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Bariatric Surgery and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Swedish Obese Subjects. Lena M.S. Carlsson, M.D., Ph.D., Markku Peltonen, Ph.D., Sofie Ahlin, M.D., Asa Anveden, M.D., Claude Bouchard, Ph.D., Bjorn Carlsson, M.D., Ph.D., Peter Jacobson, M.D., Ph.D., Hans Lonroth, M.D., Ph.D., Cristina Maglio, M.D., Ingmar Naslund, M.D., Ph.D., Carlo Pirazzi, M.D., Stefano Romeo, M.D., Ph.D., Kajsa Sjoholm, Ph.D., Elisabeth Sjostrom, M.D., Hans Wedel, Ph.D., Per-Arne Svensson, Ph.D., and Lars Sjostrom, M.D., Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2012; 367:695-704 August 23, 2012 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112082. In China? Comments open through August 29, 2012. Weight loss protects against type 2 diabetes but is hard to 5 precepts maintain with behavioral modification alone. In an analysis of data from a nonrandomized, prospective, controlled study, we examined the Essay effects of bariatric surgery on jonah lamu the prevention of on Energy in China, type 2 diabetes.

In this analysis, we included 1658 patients who underwent bariatric surgery and 1771 obese matched controls (with matching performed on buddha a group, rather than individual, level). None of the in China participants had diabetes at baseline. Buddha? Patients in the bariatric-surgery cohort underwent banding (19%), vertical banded gastroplasty (69%), or gastric bypass (12%); nonrandomized, matched, prospective controls received usual care. Participants were 37 to 60 years of age, and the body-mass index (BMI; the weight in Essay in China, kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34 or more in men and 38 or more in women. This analysis focused on the rate of incident type 2 diabetes, which was a prespecified secondary end point in jonah lamu, the main study. At the time of Essay on Energy, this analysis (January 1, 2012), participants had been followed for up to 15 years.

Despite matching, some baseline characteristics differed significantly between the groups; the baseline body weight was higher and risk factors were more pronounced in the bariatric-surgery group than in the control group. Cobain About Donald? At 15 years, 36.2% of the original participants had dropped out of the Crisis in China study, and does patronage, 30.9% had not yet reached the time for their 15-year follow-up examination. During the follow-up period, type 2 diabetes developed in 392 participants in the control group and in 110 in the bariatric-surgery group, corresponding to on Energy in China incidence rates of cobain quotes donald, 28.4 cases per 1000 person-years and 6.8 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio with bariatric surgery, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.13 to Crisis 0.21; P0.001). Buddha 5 Precepts? The effect of bariatric surgery was influenced by on Energy Crisis the presence or absence of 5 precepts, impaired fasting glucose (P=0.002 for on Energy Crisis in China the interaction) but not by BMI (P=0.54). Sensitivity analyses, including end-point imputations, did not change the overall conclusions. Buddha? The postoperative mortality was 0.2%, and on Energy, 2.8% of patients who underwent bariatric surgery required reoperation within 90 days owing to complications. Bariatric surgery appears to kurt about donald be markedly more efficient than usual care in the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese persons. (Funded by Crisis the Swedish Research Council and others; number, NCT01479452.) Multiple studies have shown associations between obesity and type 2 diabetes 1-6 and between changes in body weight and incident type 2 diabetes. 7,8 It is also well established that the worldwide increase in obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. 9 Currently, 285 million people have type 2 diabetes, and this number is is soul, predicted to increase to 439 million by 2030. 10. On Energy Crisis? Among persons in a prediabetic state, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is kurt cobain quotes donald, reduced by approximately 40 to 45% with effective lifestyle changes or drug treatment, 11-15 and the effects persist, in part, 3 to 15 years later.

16-18 Most trials of lifestyle changes and drugs for the prevention of type 2 diabetes have included moderately obese patients. However, patients with severe obesity have the highest risk of type 2 diabetes, 1,2,19,20 and in this group, bariatric surgery is currently the only treatment that typically results in large, sustained weight losses. Although many studies have examined the effect of bariatric surgery on the remission of diabetes, there appears to Crisis in China be a paucity of studies examining the effect of of gender roles, surgery on the prevention of diabetes, possibly because a long follow-up period and a control group are required. The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study assessed whether surgery can prevent diabetes. The SOS study is a nonrandomized, prospective, controlled intervention trial comparing the long-term effects of bariatric surgery with the effects of on Energy in China, usual care. We have previously shown that bariatric surgery results in long-term weight loss and reduces the about incidence of several hard end points.

21-24 In 2004, we reported positive effects of bariatric surgery with respect to the development of on Energy in China, type 2 diabetes as part of our examination of changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Buddha? 21 We now report a detailed analysis of the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on Crisis the prevention of type 2 diabetes. About? Between September 1, 1987, and on Energy in China, January 31, 2001, a total of 4047 obese persons were enrolled in the SOS intervention trial, which is still ongoing. In brief, 6905 persons participated in a matching examination that was designed to enroll a control group that had mean characteristics that were similar to those of a surgery group, and 5335 were eligible for inclusion in the study (Fig. S1 in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at Among these, 2010 participants who had chosen to undergo surgery formed the bariatric-surgery group, and a nonrandomized control group, comprising 2037 participants, was formed that was contemporaneously matched with the bariatric-surgery group on the basis of 18 matching variables (for details see the Supplementary Appendix). 21 The matching was performed in the entire SOS cohort; as reported previously, 21-24 the jonah lamu matching process unexpectedly resulted in the bariatric-surgery group having a higher mean body weight and Essay Crisis, more severe risk factors than the in islam control group. Weight changes that occurred after matching made the study groups even more divergent with respect to these factors at baseline. 21-24 The current analysis includes 1658 patients who underwent bariatric surgery and 1771 controls, all of whom did not have diabetes at baseline.

The requirement for this analysis that none of the patients have diabetes at baseline further reduced the similarity between the two groups. The cutoff date for Essay on Energy in China the analysis was January 1, 2012. The rate of about Hamlet, Hero, incident type 2 diabetes was a prespecified secondary end point of the SOS intervention trial and was analyzed according to the SOS protocol. The study groups had identical inclusion and on Energy Crisis, exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria were an jonah lamu, age of 37 to 60 years and a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 34 or more in in China, men and 38 or more in women before or at the time of the matching examination.

The exclusion criteria were those that were relevant to the participants' suitability for surgery (see the Supplementary Appendix). All the patients in the surgery and control groups entered this study with the intention of losing weight. In the bariatric-surgery group, 311 participants underwent banding, 1140 vertical banded gastroplasty, and 207 a gastric bypass procedure. What In Islam? Patients in Essay on Energy Crisis, the control group received the customary treatment for obesity at kurt cobain donald, their primary health care centers. The standard treatment for obesity in Sweden ranges from advanced lifestyle modification (including recommendations regarding eating behavior, food selection, energy intake, and physical activity) to no treatment.

According to questionnaires administered at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, 54% of the on Energy Crisis in China control group had tried to lose weight with professional guidance, and jonah lamu, 46% had not received professional guidance. Physical examinations were performed at the matching and baseline examinations and in China, after 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 15 years. Biochemical assays were performed at the matching visit, at baseline, and after 2, 10, and 15 years. From 1987 through 2009, glucose concentrations were measured in venous whole blood at the Central Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, which is accredited according to International Organization for in islam Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 15 189 standards. After 2009, venous plasma glucose was measured, and the measurements were converted to Essay on Energy Crisis those for blood glucose (for details see the Supplementary Appendix).

Participants used a validated questionnaire to rate themselves as physically active or inactive. 21,25-27 Energy intake was measured with the use of the validated SOS Food Questionnaire. 21,28. Essay Hamlet, A Tragic Hero? The study was approved by all the Essay in China relevant ethics review boards in Sweden, and jonah lamu, written or oral informed consent was obtained from all participants. The protocol, including the statistical analysis plan, is available at Essay on Energy in China,

The authors vouch for the completeness and accuracy of the data and analyses and for the fidelity of the what patronage mean study to the protocol. All the authors had access to Essay on Energy Crisis in China the raw data. None of the kurt cobain about donald trump study sponsors had any role in the interpretation of the Essay data or the writing of the manuscript. We considered a participant to buddha 5 precepts have type 2 diabetes if he or she reported the use of diabetes medication or if there was documentation of a fasting blood glucose level of 110 mg per deciliter (6.1 mmol per liter) or higher. Essay Crisis? If fasting plasma glucose was measured, the cutoff value for a diagnosis of diabetes was 126 mg per deciliter (7.0 mmol per 5 precepts liter) or higher. Essay? 29,30 Fasting glucose concentrations were measured at the time of jonah lamu, matching, at baseline, and at 2, 10, and 15 years. The study was initiated before repeated measurements were routinely used for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes; therefore, single fasting glucose determinations were used. Impaired fasting glucose was defined as a fasting blood glucose level that was at on Energy Crisis, least 90 mg per Hamlet, deciliter (5.0 mmol per Essay Crisis liter) and less than 110 mg per deciliter or a fasting plasma glucose level that was at least 100 mg per deciliter (5.6 mmol per buddha liter) and on Energy in China, less than 126 mg per deciliter.

29,30. Mean values, with standard deviations, and percents were used to does describe the baseline characteristics. Differences between treatment groups were evaluated with the use of Essay Crisis, t-tests for continuous variables and with the roles use of a logistic-regression model for dichotomous variables. Participants were followed until the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or until their last examination. Essay On Energy Crisis? Data from participants in whom type 2 diabetes did not develop during the follow-up period were therefore censored at the last follow-up examination. Because diabetes status was evaluated at discrete follow-up times, at years 2, 10, and 15, we consider the data on underlying continuous time to diabetes to be interval-censored data. Therefore, we used a discrete-time survival approach, with a complementary loglog regression model 31 to evaluate the cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes and the treatment effect of bariatric surgery.

This approach corresponds to the Cox proportional-hazards regression model when continuous time to event is observed in intervals, 31 and it provides relative-risk estimates as hazard ratios. The treatment effect in jonah lamu, the bariatric-surgery group as compared with the control group, expressed as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals, was evaluated in an unadjusted analysis with a single covariate for treatment group (surgery or control) and in an analysis that was adjusted for preselected baseline traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The proportional-hazards assumption was evaluated with the use of graphic methods (i.e., the Crisis in China loglog plot) and by testing the interaction between time and treatment. In secondary subgroup analyses, the cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes was calculated separately in various subgroups defined according to baseline factors. What In Islam? For continuous variables, this grouping was based on median baseline values. The association between risk factors and on Energy Crisis in China, the effect of bariatric surgery on buddha 5 precepts the development of diabetes was tested by including the in China corresponding interaction term (i.e., the product of the type of treatment [surgery or control] and what, the corresponding variable) in the complementary loglog proportional-hazards model. Essay On Energy Crisis? Dichotomous variables could have one of two values (e.g., male or female sex). Hamlet, Hero? For other variables, the interaction tests used the original continuous variables. We performed 19 post hoc subgroup analyses, all of which are reported in the Supplementary Appendix. P values for interaction have been corrected for Essay on Energy in China 19 multiple tests with the use of the about trump false-discovery-rate method of Benjamini and Hochberg. 32 The numbers needed to treat to prevent one diabetes event over the course of 10 years was calculated as the reciprocal of the absolute difference in risk between the bariatric-surgery group and Essay on Energy in China, the control group.

Since the rates of loss to follow-up were considerable at longer follow-up times, sensitivity analyses that were based on multiple imputation of missing outcome data were also performed (see the Supplementary Appendix). In addition, we compared the baseline characteristics and the 10-year characteristics of participants who had dropped out at 15 years with those of 5 precepts, participants who had not dropped out at Essay Crisis, 15 years. All P values are two-sided, and does, P values of less than 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. The intention-to-treat principle was applied for all the calculations. The Stata statistical package, version 12.1, was used. Baseline Characteristics, Follow-up Rate, and Weight Changes during Follow-up. The differences between the surgery group and the control group increased between the time of the matching examination (Table S1 in the Supplementary Appendix) and the time of the baseline examination ( Table 1 Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Study Participants. Crisis? ). At baseline, patients in the bariatric-surgery group weighed, on average, 6 kg more, and most of the risk factors we analyzed were more pronounced than were those in the controls ( Table 1 ). The median follow-up time was 10 years (range, 0 to 15). The rates of examples of gender roles, loss to Essay on Energy Crisis follow-up were 12.9% at 2 years and 31.2% at 10 years (see Table S2 in the Supplementary Appendix, which also provides the rates in each study group). At 15 years, the about Hamlet, A Tragic rate of loss to on Energy follow-up had increased to 36.2%; in addition, 30.9% of the participants had not yet been followed for 15 years and were therefore not eligible for buddha 5 precepts the 15-year analysis (Table S2 in the Supplementary Appendix). Crisis? This resulted in an unadjusted 15-year participation rate of only Essay about Hamlet, A Tragic 32.9%. After adjustment for follow-up of less than 15 years and for death, the 15-year participation rate was 53.5%.

Because of the low participation rates, particularly at 15 years, we performed sensitivity analyses (see below). In the bariatric-surgery group, participants had an average maximal weight loss of 31 kg after 1 year. Partial weight regain then occurred, and the average weight loss from baseline values at 10 years and 15 years was approximately 20 kg. The mean weight changes in Crisis in China, the control group never exceeded 3 kg in weight gain or weight loss (Fig. S2 in the Supplementary Appendix). The mean weight change at year 2 among control participants who had tried to lose weight with professional help (54% of the control subjects) was a loss of 0.6 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 0.0), as compared with a gain of 1.4 kg (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0) among participants who had not received help (P0.001). This difference in weight change disappeared after longer follow-up (Fig.

S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). At all the time points we examined, the weight loss was larger after gastric bypass than after banding or vertical banded gastroplasty (Fig. S3 in what does patronage, the Supplementary Appendix). During the Essay on Energy in China follow-up period, type 2 diabetes developed in 392 patients in the control group and 110 in Hamlet, A Tragic Hero, the bariatric-surgery group ( Figure 1A Figure 1 Cumulative Incidence of Essay on Energy Crisis, Type 2 Diabetes. Panel A shows the jonah lamu KaplanMeier unadjusted estimates of the on Energy Crisis in China cumulative incidence of examples roles, type 2 diabetes in Essay in China, the bariatric-surgery group and in islam, the control group.

The light shading represents the on Energy Crisis in China 95% confidence interval. The adjusted hazard ratio with bariatric surgery was 0.17 (95% confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.21). Panel B shows the KaplanMeier unadjusted estimates of the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subgroups defined in the control group according to what does patronage receipt or no receipt of professional guidance to lose weight and in the surgery group according to the method of bariatric surgery: gastric banding, vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), or gastric bypass (GBP). ), corresponding to on Energy Crisis in China incidence rates of roles, 28.4 cases (95% CI, 25.7 to 31.3) per on Energy 1000 person-years and 6.8 (95% CI, 5.7 to 8.3) per jonah lamu 1000 person-years, respectively (P0.001), on Essay on Energy Crisis the basis of observed 15-year data. The unadjusted hazard ratio with surgery was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.27; P0.001) ( Figure 1A ). After multivariable adjustments, the hazard ratio was 0.17 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.21; P0.001) ( Table 2 Table 2 Adjusted Hazard Ratios for the Incidence of Diabetes. ). In addition to treatment group (surgery or control), the strongest univariable predictors of diabetes outcome were baseline blood glucose concentration and the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (Table S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). The characteristics at baseline and at 10 years within each study group were similar among participants who remained in the study for 15 years and examples of gender roles, those who dropped out before the 15-year assessment (Tables S4 and S5 in the Supplementary Appendix).

Given the Essay Crisis low participation rate and the strong treatment effect at patronage, 15 years, we also examined the effects of surgery at other follow-up times (Table S6 in the Supplementary Appendix). The treatment effects on on Energy Crisis in China the incidence of type 2 diabetes were at least as strong after 2 years and 10 years of follow-up as after 15 years. Finally, analyses of the treatment effects calculated from observed-plus-imputed outcome data at 10 years and at 15 years yielded relative effects of diabetes treatment (hazard ratio with bariatric surgery, 0.16 and 0.21, respectively) that were similar to those calculated on the basis of observed data only (hazard ratio, 0.16 and 0.22, respectively) (Table S6 in jonah lamu, the Supplementary Appendix). Essay Crisis? In the control group, there was no difference in the incidence of type 2 diabetes between participants who had tried to lose weight with professional guidance and those who had not received professional guidance (hazard ratio with professional guidance, 0.89; P=0.20) ( Figure 1B ). All types of does, bariatric surgery were associated with a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes ( Figure 1B ). The hazard ratio with gastric bypass was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.27; P0.001), but the analysis was based on only six cases of diabetes among the Essay on Energy Crisis 207 subjects. The hazard ratios with banding (0.20; 95% CI, 0.13 to cobain quotes about trump 0.32; P0.001) and vertical banded gastroplasty (0.25; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.31; P0.001) did not differ significantly from the hazard ratio with gastric bypass.

Interactions between risk factors and on Energy Crisis, treatment are shown in Table S7 in the Supplementary Appendix. The effect of bariatric surgery on the incidence of type 2 diabetes was highly significant in all subgroups, but the interaction between risk factors at baseline and treatment was significant only in the subgroups defined according to presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (P=0.002 for the interaction), fasting blood glucose level (P=0.007), fasting serum insulin concentration (P=0.007), and value for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.001). The interaction between treatment and BMI with respect to the incidence of diabetes was not significant (P=0.55). The risk of type 2 diabetes and does patronage, the relative preventive effect of bariatric surgery increased with increasing baseline glucose and insulin levels ( Figure 2A and 2B Figure 2 Interaction between Selected Risk Factors and Treatment. The incidence of type 2 diabetes per in China 1000 person-years in is soul, the bariatric-surgery and control groups is shown according to deciles of baseline blood glucose levels (Panel A), serum insulin levels (Panel B), and body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) (Panel C). In Panel A, P=0.002 for the interaction of treatment with the presence or absence of Crisis, impaired fasting glucose. All incidence rates are adjusted for kurt cobain about donald trump age and sex. The P values for interaction are unadjusted. For complete information on on Energy Crisis all calculated P values for buddha interaction, see Table S7 in the Supplementary Appendix. To convert the values for glucose to Essay in China millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.5551.

I bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. ), whereas baseline BMI was not related to the incidence of type 2 diabetes or the what does patronage preventive effect of surgery ( Figure 2C ). In China? The number needed to treat to prevent one diabetes event was low in all the subgroups, reflecting the strong treatment effect of bariatric surgery. In the jonah lamu subgroup defined according to Essay on Energy the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose, the cobain quotes donald number needed to treat was 1.3 (Table S7 in the Supplementary Appendix). Postoperative mortality and other complications of bariatric surgery over the first 90 days are reported in Table 3 Table 3 Adverse Events during the First 90 Days after Surgery among the 1658 Participants in Essay in China, the Bariatric-Surgery Group. . A total of 3 patients (0.2%) died within 90 days after surgery, and at least one complication was reported in 245 patients (14.8%). In 46 patients (2.8%), the complications were serious enough to require a reoperation. A total of 89.0% of the operations were undertaken with open surgery. The results of this analysis show that bariatric surgery, as compared with usual care, reduces the long-term incidence of type 2 diabetes by 78% in obese patients. This risk reduction was achieved despite a less favorable risk profile in examples roles, the surgery group at baseline. Among patients with impaired fasting glucose, bariatric surgery reduced the risk by 87%, and type 2 diabetes did not develop in approximately 10 of Essay Crisis, 13 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery. This risk reduction is at what does patronage mean, least twice as large as that observed with lifestyle interventions in moderately obese, prediabetic persons. 16-18 The results are consistent with our preliminary observations published in 2004. 21 Guidelines from the International Diabetes Federation, 33 the Essay Crisis in China American Diabetes Association, 29 and other organizations 34,35 recognize bariatric surgery as an option for obese patients who have type 2 diabetes but have not suggested bariatric surgery for the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

The rate of remission of cobain trump, type 2 diabetes is higher after gastric bypass than after banding, 36 and Crisis, this may be related to greater weight loss after gastric bypass or to effects that are independent of weight loss. 37 In our study, the rate of incident type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass was not significantly lower than the rate after banding or vertical banded gastroplasty. However, the SOS study was not powered to detect such differences. Obese patients with impaired fasting glucose, as compared with obese persons with normal fasting glucose levels, have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (incidence among patients receiving usual care, 91 cases per 1000 person-years vs. 20 cases per 1000 person-years) and appear to have a greater benefit from bariatric surgery (P=0.002 for the interaction). In contrast, the is soul in islam incidence of type 2 diabetes and the preventive effect of bariatric surgery were similar among participants with a BMI at or below the median of 40.8 and those with a BMI above the median. We previously observed that baseline BMI does not predict a benefit from bariatric surgery with respect to death, 22 cancer, 23 myocardial infarction, 24 or stroke, 24 and the current results suggest that baseline BMI does not predict a benefit of bariatric surgery with respect to in China incident type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is kurt about, a progressive disease, and the ability to produce insulin declines with time. 38 Improvement of on Energy Crisis in China, insulin sensitivity by means of weight loss may not be enough to induce the remission of diabetes if the destruction of beta cells is advanced, and the diabetes remission rate is inversely related to the duration of diabetes at what, the time of Essay in China, bariatric surgery.

39 This observation, together with the clear and long-term decrease in the rate of incident type 2 diabetes among participants with prediabetes, also suggests that disturbances of about A Tragic, glucose metabolism might be treated early, even before type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. The SOS study has certain limitations. First, it was not a randomized study, owing to ethical reasons related to the high postoperative mortality associated with bariatric surgery in the 1980s. Second, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was based on fasting glucose levels and self-reported use of diabetes medication. Essay Crisis? Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes that was based on results of an oral glucose-tolerance test or on glycated hemoglobin levels might have given slightly different results if, for example, there were group differences in buddha, the use of diabetes medication for the prevention of diabetes. The low rate of participation at 15 years is also a limitation, but sensitivity analyses, including end-point imputations, indicate that our reported results are valid. Ideally, our post hoc findings should be confirmed by prospective, controlled trials that are designed to study treatment effects on hard end points in predefined subgroups. Our data indicate that bariatric surgery has a preventive effect on incident type 2 diabetes, particularly in participants with impaired fasting glucose. Essay On Energy Crisis? In contrast, baseline BMI did not influence the preventive effect of about Hamlet,, bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes, implying that anthropometric data are not useful in the selection of candidates for bariatric surgery, whereas data on impaired fasting glucose may be helpful. Supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council (K2012-55X-22082-01-3, K2010-55X-11285-13, K2008-65x-20753-01-4), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research to Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, the Swedish federal government under the LUA/ALF agreement concerning research and education of Crisis in China, doctors, the VINNOVA-VINNMER program, and the Wenner-Gren Foundations. The SOS study has previously been supported by roles grants to one of the Essay on Energy authors from HoffmannLa Roche, AstraZeneca, Cederroth, Sanofi-Aventis, and Johnson Johnson.

Dr. Lena Carlsson reports receiving consulting fees from AstraZeneca and owning stock in Sahltech; Dr. Bouchard, receiving consulting fees from New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center, Pathway Genomics, Weight Watchers, and Nike, payment for manuscript preparation from Elsevier and Hamlet,, Wiley-Blackwell, royalties from Human Kinetics and Informa Healthcare, honoraria from NaturALPHA, and reimbursement for travel expenses from European College of Sports Sciences, Nordic Physiotherapy, Wingate Congress, and Euro Sci Open Forum; Dr. Bjorn Carlsson, being employed by and owning stock in AstraZeneca; Dr. Sjoholm, owning stock in Pfizer; Dr. Wedel, receiving consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Roche, and Novartis; and Dr.

Lars Sjostrom, serving as a member of the board of Lenimen, receiving lecture fees from AstraZeneca and on Energy, Johnson Johnson, and providing an expert statement on cobain quotes about trump drug effects and Essay, weight-loss effects on obesity for quotes about donald trump AstraZeneca. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at Essay? Drs. Examples Of Gender Roles? Carlsson and Essay on Energy Crisis in China, Peltonen contributed equally to this article. We thank the staff members at 480 primary health care centers and 25 surgical departments in is soul in islam, Sweden that participated in the study; and Gerd Bergmark, Christina Torefalk and Lisbeth Eriksson for Essay on Energy Crisis administrative support. From the Institutes of Medicine (L.M.S.C., M.P., S.A., A.A., B.C., P.J., C.M., C.P., S.R., K.S., E.S., P.-A.S., L.S.) and Surgery (H.L.), Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, and the Nordic School of Public Health (H.W.), Gothenburg, and the Department of Surgery, University Hospital, Orebro (I.N.) all in Sweden; the Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki (M.P.); and Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge (C.B.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Lars Sjostrom at the SOS Secretariat, Vita Straket 15, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden, or at [email protected]

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Rubino F , Kaplan LM , Schauer PR , Cummings DE . The Diabetes Surgery Summit consensus conference: recommendations for the evaluation and use of gastrointestinal surgery to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg 2010;251:399-405. Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, et al. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 2009;122(3):248.e5-256.e5. Rubino F , Schauer PR , Kaplan LM , Cummings DE . In China? Metabolic surgery to treat type 2 diabetes: clinical outcomes and mechanisms of does patronage mean, action.

Annu Rev Med 2010;61:393-411. Essay On Energy Crisis In China? Marchetti P , Dotta F , Lauro D , Purrello F . An overview of pancreatic beta-cell defects in human type 2 diabetes: implications for treatment. Regul Pept 2008;146:4-11. Hall TC , Pellen MG , Sedman PC , Jain PK . Preoperative factors predicting remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for Essay Hamlet, A Tragic Hero obesity. Obes Surg 2010;20:1245-1250. Leigh Perreault. . 2018. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes and Exercise, 17-29. Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Carel W. le Roux, Alexander Kokkinos. . (2017) The role of bariatric surgery to treat diabetes: current challenges and on Energy in China, perspectives. BMC Endocrine Disorders 17 :1. Buddha? Adams, Ted D., Davidson, Lance E., Litwin, Sheldon E., Kim, Jaewhan, Kolotkin, Ronette L., Nanjee, M. Nazeem, Gutierrez, Jonathan M., Frogley, Sara J., Ibele, Anna R., Brinton, Eliot A., Hopkins, Paul N., McKinlay, Rodrick, Simper, Steven C., Hunt, Steven C., . . (2017) Weight and Metabolic Outcomes 12 Years after Gastric Bypass. New England Journal of Medicine 377 :12, 1143-1155. Christian S. Gobl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer. . (2017) Assessment of glucose regulation in pregnancy after gastric bypass surgery.

Diabetologia 27 . Selena E Ortiz, Ichiro Kawachi, Angie M Boyce. . (2017) The medicalization of obesity, bariatric surgery, and population health. Health:: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 21 :5, 498-518. Essay On Energy In China? Tulika Arora, Florian Seyfried, Neil G Docherty, Valentina Tremaroli, Carel W le Roux, Rosie Perkins, Fredrik Backhed. Kurt Cobain Quotes? . (2017) Diabetes-associated microbiota in fa/fa rats is modified by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The ISME Journal 11 :9, 2035-2046. , Frank Benedix, Thomas Krause, Daniela Adolf, Stefanie Wolff, Hans Lippert, Thomas Manger, Christine Stroh. . (2017) Perioperative Course, Weight Loss and Resolution of Essay on Energy Crisis in China, Comorbidities After Primary Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity: Are There Differences Between Adolescents and Adults?. Obesity Surgery 27 :9, 2388-2397. G. What Patronage Mean? Rudofsky, P. Vogelbach. . On Energy? (2017) Metabolische Chirurgie zur Pravention des Typ-2-Diabetes.

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Health Services and Delivery Research 4 :17, 1-120. J. Hunter Mehaffey, Florence E. Turrentine, Michael S. Miller, Bruce D. Schirmer, Peter T. On Energy? Hallowell. . (2016) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 10-year follow-up: the found population. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 12 :4, 778-782. Kajsa Sjoholm, Elisabeth Sjostrom, Lena M.S. Carlsson, Markku Peltonen. Jonah Lamu? . Crisis? (2016) Weight ChangeAdjusted Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery on Glucose Metabolism: 2- and cobain trump, 10-Year Results From the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study. Diabetes Care 39 :4, 625-631. Pengzhou Li, Liyong Zhu, Guohui Wang, Xiangwu Yang, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu. . Crisis In China? (2016) The role of jonah lamu, foregut exclusion in the deterioration of glucose and Crisis in China, lipid metabolism induced by a high-fat diet. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 114 , 83-92. What? Maher El Chaar, Jill Stoltzfus, Leonardo Claros, Tara Wasylik. In China? . (2016) IV Acetaminophen Results in Lower Hospital Costs and Emergency Room Visits Following Bariatric Surgery: a Double-Blind, Prospective, Randomized Trial in a Single Accredited Bariatric Center. Journal of does mean, Gastrointestinal Surgery 20 :4, 715-724.

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Der Chirurg 85 :4, 334-341. Marco Raffaelli, Caterina Guidone, Cosimo Callari, Amerigo Iaconelli, Rocco Bellantone, Geltrude Mingrone. . (2014) Effect of Gastric Bypass Versus Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Annals of Surgery 259 :4, 694-699. W. Timothy Garvey, Donna H. Ryan, Robert Henry, Nancy J.V. Bohannon, Hermann Toplak, Michael Schwiers, Barbara Troupin, Wesley W. Day. . 5 Precepts? (2014) Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Subjects With Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Treated With Phentermine and Essay, Topiramate Extended Release.

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Diabetes Care 37 :3, 780-788. John M. Wentworth, Tamishta Hensman, Julie Playfair, Cheryl Laurie, Matthew E. Essay On Energy In China? Ritchie, Wendy A. Brown, Stewart Skinner, Jonathan E. Shaw, Paul E. OBrien. . (2014) Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and progression from impaired fasting glucose to diabetes. In Islam? Diabetologia 57 :3, 463-468. David R Janero. . Essay On Energy Crisis? (2014) Synthetic agents in the context of metabolic/bariatric surgery: expanding the examples roles scope and impact of diabetes drug discovery. Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 9 :3, 221-228.

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International Journal of Obesity 38 :3, 325-333. Christos Karefylakis, Ingmar Naslund, David Edholm, Magnus Sundbom, F. Anders Karlsson, Eva Rask. . (2014) Vitamin D Status 10 Years After Primary Gastric Bypass: Gravely High Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D and Raised PTH Levels. Obesity Surgery 24 :3, 343-348. Steven E Kahn, Mark E Cooper, Stefano Del Prato. . (2014) Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future. The Lancet 383 :9922, 1068-1083. Lars Sjostrom. . 2014. Jonah Lamu? Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS). Handbook of Obesity Volume 2, 385-402.

J. Schirra, B. Goke. . On Energy Crisis? (2014) GLP-1--A Candidate Humoral Mediator for Glucose Control After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Kurt About? Diabetes 63 :2, 387-389. J. Doyle, S. Colville, P. Brown, D. Christie. . (2014) For the cases we've had I don't think anybody has had enormous confidence - Exploring Uncertainty in adolescent bariatric teams: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Clinical Obesity 4 :1, 45-52. David E Cummings, Ricardo V Cohen. . Essay On Energy Crisis In China? (2014) Beyond BMI: the need for of gender roles new guidelines governing the use of bariatric and metabolic surgery. The Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology 2 :2, 175-181. Young Min Cho. . (2014) A Gut Feeling to Cure Diabetes: Potential Mechanisms of on Energy, Diabetes Remission after Bariatric Surgery. Diabetes Metabolism Journal 38 :6, 406. Robert F. Kushner. . (2014) Weight Loss Strategies for Treatment of Obesity.

Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 56 :4, 465-472. MarcEmmanuel Dumas, James Kinross, Jeremy K. Jonah Lamu? Nicholson. . (2014) Metabolic Phenotyping and Systems Biology Approaches to Understanding Metabolic Syndrome and on Energy Crisis, Fatty Liver Disease. What Is Soul In Islam? Gastroenterology 146 :1, 46-62. Essay In China? Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park. . (2014) The Effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Diabetic Patients. The Journal of Korean Diabetes 15 :3, 129. Guilherme M. Campos, Martynas Ziemelis, Rodis Paparodis, Muhammed Ahmed, Dawn Belt Davis. . (2014) Laparoscopic reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: Technique and utility for what does mean treatment of endocrine complications. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 10 :1, 36-43. M. Rodolfo Lahsen. . (2014) Sindrome metabolico y diabetes.

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Carlsson. . (2013) Alcohol consumption and alcohol problems after bariatric surgery in the swedish obese subjects study. Obesity 21 :12, 2444-2451. Gina N. Farinholt, Aaron D. Carr, Eun Jin Chang, Mohamed R. Ali. . Essay About Hamlet, A Tragic Hero? (2013) A call to arms: obese men with more severe comorbid disease and underutilization of bariatric operations. Surgical Endoscopy 27 :12, 4556-4563. M. Troseid, T. K. Nestvold, K. Rudi, H. Thoresen, E. W. Nielsen, K. T. On Energy Crisis In China? Lappegard. . In Islam? (2013) Plasma Lipopolysaccharide Is Closely Associated With Glycemic Control and Abdominal Obesity: Evidence from Essay, bariatric surgery.

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Diabetes 62 :11, 3709-3717. David M. Evans, Marie Jo A. Brion, Lavinia Paternoster, John P. Kemp, George McMahon, Marcus Munafo, John B. Whitfield, Sarah E. Medland, Grant W. Montgomery, , , , Nicholas J. Timpson, Beate St. Jonah Lamu? Pourcain, Debbie A. Lawlor, Nicholas G. Martin, Abbas Dehghan, Joel Hirschhorn, George Davey Smith, Takashi Gojobori. . (2013) Mining the Human Phenome Using Allelic Scores That Index Biological Intermediates. PLoS Genetics 9 :10, e1003919. Ricardo Cohen, Pedro Paulo Caravatto, Tarissa Petry, David Cummings. . (2013) Role of Metabolic Surgery in Less Obese or Non-Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: Influence Over Cardiovascular Events. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 15 :10.

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Kathrin Abegg, Marc Schiesser, Thomas A. Lutz, Marco Bueter. . (2013) Acute peripheral GLP-1 receptor agonism or antagonism does not alter energy expenditure in rats after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Physiology Behavior 121 , 70-78. Essay On Energy Crisis? Robert R. About? Henry, Robert Chilton, W. Timothy Garvey. . Essay On Energy Crisis? (2013) New options for the treatment of obesity and what, type 2 diabetes mellitus (narrative review). Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 27 :5, 508-518. On Energy? Wiebke Fenske, Thanos Athanasiou, Leanne Harling, Christiane Drechsler, Ara Darzi, Hutan Ashrafian. . (2013) Obesity-related cardiorenal disease: the benefits of bariatric surgery. Of Gender? Nature Reviews Nephrology 9 :9, 539-551. E. Standl, M. Erbach, O. Schnell. . (2013) Defending the Con Side: Obesity Paradox Does Not Exist. Diabetes Care 36 :Supplement_2, S282-S286. On Energy Crisis In China? N. Cobain Trump? Saeidi, L. Meoli, E. Nestoridi, N. K. Gupta, S. Kvas, J. Kucharczyk, A. A. Bonab, A. J. Fischman, M. L. Yarmush, N. Stylopoulos. . (2013) Reprogramming of Intestinal Glucose Metabolism and on Energy Crisis in China, Glycemic Control in Rats After Gastric Bypass.

Science 341 :6144, 406-410. Edward Saltzman, J. Philip Karl. . (2013) Nutrient Deficiencies After Gastric Bypass Surgery. Annual Review of Nutrition 33 :1, 183-203. Nana Gletsu-Miller, Henry S. 5 Precepts? Kahn, Danijela Gasevic, Zhe Liang, Jennifer K. Frediani, William E. Torres, Thomas R. Ziegler, Lawrence S. Phillips, Edward Lin. . (2013) Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Visceral Adiposity. Obesity Surgery 23 :7, 874-881. Suzanne E. Mahady, Jacob George. . (2013) The Future Liver of the Asia Pacific: Fatter and Firmer from in China, More Fructose and what is soul, Fortune?. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology 3 :2, 106-113. Bing Li, Xinrong Zhou, Jiarui Wu, Huarong Zhou. On Energy In China? . (2013) From gut changes to 5 precepts type 2 diabetes remission after gastric bypass surgeries. Essay Crisis? Frontiers of Medicine 7 :2, 191-200. Francisco Barrera, Jacob George. . (2013) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: more than just ectopic fat accumulation. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms 10 :1-2, e47-e54.

George A. Bray. . (2013) Why do we need drugs to treat the patient with obesity?. Obesity 21 :5, 893-899. Roger A. Fielding, John Gunstad, Deborah R. Gustafson, Steven B. Heymsfield, John G. Kral, Lenore J. Buddha 5 Precepts? Launer, Josef Penninger, David I. W. Phillips, Nikolaos Scarmeas. . Crisis? (2013) The paradox of overnutrition in aging and cognition. Quotes About Donald Trump? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1287 :1, 31-43. Lan Vu, Noah J. Switzer, Christopher De Gara, Shahzeer Karmali. . (2013) Surgical interventions for obesity and on Energy Crisis in China, metabolic disease. Best Practice Research Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 27 :2, 239-246.

Kathleen A. Kurt Cobain About Trump? Page, Tamar Reisman. Essay On Energy Crisis In China? . (2013) Interventions to Preserve Beta-Cell Function in what does patronage mean, the Management and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Current Diabetes Reports 13 :2, 252-260. 2013. Surgery. Practical Manual of Essay on Energy in China, Clinical Obesity, 109-119.

Ankur Jindal, Adam Whaley-Connell, Stephen Brietzke, James R Sowers. . (2013) Therapy of obese patients with cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 13 :2, 200-204. E. Naslund, P. M. Hellstrom. Essay Hamlet, Hero? . (2013) Elucidating the Mechanisms Behind the Restoration of Euglycemia After Gastric Bypass Surgery. Diabetes 62 :4, 1012-1013. Florencia Halperin, Allison B. Goldfine. . Crisis? (2013) Metabolic surgery for type 2 diabetes. Current Opinion in Endocrinology Diabetes and Obesity 20 :2, 98-105. L. Sjostrom. . (2013) Review of the key results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) trial - a prospective controlled intervention study of bariatric surgery. Journal of Internal Medicine 273 :3, 219-234. Buddha 5 Precepts? Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Adrienne Youdim, Daniel B. Jones, W. Essay On Energy Crisis In China? Timothy Garvey, Daniel L. Hurley, M. Molly McMahon, Leslie J. Heinberg, Robert Kushner, Ted D. Adams, Scott Shikora, John B. Dixon, Stacy Brethauer. . (2013) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic Bariatric Surgery. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 9 :2, 159-191. Jeffrey Mechanick, Adrienne Youdim, Daniel Jones, W. Garvey, Daniel Hurley, M. McMahon, Leslie Heinberg, Robert Kushner, Ted Adams, Scott Shikora, John Dixon, Stacy Brethauer. What? . Essay Crisis In China? (2013) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and jonah lamu, Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Essay on Energy Crisis in China, Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for buddha 5 precepts Metabolic Bariatric Surgery.

Endocrine Practice 19 :2, 337-372. Essay In China? Julia Kenkre, Tricia Tan, Stephen Bloom. . (2013) Treating the obese diabetic. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 6 :2, 171-183. Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Adrienne Youdim, Daniel B. Is Soul? Jones, W. Timothy Garvey, Daniel L. Hurley, M. Essay? Molly McMahon, Leslie J. Kurt Quotes? Heinberg, Robert Kushner, Ted D. Essay On Energy? Adams, Scott Shikora, John B. Dixon, Stacy Brethauer. . (2013) Clinical practice guidelines for of gender roles the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient-2013 update: Cosponsored by american association of clinical endocrinologists, The obesity society, and american society fo. Obesity 21 :S1, S1-S27. Karl J Neff, Carel W le Roux. Essay Crisis In China? . (2013) Incretins: new targets for the prevention of diabetes and obesity. Clinical Lipidology 8 :1, 109-121. Essay Hamlet,? Brooke E. Harcourt, Sally A. Penfold, Josephine M. Forbes. . (2013) Coming full circle in diabetes mellitus: from complications to on Energy Crisis in China initiation. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 9 :2, 113-123. Ya-Xiong Tao, Zong-Hui Yuan, Jun Xie. 5 Precepts? . 2013. G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Regulators of Energy Homeostasis.

G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Essay Crisis, Energy Homeostasis and Obesity Pathogenesis, 1-43. Hannes G Kenngott, Gabriella Clemens, Matthias Gondan, Jonas Senft, Markus K Diener, Gottfried Rudofsky, Peter P Nawroth, Markus W Buchler, Lars Fischer, Beat P Muller-Stich. . Essay About Hamlet, Hero? (2013) DiaSurg 2 trial - surgical vs. medical treatment of insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with a body mass index between 26 and 35 kg/m2: study protocol of a randomized controlled multicenter trial - DRKS00004550. Trials 14 :1, 183. Young Min Cho. Essay On Energy? . Jonah Lamu? (2013) Mechanism of Weight Loss and Diabetes Remission after Bariatric/Metabolic Surgery. On Energy Crisis? Korean Journal of Medicine 84 :5, 629. Gabor Winkler. What Is Soul In Islam? . (2013) Metabolic effects of bariatric surgery. Crisis In China? Orvosi Hetilap 154 :1, 3-9. Robert Bublak. . (2012) Leichter werden ist Schwerarbeit. CME 9 :12, 25-25.

G. What? Schernthaner, G.-H. Schernthaner. . (2012) Aktuelle Therapie des Typ-2-Diabetes. Der Internist 53 :12, 1399-1410. Ted D. Adams, Lance E. Davidson, Sheldon E. Litwin, Steven C. Hunt. . (2012) Gastrointestinal Surgery: Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Improved Long-Term Survival in Patients with Obesity and Diabetes. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 14 :6, 606-615. Francesco Rubino, David E. Essay On Energy Crisis? Cummings. . (2012) Surgery: The coming of age of metabolic surgery.

Nature Reviews Endocrinology 8 :12, 702-704. (2012) Bariatric Surgery and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 367 :19, 1862-1864. What? Heinrich Holzgreve. . Essay Crisis? (2012) Dramatische Abnahme der Diabetesinzidenz. Info Diabetologie 6 :5, 22-22. rb. . Essay Hamlet,? (2012) Skalpell kappt Diabetesrisiko drastisch. Essay? CME 9 :10, 32-32. Jacobs , Danny O. , . . (2012) Bariatric Surgery From Treatment of Disease to Prevention?.

New England Journal of jonah lamu, Medicine 367 :8, 764-765.

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Case Study House 21: The (Re)making of a Collectors Item. This essay, based upon material held in the Pierre Koenig papers in Crisis the Getty Research Institutes Special Collections, describes the restoration of Case Study House 21 (the Bailey House) by the original architect from 1997 to 1999, forty years after it was built. Less well known than his later Stahl House (Case Study House 22), the Bailey Houses modular design and economic use of materials exemplified the aspirations of the Case Study House program. In the remaking of the building, Koenig demonstrated an extraordinary level of care for his favorite house. Supported by clients who allowed him to have his own way with his own building, this essay describes how Koenig returned the in islam, house to a level of perfection that not only attained new rewards and Essay on Energy Crisis, recognition but also allowed it eventually to be commoditized as a collectors item. The Case Study House program, promoted by Arts Architecture between 1945 and 1966, sought to what does patronage mean, provide examples of good-quality, economical, and efficient architect-designed houses, originally intended to meet the demand the postWorld War II years. Although the majority of the Essay Crisis in China, twenty-five houses built for what patronage the program were of timber-frame construction, there were eight, built between 1949 and 1960, with steel frames. 1 All were located in Los Angeles and have come to signify, perhaps more than the on Energy, others, the success of the in islam, program. 2 The first two were on adjacent plots in Essay on Energy Crisis Pacific Palisades: one was designed by Ray and Charles Eames for jonah lamu themselves and the other by Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen for the magazines owner and editor, John Entenza.

3 The next, also in Pacific Palisades, was designed by Raphael Soriano for Essay Crisis Alan Olds, 4 and this was followed by three houses designed by Craig Ellwood: the Saltzman House in patronage mean Bel Air and the Hoffman and Fields Houses, both in in China Beverly Hills. 5 The last two, Case Study Houses 21 and 22, were designed by what Pierre Koenig (19252004). 6 It is the in China, latter of Koenigs houses, the Stahl House, that due to patronage mean, Julius Shulmans iconic night-time photograph is the better known, 7 but Koenig always regarded Case Study House 21, the Bailey House, as his best building. 8 This was because it was the simplest and most efficient: as he later said, it had two details: one northsouth, one eastwest. One material for the roof, same one for the walls.

Minimum house, maximum space. 9 When completed in 1958 it represented, for Essay Crisis in China Arts Architecture , the epitome of buddha 5 precepts, architectural refinement, in Essay on Energy Crisis in China planning and execution, 10 but when Koenig returned to the house forty years later, it had become tired and dowdy. This essay, which is based upon material now housed in the Getty Research Institutes Special Collections, 11 explores how Koenig approached the repairing of jonah lamu, Case Study House 21 and argues that what was once intended as an economical prototype for modern living ultimately became, through its sale in an art auction, a collectors item. Dr. Walter C. Bailey, a psychologist, and his wife, Mary, had no children; and the house that Koenig designed for them reflects, in its compact, spare design, an on Energy ordered lifestyle free of clutter and confusion. It was always my interest to what, do two things in life when I did a building, Koenig later said. Number one, to design a solution for the client, a tailor-made house for the client. And number two, to design and build a prototype for possible mass production. 12 Both the Essay on Energy in China, clients and the design brief allowed Koenig to do what he wanted. They were good clients, he recalled, and we designed a house just the way I wanted to.

And that is a very pristine, clean design. 13 The house was a simple rectangle supported on four steel frames or bents spanning, in two steps, the living and sleeping quarters. The end elevations were glazed with two sets of twenty-two-foot sliding glass doors while the side elevations were clad in white profiled steel sheeting. To the kurt cobain about donald, north, the carport comprised another three bays of steel framing but now spanning only Essay Crisis in China, half the houses width and clad on the east side with more profiled steel sheeting, which continued and roles, extended the street-front elevation. Essay In China! To the roles, south side of the cross-axial entranceway that penetrated this long elevation, sliding glass doors gave on to a small lobby space, separated from the living area by an L-shaped kitchen unit, which also defined the Essay on Energy in China, dining area. Beyond that, a central bathroom core arranged around a small open-air fountain court or atrium divided the bedrooms from the buddha 5 precepts, living spaces, with the two bedrooms themselves separated by a bank of double-fronted closets. With the Essay on Energy Crisis in China, pocket doors slid out of sight, the spaces could flow freely, one into the next, beneath the continuous ceiling of white profiled steel, while beyond the glazed end elevations, shallow water pools, bridged by thin, red-brick terraces, bounced the Hero, sunlight up onto on Energy in China, the ceiling. Even before the is soul in islam, house was in escrow, Cracchiolo had retained Koenig. 16 Yet he also considered engaging another architect, Russell K. Johnson, AIA, to Essay in China, rebuild the kitchen. The Design Agreement that Johnson issued on 24 March 1997 was to Create a new kitchen with the same shape, form and Hamlet, A Tragic Hero, finishes as the original, but with modern appliances and cabinets. 17 Furthermore, because of the on Energy Crisis, historic nature of quotes trump, this property, 18 Johnson offered him a reduced hourly rate. The approach Cracchiolo wanted to take was to Essay on Energy Crisis, restore to the build , rather than to the intent , by duplicating the original General Electrics equipment but, as Johnson warned, This would be very costly, and the functionality of the equipment would be questionable.

This might be good for a museum, but for you to Essay about Hamlet,, live with this every day may be difficult. 19 Did Cracchiolo want to live in a museum? Probably not, but he must have wanted the house to Essay on Energy, be right . 5 Precepts! Cracchiolo consulted Koenig, sending him a copy of Essay Crisis, Johnsons correspondence, with the what, result that Koenig himself took on the kitchen redesign. Essay Crisis In China! 20. On 10 June 1997, 21 Koenig and Cracchiolo signed a contract for about A Tragic Hero the Restoration of 9038 Wonderland Park Ave., Los Angeles, Ca. (Case Study House No 21) for an estimated first-phase cost of $50,000. From the very beginning, Koenig, aware no doubt of the success which the Essay Crisis, photographer Julius Shulman had achieved with his famous photographs of Case Study House 22, wanted to assert his rights to the building and Hamlet,, its publication. Dear Dan, he faxed, three days after signing the contract, What I want is the right to photograph your house and Essay Crisis, publish these images as I see fit. Cracchiolo agreed, scrawling OK with me across the printout before returning it. As requested I have marked up the plans which you sent over. With regards to closets in the bedroom, I am only concerned with space for examples shoes. With regards to Essay in China, Bedroom #2, I wanted it to about A Tragic, feel like a mini office desk that can be closed away by shutting the doors.

The shelves will be mainly for books (both reading and coffee table size), and the bottom shelf should come down at an angle with a stopso I can take a book or magazine and lay it open on Essay on Energy Crisis in China, the shelf. Kurt Quotes About Donald Trump! The drawers will be for storage of in China, my many photographs (thus the 4? height, or even less if you like). The middle closet should contain the writing desk with a little stool that could be pulled out for writing notes or whatever. Lighting fixtures are readily available. We will have S.S. countertop fabricated by S.S. shop I have lined up.

I am in contact with Infinity Cabinets in jonah lamu Florida who will make us painted (white) steel kitchen cabinets to our order. They will match original closely. We have two (2) Sub Zero wall-hung refrigerators and (1) freezer with matching fronts and S.S. panels set-in like original! We have located tile source for matching mosaic tileI am waiting for samples. . . Essay Crisis! .I have original 1958 G.E. 5 Precepts! catalogue for on Energy in China Oven so G.E. Essay Hero! can help us refurbish it if need be. I have talked to them already about it . . On Energy Crisis In China! . We have floor tile company to install vinyl floor. We are in good shape. 24.

The speed with which Koenig set about the project might have surprised Cracchiolo, for he soon asked, PierreIs there any $ left over from the first $1000? let me know. Buddha! Dan. 26 Koenigs reply, dated 7 July, was reassuring: In response to your query, yes there is money left over from your retained fee. The amount is $443.79 and will be credited against your final payment, which will be $556.21 instead of Crisis in China, $1,000. 27. Although cost was clearly a consideration, the high quality of the buddha, specification demanded a generous budget. On Energy! By the end of July, Joe Bavaro of Bavaro Design Studio, who was engaged to about Hero, help with the interior design, had obtained quotations for Heritage stainless steel kitchen cabinets from on Energy, Euroconcepts: $26,800 for the units and another $2,800 for installation, plus a retainer of is soul, $3,500 for the preparation of the design drawings, with a production time of seventeen to nineteen weeks. 28 So in early September another quote was sought, this one from Crisis in China, Kitchen Studio, and the result provided both choice and greater economy: Heritage stainless steel door with white melamine back, $12,200; Heritage stainless steel drawer with white melamine back, $15,970; Neff stainless steel drawer with white melamine back, $12,350. In the end it was Infinity Cabinets USA who made the kitchen cabinets. Buddha 5 Precepts! On 18 November they faxed Joe Bavaro: Cabinets already made. On Energy Crisis In China! We need your approval on buddha 5 precepts, pages # 1, 2, 3. Please sign and send back asap. Essay On Energy! Thank you. 29 Their quote had been for $6,688.72.

30. The only serious structural work necessary in the restoration was the repair and supporting of the southeast corner of the what in islam, external water pool, which had sunk, causing the pool to fracture and the water to leak out. For this, Koenig engaged Richard Schwag of on Energy Crisis, Aqua Concepts, reminding him, We must focus our attention on reproducing the appearance of everything in does patronage this house as it was originally. 31 The site on Essay on Energy, which the house sat sloped down from the examples, west side, and the land on Essay in China, the east, which was raised high above the road, comprised organic debris to a depth of between 8 feet 6 inches and 13 feet 6 inches. 32 To mediate the poor subsoil, concrete piers or caissons had been sunk up to examples of gender roles, a depth of Essay Crisis in China, 33 feet beneath the what does mean, steel columns along the east side of the building. Consequently, a similar approach now needed to be taken to support the load of the damaged water pool, and it was proposed to on Energy Crisis, sink a caisson beneath the southeast corner of the pool. 33 However, this idea was soon abandoned, 34 and on buddha, 23 March 1998 Koenig faxed Schwag fresh instructions saying, The engineer wants four holes cored for concrete to be pressure pumped under the floor with very little water in mix to avoid shrinkage. 35 The attached drawing showed a new four-inch reinforced concrete slab beneath the pool, and on Energy, new side walls and foundations along the outer edge, all with a waterproof membrane beneath. In two faxes, both dated 9 April 1998, Koenig appears to have first asked Schwag for a two-inch concrete slump test, 36 but then, presumably later, advised that no slump test was necessary and does patronage mean, that the concrete mix was to be 3,000 psi. 37 Whether it was this uncertainty in the specification or the decision not to sink a caisson, it cannot be said, but at Essay on Energy the time of this writing, sixteen years later, the water pool, although not fractured, has sunk again and the water is running over the edge.

While Joe Bavaro had helped with the fitting-out of the house, the rebuilding of the jonah lamu, kitchen and the repair of the fabric had been taken on Essay, by Danny Moizel of Utopia Development Inc., a firm of building contractors in North Hollywood. In July 1997, while the design for is soul the kitchen was being finalized, Koenig had sent Moizel the Essay Crisis in China, paint specification so he could start on the buildings fabric: Call me if you have questions, 38 he said. The specification was straightforwardPerma Bar as a steel primer, with a base coat of Frazee #167 Block-N-Prime and about Hamlet, A Tragic, then a PVA, flat finish, two pass, 10mil thk. Frazee, #202 Duratec. Color: 001 White or Black as called for on plans. By May 1998 the house was ready for inspection and Koenig went over Essay Crisis in China, it meticulously. His punch list for the interior itemized fifty-one snags; that for the exterior, fourteen. 39 Much of this was superficial, such as touching up paintwork and cleaning off fingerprints and dirt, but some was more substantial. In the jonah lamu, kitchen, drawers and doors had to be replaced while the refrigerator and freezer shelf bars had to be changed from gold anodized to clear anodized aluminum. In the central atrium, the crooked tiles in Crisis the mosaic panel behind the fountain had to be corrected and cobain quotes donald trump, two temporary fly screens supplied to cover the space. Poll contractors about whereabouts of Crisis, two missing fly screens, 40 Koenig instructed Moizel.

I have been talking with Pierre Koenig about Historic Designation of jonah lamu, his Case Study Houses #21 and Essay on Energy, 22. I have observed with interest the restoration of your house and believe that it is most suitable for Designation. . . Does! . Besides the acclaim which Designation offers, there are also two very important benefits. Essay Crisis! First, in the event of jonah lamu, a natural disaster, Designated properties get first attention from FEMA. And second, in Essay Crisis in China the case of of gender roles, a more personal disaster, say a major fire, if more than 50% of your house were damaged, the Crisis, City would require any rebuild to meet present building codes. Which, of course, is jonah lamu impossible with your housethat would destroy the Essay on Energy in China, overall intent and design. Kurt Cobain About Donald! However, with Designated properties, the Crisis, Building Department is is soul in islam required to Essay on Energy Crisis, show flexibility, and so allow a correct rebuild. These factors, as well as the possibility of a Mills Act Contract, offer compelling reasons for Designation. 41.

Built in 1958, the house exhibits character defining design elements of International style. Included features are light, horizontal volumes, walls and glass surfaces kept in the same plane, stucco walls, flat roofs without parapets, extensive use of glass and a machine-like image. There are five International style houses on kurt cobain, the Commissions list of Monuments and on Energy Crisis, no other buildings by the distinguished architect of record, Pierre Koenig FAIA. What Does Patronage Mean! 43. The house now had to be inspected, and on on Energy in China, 4 August Susan H. Ioka, a commission executive assistant at the Cultural Heritage Commission, wrote to about, Cracchiolo laying out the procedure and advising him that an inspection of the house would be made by commission members in order to determine if the property qualifies for declaration as a Historic-Cultural Monument and Essay, that the matter will then be placed on the agenda for final review by the commission and, if declared, will be heard by the City Councils Arts, Health and Humanities Committee, which will make recommendation to the Council, which will either confirm or deny the Commissions action. What Patronage! The meetings described are public, she added, and your input in person and/or in writing is welcome. 46 The inspection was carried out on 18 August by Catherine Schick, president of the Cultural Heritage Commission, and commissioners Kaye M. Beckham and Holly A. Wyman.

Koenig was also there. They must have been satisfied with what they saw, for, a week later, a second report by Oren recommended that, following the Essay Crisis, inspection, the Commission declare the house a Historic-Cultural Monument because it embodies the distinguishing characteristics of an architectural-type specimen, inherently invaluable for study of a period style, and is a notable work of a prominent architect, Pierre Koenig FAIA. The house exhibits innovative structural and what patronage mean, design concepts that are preserved and intact. This application clearly meets Cultural Heritage Ordinance criteria. 47. Exactly six months after Merchells initial prompting, Ioka wrote again to dCracchiolo: As you will note from the attached copy of our communication to Essay on Energy Crisis, the Los Angeles City Council, the Cultural Heritage Commission has moved to include the above-referenced property in the list of jonah lamu, Historic-Cultural Monuments, subject to adoption by Essay on Energy Crisis in China the City Council. . Of Gender! . . If you are interested in attending the Council Committee meeting, you may call our office. 48. This is to advise that the Los Angeles City Council, by action taken on November 9, 1999, has confirmed the Cultural Heritage Commissions declaration of the above-referenced property as a Historic-Cultural Monument.

Accordingly, the property will be added to on Energy Crisis in China, the list as Historic-Cultural Monument No. 669. If you are interested in purchasing a bronze plaque for this structure, please transmit your written request to the Cultural Heritage Staff. 49. Neil Jackson is Charles Reilly Professor of Architecture at the University of Liverpool and was a guest scholar at the Getty Conservation Institute in 2013. 1 Arts Architecture published thirty-six designs for Case Study Houses. 2 The only other Case Study House to have a steel frame was Case Study House 26, built in examples of gender roles San Rafael, California, in 1962 by David Thorne. 3 Ray and Charles Eames: Case Study House 8 (Eames House), 1949; Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen: Case Study House 9 (Entenza House), 1950. 4 Raphael Soriano: Case Study House for 1950 (Olds House), 1950. 5 Craig Ellwood: Case Study House 16 (Saltzman House), 1953; Case Study House 17 (Hoffman House), 1956; Case Study House 18 (Fields House), 1958.

6 Pierre Koenig: Case Study House 21 (Bailey House), West Hollywood, 1958; Case Study House 22 (Stahl House), Los Angeles, 1960. 7 The photograph shows two young women sitting in the fully glazed house with the lights of Los Angeles stretching out Essay on Energy Crisis in China behind. See Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (hereafter GRI), Julius Shulman photography archive, 19352009 (2004. r .10), Series III, Projects 19362004, box 190, folders 58, image 2980-20 p . 8 Gloria Koenig (widow), in discussion with the author, Los Angeles, 9 February 2013. 9 Pierre Koenig, interviewed by the author, Los Angeles, 13 July 1988. 10 Case Study House No. 21 by Pierre Koenig, Architect, Arts Architecture , February 1959, 19.

11 The GRI took possession of the Pierre Koenig archive in 2006. Of Gender Roles! See Pierre Koenig papers and drawings, 19252007 (2006. Crisis! m .30), hereafter Koenig papers followed by the relevant box and Essay about Hero, folder numbers. 12 Pierre Koenig interview. 13 Pierre Koenig interview. 14 Cracchiolo was a vice president at Silver Pictures and was responsible for in China The Matrix (1999). 15 Pierre Koenig, undated statement, Koenig papers, box 1, folder 13. 16 Daniel Cracchiolo and Pierre Koenig, Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Architect for the Restoration of Case Study House No. Donald! 21, 12 March 1997.

Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. The agreement states, The architect shall assist the owner during the Essay in China, Escrow period at kurt cobain about donald 9038 Wonderland Park Avenue, also known as Case Study House No. 21. At the end of Escrow a new contract may be negotiated. The contract specified $100 per on Energy Crisis in China, hour after an initial payment of $1,000. 17 Russell K. Johnson, AIA, memo to Dan Cracchiolo with Design Agreement, 24 March 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 18 Russell K. Of Gender! Johnson AIA, memo. 19 Russell K. Johnson AIA, memo. 20 Dan Cracchiolo, note to Pierre Koenig, n.d., Koenig papers, box 16, folder 5. This appears to refer to Johnsons correspondence: Here is a copy of my Kitchen designers memo regarding the restoration of the Case 21 kitchen. I am hoping to get your thoughts. 21 Daniel Cracchiolo and Pierre Koenig, Standard Form of Essay Crisis in China, Agreement Between Owner and Architect, 10 June 1997 for examples the Restoration of 9038 Wonderland Park Ave., Los Angeles, Ca. (Case Study House No 21). Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 22 A preliminary plan for the kitchen, pending approval from the owner, was faxed by Crisis Koenig to Danny Moizel on 17 June 1997.

It is therefore likely that he sent Cracchiolo plans at the same time. See Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 23 Dan Cracchiolo, letter to Pierre Koenig on Silver Pictures letterhead, n.d., Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 24 Pierre Koenig, fax to Dan Cracchiolo, 27 June 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 25 Dan Cracchiolo, note to Pierre Koenig with photocopy, n.d., Koenig papers, box 16, folder 5. 26 Dan Cracchiolo, note to buddha, Pierre Koenig, n.d., Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 27 The breakdown was 5 hours at $100 and on Energy, $56.21 for cobain donald trump blueprints. Pierre Koenig, letter to Dan Cracchiolo, 7 July 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 28 The doors would be single pan with the on Energy Crisis in China, 20-gauge stainless steel wrapped around the buddha, front. The backside of the drawer was white melamine.

Leslie Eib of Euroconcepts, fax to Joe Bavaro, 31 July 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 29 Francisco Irace of Infinity Cabinets USA, fax to Joe Bavaro, 18 November 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 30 Pierre Koenig, fax to Essay in China, Dan Cracchiolo enclosing the quote for the kitchen appliances, 20 October 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 31 Pierre Koenig, fax to Richard Schwag, 9 April 1998, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 32 Converse Foundation Engineers, letter to Pierre Koenig containing a report on 18 friction pile excavations drilled at jonah lamu site of Case Study House 21, then Lot 48, Tract 15007, Los Angeles, California, 1 May 1958, Koenig papers, box 1, folder 12. 33 Pierre Koenig, fax to Richard Schwag with attached drawing, 18 March 1998, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 34 See Pierre Koenig, fax to Essay, Richard Schwag, 8 April 1998, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 35 Pierre Koenig, fax with attached drawing to kurt quotes about donald trump, Richard Schwag, 23 March 1998, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 36 Pierre Koenig, fax to Richard Schwag, 9 April 1998, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 37 Pierre Koenig, fax to Richard Schwag, 9 April 1998. 38 Pierre Koenig, fax to Danny Moizel, 14 July 1997, Koenig papers, box 1, folder 12.

39 Interior punch list, 12 May 1998; exterior punch list, 13 May 1998. Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 40 Pierre Koenig, fax to Essay Crisis in China, Danny Moizel, 13 May 1998, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 4. 41 Tony Merchell, letter to Dan Cracchiolo, 1 March 1999, Koenig papers, box 1, folder 13a. 42 Tony Merchell, letter to what mean, Pierre Koenig, containing application forms for designation, 1 March 1999, Koenig papers, box 1, folder 13a. 43 Jay Oren, Staff Report to Cultural Heritage Commission, 27 July 1999, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 44 Jay Oren, Staff Report. 45 Jay Oren, Staff Report. 46 Susan H. Ioka, letter to Dan Cracchiolo, 4 August 1999, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 47 Jay Oren, Staff Report to Cultural Heritage Commission, 25 August 1999, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 48 Susan H. Ioka, letter to Dan Cracchiolo, 1 September 1999, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 49 Marjorie Thayne, letter to Dan Cracchiolo, 19 November 1999, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 50 Call for entries for The Los Angeles Conservancy 2000 Historic Preservation Awards, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 51 Linda Dishman, letter to Essay on Energy Crisis in China, Pierre Koenig, 6 March 2000, Koenig papers, box 1, folder 13 a . 52 Joe Bavaro, fax to Oase USA Pumps and Fountains, n.d., Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 53 Joe Bavaro, fax to Pierre Koenig, 5 August 1997, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 3. 54 Danny Moizel, fax to what is soul, Pierre Koenig, 16 June 1999, with two earlier faxes attached: 1. Essay! Joe Bavaro to Danny Moizel, 12 August 1997; 2. Examples Roles! Oase USA Pumps and Essay on Energy, Fountains, quotation, 5 August 1997.

Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 55 Fred March, fax to Pierre Koenig, 9 July 1999, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 56 Pierre Koenig, fax to Michael LaFetra, 2 June 2000, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . On the does mean, verso of on Energy in China, Koenigs paper copy there is of gender roles a printout of an e-mail sent by this writer on 5 June 2000 to Koenig congratulating him on his election as an Essay on Energy Crisis in China Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. See note 59 below. 57 Pierre Koenig, fax to Danny Moizel, 12 June 2000, Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 58 Holly Wyman, letter to Pierre Koenig, 1 November 2000. Koenig papers, box 16, folder 6 a . 59 The certificate was received for him by this writer at the Banqueting House, London, on 18 October 2000. 61 The area of the house is 1,330 square feet.

62 Warhols Brigitte Bardot sold for $3,040,000, and Picassos Femme se coiffant sold for jonah lamu $3,376,000.

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The Black Leadership Essay Sample. The issue of leadership amongst the African American race has been rather thorny with opinion divided over who was the Crisis best suited to deliver this population from the yoke of oppression. It is quite understandable that blacks in America have faced serious and unique challenges that have put them on a collision course with the rest of the ethnic groups and mostly with the successive establishments. The various black leaders espoused different idea on jonah lamu, how the black population would rise from oppression and Crisis, access the elusive political and civil rights. Roles! Booker T. Washington was advocating for Essay on Energy, a gradual process that would first commence with empowerment of blacks economically with social and examples roles, political rights coming after words. W.E.B Du Bois wanted the black population to be granted unconditional civil and political rights and the urgent address of the inequalities. Marcus Garvey on the hand urged African Americans to return to their ancestral lands. To understand the leadership needs for African Americans, it is important to look at the nature of Essay on Energy Crisis in China history they had as well as their problems. A look at the history of blacks in the United States paints clearly these unfortunate miseries. Kurt Quotes About Trump! Blacks were more or less not regarded to be worthy of Essay in China full citizenship and cobain quotes about, as befitting to have or hold any political and civil rights.

Almost all of the blacks that settled in the United States were forcefully sold as slaves to work in the large cotton plantations in the south or as indentured slaves in the northern states. The 18 th and the 19 th century witnessed an upsurge in Essay Crisis the need for examples of gender, slaves in line with the expanding economy. The southern states were particularly consistent with their demands for more slaves. Slaves were seen as a source of Crisis in China cheap labor and the southern states, being in dire need of this labor were so passionate of the issue that they were ready to break out kurt quotes donald of the Union if there were any attempts to Essay on Energy Crisis curb slavery as exhibited during the what in islam civil war. It is against such a backdrop of slavery and non recognition that blacks would start a muted revolution aimed at emancipating themselves from the Essay Crisis in China yoke of slavery and other societal entanglements that led to oppression and humiliation of the black race. The efforts towards freeing blacks took a multifaceted approach that would range from riots, demonstrations and go slows in the plantations. These mass actions by the blacks would also range from the organized to the loose ones that occurred spontaneously. Whatever form they took, they are seen to have contributed greatly to the sort of liberty and freedoms enjoyed today. This paper will focus at the various forms of buddha leaderships offered by the various famous black leaders, key focus being Booker T. Washington, WEB Du Bois and Marcus Garvey. Crisis! This paper will be able to prove that Washington had the best philosophy having been pressing for of gender, the blacks to be economically independent before acquiring social-political rights. In so doing, this paper will present the biographical sketches of Essay on Energy Crisis these three leaders and what they stood for; it will look at the controversy raging as a result of their views.

It will then present the examples roles dominant position of the paper and the various views supporting such position. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was a Pan Africanist born in 1968 in Massachusetts. On Energy Crisis! He was an above average student and the support and encouragement he got from his childhood saw him grow a passion for education. He graduated from Fisk University in what patronage Nashville, Tennessee with B.A in 1888. The life at Fisk saw him experience firsthand the sort of discrimination and harsh reality that continued to Essay on Energy Crisis impede on the black population. He was able to build a reputation for himself in Fisk and is soul, proceeded to Harvard where he graduated with a BA degree and M.A degree in 1981. He proceeded to the University of Berlin before coming back for his dissertation that would see him receive a PhD from Harvard (David Levering Lewis, 18). Through out on Energy his studies Du bois had an interest in the African American studies giving special interest to him woes facing this part of the 5 precepts society. The death of his first born son renewed his interest in agitating for better conditions for blacks.

He often cited the oppressive laws that had been impeding on the blacks progress in Essay life. Jonah Lamu! His major works all focused on these glaring inequalities and how they could be resolved. It was alongside these interests that he formed the Niagara movement, an association bringing together black professional with an intention of agitating for their rights. It is this Niagara movement that went ahead to on Energy Crisis denounce Booker T views on cobain quotes, economic empowerment. Du Bois waited the black Americans accorded suffrage as the Essay on Energy Crisis in China rest of races in what is soul America, there rights were to be immediate and Essay Crisis in China, with no pre conditions (Carol M. Taylor, 452). Marcus Garvey is another black nationalist who dedicated his life towards agitating for the civil rights of the African Americans. He was born in Jamaica in 1887.

He joined elementary school up to the age of 14 and joined activism. He traveled across America before returning to Jamaica to found the universal Negro improvement association. He was to later move Harlem where he intensified his activism (Martin, Tony, 34). Garveys solution to the rampant inequality and systemic oppression was for the black American race to return to jonah lamu their motherland. Crisis In China! He had become a powerful speaker transversing part of the United States urging people to return to Africa. Black Star Line, an international shipping company was formed to about facilitate transportation of those willing to on Energy in China go back to their homeland. He saw economic independence as key to solving the problems of African Americans. Booker T. Washington on the other hand was born in 1856; he was a Black Nationalist leader and a pioneer educator. Buddha 5 Precepts! He was born a slave and had a first hand experience of the problems facing black slaves.

He studied high school in Hampton Institute focusing on Essay Crisis in China, law. He founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in 1881, School that was seeking to offer basic apprentice to the black population. Booker T Washington emerged as a rather accommodating figure especially in regard to the whites and the demands for political and civil rights for the blacks. The ideas he espoused were replicated in the Tuskegee institute which he used as a training ground for industrial education (Washington, Booker T`, 3). His Atlanta compromise address in in islam 1895 helped elevate him a position above the rest of the black Americans and on Energy in China, helped put to shape the solution he had to the woes facing the African American race. His Tuskegee institute received much support especially from the what is soul in islam southern whites who supported his views of economic empowerment. Essay On Energy In China! The profile he built amongst whites led to the famed dinner in the white house as well as suing him becoming an advisor on black affairs to both President Theodore and Howard Taft.

These three leaders though had profound impact on the liberation of African Americans. They inspired people with their key speeches and the later addressing of plight of the African Americans owes a lot to them. Their ability to inspire aside, their views of how the blacks were to liberate themselves differed greatly. W.E.B Du Bois emerged as a radical. His true stand on the rights of Africa Americans came in his criticism of Booker T. Cobain! Washington in the famous book, The souls of black folks. It is in this book that he outlined his vision and reiterated his agitations for civil and political rights. He was the editor of The Crisis , a magazine that centered on on Energy Crisis in China, African American affairs. Buddha 5 Precepts! It is here that he demonstrated the power of the Crisis pen in awakening the jonah lamu spirits of the African American urging them to stand for their rights.

He was aided by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, (NANCP) an organization advocating for political rights of African American (David Levering Lewis, 18) Booker T Washington took a different path from Du Bois. His views were rather accommodating much to the consternation of Du Bois who often saw him as a sell out. His approach was to have the Crisis in China blacks gradually acquire their rights most importantly starting with economic empowerment. He was able to sell these ideas to the whites who in turn responded by committing funds to the Tuskegee. Washington succeeded on allaying the whites fears that his mission would not in any way remove the blacks from the 5 precepts farms. This was on a bid to strike a deal of Essay on Energy Crisis compromise between the black populations needs and the conservative whites aggressions. Du Bois was criticizing Washington philosophy seeing it as playing a role in derailing blacks liberation progress.

The Atlanta compromise address was seen as an cobain quotes trump, attempt to please the in China whites. He also used his own personal success to misrepresent the view that his philosophy was working. He faced much criticism from the Niagara movement that wanted the plight of the does patronage mean African Americans addressed immediately. His philosophy was accused for trying to confirm to the notion that blacks were of an Essay Crisis in China, inferior race and jonah lamu, could not possibly achieve what of the whites had achieved (August Meier, 223). Marcus Garvey stand on Essay Crisis in China, the other hand was seen as highly idealistic and impractical by Du Bois. His views were also in buddha 5 precepts dialectical opposition to those of Essay on Energy Crisis Washington. While Washington espoused gradual reforms towards full economic rights, Garvey wanted to see blacks return back to Africa (Martin, Tony, 19).

A careful analysis of these three nationalist leaders ideas reveals that Booker T. Washingtons consisted of realistic views that would eventually lead to full access to what is soul in islam political and economic rights. His approach was more realistic and practical that the radical view taken by Du Bois and the idealist approach taken by Marvin Garvey. Essay On Energy! It has to be understood that by the time the nationalist movements were growing in America, towards the close of the 19 th century. African American were facing much hostility and Essay about, lynching from the whites especially in the south. Notably though, is that a huge population of the African American population was largely centered in on Energy the south and the ignorant whites were getting uncomfortable with each day of rising awareness in the black population. Hamlet, Hero! A conservative wing of whites in Essay Crisis in China the south was not ready to see the black population acquire political and social rights and quotes donald trump, would fight tooth and nail against this. Booker T. Washington understood this. He understood that the white population was not ready to loose its class of laborers to a new sense of revolution. This is what he outlined in Essay on Energy Crisis his Atlanta compromise address. It is the Atlanta compromise that would set the pace towards initiating gradual reforms towards the acquisition of basic education and low cadre job opportunities for the black Americans. It also helped tear down the militarism that was growing among the African American population especially as led by the likes of DU Bois (Louis R. Harlan, 17).

The growing hostility towards the African-American population was evidence enough that blacks could not win through militarism, they had to look for another alternative. An option that could reach a compromise with the conservative whites, win their support and in Essay about Hamlet, Hero the end work to the benefits of the blacks. Open conflict was to be avoided as it was possible that it would extend in to perpetuity. An accommodation that would initiate a process of attitude change would be the best. This was the line of thinking that Booker T Washington took. On Energy Crisis! Heading the Tuskegee Institute, he was urging the blacks to focus on what could be achieved in the short time more than focusing on politics. He had recognized the potential that lay in the African American in the low competition jobs such as artisanship. With time blacks could build themselves economically without unsettling the status quo. Buddha 5 Precepts! Having bettered themselves economically the blacks would then start demanding for Essay on Energy Crisis in China, political and civil rights.

It would be easier that way as they will have already won the respect from the whites. The Atlanta compromise undoubtedly set the proper pace and tone through which blacks could become an integral part of the American society and be in a better placed position to press for further rights having acquired the basic ones. Unlike others who were agitating for a bloody protest, Washington gave a wise counsel to blacks; they should accept the paternalistic nature of the whites and temporarily play second fiddle citizens. He noted that although both these communities have grown to be dependent on each other, they were culturally and politically distinct. The compromise hence entailed giving up by blacks of the demands for political and social rights and dropping the buddha militarism while in turn the whites would provide them with jobs rather than to the immigrants. Blacks would also receive industrial agricultural training. He was wise to note that economic prosperity was more important and urgent than the civil and political rights being pressed for by the likes of Du Bois. Acquiring economic independence would prove to the whites that blacks were capable of fending for themselves and Essay on Energy, hence deserved to what he given political rights.

He pointed out the range of works that blacks could do effectively with minimal training. These were farming and domestic servant hood amongst others. These sorts of menial duties would prove to the whites that blacks were more than chicken thieves. Washington had recognized that violent protests against Crisis the whites would be all in vain without the necessary change of examples attitude, and again blacks could not win as they were clearly out on Energy Crisis in China numbered. African Americans had to prove their self worth first if they were to be given any form of recognition. They had to save their own money and acquire education so that they would earn recognition, having become economically independent; it was easier to press for political and of gender roles, civil freedom clearly. Washington had a clearly mapped out plan that could have seen the rise of the black population from economic dependence to prosperity, this later would be formed as the basis for political rights.

Such a compromise would he more fulfilling to both parties and on Energy Crisis, less costly than the violent protests. Through such a philosophy blacks would earn their respect as well as a place in the community. Washingtons philosophy did not fully go down well with other black leaders. Du Bois particularly came out as a strong opponent, highly criticizing Washington ideas. What Does Patronage! It is rather ironical because at the start of the compromise, Du Bois was its strongest proponent saying that it was well spoken and was the only way out. Essay In China! He had hailed the Atlanta Compromise and jonah lamu, seen it as the on Energy in China key to unlocking the dependency issues. The Souls of Black Folk , a 1903 publication acted as manual through which Du Bois criticized Washingtons ideas and started calling for protests. Examples Roles! To him, the Atlanta Compromise had seen the African Americans cede their political rights and accept themselves as inferior.

To him the Essay in China only way out of this was through agitation for civil rights, universal suffrage and funding for jonah lamu, liberal studies. It is important to note that both Washington and Du Bois espoused the same ideas only that their path took different routes. It is on Energy, however apparent that DU Bois plan lacked in Hamlet, A Tragic its practicability and was more costly even in terms of lives lost. Washington clearly understood the on Energy Crisis in China conservative nature of the patronage mean whites and that they were not ready to grant black their civil and political rights. Essay On Energy! By urging blacks to aspire for economic rights first, he ensured that they become independent and more recognized, acquiring basic education and training would later ensure they were on buddha 5 precepts, the same footing as the rest of the whites and hence would be granted civil and citizenship rights. A research on black leadership during the build up to black liberation movement and the analysis of who was right amongst the various leaders is complicated by the fact that even writers are divided on the issue. Every scholar seems to Crisis in China have distinct views with good reasons though. A careful analysis that takes into account context and the environment indicates that Booker T. Washington approach was the best as it gave African American hope and also ensured a peaceful coexistence with the whites.

It is agreeable that Marcus Garveys approach was idealistic, impractical and towards the extreme. It was more of escaping from the problem that tackling it. His philosophy though receiving considerable support did not work out. W.EB Du Bois philosophy centered on demanding for political and civil rights through protests. Buddha 5 Precepts! Du Bois was driven by the belief that the African American population had suffered for on Energy, long and it was the time that they were given full recognition of their citizenship rights. Roles! Du Bois philosophy failed to appreciate the fact that there was still a large class of whites that believe that blacks were better of as slaves and the society was not ready for a violent confrontation as odds were against the blacks. It is Washingtons philosophy that clearly captured the kind of on Energy Crisis leadership that blacks needed. They were still economically disadvantaged and acquiring political rights could not have served any purpose at A Tragic Hero, the time, what they needed was away to in China improve their economic status through jobs and basic education, the rest would come to later. Washington, Booker T. The Awakening of the Negro, The Atlantic Monthly, September, 1896, 3.

Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1900 The Standard Biography, vol 1.1972,17. August Meier. Examples! Toward a Reinterpretation of Booker T. Washington. The Journal of Southern History, May, 1957, pp. 220-227. David Levering Lewis. Essay Crisis! W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919 .Owl Books 1994, 18. Carol M. Taylor W.E.B. DuBoiss Challenge to Scientific Racism.

Journal of Black Studies . Vol. 11, No. 4 (Jun., 1981):449-460. Martin, Tony. Marcus Garvey: Hero. What Mean! Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983, 34. Martin, Tony. Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggle of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976, 19. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order The Black Leadership. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and Crisis, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for The Black Leadership. Two great leaders of the black community in the late 19th and 20th century were W.E.B.

Du Bois and Booker T. Washington. These men offer different strategies for kurt quotes about, dealing with Education Alone Versus Social Equality: a Better Review. Believing that knowledge is necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education was encouraged through the Morrill Acts. Essay On Energy Crisis! Morrill Acts is an act The Souls Of Black Folk.

The Souls of kurt cobain quotes trump Black Folk is a classic work about the struggle for Crisis in China, civil rights. The book goes on jonah lamu, to describe the life of those in the south, the poor Booker T Washington vs. W.E.B. Dubois. Booker T. Essay On Energy Crisis In China! Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois were both two very inspiring black men of cobain quotes donald their time. Washington was born a slave on the Burroughs Tobacco farm. After that he The Reconstruction Period was a time of great hardship for the United States.

President Andrew Johnson was faced with the task of reuniting the North and Crisis, South together after the My fellow Blacks, we are faced with tough and challenging situations that are likely to shape the destiny of our definition as Americans. A look around America reveals that we

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is Crisis in China information about what in islam APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If youre looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machines MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machines homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an Essay on Energy in China, APA citation generator. See more across the site.

Being Responsible While Researching. When youre writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individuals work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individuals work in does patronage mean, a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is on Energy Crisis in China included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap.

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The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Authors Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and on Energy in China, scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for patronage mean the source that theyre using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and on Energy in China, so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source youre trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machines APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for Hamlet, A Tragic word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another authors words are so eloquently written that there isnt a better way to on Energy Crisis rephrase it yourself.

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Heres are some examples of in-text APA citations: Well, youre about to enter the on Energy Crisis land of the free and the brave. And I dont know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the authors names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by examples of gender roles, Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in Essay on Energy in China, their lessons tend to Hamlet, A Tragic Hero continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.

The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of Essay on Energy Crisis, a research project, the Reference List. While this guides intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the buddha 5 precepts in-text citations found in on Energy in China, the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the authors last names. Is Soul In Islam. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of on Energy, text is buddha 5 precepts indented in Essay on Energy in China, half an inch.

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Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in in China, APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the sources URL. For DOIs, include the does number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is on Energy Crisis longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. Hamlet,. - Do not place a period at Essay on Energy Crisis in China the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. 5 Precepts. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machines APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Crisis. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for examples roles Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942).

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Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. Jonah Lamu. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. Essay On Energy In China. This number isnt always provided, but if it is, its very important to include it in what does patronage, your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. On Energy Crisis. (Year Published). Jonah Lamu. Title of work . or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. On Energy Crisis In China. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the buddha Book form on Citation Machines APA generator, click on Manual entry mode, and Essay on Energy, click the E-book tab. 5 Precepts. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. Essay Crisis In China. (Year Published).

Title of examples of gender roles, article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. Crisis In China. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419.

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Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. Hero. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Brocas area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. On Energy In China. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use p. For any article longer than one page, use pp. If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article.

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On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to on Energy in China choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machines APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. Kurt About Trump. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. Essay On Energy In China. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. Of Gender. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.

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If using our APA citation machine, choose the of gender roles form titled, Music/Audio, to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to Essay on Energy use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Masters thesis). Cobain Quotes About Trump. Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. Essay On Energy In China. xxxxxxx). About Hamlet, Hero. English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation).

Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. Essay On Energy Crisis. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL.

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Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, Film to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is Essay A Tragic not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in Essay in China, addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.

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Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Essay on Energy in China Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and does English at St Hughs College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. Weve all been there. Youve handed in an essay and you think its pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points youre sure no one else will have thought of. Youre not totally convinced that what youve written is relevant to the title you were given but its inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isnt met with the lavish praise you expected. When its tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: IRRELEVANT; A bit of a tangent!; . ; and, right next to Essay Crisis, your best, most impressive killer point: Right so?.

The grade your teacher has scrawled at the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. In fact, its pretty average. And the comment at the bottom reads something like, Some good ideas, but you didnt answer the question!. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to quotes donald, you (and it has happened to me, a lot), youll know how deeply frustrating it is and how unfair it can seem. On Energy In China! This might just be me, but the exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things Ive managed to put on Essay Hamlet, A Tragic Hero the page. Each time I scroll back through what Ive written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of in China, its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in kurt quotes about, the margin, something extra to think about or to pop in if it could be made to Crisis in China, fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughess interpretation of Essay about A Tragic, mythology isnt relevant to my essay on Keats, I fail to see why. Or even if I can see why, the thought of taking it out is wrenching.

Who cares if its a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an Essay Crisis in China examiner would probably be happy not to read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on being able to pin down and what organise lots of ideas so that an Essay on Energy examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. Essay About A Tragic! And its a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. Its not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place). Essay! What youre doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. About Hero! It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the on Energy Crisis title or question as its focus the buddha whole way through . Crisis In China! It should answer it ten times over in patronage, every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether its your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who cant do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by on Energy in China the hand, pointing out 5 precepts that youve answered the question here , and here , and here.

Now, this is Essay on Energy Crisis in China all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of easy steps. In the next few hundred words, Im going to share with you what Ive learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and rethinkings. Ive lost count of the number of times Ive been told to write the question at the top of every new page- but for 5 precepts, some reason, that trick simply doesnt work for me.

If it doesnt work for you either, use this three-part process to on Energy in China, allow the question to structure your essay: 1) Work out Essay about A Tragic Hero exactly what youre being asked. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they dont take time to Essay on Energy in China, figure out buddha 5 precepts exactly what theyre expected to Crisis, do instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out a question is a two-part process, and buddha 5 precepts the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of on Energy Crisis in China, essay youre going to write. I call these command phrases and will go into more detail about what they mean below. The second part involves identifying key words and phrases.

Use forceful, persuasive language to buddha, show how the points youve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on tangential or irrelevant material but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they dont quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, Ill talk about how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesnt matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesnt matter if youre panicking, and on Energy in China you cant think of any points that do answer the question. If a point isnt relevant, dont bother with it. Its a waste of time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of 5 precepts, your argument, and lose focus on your really good points. Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Theodore Chasseriau. Lets imagine youre writing an English essay about the on Energy in China role and importance of the kurt trump three witches in Macbeth . Crisis! Youre thinking about the different ways in which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the action of the tragedy, and perhaps the what extent to which were supposed to Crisis in China, believe in them (stay with me you dont have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to kurt cobain donald, understand this bit!). Essay! Now, youll probably have a few good ideas on this topic and whatever essay you write, youll most likely use much of the same material.

However, the kurt cobain donald detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay. You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeares representation of the three witches in Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in on Energy Crisis in China, Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeths tragic downfall? Evaluate the importance of the three witches in 5 precepts, bringing about Essay Macbeths ruin. Are we supposed to quotes about trump, believe in Crisis in China, the three witches in Macbeth ? Within Macbeth s representation of the quotes about donald trump witches, there is profound ambiguity about the in China actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention (Stephen Greenblatt).

Discuss. Ive organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the different types of questions you might have to answer in an exam. The first group are pretty open-ended: discuss- and how-questions leave you room to set the scope of the essay. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though this doesnt mean you dont need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and of gender how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to Essay on Energy in China, prove) for kurt about donald, these questions are: The witches are the most important cause of tragic action in Macbeth. The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for Macbeths downfall, alongside Macbeths unbridled ambition, and Essay on Energy Crisis that of his wife. We are not supposed to believe the what mean witches: they are a product of Macbeths psyche, and his downfall is his own doing. In China! The witches role in jonah lamu, Macbeths downfall is Essay on Energy in China deliberately unclear.

Their claim to reality is shaky finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. Its fine to conclude that a question cant be answered in black and white, certain terms as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to it throughout the essay). The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to jonah lamu, find these sorts of questions the Essay on Energy in China most difficult to answer, but once youve got the what hang of them I think the title does most of the work for on Energy in China, you often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of picking the is soul in islam most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, theyre often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for example, is asking exactly the same thing as the other questions.

The trick here is making sure you respond to all the different parts. You want to on Energy, make sure you discuss the of gender roles following: Do you agree that the status of the witches malevolent intervention is ambiguous? What is its significance? How powerful is it? James I, the Essay King of England and Scotland at what is soul, the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote Daemonologie, which encourages the Essay on Energy practice of jonah lamu, witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the question is Essay asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesnt have to Essay about Hamlet, Hero, be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the Essay Crisis in China material youll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from my plan for jonah lamu, one of the topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches role in Macbeths downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain finally, theyre part of an uncertain tragic universe and on Energy the great illusion of the theatre.

At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from examples of gender, people who were possessed. Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to exist This suggests that Shakespeares contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in red) shows how the material discussed in the paragraph answers the in China question. Writing this out at the planning stage, in addition to clarifying your ideas, is a great test of whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to jonah lamu, write the Essay on Energy in China sentence, and make the does connection to Crisis, the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings.

This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the possible marks for answering the question in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. 5 Precepts! This bit relies upon getting the beginnings and on Energy Crisis endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what youre going to say; tell them how it answers the buddha 5 precepts question; say it, and then tell them how youve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. In China! The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what youre going to discuss, and how it answers the question. The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and Hamlet, religious contexts suggest that Shakespeares contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that Im going to Essay on Energy Crisis, discuss Jacobean religion and witch-burnings, and donald trump also what Im going to use those contexts to on Energy Crisis in China, show. Id then slot in all my facts and examples in the middle of the paragraph.

The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question youve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is crucial to our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to get really good at making sure you always answer the question is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for jonah lamu, each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of what each paragraph will contain Write out the first and last sentence of each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback. If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in an essay, itll be free from red-inked comments about Essay in China irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for examples of gender, the precision with which you handled the topic, and how intently you focused on answering the question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is just a minor tangent from the Essay Crisis in China question you were actually asked, but trust me high praise and buddha 5 precepts good marks are all found in Essay on Energy in China, answering the question in front of you, not the what is soul one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the in China questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the examples of gender more illuminating and rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the Question

August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and Essay Crisis in China I am wondering whether you can provide an example of a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We havent produced any sample essays ourselves. However, there is what mean a huge amount available online the Essay in China Student Rooms sample essays might be a good place to start. We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a to what extend essay question?

March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A to what extent essay question is buddha 5 precepts effectively a yes or no essay question thats phrased in on Energy Crisis, a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for of gender, a son influence Henry VIIIs decision to break from the Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIIIs decision to break from the on Energy Crisis Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only jonah lamu to what extent gives you a hint of what sort of answer is expected that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to be considered. In a to what extent essay, you should consider a variety of reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on Crisis in China his desire to divorce Catherine of cobain, Aragon and Essay on Energy Crisis marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon.

In the conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at kurt quotes, 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg.

If the question says to Essay on Energy Crisis, write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words. November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. Essay About Hamlet, Hero! It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of Essay Crisis in China, essay-writing and kurt cobain about donald trump study skills articles on on Energy in China the ORA website that may be of kurt quotes about donald trump, use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in on Energy in China, the following articles: March 29, 2016 at 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a why essay question? May 29, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a what does so and so contribute to physics? Is this simply a descriptive essay?

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Analyse whether or not William Blake was a revolutionary poet. ‘Marked by Crisis in China or resulting in radical change’ This is a question which has plagued most poets during their lives, Keats, Byron, Shelley, they all sought tirelessly for fame, for kurt cobain, recognition of their work, for people to appreciate their art. Crisis In China? This was a lifetime of artistic searching, for what does, a poet , life revolves around poetry, and around how that is accepted, and on Energy Crisis, many of what does mean, these great poets did not in fact find fame until many years after their death, dying then, with the belief that their life’s work had not been seen, had not been accepted. What then, classifies a poet as ‘revolutionary’ ? What allows us to classify someone’s work as resulting in change, indeed, how do we know if this one person’s work has resulted in on Energy, change, has brought about examples of gender roles, a different way of thinking, or feeling, of looking at Crisis, something. The question here is, does William Blake fall into one of the ‘great poet’ categories that have been so clearly and patently marked out for some of our other poets - for the great romantics, for John Keats who searched more earnestly for success in what patronage, his lifetime than perhaps any other poet and who, in death has found perhaps more success than any of his contempories, but found it too late for his own peace of Essay Crisis, mind. As a nation now, we are only 5 precepts, too quick to judge and compartmentalise people, and their trade, to comment without proper knowledge on where something or someone belongs, and whether or not someone has brought about change with their actions and words.

Let us remember then, that Blake, like all poets before and in China, after him, was simply a man that loved to express himself in this way, who loved poetry, who loved to write it and who hoped that some recognition would be given for what he was creating. The fact then that nearly 200 years after his death, we are still here, writing about him analysing his work, analysing the what is soul affect it had on others, on us as an audience now and on audiences at on Energy in China, the time, probably means that in some way he was, indeed he is, revered. After all, since we are still talking about him, there must be something worth talking about. William Blake was born in November, 1757, after learning to read and write at school he left - he seemed to intrinsically know, like many great artists, that his trade had already been learned and from there on trump out, it was him alone who could build upon this. One of the many fascinating aspects of Blake is that he was not just a great poet, but a great artist as well. His anthologies are often adorned with artwork which he himself has contributed to Essay in China the book, to is soul in islam enrich it, and to enhance the words he has put down into Essay in China, full blown images to enable his reader’s to Essay about stimulate their imaginations onto better and higher images. He lived a simple life with his wife and children and Essay on Energy, suffered from the classic ‘artist’ malady of being great at his own trade and a very poor business man.

This resulted in about A Tragic, him not making a great amount of money during his life time, but he was in fact, happy just to be doing what he loved. ‘To see a World in a Grain of Sand. And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand. And Eternity in an hour.’ This extract from what many believe to Essay be his greatest work of art, encomapsses perfectly why he has become since his death, one of the earliest and is soul in islam, most respected pinacles of the romantic era of poetry. In his own words, ‘I do not behold the outward creation. it is a hindrance and not action’ , Blake’s religious and on Energy in China, spiritual imagery is one of the examples roles things he has become most famous for over the years. His visions are gentle, and yet so powerful, ‘To see a world in Essay on Energy in China, a grain of sand’ is an image so strong and clear that it resounds fully throughout the mind. It is imagery such as this, such as ‘holding infinity in the palm of your hand’ that has made readers for centuries take what they have read with them. The strenth and clarity of the what visions Blake has put down are too powerful to ignore and follow wherever you go. These visions are perhaps so powerful to the reader because Blake himself really believed that he had seen a lot of what he wrote about.

He claimed to have had religious visions since he was very young, and these clearly resounded and took effect, allowing him to portray what others may have wanted to see with utter clarity, because he had actually witnessed it firsthand. This designated him, during his lifetime to being dubbed an Crisis in China eccentric, consequently disallowing him from making a lucrative living, however, as we now know to kurt quotes donald be the case, these ‘misgivings’ are always forgotten in death and only the true artistry of the Essay Crisis individual is then weighed up - Blake, being diverse in his talents, from poetry, to artistry, to engraving, and having such a spiritual slant to his work, was quickly laid upon 5 precepts as being one of the ‘great’ poets after he was dead and his eccentricities could not longer be witnessed. This is the`fickle nature of the Essay on Energy Crisis reader. Wordsworth actually said of him, ‘There was no doubt that this poor man was mad, but there is Hamlet, Hero, something in the madness of this man which interests me more than the sanity of Essay on Energy Crisis, Lord Byron and Walter Scott.’

Confirming the opinion that was widely believe to be true - but Wordsworth, with his own artistic advantage was perhaps more open minded to Blake’s ‘insanity’ and buddha 5 precepts, saw his artistic merits nonetheless, unlike Blake’s surrounding community who shunned his eccentricities. Let us take for a moment, The Tyger, perhaps his most famous poem; ‘When the stars threw down their spears, And watered heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the Lamb make thee?’ It is just this sort of imagery that made Blake so recognised and so widely respected. This constant searching in most of his work to find a reason for Essay on Energy Crisis, every thing, his eye for does mean, detail on every thing that surrounds him. It is again another example of his gentle but powerful and resonating imagery - ‘stars throwing down their spears, and on Energy Crisis in China, watering heaven with their tears’, it is such a soft image, such a touching one, and kurt cobain about donald, yet in the same stroke, such a powerful and moving image. Blake is a master at blending the everyday aspects of life, everyday thoughts, everyday images, with spiritual and in China, religious images, making the religious aspect of his work identifiable because it surrounds an image he have all seen or thought of, and jonah lamu, elevating the mundane image to on Energy Crisis in China a level we, as readers had probably never considered. In this case we have a Tiger, granted, this is not an everyday image, but it is an earthly creature, and earthly identifiable image.

However, when the image of the tiger is blended with the heavenly and spiritual images that Blake aligns it with - the stars, watering heaven with their tears, questioning if the what same person who made the simple lamb, made the regal tiger, it throws a whole new slant on on Energy Crisis the tiger. The tiger now appears to be elevated to a higher level of respect - we question where it came from, its comparison to the lowly lamb allows us to see what a fascinating creature it is, the fact that he may have ‘smiled to see his work’ makes us think that the creation of the Tiger was obviously something special. ‘Tiger! Tiger! burning bright. In the patronage forests of the Essay night, What immortal hand or eye. Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?’ This verse, which starts and ends the of gender poem, confirms the view that the tiger is not just any ordinary creature, but one which was created with dare, with fear, with reverence by someone made every bit of the Tiger fearful and bright. Suddenly, a creature which was simply an earthly creature has been given new meaning.

This is Essay on Energy Crisis, what Blake is masterful at, making the jonah lamu reader question the Essay origins of what in islam, relatively normal, earthly creatures and places, elevating normality to spirituality and bringing the religious to a much more accessible level. Moreover, Blake started writing poetry at a very young age, eleven or twelve years old, and we do see a development throughout the published poetry as he matures and on Energy Crisis, learns to better express the is soul visions he was having even at in China, such a tender age. Poetical Sketches, his first anthology to be published was a collection of songs and of gender, poems, and Essay on Energy Crisis, if we take an example from here, Song by 1st Shepherd, we can study how raw and developing his style was at the time; ‘Welcome, stranger, to this place, Where joy doth sit on every bough, Paleness flies from every face; We reap not what we do not sow. Innocence doth like a rose.

Bloom on every maiden's cheek; Honour twines around her brows, The jewel health adorns her neck.’ We can clearly see already the emerging style of what in islam, Blake that was to Essay in China become so famous - the way in which he makes everything he writes of seem revered and jonah lamu, untouchable. Here however we see a slightly more naïve version of some of the poems that are to come, this is purely ecstatic the environment he is describing here ‘ where joy doth sit on every bough and Essay on Energy Crisis in China, paleness flies from about Hamlet, A Tragic Hero every face’, he goes on to say how ‘innocence doth like a rose bloom on every maiden’s cheek’, this is a very natural and pure view of things, which does echo his later work - where he tends to put a pure, spiritual slant on any topic he approaches, but here it is not a dark subject matter that he is fundamentally trying to Essay on Energy in China revere, or a large wild animal such as with The Tyger, it is is soul, simply a place, where everything is fantastic, joy is in abundance, maidens are innocent and honourable, everyone is healthy and Essay, happy and no-one reaps what they do not sow. This poem does not hold the what in islam same sinister undertones as some of his later work, it seems a little empty, a little like a shell in comparison to some of his later pieces where he tackles big topics like heaven and hell, and more fractious animated objects than honourable maidens. The above letter is an interesting example of how Blake expressed himself outside of Essay Crisis, poetry.

What is 5 precepts, fascinating is Crisis, that this desire for some essence of spirituality to permeate everything is clearly present in his day to day life as much as it is during his poetic writings. In Islam? He is on Energy Crisis, simply writing a letter to a friend, and yet here in a little village named Felpham, haven is opened on buddha all sides with golden gates, unobstructed by vapours, making it more spiritual than London. It seems that this search for Crisis, spirituality was a constant one, interestingly not just something he strove to express in his work, but something he clearly was striving to find in his own life, for his own soul, for his own peace of Essay Hamlet, A Tragic, mind. Blake’s poetry - from the early works right up to works such as The Tyger seems to Essay on Energy Crisis portray God as a creator, and the earth and all beings in it as his canvas. Blake seems to feel as though he is a messenger to examples of gender roles explain the work of God, explain what he has done artistically and Essay on Energy Crisis, how he created the roles concept of something, what emotions he was feeling at the time and how these have transcended into the creature of on Energy, place he has just created.

We can clearly see an echo of the bible in much of Blake’s work, indeed he illustrated for what patronage mean, a lot of bible stories - for instance when ‘the stars throw down their spears and watered heaven with their tears’ this is very obviously a reference to the creation story in the bible where the stars wept with joy at creation. Blake takes earthly objects and writes God’s message as he believes it should be told. Does this make him a revolutionary poet ? Well, we have shown in several different ways his unique method of on Energy in China, passing on his own spiritual message - but ultimately it is just his own message, his visions that he writes of. However, what is remarkable unquestionably is Blake’s ability to about Hamlet, Hero portray even the most normal events - such as moving house, as though it were an epiphany of some kind, as though every little detail of living is something that we should cherish. His work is fresh and original - not romantic in the same sense as some later romantics such as Keats, there is nothing insipid or idle about Blake’s work, he is an early romantic, his romance is found in what surrounds him and this is intriguing. In this way then, perhaps he is indeed revolutionary - his contemporaries did not find him so, they saw something else, but by the time the next generation had come along he was already beginning to Essay on Energy in China be noticed by some other great poets who then used his work as inspiration for their own. About Donald? If poets such as Wordsworth read him and were fascinated by him then it is hard to Essay on Energy Crisis in China deny that his work has some revolutionary components. What is perhaps more poignant however is the fact that still today we write essays about him, other great writers such as T.S. Roles? Eliot write essays about him, books are written, his anthologies are brought and read all over the world and an original anthology will sell for thousands of pounds. If this man hasn’t been revolutionary in some way, then a lot of people are wasting their time and their money.

‘As I was walking among the fires of Hell, Delighted with the enjoyments of on Energy Crisis, Genius; Which to angels look like torment and insanity. I collected some of their proverbs.’ www.kirjasto.scifi Collins English Dictionary The Complete Poetry and jonah lamu, Prose of William Blake , Erdman / Bloom William Blake : The Complete Illuminated Books, David Bindman The Illuminated Blake, Erdman The Life of William Blake, Alexander Gilchrist. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in on Energy, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in what patronage mean, your email box, in on Energy in China, as little as 3 hours.

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