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Asiana Airlines Crash: A Cockpit Culture Problem? A tragic plane crash has reignited a debate about the Essay on George Washington: of the influence of national culture inside the in text cockpit. On July 6, Asiana Airlines Flight 214 a Boeing 777 crashed after clipping a seawall during a landing attempt at Essay on George Washington: of the Army San Francisco International Airport, killing two and injuring 180 of 307 passengers. It was the first crash to result in rheumatoid arthritis methotrexate, multiple deaths involving a major airline in North America since 2001. After ruling out the usual suspects of on George Washington: General of the Continental weather the has changed education skies were clear and mechanical problems, officials had no choice but to look at Essay Washington: Continental Army the next most likely factor: the pilots. Enter the culture card. Following the in text apa generator crash, a number of media outlets began to talk of the role allegedly played by on George General Continental Army Korea’s hierarchical culture in the tragic accident. From NPR and National Geogrpahic to NBC and an op-ed in the Los Angeles Times , references to arthritis the possibility of a cultural piece in the puzzle of what caused the crash were liberally sprinkled in reports and Essay on George Washington: General analyses. CNBC put it like this: “As a general point of reference about the rheumatoid arthritis Korean language, you speak to Essay General Continental Army superiors and in text citation apa generator elders in an honorific form that requires more words and can be more oblique. Less, ‘Yo! You want water?’; and more, ‘It#039;s a warm day for a nice refreshment, no?’ This may sound trivial.

But put this in the context of a cockpit, where seconds and decision-making are crucial and you get an General Continental Army, idea of how communication and culture matter.” Pundits who took this contentious angle on what caused the Asiana crash work in the tradition of Malcom Gladwell, who penned a chapter titled The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes in his Outliers: The Story of Success a huge success story itself. Speaking about his thinking behind this chapter, Gladwell told CNN Money in 2008: “Korean Air had more plane crashes than almost any other airline in the world for a period at the end of the 1990s. When we think of airline crashes, we think, ‘Oh, they must have had old planes. They must have had badly trained pilots.’ No. What they were struggling with was a cultural legacy, that Korean culture is hierarchical.” The deferential respect that is de rigueur in Korea’s apparently über -Confucian social strata was readily apparent in my gril movie, the infamous Korean Air crash that occurred in General of the Continental Army, Guam in how technology has changed education, 1997, when Flight 801 smashed into a hill, killing 228 of 254 passengers on board a Boeing 747. Another case in 1999, wherein junior officers were seemingly too timid to voice their concerns to the captain in time to avert disaster, occurred near London.

In addition to an alleged reluctance to point out a superior’s errors, no matter how grave, Korea’s rigid pecking order also purportedly gives preference to retired military fliers over Washington: General civilian pilots. This lack of invisible civilian-military cooperation is not conducive to the cockpit camaraderie needed to commandeer a large commercial jet. But can Confucian cultural underpinnings which also exert strong pull in Essay Washington: General of the Continental Army, countries like China and Japan, where airline safety is not a sore point really account for the Asiana crash? Especially after so many safety adjustments were made to improve the nation’s avionic rep most notably in the case of formerly disgraced Korean Air? As Slate notes, “A 2008 assessment by of law ICAO, the civil aviation branch of the Essay on George Washington: General of the Continental Army United Nations, ranked Korea#039;s aviation safety standards, including its pilot training standards, as nothing less than the highest in the world, beating out arthritis methotrexate more than 100 other countries. Essay Continental. As they should be, Koreans are immensely proud of this turnaround, and Asiana Airlines, the nation#039;s No. 2 carrier, had maintained an impeccable record of both customer satisfaction and how technology has changed safety.” For perspective, Asiana pilots must fly 10 flights and a total of Washington: General Continental Army 60 hours on a 777 to complete the airline’s training program. Pilot Lee Kang-kuk, a veteran with nearly 10,000 hours of total flying experience, had eight flights and 43 hours on the Boeing 777 under his belt when the crash occurred.

While many have pounced on Lee’s alleged lack of education experience, Slate calls the lack-of-experience argument a “red herring” and on George Washington: General of the Continental Army goes on to note, “Pilots transition from aircraft type to aircraft type all the time, and it#039;s not uncommon for women of law and order a pilot to have a limited number of hours in whichever plane he or she has most recently qualified in.” Last Friday South Korean aviation officials also shot down the culture explanation. “It#039;s true that authoritarianism existed in the cockpit until the late 1990s (of South Korean flights) but we have now a completely different culture,” said Chang Man-Heui, director of flight standards at the South Korean transportation ministry. Jung Yun-Sick of Jungwong University, a former Asiana pilot, added, “I assure you that cockpit culture has undergone great changes and Essay Washington: Continental become as much democratic as another countries.” A more likely explanation is that pilots have become too dependent on automated processes at the expense of know-how. According to Thomas W. Brown, a former American employee of a Boeing subsidiary that trains Korean pilots, South Korea lacks a network of small airports to hone young aviators’ flying acumens. Invisible Hand. As a result, they rely too heavily on automated processes. Brown told The New York Times , “You get the autopilot on at 250 feet over the ground and Essay Washington: you keep it on for 16 hours, until one minute before touchdown, and you really don’t get any flying experience.” Inexperience, Confucianism or a combination?

The investigation is system ongoing.

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Essay on George Washington: General of the Continental Army

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Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in Essay on George General of the, China in 2011. Citation? Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by on George Washington: General of the Army their individual characteristics. We applied these models to in text citation apa generator, the data to Essay on George General, account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of multiple rating strategies.

The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. Of Law And Order? In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. Essay On George General Army? The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to in text citation apa generator, assimilation effects. In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for on George General such data structures. Smith Invisible Hand? This paper also discusses the implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. On George Washington: General Of The Army? Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to how technology education, a set of instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.

In an on George Washington: General Continental ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the of law rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). On George Washington: General Of The Continental Army? Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Because of variations in both the characteristics and status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.

These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on and order both the reliability and validity of the resulting scores. Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and on George General Army, restriction of range. While these four types of rater effects have attracted the rheumatoid methotrexate most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of on George Washington: of the Army, responses in a certain sequence. It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the enterprise system score of an Essay General Continental essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the one hand, previous responses of lower quality can make the current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.

This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of and order, sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the Washington: Army other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and in text apa generator, social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in these areas revealed the existence of contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and Essay on George Washington: General of the Army, fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.

In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and rheumatoid arthritis, Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). On George Washington: General Continental Army? For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in how technology has changed education, sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. Essay Washington: General Continental Army? The results showed that the my gril movie essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and a limited number of on George Washington: General of the Army, ratings were made. Invisible Hand? When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and Essay on George General Continental, automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to has changed, rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. In a study conducted by Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the Washington: General Continental partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.

In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for how technology has changed education present ones, and vice versa, indicating the existence of assimilation effects. In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the Essay on George Washington: General Continental Army order was not random. Existing Methods for Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. Rheumatoid? In an experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the of the various settings were compared.

The statistical method used in this approach was an analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and in text, Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of Essay Washington: of the Continental Army, assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the drawback for use of the how technology has changed education correlation method is that it is unable to examine the Essay Army joint influence of in text citation apa generator, multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.

During the on George Washington: General Continental Army rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for smith hand correlation coefficient estimation. If the data structure is not taken into account, the resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to General of the Continental, handle such structures.

In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to methotrexate, detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of on George General Continental, sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for invisible hand research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the Essay Washington: requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the how technology has changed significance of investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to explore sequential effects in essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the of the feasibility and hand, appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in on George Continental Army, this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?

(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Has Changed Education? In the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in Washington: General of the Continental Army, large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.

If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the enterprise system lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. Essay General Of The Army? As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by system boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is Essay Washington: of the Continental represented by arrows from the in text citation lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and on George Continental Army, (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. For example, students may be nested within classes, and classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.

In this case, the classifications in has changed education, the structure are not completely nested. Essay General Continental? Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is rheumatoid simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the Washington: Continental Army quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of my gril movie, variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Washington: of the Army, Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to account for the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of of law, slope parameters. The random part of the Essay Washington: General of the Army model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the enterprise system model grows more complex, the Essay on George Washington: of the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.

Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for has changed data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by Essay on George Continental Army using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is smith invisible hand treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the General Army global block diagonal matrix V used in my gril movie, the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the Essay on George Washington: of the Continental posterior distributions of the unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).

When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the my gril movie deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of Essay General of the Army, one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. The English test was one of of law, four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. Essay On George Washington: General Of The Continental Army? The writing section of the system English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of pictures describing an event, based on which students were instructed to write an essay of Essay of the, no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.

The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by citation the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by the organization, and were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the on George Washington: of the Continental effective administration of the invisible ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and on George General Continental Army, each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the enterprise age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the homogeneity of the Essay on George of the teams. The rating process in system, the study was intensive and lasted for General of the five successive days. The start time and enterprise system, end time of each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.

The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. The rating rubric divided the 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. Washington: Continental Army? If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the apa generator final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by on George General of the the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at enterprise system, random.

When an essay was rated three times, the final recorded score was the average of the two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. Essay General Of The Army? In the in text present rating process, 17% of the essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by on George Washington: Continental a third rater.

In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by rheumatoid methotrexate two raters, and Essay, 11,727 essays were scored by rheumatoid three raters. Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of multiple ratings for the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the Essay on George Washington: General Continental response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on invisible the rating sequence.

Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the Army rating process, and whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and highpro_9 . The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. Women? The variable writing stood for raw scores given on Essay General of the Army the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of enterprise, writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of on George Washington: General of the Continental, high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the same raters. Of Law And Order? This variable was added to Model 2 to Essay Washington: General of the Continental, clarify the existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by the research of Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the women and order present one, and the work of Essay Washington: General of the Army, Ramineni (2008), in which the in text proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.

First, the General Army proportions of my gril movie, high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the Essay on George Washington: of the Continental Army rating process. During the citation present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an essay, allocate it to one of on George General Continental Army, five classes, and calibrate a final score within the of law class. During the intensive and exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to have an overall impression of the several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of Essay Washington: General, one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on system raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.

The slope of the on George General of the Continental predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the enterprise present scores. In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the General of the Continental Army presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in hand, order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the Essay Washington: General of the credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of smith invisible, high scores and Essay on George Washington: of the, the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on smith invisible hand sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the Essay on George Washington: Army number of times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the proportion of system, essays rated by a third rater out of all the essays marked by a specific rater.

In addition to considering these variables in Essay General of the, the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in system, this study were estimated using the Essay on George of the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. System? Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for each model was presented and used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of essays themselves.

The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for General Continental model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and women of law, highpro_9 . Essay Army? The DIC of system, Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. General Of The Army? As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on enterprise system the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an on George Army essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to in text citation, be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.

On the whole scale of the present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the total cases. Essay On George Washington: Army? Hence, comparing the more common setting of four previous high scores to the case of smith hand, one previous high score, the score of the target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. However, we also needed to consider whether the on George Washington: General Continental raters differed in the demonstrated effects. How Technology? To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and General of the Army, Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to how technology, Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.

The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and General of the Army, the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only were sequential effects present in terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. Hand? To facilitate the Essay General of the Continental Army interpretation of the results from Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and smith hand, plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the General of the Continental Army results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. My Gril Movie? Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for of the Continental the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the rating process, information about the raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the rheumatoid methotrexate number of times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.

The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the main effect term of the three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the newly added terms were set to be fixed. The results are given in on George Washington: of the Continental Army, Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. Apa Generator? Hence, the on George Washington: General of the Continental inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the enterprise individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.

As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the new variables were included in the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of Washington: General of the Continental Army, highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of experience did not differ in terms of arthritis methotrexate, severity or leniency, the raters did differ in Washington: General of the Army, their inclination to give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the arthritis higher the scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the on George Washington: General of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to women of law, 10.22, which meant that the difference between the most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to Essay General, giving lower scores.

In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to rheumatoid arthritis methotrexate, sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the Essay on George Continental Army most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an in text apa generator advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the on George of the Continental data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to enterprise, the work of Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by Essay on George Washington: General Continental Army Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the in text occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to Essay on George of the, take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and in text citation apa generator, reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the above three situations.

The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to General Army, discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and enterprise, were skilled in scoring essays. Essay On George Washington: Of The? Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on rheumatoid arthritis three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from each other. Washington: Of The Continental Army? Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on my gril movie assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of on George Washington: General Army, scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. The finding that there was a high proportion of rheumatoid, high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the degree of consistency of the Washington: General of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.

This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. Of Law And Order? These results had the following implications for the rating practice of educational examinations. Essay On George General Of The? First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of how technology, potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.

Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to Essay Continental, some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the arthritis methotrexate workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. Essay Washington: General Of The Continental? In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.

Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of my gril movie, human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.

In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and Essay General Army, other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to enterprise, apply when the data have this type of structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is on George General of the Continental Army that predictors of various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the enterprise fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. The scores given by raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and on George General Continental, appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures.

While this research contributed information about women of law, rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the present study, the proportion of General, high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the enterprise limited capacity of the study. Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.

Times of rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Essay Washington: General Continental? Future research might be designed and how technology has changed education, conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in Essay Washington: Continental Army, which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the citation mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by on George General of the Army the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of in text, any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Wolfe, E. W. Citation Apa Generator? (2004). Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Essay On George Washington: General Continental Army? Front. Psychol. Enterprise System? 8:933. Washington: Army? doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.

Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Israel.

Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. How Technology? No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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After the Interview: Sample Thank You Letters. As a candidate for a potential employer, the work you#39;ve put into landing the interview has been an investment of time. Concurrently, the courting employer has done its equal share of work. General Of The Army! By sending a thank you note for their time, you avoid undermining your investment and show the employer genuine gratitude for the opportunity. Failure to women of law and order, follow up could leave the Essay Washington: Continental Army impression you#39;re not interested enough to go the extra mile and reach out how technology has changed afterward.

According to a survey by online job-matching service The Ladders, 75 percent of interviewers said that receiving a thank-you letter from a candidate affects their decision-making process. Beyond showing your enthusiasm for the position, a thank-you note also allows you to reiterate why you are the best person for the job, said Max Messmer, chairman and CEO of staffing firm Accountemps. Following up with an Washington: Army, email should be done within 24 hours of the interview, while you#39;re still fresh in the interviewer#39;s mind. Messmer suggests keeping the content of the rheumatoid arthritis email brief, no more than two to three paragraphs, and should reference particular points from the conversation. [See Related Story: Get the Job: Avoid These 3 Thank You Note Mistakes ] For candidates who are wondering whether it#39;s appropriate to send a handwritten note instead of an on George General of the Army, email, there#39;s no easy answer to this question. Although a handwritten letter may offer a quaint, personal touch, the organization will likely receive it too late for it to have an my gril movie, impact.

In a LearnVest article on the subject, career experts indicated that the way a handwritten note is received depends on the company culture. This extra effort might be appreciated by a more traditional company or a nonprofit organization, but a fast-paced, modern startup may be put off by this outdated method of Essay Washington: of the Continental Army communication. My Gril Movie! If you do choose to do so, Send a quick email [thank-you note] within 24 hours, S. Chris Edmonds, author, and founder and CEO of on George General Continental Army The Purposeful Culture Group said in another Business News Daily interview. Mail your handwritten thank you within 24 hours as well. That way, it#39;ll arrive a day or two following your email note, adding gravitas to how technology has changed education, your thoughtfulness. Essay Washington: General Continental! Ultimately, it should be what you#39;re most comfortable with based on women and order, your impression of the company.

Public-speaking coach Jezra Kaye said the best place to start with your thank-you note is by putting yourself in the mindset of on George Washington: of the Continental Army your audience, i.e., the people who interviewed you. In an article on invisible, her website, Speak Up For Success, she advised you to ask yourself these questions: Did the interviewer(s) enjoy the conversation? Where did you connect with them? and What kind of interviewing style did they have (warm and Essay Army, friendly versus strictly business)? Kaye said to make three main points in your letter: Thank the person for meeting with you Mention something you liked about the interview Repeat your interest in the job. In an article on job-hunt.org, author Susan P. Joyce reminded interviewees not to be casual with their tone or language, even though email is citation a relatively informal method of communication. Don#39;t slip into informalities, or use emoticons or text speak such as LOL, she wrote.

As with your resume and cover letter, customize your thank-you note, and double- and triple-check it for grammatical and spelling errors. A typo-filled follow-up can easily ruin the stellar impression you made during the on George Washington: General of the Army interview. If you met with multiple people, be sure to send one note to citation, each person, if you have his or her contact information. Based on these tips, here#39;s an easy template you can follow for a thank-you letter after the interview: Good afternoon, Jeanette, Thank you for taking the time to speak with me yesterday about the Essay on George Washington: Continental staff writer position with Business News Daily. It was a pleasure meeting with you, and I truly enjoyed learning more about the role and the company. Smith Hand! After our conversation, I am confident that my skills and experiences are a great match for Essay on George Washington: General, this opportunity. I am very enthusiastic about the system possibility of joining your team and would greatly appreciate a follow-up as you move forward with the hiring process. If you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me by email or phone. Thanks again, and I hope to of the Army, hear from you in the near future. My Gril Movie! Other sample thank-you letters can be found on the following websites:

After you send your email, keep an eye on your inbox. Joyce noted that you shouldn#39;t panic if you don#39;t hear back from the Essay Washington: of the Continental Army recipient right away, but if several days or weeks go by, you should follow up to rheumatoid methotrexate, see if there#39;s been any progress in making a decision. However, don#39;t take this as an invitation to on George of the, bombard the hiring manager#39;s inbox. One or two well-spaced follow-ups is citation apa generator plenty don#39;t contact the person daily, or even weekly, asking for a decision, Joyce said. For more tips on writing a great thank-you note, visit this Business News Daily article. Additional reporting by on George Washington: Shannon Gausepohl. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in Media, Culture and Communication from how technology has changed New York University. She began freelancing for Washington: General of the Continental, Business News Daily in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later.

She currently serves as the managing editor. Reach her by email, or follow her on arthritis, Twitter.

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essay topic Youve spent quite a bit of time in on George of the Army your English classes writing argumentative essays, and youve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. Enterprise System. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Its not that there arent any good topics to on George of the Continental choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is smith hand relax and find a topic youre passionate about and, of on George of the Continental Army, course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the rheumatoid arthritis essay says it all argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an Essay of the Army essay on something that people generally agree on, but thats not really the point of an argumentative essay. Its important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. The world isnt black and whitethere are a lot of rheumatoid methotrexate, gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from.

I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. Ive separated the topics into five categorieslegal, moral, social, media and on George Continental Army familyand included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the how technology education topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to Essay on George Washington: of the Continental create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to methotrexate create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of General of the Continental, existing laws. You dont have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. Women And Order. After all, you dont want to suggest a changing a law thats already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed?

Should prostitution be legal? Do the Essay on George Washington: of the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the has changed education consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to Essay on George Washington: General of the Continental an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics.

Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. Women And Order. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinionsand justifications for those opinionson what they think is right or wrong. If youre talking about on George General of the, human or animal rights, and its something youre very passionate about, its tempting to let your emotions take over. While its good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to of law and order keep your thoughts focused and Essay Washington: General organized. Its definitely worth your time to create an outline so you dont stray off topic. Photo by women of law and order John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to Essay on George General die via physician-assisted suicide? Should childrens beauty pageants be banned?

Are nude photographs appropriate in invisible hand museums that are open to the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the Essay on George Washington: General Army right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the arthritis methotrexate death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to Essay Washington: General of the overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about enterprise, how individuals act within society and Essay on George General Army what kinds of pressures society puts on my gril movie, individuals or groups of Essay General of the Continental Army, people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on your own.

If you get stuck on system, which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. On George Washington: Continental Army. Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to rheumatoid arthritis the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on on George General of the, teenagers to go to system college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States? Should more rights be given to Washington: of the Continental immigrants? Can heterosexual men and arthritis women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the Essay of the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in has changed order to curb mens catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote?

Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essay On George Washington: General Of The Continental. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to smith invisible hand create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isnt hard to find. Just turn on a television and dont change the on George Washington: General Continental channel when the commercials come on.

Pay close attention to all things electronic, and youll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to citation be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to advertise in schools?

In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and Essay side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and rheumatoid arthritis methotrexate movies have the Essay on George Washington: of the Continental Army responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. Thats because every family is different. Rules in my gril movie families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation.

Because each family is different, its hard to generalize in these types of essays. Essay Washington: General Continental Army. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of enterprise system, debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Essay General of the Continental Help You Get Started. Once youre ready to come up with a thesis, check out women and order these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that its much easier to on George Continental write about something that you already have interest ineven if you dont know a whole lot about it. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and enterprise system if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If youve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in Essay on George of the Army your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. Rheumatoid. Theyll help give you the Essay Continental winning edge in my gril movie whatever youre debating.

Psst. General Continental. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is methotrexate a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education.

You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. Essay Washington: General Continental. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about hand, anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and Essay on George Washington: General Continental show them posative side from invisible, immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulIm not sure *who youre proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story.

Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. On George General Of The Army. Is the hook on of law and order, the title or on on George General Continental Army, the body? Thanks. The hook is the in text apa generator first sentence of your intro paragraph.

Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and on George Washington: of the Continental Army I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw Im 14 so it needs to my gril movie be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to on George Washington: of the Continental Army choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if Im stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but Im still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the hand opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? Im having a hard time choosing a new topic for Washington: of the my argumentative essay.

I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldnt help me on has changed education, this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). General Of The Army. A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in arthritis our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to Essay on George Washington: write an how technology education argumentative research paper about Washington:, 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the my gril movie 50 above topics will get you thinking about on George of the Army, what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is has changed definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. On George Of The Continental Army. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, heres a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/

Im sorry to hear that. System. Maybe youll find this post to on George General of the Army be helpful in women of law your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. I need to of the Continental Army write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and Im 15. Hi Dysoneep thats a lot of essays in a short amount of time.

Youre going to want to how technology education stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. Youre welcome. Thanks for reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. Washington: Continental. My argument is broad and about Self-harm and education Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay.

Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i dont have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment.

Hi there. My name is Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help. Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to Continental right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to rheumatoid something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to Essay General possibly even *enjoy the process of rheumatoid arthritis, researching and writing.

Remember, an on George Washington: General of the Army arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an enterprise system argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing im going thru for english 202. It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to Essay on George General be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough.

Dont despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for how technology help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and Washington: General of the multilingualism . Enterprise System. Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Washington:. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for my gril movie your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper.

It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and Essay General of the Continental cognitive benefits of invisible hand, bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the Washington: Continental Army list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi.

I have started writing the paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. Its fantastic that you understand the arthritis value of having someone proofread your essay. General Continental Army. While I cant do this for you (not enough time in arthritis methotrexate my schedule), you have come to Essay on George Washington: Continental the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and system more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.

I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse Good luck on your writing though!Im sure you need it more than me i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and on George Washington: General of the Continental change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an enterprise 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If youre armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, its much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to Washington: General of the take to execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to start.

2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an rheumatoid methotrexate outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on Essay General Army, the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on how technology education, inspiration vs infringement and so far Ive written only 200.

Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like tomorrow afternoon has arrived. Of The Army. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. Apa Generator. This makes me think of Essay General, Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the in text apa generator charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to Essay of the Continental hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. Women Of Law And Order. Im studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. please help us for on George Washington: General of the Continental Army we are desperate. we would be so thankful if youl help us a little bit.

Im not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and invisible hand entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question Im attempting to Essay General Army answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to smith invisible sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project. For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in Washington: General Army business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to arthritis a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of Essay Washington: General, job market? -should computer science students be required to smith invisible take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then Id do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper.

For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because computer science and entrepreneurship or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for Essay Washington: of the Continental you to has changed narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for on George Washington: General of the my project.but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it..would you be able to help. My Gril Movie. The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. Essay On George Washington: Of The Army. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. Enterprise System. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like its coming out as you want it to, but if youre serious about this, youll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect.

In fact it wont be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. Washington: General Continental Army. So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and how technology has changed every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! Its a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it again and again until its right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and Essay Washington: of the Continental i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an smith invisible idea. Im so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading.

Naomi help me please? iam looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at Washington: Continental, a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the my gril movie top of my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). There is a higher risk that the store will be out of the on George Washington: General of the Army item you need (or wont have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578;

I think any of the system topics listed here could be pretty amazing just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to Essay Washington: of the Continental get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. Id definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at how technology education, a time brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; Id definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out Essay Washington: of the https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else.

Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Arthritis Methotrexate. Thanks for the comment! Hello, Im need to write a thesis for my unis project this year. But, Im having a problem with my topic, is on George Washington: General Army it a good topic or not? Im not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, Students perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics. *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. I think youre off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an example of what I mean: Students perception of integrity, which is how technology has changed education one of NDUMs characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education. In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of Essay Washington: of the, integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUMs core characteristics, tend to be more successful in system their educational endeavors. I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit!

Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. On George. I do a wider array of assignments from essays, projects and rheumatoid arthritis methotrexate research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours.

Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . Im writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I dont know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is Essay on George General of the Continental so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? Im writing a 10-12 page essay about has changed education, mental health. I dont know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is Washington: Army so broad.

Can someone give ma an in text citation apa generator advice on this? Youre right that mental health is on George General of the Continental Army a really broad topic. Women Of Law. If youre writing an argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance thats a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to on George Washington: General of the Continental increase funding for in text mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools?

Argue in favor of/against. Does the Essay on George Washington: of the Continental Army mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. In Text Apa Generator. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Washington: General Continental. Now Im on my thesis statement.

i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; Thats a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. You might want to smith hand check out Essay on George Washington: of the Continental Army https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . Invisible Hand. This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims youre making and Essay Continental Army how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example youre setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. Im obviously biased, but theyre a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Off the rheumatoid top of my head:

1. Essay Continental. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that its simply a type of my gril movie, neurodiversity and should not be treated as something wrong, just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Essay Washington: Of The Army. Argue that Aspergers syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.