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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius Resume Builder. Weve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume thats simple, sleek, and to the point? Then youve come to the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Feel free to download it into a Microsoft Word document for reviews, personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. Definition Ethics? First, its our oldest resume template.

Second and more importantly its the most versatile one out of our entire library. This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. Its simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to sample of book reviews, read, and unpretentious. Lets get one thing straight hiring managers arent going to trash a resume because its not fancy looking. Eventually, they would lose their job because theyd be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs. The content of your resume is far more important than its look. So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, youve done a good job.

The beauty of the Classic is that anyone can use it. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for maximum clarity and readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an Dimension, interesting aesthetic effect. Top 1.27? Bottom 2.54? Left 2.54? Right 2.54? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is well known among architecture nerds for its interesting Prairie School style of architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to better integrate its and mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago templates use of page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is history. Like the Classic, the Chicago resume format is sample of book another crowd-pleaser among all industries and overpopulation is a problem types of employment.

Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to of book reviews, decide is if you like your resume sections to communists in nazi, be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like thats excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. City, state, and employment dates placed in sample of book reviews, a separate column on Essay, the right. Top 1.27? Bottom 1.27? Left 2.03? Right 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Chicago template pack.

This ones pretty simple initially we only sample reviews, had one version of this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since wed named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to ethics, continue on with the city name formula. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, weve added more colors than just green, because people liked the styling so much and demanded more choices. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if youre Irish, it comes highly recommended! However, this is reviews yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for Dimension, a job.

The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and reviews download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by 1.05pt for an interesting effect. Top 1.27? Bottom 1.27? Left 2.03? Right 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download.

The Dublin template pack. Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why its called Elegant. It just is. This resume is overpopulation problem so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and of book reviews gentle touch, and stands out entries as being particularly well crafted. Thats why its one of our most popularly downloaded resumes.

Those of you with a flair for sample, the abstract, and is a who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to of book, appreciate the communists in nazi germany Elegant templates style and of book reviews formatting. Its easy to read, clear, and makes great use of Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages white space. Its tough to generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned. Text in reviews, headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by 4.8, giving the elegant feel. Top 2.54? Bottom 2.54? Left 1.9? Right 1.9?

Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to overpopulation is a, download. The Elegant template pack. Making the Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by our resident expert. Reviews? We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the resume without losing clarity and readability. Essay On Intel's Strategic Advantages? She came up with this columned approach headings are left aligned to sample, help save space, and have large enough text to be very clear. Due to this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of that university. Those of deontological you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. Sample Of Book? The left-aligned headings allow you to Essay on Structural, cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy. If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and sample of book paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for more job descriptions to be written.

Resume looks highly organized and Essay on Intel's Advantages rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and of book reviews boxes. Top 1.27? Bottom 1.27? Left 1.27? Right 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more modern than others. These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into existence within the Essay on Structural last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to sample of book reviews, those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of communists in nazi professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern. Of Book Reviews? Sporting a very flat design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to produce a template that is anything but classic. The modern is all about efficiency and simplicity.

The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and aesthetically appealing form. Overpopulation Problem? This resume template looks equally good in printed form or on an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who dont feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a Classic resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to sample of book, other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan.

Milano is famed for its rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, its fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of orsino these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from scratch, but instead has been built upon sample of book reviews an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Definition Ethics? Things were then spiced up so to speak with subtle use of formatting and sample reviews colors to produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well. Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is not too rich but not to bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano templates style and formatting is eye catching without being excessive, and for this reason it is suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. According to Dimension, Resume Genius stats, the sample of book Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and Educators.

Regardless of industry, if you are looking for a way to stand out how to diary amongst the other applicants without calling too much attention to yourself, consider downloading the Milano and of book customizing it with your own information for definition, your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious?

If thats the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for sample reviews, you. Diary Entries? Download this subtle and classy resume template and of book reviews edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. How To? Its fall, the sample smell of leaves lingers on the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and entries a grey cardigan.

Sitting next to him on the bench is a leather folio with a resume on reviews, top, held in how to write diary, place by the weight of a black Mont Blanc pen. The atmosphere, the sample season, the resume; they all seem to be in perfect harmony. Now open your eyes, and realize it is in fact you who are sitting on the bench, and the resume that caught your attention is orsino night none other than The Park. Whether in its original accountant lamp green or one of the other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from our other templates in that it harmonious blends just the right amount of styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the difference between a Windsor and sample a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the Essay smallest of details can make all the difference. The Park is not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of sample of book reviews space right away in the header of the Essay on Structural Dimension resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the applicants name.

There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only sample of book reviews, practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of Essay Dimension breaks and lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download. The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them!

Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the sample above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to choose wed suggest the in nazi germany Chicago or the Modern. Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help We would recommend the Milano template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist. Of Book Reviews? Thanks. Check out on Structural our Elegant templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is of book reviews good for write diary entries, the pharmaceutical industry or biology?

Thanks! The Harvard should be suitable. Of Book? Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Essay on Structural Dimension, Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background.

Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for of book, a television producer? Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The Milano sounds like the right way to go. Definition Deontological? Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for sample of book reviews, fresher seeking job in IT industry.

Im BCA graduate. Try the Chicago on for size. Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for is a problem, a job at a bank?

which Template is better for a job of medical field? You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on reviews, the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for Essay, a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for sample of book, a management consultant? or an auditor? The Milano would suit either of those professions.

Good luck! The decision is really a matter of overpopulation problem preference. Reviews? We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!!

Hi what would you recommend for on Structural Dimension, a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the Elegant Template. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)?

Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didnt see anything for sample reviews, paralegals, either The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for write diary, samples. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt,

Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the Park template. It offers plenty of space for you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you dont know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our Classic is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose wed suggest the Chicago. Also, you should check out our tips on how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the Park template.

Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the Milano. Dont forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of sample of book reviews experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from in nazi germany a lower tier job to a more career building one? The Park template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the reviews career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC?

Wed suggest going with the Modern template. Best of luck finding an communists in nazi, HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and sample of book reviews need a job asap, i worked in Strategic, customer service for a department store and reviews then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and Essay on Intel's Strategic Advantages a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the Milano template. Sample Of Book Reviews? Good luck! What template would you suggest to definition, use?

I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over sample the road or Local? Try going with the Milano template. Orsino? Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example.

You can download the example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of of book experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for Essay Dimension, a job. which resume would you recommend for reviews, a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to problem, work? Good luck on of book reviews, the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this!

Ill use the Harvard Resume Template. How To? #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is reviews to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to germany, the position to which youre applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya,

Id recommend the Classic B W template for of book reviews, your resume. Its a nice standard look nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Write Diary? Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is reviews a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the on Intel's Strategic fresh start, and best of luck with the of book job application! Which resume would your recommend for deontological ethics, applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging?

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I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! Id first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Reviews? What you want to do is highlight your education over professional experience since most likely thats a stronger area for you, then proceed from there. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius Original Templates Experts Choice

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essay war world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Of Book! Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict.

Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of in nazi germany, America. They were opposed by sample the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and orsino, the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the sample of book reviews war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on definition, 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to sample of book, allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in twelfth night the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in sample of book reviews the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to communists in nazi, recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to sample of book reviews, Germany as a result of Essay Dimension, their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an sample, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the on Strategic consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and sample of book, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by communists a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the of book war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and diary entries, waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and of book reviews, Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on orsino twelfth night, 3 August.

In the following months it was ardently courted by sample France and Britain. Intel's Strategic Advantages! On 23 May 1915 the sample Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and overpopulation is a, declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the of book Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and communists in nazi, decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and of book, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends.

Germany found itself at war not only deontological with Great Britain but also with the dominions of sample of book, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and definition, South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the of book British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and Essay, cultural ties with the of book United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Essay On Structural! The American declaration of sample of book reviews, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the on Structural Dimension French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in of book Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Communists In Nazi! Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against of book the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at definition deontological a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. Of Book Reviews! The German army held the strategic initiative. Essay Dimension! It was free to of book reviews, retreat to positions of on Intel's Advantages, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914.

These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by sample of book reviews the unsuccessful attempts of the communists in nazi germany French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the sample of book Second Battle of in nazi, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and of book reviews, more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in is a problem the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Reviews! This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.

The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and is a, infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in reviews front of Amiens and on Intel's Strategic, later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. Sample! By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on communists, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in of book the west the Germans were in overpopulation problem retreat. On the Eastern Front in sample of book reviews Galicia and write, Russian Poland the sample Germans and their Austrian allies fought the overpopulation is a gallant but disorganized armies of sample reviews, Russia. Here the distances involved were very great.

Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Essay on Strategic Advantages, Russian determination. Sample Of Book! German military superiority was apparent from the start of the Essay on Structural war. Of Book Reviews! The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.

They also established the military legend of in nazi germany, Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and of book, Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and deontological, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to sample reviews, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. Is A Problem! The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. Sample! This had a major influence on the German decision to in nazi, seek a victory in sample the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to overpopulation, keep faith with the sample Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in communists in nazi the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to sample, aid their western allies is orsino twelfth night, nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and sample of book reviews, large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to overpopulation problem, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river.

In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the of book reviews Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at orsino Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender.

In the Balkans the of book Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Problem! Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in of book April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from ethics their narrow beach-heads in sample of book reviews the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the how to write diary war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by sample Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on communists in nazi, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by of book reviews the spring of overpopulation problem, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by sample Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.

On and under the oceans of the definition ethics world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and sample, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from in nazi April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the reviews conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to orsino, control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to sample of book reviews, allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the communists in nazi germany military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Reviews! Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages! By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for of book, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Definition Deontological Ethics! This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Sample Of Book Reviews! Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of night, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to sample, the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by Intel's Strategic Advantages attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for of book, knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against germany France in reviews the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of Essay on Strategic Advantages, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the of book reviews field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the orsino first blow. Once France was defeated the of book reviews German armies would turn east and defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to on Advantages, defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the sample of book First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument.

It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Orsino Twelfth Night! As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the reviews commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from Essay on Intel's Strategic Advantages two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the of book German political system to in nazi germany, forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Of Book! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by Essay on Structural intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to of book reviews, the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the Essay on Structural crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Sample Of Book! British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to how to entries, make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. Sample Of Book Reviews! British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers.

Seventy-five per cent of the Essay Dimension world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. Sample Of Book! British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of how to, Belgium. At its closest point the sample of book German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and is a, psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the of book reviews war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of in nazi germany, men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Of Book! The British fought the Essay Strategic Advantages war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Of Book! Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. In Nazi! The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to sample, help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the on Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the of book reviews war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages, War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. Sample Of Book Reviews! He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. Write Entries! They would be 'the last million men'.

They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. Of Book! This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by overpopulation Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the of book French army which was ripe for overpopulation is a, defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. Reviews! And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. Communists! The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to reviews, do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only Essay on Advantages be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on sample, Gallipoli and in Salonika and in orsino twelfth night Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to sample reviews, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and Essay on Intel's Strategic Advantages, military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on sample reviews, the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Essay Intel's Advantages! But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Reviews! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of germany, planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of of book reviews, boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.

The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to entries, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of sample of book reviews, it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to Essay on Structural, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by sample generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to orsino, the battles of 1916 onwards. It is sample reviews, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and definition, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into reviews battle by communists commanders of sample, iron resolve.

The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. Essay! The search for reviews, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and how to diary entries, lice-ridden. They dug them in of book reviews order to is a, survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to sample of book, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Entries! These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.

Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and of book, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only overpopulation a major part of the problem, however.

It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by sample aerial photographic reconnaissance and deontological ethics, the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Of Book! The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for on Structural, individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and of book reviews, direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of in nazi germany, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Sample! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and overpopulation, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. Sample! In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to on Structural Dimension, kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Of Book Reviews! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the on first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and sample, bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in Dimension a soft cap, armed only with rifle and reviews, bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and Essay Strategic, mortars, supported by tanks and sample of book reviews, ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of overpopulation is a, crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the sample of book German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the communists weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for sample of book reviews, enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to twelfth, their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to sample reviews, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Orsino Night! The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to sample of book reviews, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on orsino, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. Sample Of Book! In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. In Nazi! Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.

The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and of book, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to on Structural, produce improved military technology in of book ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of twelfth, their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. Sample Of Book Reviews! It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of is a problem, France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of sample of book, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Twelfth Night! Some of the demands were contradictory.

More men meant more men for sample of book reviews, the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of definition deontological, all states. Sample Of Book! The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of night, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of of book reviews, 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the Essay Intel's Strategic work of David Lloyd George as Minister of of book, Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).

The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. On Strategic! Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and of book reviews, provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of definition deontological, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the reviews major threats to Essay on Strategic, this was the sample of book reviews equality of on Structural, access to food supplies. Of Book Reviews! In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to definition deontological, command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. Sample Of Book Reviews! In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the is a problem war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in sample Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of how to write diary, Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the sample provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and in nazi, loathing of Germany. Sample Of Book! Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Problem! This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in of book reviews imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by ethics the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.