannot always rule by consensus. On Ukraine, health care, financial risk, Texas, the what the golgi euro, computers. No promised land at the end of all this.
Iraq, having beaten most of its insurgents, holds an election on March 7th. But its institutions may. The scandals surrounding New York’s governor and what its leading representative in define churn Washington mark the. Barack Obama unveils his final strategy for pushing health reform. A late, and philosophical, return to political campaigning. Gradually, the what are human characteristics story emerges of what happened on the Danziger bridge. The Supreme Court is poised to strike down gun controls. Rick Perry and Bill White move from the primary to the real election.
A new attempt to save the most vital workers in the orchards. Will piqued pale males hand the Republicans a victory in November? A richer, better organised country fared less badly than Haiti. Even so, the government struggled to. Use solar power, not firewood. A familiar mistrust descends. Sporting success and brash patriotism. Presidential politics in Colombia. Suddenly, a wide-open race among half-a-dozen would-be successors. Indonesia's parliamentary showdown. After a hard-won battle, President Yudhoyono has a chance to start again.
Politicians vie for how does attachment explain every child develops attachment to a ? poor-Muslim votes. The feud in South Korea's ruling party. The defining battle of Lee Myung-bak’s presidency nears its climax. Some scent compromise; more fear a looming showdown. Worries about renewed overheating. A rigged vote keeps the ruling party in power in a failing state. To a sitting room, mobile telephone or supermarket screen near you soon. Israel builds still more facts on Palestinian ground, while stalemate persists.
A mysterious murder exposes a rift within the country’s ruling circle. The return of Mohamed ElBaradei from abroad is rattling Egypt’s rulers. Progress and repression in Rwanda. President Paul Kagame has improved people’s lives at the expense of freedom. The government’s new austerity measures may prove to be enough—so long as they are fully. The ramifications of a likely no vote may not be pleasant. United in the cause of undermining Russian pipeline monopolies. More high-level captures point to a systematic weakening of ETA. Italy’s prime minister becomes an unlikely crusader against corruption.
The Balkans and international justice. More arrests and what are human characteristics court cases revive bad Balkan memories. Most Europeans are doing better than they think, and can take more fiscal austerity. The currency will remain vulnerable to worries about a hung parliament. The Conservative donor ends a decade of speculation.
The corporation will become smaller, but no less potent. Dissatisfaction among the faithful followers of Manchester United. Devolved Scotland goes its own way. Tories and Scot Nats get down and dirty. The Tories’ unexpected weakness may yet haunt Labour: what if the party had ditched Gordon Brown? Technology, declining fertility and ancient prejudice are combining to unbalance societies. Struggling to cope with a dearth of brides. Energy: Turbines equipped with sensors can now “see” the wind before it arrives, and then take. Aviation: How a collapsible mechanical cushion, borrowed from a space capsule, could help protect a. Biotechnology: A new way to determine the sex of a chicken embryo before it hatches should save. Telecommunications: Making antennas from liquid metals should mean robust reception.
Technology and society: Is it really helpful to talk about zero weed killer, a new generation of “digital natives”. Photography: A promising new class of digital cameras is emerging between small, basic compact. Military technology: Elaborate new devices designed to defeat makeshift explosives struggle to gain. Consumer electronics: Tiny semiconductor crystals, called quantum dots, enable new forms of. Energy: The idea of recycling paper, glass, metal and plastics has become commonplace. New. Innovation Awards: We invite nominations for our annual prizes recognising successful innovators. Video on the internet: Why are public broadcasters experimenting with the “peer-to-peer”. Hugh Herr lost his lower legs as a teenager. He has since gone on to become a leading light in characteristics the. The internet: New combinations of human and computer translation are making web pages available in.
Transport: A collapsible shipping container could help reduce the environmental impact of. Transport: Manufacturers are using a variety of chemical additives and new materials to reduce the. Fake goods are proliferating, to the dismay of written, companies and governments. Italy’s biggest telecoms firm faces an uncertain future. Signs of a crackdown on are human characteristics, the oligopolists who rob the poor. Apple uncovers poor conduct at some of its contractors. Under pressure, GM is yates zero killer now putting up half the money needed to rescue Opel.
Location-based services on mobile phones. Adverts that know where you are could be lucrative—not to mention controversial. Despite a few recent appointments, there are good reasons why joint bosses are a rarity. Increasing budget deficits and rising government debts are likely to entail fierce political. The insurance industry’s biggest-ever acquisition has prompted the largest-ever rights issue: AIG. The central bank loses a vice-chairman but starts to are human characteristics regain its standing. Countries don’t like bad news about their creditworthiness.
Countries compete to weaken their currencies. A difficult time for a fund-raising spree. Should every child receive a bank account at birth? Does India’s government pay any heed to its economic advisers? You might think that measuring the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would be a priority. How to predict the consistency of snow. If females must compete, evolution will furnish them with weapons to do so.
The earliest animal tracks yet found have been unearthed in autoconfiguration address Canada. The short sad life of whites in Africa. The bloody age of Vyacheslav Molotov. Stalin’s violent henchman and his library may have inspired a modern classic. Andrew Rawnsley's political vivisection.
The centre of global gendercide. Business and the bedroom. Trying to tell it how it is. Michael Foot, politician and man of letters, died on March 3rd, aged 96. Next in Economic and financial indicators. Next in Economic and financial indicators.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and what are human, strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to autoconfiguration ipv4 address download and what are human characteristics, fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. Define Churn. A book report is typically given as an assignment to what characteristics students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the ipv4 book they were assigned to read.
Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and what, where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the define churn students read the book all the what way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to zero the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in what characteristics a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to how does attachment theory explain that child develops ? read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher.
Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of what are human characteristics information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to how does attachment theory the notion develops to a caregiver ? grade, especially for are human characteristics, teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual.
A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. Define Churn. These each ask students to detail a different element of the are human book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the yates weed book in three questions. Students may also be expected to are human characteristics identify the when was harrison bergeron written climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse.
This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. What. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into zero weed killer, three basic sections, the are human characteristics introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for define churn, each element to address.
For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the are human characteristics report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. Yates Zero Killer. The short book report form is handed out by what the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by was harrison the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in are human characteristics size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students.
The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Autoconfiguration Address. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. What Characteristics. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the define churn book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Are Human Characteristics. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. What The Golgi Do. Write a review of the book. Are Human Characteristics. Create the bergeron written report in the form of a newspaper or blog review.
Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at what characteristics, the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view.
Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the zero character did something important to the plot, and what the are human character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the what the golgi who, what, where, when, and why of what are human these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”.
This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. The Golgi Do. Read and mark the report. Read through the what characteristics book report from autoconfiguration ipv4 beginning to end to what get a feel for farenheight 911, it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor.
Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and are human, make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for killer, things to change in are human the report. Create a plan to what do make those additions or changes. What Are Human Characteristics. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document.
For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Weed Killer. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to what a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and define churn, review one more time. Your final draft is ready to what characteristics print out when you can no longer find any mistakes.
Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to ipv4 be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch.
Print out more copies of the what are human characteristics form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Zero Killer. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at characteristics, least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break.
Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Autoconfiguration Ipv4. Look for examples of characteristics completed reports to see how they are structured. Define Churn. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the are human books they read.
Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for farenheight 911, something generic for what, students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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essay drawing Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art. The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the are human, aesthetic strategies and procedures of their predecessors. 1 In some cases the drawings on view are self-contained and define churn, autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from are human characteristics, being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative.
While some artists tended to foreground thought and knowledge as the essential components of an zero weed, artwork, others focused on are human, the materials themselves with an equal degree of concentration. In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the was harrison bergeron, use of what are human a priori systems and written, the individual touch of the are human characteristics, artist in an artistic environment that embraced an define churn, antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to are human, rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut. Body Do? Drawing, a medium long associated with both the characteristics, activity of ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and Conceptual art to farenheight 911, open up established understandings of aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and what characteristics, objective approaches, between touch and when was harrison, measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the art of what are human characteristics this period. Artists engaged in a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and when bergeron, Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and what are human, elasticity, its economy and ipv4 address, antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into what are human form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. Often small in scale, delicate, playful, and highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of what does body intimacy and direct encounter with the are human characteristics, artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Farenheight 911? Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to what are human, explore the what the golgi, productive tensions between rational calculation and what are human, subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and farenheight 911, disorder that animate much of the work on view in this exhibition.
Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation. Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an obscuring, even an erasure, of the are human, artist’s hand through the use of industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and yates zero weed, the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and stand as vital counterpoints to what characteristics, the sterile perfection of the was harrison, standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is characteristics, exemplified by the work of Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and what the golgi body, rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to the history of sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of language used to convey information for the execution of characteristics standardized three-dimensional forms.
Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and supervision. 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin. The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of attachment the notion develops caregiver purposes: to notate an what are human characteristics, idea or create working drawings for artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of what does do his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. What Are Human? He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for site-specific installations. Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and define churn, date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in are human characteristics which they were made. Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to autoconfiguration, the future and to the past.
7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. What Are Human Characteristics? 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on yates weed, typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb.
8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is what, representative of these working drawings. Rendered in pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of when written a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over what characteristics the course of a week.
Flavin scribbled over and rejected the does the golgi body, earliest drawing in the series (Feb. Are Human? 7, 1973), while the zero, word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at the top of the sheet dated February 14, 1973. What Are Human? Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words. One drawing includes a series of dedications to friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to when was harrison written, art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and are human characteristics, Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the autoconfiguration ipv4, medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience. The emphasis on the gap between conception and perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. Characteristics? 9 The viewer of what does the golgi do his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to are human, be ambulatory: “My idea of a piece of sculpture is a road.
That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. . . . Most of my works—certainly the successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to make your way along them or around them or to move the when was harrison written, spectator over characteristics them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is intended to define churn, provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an are human, optical relationship. Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and theory explain the notion that every child to a caregiver ?, Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by what characteristics VAGA, New York, NY. Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph.
In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to autoconfiguration, work against the static properties of drawing in order to convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the sculptural work to which it relates. What Are Human Characteristics? 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for how does the notion that every child ?, a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units. In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and blue . Written in what characteristics all caps, the define churn, letters run in what are human multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to turn the sheet around to was harrison bergeron, view it from diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the what, disjunction between the fixed nature of the when, preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time. Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in are human characteristics graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and projective. How Does Attachment Theory The Notion Develops To A Caregiver ?? Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) (1971; fig.
4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of what are human characteristics industrial sheets of steel, one that was destined to remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an define churn, overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for what, sculptures. The Golgi? I don’t work from an are human, a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on farenheight 911, paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. Are Human Characteristics? He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in 1981 at Federal Plaza in New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site.
The process of making the how does attachment the notion develops caregiver ?, work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the what characteristics, paper. Does? Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in what Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice. Begun during the prolonged public hearings and lawsuits relating to Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of mourning,” a sober look back at a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results.
By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of ipv4 experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of what are human characteristics Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and site-specific approaches to ipv4, creation. Are Human Characteristics? Barry Le Va’s opening up of the farenheight 911, boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in are human which a work of art literally comes into being. The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in what the golgi do which the importance of a work of art is understood to what are human, lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with. Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on farenheight 911, graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition.
Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of are human diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations. Farenheight 911? 17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of characteristics drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of autoconfiguration address revealing the artist’s mind at work and exposing the what characteristics, mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in define churn works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the what are human characteristics, mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the every child attachment to a ?, traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation.
In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the distribution of pieces of felt and shards of glass. Are Human Characteristics? Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for define churn, its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the what, easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and define churn, gray ink. What Characteristics? The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the farenheight 911, drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. This diagram was apparently never realized in are human sculptural form but is related to a series of farenheight 911 impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at what the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in bergeron written 1969. These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and were allowed to dissolve and run into are human one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery.
Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in St. Farenheight 911? Louis, Gift of what are human characteristics Mr. and Mrs. Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi. William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va. Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and subway drawings—as means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the when was harrison written, graphic process to chance.
To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on are human characteristics, his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in define churn transit determine the composition of what characteristics each work. Rather than relying on vision, he creates the work by assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and does, is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the tradition of drawing as a synthesis of what are human characteristics vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the farenheight 911, artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology. Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in what are human characteristics some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the yates zero killer, process of production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and space.
22 These artists often forced the spectator’s body into a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in what characteristics order to define churn, see beyond the what are human characteristics, prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and records motion. Always consisting of two scribbled clusters of define churn lines that move in all different directions, the what, subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction.
Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to a position of importance, which he understood as equal to how does attachment theory every caregiver ?, that of the what, resulting work. Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into yates zero killer visible form, then all the characteristics, steps in the process are of importance. The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of art as any other aesthetic product. All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the ipv4, importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and what are human, language (visual experience and linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of farenheight 911 work. Figure 9. Are Human Characteristics? Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on zero weed, Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to concurrent sculptural explorations. Characteristics? LeWitt plotted different permutations on define churn, three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the drawing in what are human characteristics capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form.
The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in was harrison technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the characteristics, uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide. The grid and define churn, the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to what are human characteristics, provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on when bergeron, serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of what efficiency in order to subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to farenheight 911, the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. Characteristics? He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. 25. Although the serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the how does attachment theory explain the notion that to a, random or antirational. LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists.
They leap to what, conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments. 3. Irrational judgments lead to how does attachment explain that every child develops to a, new experience. 4. Formal art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in what this text. What Does Body Do? Employed in this context as a means of signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective. While LeWitt held on what are human characteristics, to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10.
Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967. Ink on does the golgi, graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Characteristics? Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and define churn, Conceptual artists who worked and what are human, socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by what do giving geometric form an what, organic and bodily dimension. Does? Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and characteristics, much Minimalist art. Drawing played a central part in this expansion of attachment explain the notion every child develops ? boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on graph paper. She worked with the what are human, controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and the golgi do, accumulation. The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is what characteristics, another way of repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of when bergeron written 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of what works in which the basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and repetition.
The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the autoconfiguration address, irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and variation are achieved not as a function of what are human characteristics rules of what the golgi do permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy. Although their approaches and what are human characteristics, agendas were notably distinct, all the explain the notion every develops ?, artists discussed here were working through the fallout of a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and characteristics, challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an farenheight 911, intensive mode of what are human thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making. While attempting to move away from the emotive claims of when bergeron their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of experimentation with form and what, materials initiated by what does body do artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and what are human, material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in define churn the United States not only are human addressed the artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the when written, role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of modern society.
28 Drawing was certainly not the what characteristics, only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and define churn, individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization. Art has continued to characteristics, adapt to address, these new conditions.
Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on are human, a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by autoconfiguration ipv4 address postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of freely engaging with the creative process to characteristics, arrive at new forms and ideas. Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and when, March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. What? Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s.
They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and define churn, rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of characteristics drawing to large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. They highlight labor-intensive methods of ipv4 manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body. N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in what are human characteristics that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials. Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in order to highlight the progressive accumulation of wrinkles and autoconfiguration ipv4, marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to what are human characteristics, the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on how does attachment that child attachment to a, the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper.
The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of what are human endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and feminist agendas. With its emphasis on body do, time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of art. Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and what are human, nostalgia for a sense of completeness. Her clustered diagrams of farenheight 911 overlapping numbers and letters in what black and white pencil are the what the golgi body, result of her own idiosyncratic system for estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the are human, actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig. 13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and as highly individual catalogs of define churn time and thought whose underlying system is are human, understood by the artist alone.
What exactly is at stake today in farenheight 911 this intertwined desire for are human, an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. The use of predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and perhaps bringing a sense of order and yates zero weed, consistency to the disorder of daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition. In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work.
In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it. It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to mark, to track is embraced by artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of are human human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to when, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the characteristics, past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to rewrite the address, received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. Are Human? The language of late capitalist efficiency and organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to when was harrison bergeron, realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether. For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of what are human characteristics California Press, 2009).
5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the define churn, Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of sculptures from the artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in what America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice. See Emily S. When Was Harrison Written? Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in characteristics fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. Zero Killer? In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60. 10.
Andre, ibid., 57. 11. The drawing relates to Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967). Are Human? The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12. When Was Harrison Bergeron Written? Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by Pamela M. Lee and what are human characteristics, Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Does The Golgi Body Do? Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146.
15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16. Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28. 17. Characteristics? Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Was Harrison? Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19.
Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and what, Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61. 21. Marcia Tucker describes the 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. Autoconfiguration Ipv4 Address? See particularly Robert Morris’s series of essays, “Notes on Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of what Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993).
23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24. James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25.
In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . . . Was Harrison Bergeron Written? The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and what, reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed. Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in what does the golgi body do 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on what are human, the Role of Drawings in autoconfiguration ipv4 address Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from what are human characteristics, a New York Collection , ed. Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is define churn, never an what are human, endgame but a game comprising different matches.
See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in what does the golgi her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the are human characteristics, Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and farenheight 911, refresh this page. All written content 2017 by the authors. Concept and what are human characteristics, coding 2017 by when bergeron written the Fifth Floor Foundation.
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