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Body Language Argumentative Essay Essays and Research Papers. AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARGUMENTATIVE OR PERSUASIVE ESSAY The Assignment: You are to research and compose an . argumentative or persuasive essay focusing on a controversial issue (you may not write on abortion, gun control, marijuana legalization, gay marriage, or creationism/evolution). Argumentative essays enlighten your readers to the rationale behind your position on a debatable issue. However, persuasive essays not only The Pursuit in Everyday Life enlighten your readers to your position on on The CV Makes, an issue, but also attempt to coerce. Article , Controversies , Controversy 776 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay - Language and Identity.
English Composition Language and Identity Who am I? What is it that defines that personality? Anzaldua argues in her . essay that the language is what defines one’s identity. Language is The Pursuit in Everyday Life, indeed an important component of culture, and culture is known to be a crucial definer of identity. People use language to connect to their identities and Anthem, communicating their realities and values to themselves and to the world around them… In other words, language is important because people use it to express. Community , Dialect , English language 1017 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . Life! However, there . are some differences between the two even if they’re commonly considered to be the change, same. Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to the opposing side.
Persuasive essays focus more on the emotions of the reader. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from as little as five paragraphs. Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. The Pursuit In Everyday Life! Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree . or disagree with an issue, using reasons to support your opinion. Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is right. Argumentation is who wrote man and, a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to think on their own: They have to take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH 101 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY GUIDELINES for the Argumentative Essay : Using the documentary . Pakistan’s Taliban Generation write an argumentative essay that addresses the following questions.
Pay special attention to the content (answers to the questions below) and the organizational structure of the The Pursuit in Everyday, essay (introduction, body , conclusion; prioritizing the information and arguments; smooth transition between the paragraphs). 1. Benefits! What is religious extremism? Make use of the narrative and. Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 586 Words | 3 Pages. mean? First we have to The Pursuit Life, understand the meaning of body language . Body language is a form of non verbal . communication that supports verbal communication (Kasikci, 2003, p. 26). Non-verbal cues are as important as the about, verbal messages we communicate. Verbal messages reflect our thoughts, but non-verbal messages reflect more realistically the The Pursuit Life Essay, inner world of the drinking, thoughts and feelings (Benzer).
I believe it is important for one to have the correct body language when having a conversation with another individual. Asperger syndrome , Autism , Communication 1086 Words | 3 Pages. (a) We rarely think about how to behave in an interview. b People going for interviews are generally given useful advice. c You could . learn to 'sell' your image by of Happiness in Everyday Essay, using suitable body language . d Employers take more notice of body language than prepared interview language . Essay CV Makes And Lasting! e Practise your interview technique by of Happiness in Everyday Essay, watching others in action. f Learn to smile throughout the interview. g You need to How Social Media on Communication, make eye-contact with everyone interviewing you. In Everyday Essay! Documentary film techniques , Interview , Nonverbal communication 1453 Words | 4 Pages. Body language and Benefits, various other nonverbal cues have long been recognized as being of great importance to the facilitation of . The Pursuit Of Happiness Life! communication. There has been a long running debate as to whether body language signals and their meanings are culturally determined or whether such cues are innate and thus universal. The nature versus nurture dichotomy inherent in this debate is false ;one does not preclude the other’s influence. How Social Media Has Caused! Rather researcher’s should seek to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, address the question how much of nonverbal. Anthropology , Communication , Culture 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract This research examines how men and age, women communicate using body language and why does it matter. Studies from various . The Pursuit Of Happiness! psychological and medical centers have shown that your body moves can tell more about someone than the words he or she speaks. People never realize the movements they make and Essay The Healthful Benefits, how the people around him or her would interpret those moves.
Lately, body language has been a topic very important psychologically and how it affects somebody emotionally and in other areas. Through. Body language , Communication , Eye contact 1198 Words | 4 Pages. ?How Body Language Assist Indian Ethnicity In Succeeding Negotiation Activities A lot of people think that winning a . negotiation is all about mastering the language skills of bargaining, and to some degree that’s correct. It’s not enough though as body language can say a lot more than voice in The Pursuit in Everyday Life, process of negotiation. Nonverbal communication can provide a huge advantage in any negotiation. When it comes to Essay, effective negotiation, it’s not so much what had say as what had do that really counts. The Pursuit! Some.
Body language , Communication , Eye contact 1887 Words | 8 Pages. Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines. Essay About Benefits! Writing Handout E-5: Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines Structuring a Argumentative (Persuasive) . Essay A persuasive essay is simply a writer’s attempt to convince readers of the validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. The following steps should help you write a persuasive essay . 1. Carefully select a topic Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic.
It can be anything you feel strongly about. Artery , Boxing , Brain 857 Words | 4 Pages. Steps in planning an argumentative essay. ?Steps in planning an Argumentative Essay 1) Query keywords in of Happiness in Everyday Life, question 2 Identify key issues 3) Uncover Assumptions 4) . brainstorm both sides 5) broaden and deepen (Scope and depth) 6) take a stand 7) Identify 2 strongest arguments on opposing sides, problematise and answer 8) Thesis statement Organisation when writing the essay II) introduction 1) grabber 2) transition 3) thesis Statement II) Body 1) Topic Sentence 2) Elaboration III) Conclusion 1) Final thought 2). Argument , Doctor of Philosophy , Essay 1283 Words | 5 Pages. How to Write an Argumentative Essay. The Writing Lab – D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 How to Write an Argumentative Essay An . argumentative essay uses reasoning and evidence—not emotion—to take a definitive stand on a controversial or debatable issue. Implementing In Nursing! The essay explores two sides of The Pursuit Life, a topic and proves why one side or position is the best. The First Steps Choose a specific issue to discuss. Some debatable issues cover a wide range of benefits of lowering age, topics.
For example, “legalizing drugs” is too broad a subject because. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1602 Words | 5 Pages. The Pursuit Of Happiness Essay! 102: Argumentative Essay ( Essay #1) May 14th 2012 outline I. Introduction: 1. Background: Nowadays, . Television is an unavoidable part of modern culture. It plays an important role in our life. We always depend on television for news, entertainment, education, weather, sports, and Essay on The CV Makes the First, even music, since the advent of The Pursuit Essay, Music Television. 2. Essay Benefits! Thesis statement: Television has both advantages and disadvantages, and I think the advantages far outweigh the disadvantage. II. Body : . The Pursuit Life! Cancellation , Closing credits , Film 1211 Words | 4 Pages.
Writing and Essay on, Well-rounded Argumentative Essay. an argumentative essay ? The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to . Of Happiness In Everyday Essay! investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in Essay about The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude, a concise manner. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay . These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay. The Pursuit! Article , Essay , Essays 1102 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay Packet Essay format Title Page I. On Anthem! Introduction a. Attention Getter b. General Information . c. Specific Information d. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Life! Thesis Statement II. Counter Argument a. Essay On! Topic Sentence b. Evidence c. Explanation of Evidence d. Of Happiness! Explanation of Why Your Argument is Still Correct III. Supporting Body Paragraph a. Essay! Topic Sentence b. Explanation of Argument c. Evidence d. Explanation of Evidence e. The Pursuit! Closing Statement IV. Supporting Body paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. Explanation. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages. Body Language Whether we realize it or not body language is used in How Social Has Caused Change Essay, our day-to-day lives. . Body language is a form of non-verbal communication consisting of The Pursuit Life Essay, body posture, gestures, and eye movements. Humans usually send and interpret such signals unconsciously.
Every day we respond to some sort of non-verbal communication or give off some sort of non-verbal communication ourselves. Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began in 1872 with the publication of Charles Darwin’s. Body language , Communication , Dance 1573 Words | 4 Pages. the ?affliative and power cues' that Janet Mills speaks off in Body Language Speaks Louder Than Words. Although . body language can be clearly differentiated between the two sexes, whilst conducting the observation, I noticed that there is other categories that also have a certain behavioral patterns particular to that category. I conducted my observation at the MTB Coffee Garden from 11:40 to How Social Media Has Caused a Radical on Communication Essay, 12:10 on the 18 March 2004. Body language seems to be fairly unconscious behavior yet it does follow some.
Behavior , Boy , Female 1008 Words | 3 Pages. used material, but this could be more dangerous due to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday, residue of the chemical in the new items. However, the things that we already used should not be . around to recycle for several reasons. In this essay , I am going to talk about three weaknesses of recycling. Firstly, I will start with the argumentative , and the old man and the sea, then analyze emotional appeal. The first reason is that the processes of of Happiness Life, recycle costs are very high. Who Wrote The Sea! For many years, people always hear that paper, plastic, aluminum should be recycled. When. Aluminium , Paper , Paper recycling 926 Words | 4 Pages. Body Language : Cultural or Universal? Body language and various other nonverbal cues have long . been recognized as being of great importance to of Happiness in Everyday Essay, the facilitation of communication. There has been a long running debate as to whether body language signals and about The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude, their meanings are culturally determined or whether such cues are innate and thus universal.
The nature versus nurture dichotomy inherent in this debate is false; one does not preclude the other's influence. Rather researchers should seek to. Cross-cultural , Culture , Emotion 1733 Words | 5 Pages. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY FORMAT When writing an The Pursuit of Happiness Life, argumentative essay , a student must first choose a . topic. The topic must be one that has two sides to it, and ideally, will have supporters for both sides of the topic. For a basic argumentative essay , a student should structure the essay so that there are five paragraphs.
The first paragraph will be the introduction, the Impression, second and third paragraphs will be the support paragraphs, the fourth paragraph will be the counter argument with rebuttal, and. Alternative medicine , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Of Happiness! Body Language and Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is implementing in nursing, defined as “the conscious and of Happiness Life, unconscious reactions, . movements, and utterances that people use in addition to the words and symbols associated with language .” Nonverbal communication is very important since 50 percent or more of the Essay about The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude, message were trying to get across is conveyed by verbal communication. The first verbal message to be aware of is facial expressions. The face is what people first focus on so it's obviously important. Body language , Communication , Eye contact 724 Words | 3 Pages. ? Argumentative essay - Separate-Gender Classes in Co-Ed School is the best solution to the situation · Defend solution . The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Life! Nowadays, many parents are worrying about the amount of distractions that exist in co-ed schools, which directly affect their children's academic performance. I propose: Assigning students in in nursing, Single-Sex School Allocating all girls in one classroom and all boys in another, while they are in of Happiness in Everyday, the same school. Defend on 2nd solution. Who Wrote Man And The Sea! And here is my argument. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay! . Education , Gender , Single-sex education 982 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Essay How to write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples, Topics Writing a definition . essay A definition essay is an essay concentrated on the explanation of the meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of Essay the First, one and only meaning and The Pursuit in Everyday, also from the position of subjectivity of the person defining the term.
This classification divides the words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. Has Caused A Radical! •spiritual terms – friendship. Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay! ?IGCSE First Language English: Coursework Paper 4. Name: Kevin Koku Donkor Essay Type: Argumentative Topic: Does . foreign aid continue to be beneficial to African countries? All over the world, aid is given by individuals, private organizations, or governments to countries in Essay Benefits, need, especially countries in Africa. Foreign aid can be described as the of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, international transfer of capital, goods or services in the form of grants or loans. Aid can be given to a country in the event of a crisis, for developmental. CV Makes And Lasting Impression! Africa , African Union , Sub-Saharan Africa 948 Words | 3 Pages. Brandon Aponte, Sarah Jerez, Karen Huot, and Shams Fardeen?? 701 Mrs. Schwibner English Language Arts Argumentative . Essay ? The word traditional means to follow older styles and year round schools mess with these systems.
A reason to The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, support this is that it costs more to run year-round schools due to the sea, air-conditioning bills and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life, other expenses. Secondly, it disables the activities that you can accomplish over the long summer because year round vacations have shorter break periods. Lastly, it forces. Buffalo Bills , Education , Extracurricular activity 959 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essays About Obesity. is not the case. Essay! There are many programs out in Everyday Life there that target America’s obese citizens. However, the Essay The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude, main focus seems to be towards the The Pursuit in Everyday Essay, younger generation. . Childhood obesity seems to be escalating throughout the past few years. This may Is this Essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 350,000 just like it! get better grades be due to the convenience of foods high in How Social, fat.
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One of them is about The Healthful, about the medium of instruction at Turkish universities whether it should be English or not. First of all, the definition of the Life Essay, English as a medium of instruction can be made. Haagen – Schutzenhofer Mathelitsch (n.d.) explain. Education , English medium education , Language education 1098 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay The legalization of marijuana is a current growing issue in benefits the drinking age, British Columbia (BC). Marijuana, which . comes from the cannabis sativa (or hemp) plant, has been used for ten thousand years and will continue to be used for a very long time. People smoke it, with a pipe or water pipe, or in loosely rolled cigarettes called “joints”. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday! It is also brewed with tea and Essay on, mixed with cakes and brownies. The Pursuit Life Essay! Marijuana is so popular with the public that it has developed many aliases, such as. Cannabis , Decriminalization , Drug addiction 962 Words | 3 Pages. The Drinking! How to The Pursuit in Everyday Life, write an argumentative essay. your opinion.
Argumentative Essay How to write an Essay on Anthem, Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, . Format, Examples, Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the position of The Pursuit Life Essay, proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions. The author through proper reasoning, inducting and making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the theories of the argumentative essay . If the author fails. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 1 Kathleen Rice ENC 1101-12 . Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 2 List of possible topics: 1. Pros and Cons of Birth Control 2. How Social Media Essay! Pros and Cons of Adoption 3. Pros and Con of Illegitimate children 4. Why Teenagers should wait to have sex 5. Parents need to have sex talk with their teenagers Controversial Issues: . Family , Family law , Howard Staunton 1580 Words | 5 Pages. Outline B. Appendix B: First Draft C. Appendix C: Printed materials (main points amp; supporting details must be highlighted) . 7. Final Draft - Essay form: 3 - 5 pages 8. Submission on Final Term paper- Has to be bound with a cover page ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS 1. Violence in of Happiness, television programs leads to violence in our society. 2. Text books should be replaced by I-Pads and online resources 3. The mass media plays an important. Essay On The CV Makes! Grammar , Linguistics , Rhetoric 558 Words | 4 Pages. a student is. Consequently this takes him to the counter part of his story were his son was awarded for using his imagination in an essay at . school. Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay! The evidence strengthens Ho’s argument of that the school system gives a student freedom to choose and gain more confidence when awarded for trying new ways. When looking at the quality of his sources the argumentative appeal weakens a lot.
He draws a conclusion from his own experience and assumes that “disgruntled American parents forget…[that] their. Creativity , Education , Education in the United States 1331 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay Attendance Policy 2nd draft. ? ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY | Definition Refuting opposing arguments Organization Language Supporting our ideas . Sample argumentative essay Definition: In this kind of The Healthful Benefits, essay , we not only Life Essay give information but also present an argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and implementing change, CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to of Happiness in Everyday, adopt new beliefs or behavior. Who Wrote The Old Man And! The primary objective is to persuade people to change. Alternative medicine , Argument , Argument map 1808 Words | 7 Pages. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Do curfews keep teens out of trouble? Thesis Statement: In the modern day, with growing knowledge and . The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay! curiosity of teens about the real world, as well as the desperation of people caused by poverty, curfews nowadays, though believed to keep teens safe and controlled, anything like crimes can happen in any time, so curfews do not really keep teens out of trouble.
OUTLINE: I. About The Healthful Of Gratitude! Introduction A. Background information B. Definition of the The Pursuit of Happiness, topic C. Thesis statement . Mind , Modern history , Present 1950 Words | 5 Pages. ? Argumentative Essay Braden Rawson Social Networking or the use of who wrote the old man and, specific websites or applications to interact with other . users is one of the many key and driving factors today in our world. We find ourselves lost for many minutes or possibly hours at a time on any particular app or website. Looking deeper into the issue of social networking and its impact on our life, I highly doubt we have accomplished anything at all. Of Happiness In Everyday! A very smart man once said, “Time is money.” If that quote is true do we. Facebook , MySpace , Orkut 941 Words | 3 Pages. English 0099 Argumentative Essay 25 March 2013 Say No to . Birth Control Oral contraceptives have been around for How Social Media a Radical Change on Communication more than 4,000 years.
In 1843, prior to discovering that conception occurs when the sperm enters the female egg, Scientists assumed women had no role in the creation of life. Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay! After realizing women played a part in conception Scientists have begun creating ways for women to prevent pregnancy. There have been many types. How Social Media Has Caused On Communication Essay! Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 1497 Words | 4 Pages. | Breastfeeding is better for your baby | Argumentative Essay | | | Islas, R. Of Happiness Life Essay! Argumentative . essay Among the many decision a woman faces when she is pregnant, is whether or not she will breastfeed her child.
In our society and in this day and age, this has become a matter of choice as opposed to implementing, long ago where formula was nonexistent and the only means of nurturing your baby was to breastfeed. Many women are oblivious to The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay, the health risks their baby may endure having not being breastfed. Baby bottle , Baby food , Breast milk 1314 Words | 4 Pages. ? Argumentative essay College Composition I 10-15-2014 Should drivers of automobiles be prohibited from using cellular . Essay Benefits! phones? Driving requires a lot of concentration in order to keep the road, and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, ourselves safe. Nowadays, many people have a license without being able to drive in about The Healthful, a manner that is The Pursuit, responsible. This raises the question of cell phones. There are many factors that contribute to accidents. About The Healthful Benefits Of Gratitude! Eating, drinking, reaching for fallen objects and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, talking to passengers are also some. Automobile , Cellular network , GSM services 753 Words | 4 Pages. ? Language Essay PSY/360 Introduction Language is universal way to express . how a person feels. So of course, it is essential in cultures to express their individuality within life.
Most of the time people do not put a lot of Essay about The Healthful Benefits, speculation on what mental processes may be taking place subconsciously. These mental processes allow a person to think, speak, and express their personal thoughts through language . The Pursuit In Everyday Essay! In order to implementing in nursing, properly analyze that language , cognition must. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Cognitive science 1078 Words | 4 Pages. Of Happiness Life! ?Sirisakul Ratanachomsakul Argumentative Essay Girls love dolls and who wrote the old man and, boys love trucks is what we have been taught by our . The Pursuit Of Happiness Essay! grandparents, parents, and teachers generation by generation and has become gender stereotypes. Essay Impression! Women are expect to marry and have children. She also put her family’s welfare before her own; be loving, compassionate, caring, nurturing, and sympathetic. For that female is often seen as a symbol of a weaker gender comparing to male who are bigger, stronger, and financial provider. Discrimination , Female , Gender 1260 Words | 4 Pages. ? Argumentative Essay About Internet Censorship Censorship has been defined as “The removal of material that is deemed or . judged offensive to Life, any sector of the population.
Many have wondered, “Just how beneficial is censorship to man, when is it enough and does it help”? It is my view however; that there is no clear answer to the question, for censorship has its fair balance of advantages and disadvantages. I argue that the censorship of the internet in the modern digital era is “Ludacris” ridiculous. Broadband Internet access , Censorship , Freedom of speech 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay for Using Laptops. Essay On The CV Makes The First Impression! Argumentative Essay In recent years, laptop computers have been playing a ubiquitous role in society. Generally speaking, there . The Pursuit Of Happiness! are more and change, more people carrying them along in in Everyday Life, restaurant, airport lounges and of lowering age, bookstores.
On the other hand, laptops are also an The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, important component in on The CV Makes, the educational process. As a matter of fact, they do offer an The Pursuit in Everyday, array of Essay, advantages, while some people think using laptops in the classroom is a learning impediment and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life, a distraction. Of Gratitude! Although some people suggest that laptops. Internet , Laptop , Personal computer 847 Words | 3 Pages. ? 1 . LTCA Argumentative Essay April 16, 2013 Why our country should have universal healthcare? In America there are so many people who live without healthcare. President Obama has tried hard to The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, change that known fact by introducing and passing his new Obama Care Act. It is very important for people to the sea, have proper healthcare coverage. Barack Obama , Health care , Health economics 992 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Scarlett Letter Argumentative Essay In the Scarlett Letter by Hawthorn, public humiliation is used as a form of . punishment. In that place and time period, the of Happiness Essay, seventeenth century, Puritanical Boston, Massachusettes, this form of punishment was quite common. Essay About Benefits Of Gratitude! There was no separation of church and in Everyday Life, state at that time and since Puritan beliefs were based on good versus evil, it was a common practice to about of Gratitude, humiliate, chastise, and berate people as a scare tactic to keep order.
Fast forward. 17th century , Abuse , Bullying 1168 Words | 5 Pages. ?.Christopher North Prof. Ed Stever ENG 101 March 24, 2015 Argumentative Essay Capital Punishment The majority of . Americans support capital punishment, and The Pursuit Essay, there are some who don’t. The other side does not support capital punishment because Christian doctrine believes that killing is a mortal sin. There are some government officials who do support the change in nursing, death penalty and are there some who do not support the The Pursuit Life, death penalty. Therefore, capital punishment should be utilized in all 50 states.
Capital punishment , Capital punishment in the United States , Crime 1207 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay (Introduction) Guantanamo Bay did a good thing for implementing in nursing America. Guantanamo Bay is located in a small area in . Cuba off of Life, American soil. America's most recent president, Barack Obama wants to shut the prison down and How Social a Radical Change Essay, suspended it for a short period of time in the beginning of January this year. (My position And Thesis) I believe that Guantanamo bay should never be shut down because the prison led United States and other countries' to terrorists and it punished those who planned. Al-Qaeda , Human rights , KILL 1059 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sahra Sheikhnur Argumentative Essay Terrorism has made a major impact in The U.S in the past 10 years. Terrorism is very . dangerous and has led to many lives being lost. Recently, there have been many terrorist acts going on, which led the of Happiness Essay, U.S. The Old Man And The Sea! government to wonder if individuals should use censorship to prevent terrorist speech. The United States government should completely renounce coverage of terrorist speech because the ongoing coverage can lead to more threats and dangers. The media is a great.
Al-Qaeda , Censorship , Freedom of speech 1106 Words | 4 Pages. of people with common interests living in a particular locality that works together to build a nation. A nation is a race of people with shared values, . culture, traditions, history, and language that is confined to one country. A country is the territory of The Pursuit in Everyday Essay, a nation where every individual seeks to who wrote the old the sea, have a united body and of Happiness Life Essay, contributes in any way possible to attain the building and rising of a progressive nation. This is the definition of of lowering, a country but the concept of The Pursuit Life, it is contrasting to what it is in. Filipino people , Philippines 1161 Words | 4 Pages. Word Count- 1250 Essay #5 Most professions or trades use language specific to that line of work. In the Essay about Benefits, workplace of The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay, . Benefits Of Lowering The Drinking! psychiatrists, psychologists, and of Happiness in Everyday, therapists, there is Essay on Anthem, a specific language used in The Pursuit in Everyday Essay, assessing, diagnosing, and treating clients and patients. I have come to be familiar with this as my mother is a therapist and Essay on The CV Makes, we have talked about her work and The Pursuit in Everyday, diagnosing people with a variety of benefits of lowering the drinking, mental health disorders.
The problem with such language and expressing that language in a book like. Antisocial personality disorder , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay, Mental Disorders , Homosexuality 1321 Words | 4 Pages. “ Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for helping students to both understand key concepts and in helping . students to think critically.” Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at some point you have had to write an argumentative essay . It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and on Anthem, point of of Happiness Life, view to an audience in an attempt to persuade them. Who Wrote Man And The Sea! Extensive research is required to provide the facts. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday! Argument , Critical thinking , Educational psychology 790 Words | 3 Pages. d.), lack of sleep leads to sleep deprivation. Getting enough sleep is implementing in nursing, important in maintaining good body condition. When you have insufficient . sleep, it brings great harm to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday, your body balance, coordination and decision making ability (Pietrangelo, 2014).
Curfews help in Essay on The CV Makes, diminishing health risks caused by Life, sleep deprivation. This is because curfews bring advantages to implementing change, teens in managing their body function. For an instance, your parents have set your curfew hour to Essay, start at 10.00 p.m. until 6.00 a. Adolescence , Curfew , Decision making 762 Words | 2 Pages. The Importance of on The CV Makes and Lasting Impression, Body Language in Tutoring. The Importance of Body Language in Tutoring “ Body language is a very powerful tool.
We had . body language before we had speech, and apparently, 80% of what you understand in a conversation is read through the body , not the words.” (Deborah Bull) Body language plays, in my opinion, an The Pursuit Life Essay, important role in tutoring and it is Essay on The CV Makes the First and Lasting, especially important with ESL student who often use observation to understand better and to of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, compensate some deficit in oral communication. According to Wikipedia’s definition. Body language , Communication , Eye contact 1245 Words | 5 Pages. Body Language . About Benefits! It has been said that actions speak louder than words, but, what exactly is body . language ? The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as: The gestures, movements, and, mannerisms by of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, which a person or animal communicates with others. So, now knowing this definition the implementing change, phrase Actions speak louder than words starts to make a lot more sense. Even though our body language does not reveal all our innermost thoughts and feelings, it does not mean it is to be ignored. The Pursuit Of Happiness Essay! It plays a key role. Communication , Language , Linguistics 1011 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Body Language Jennifer Schatzman BCOM/275 – Business Communications and Critical Thinking July . 29, 2013 Ted Koontz Body language is an of lowering age, underrated form of communication. If one can understand body language , then the effective sending and Life Essay, receiving of implementing in nursing, a message can be raised. There are many forms of communication.
Non-verbal communication is one form that can be a skill one can acquire and master. I will discuss the benefit of Life Essay, understanding body language. Body language , Communication , Gesture 1048 Words | 3 Pages. ?Caleb Madison ENG 101 10/3/13 Argumentative Essay From fire to light bulbs, and pagers to smart-phones, humans have always . sought progress. The average person can agree that most new things are for CV Makes Impression the better. If humans didn’t grow and progress then one could question whether or not we even have a purpose. One thing that humans have lacked the necessary progression in of Happiness Life Essay, is the place that homosexuals have in society.
Same-sex marriage has recently begun to be legalized by several states. At this. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 2058 Words | 6 Pages. About! ? Argumentative essay : The 25th of November, 2011 is to be tattooed in all Moroccan’s memories and hearts as it was a . quite significant day in Morocco’s history. PJD, the Party of Justice and Development, came out winner of the harsh competition that was to oppose the Moroccan parties because it seemed to have made quite tempting promises to the Moroccan populace. Its message was straightforward and obviously promising to of Happiness Life, the millions of citizens who have been hoping for change for numerous. Africa , Corruption , Cycle of poverty 1830 Words | 6 Pages. required to discuss the elements and importance of effective communication in the context of nursing. Communication is the way in which people can . About The Healthful Benefits Of Gratitude! exchange information.
Information can be given either verbally (use of The Pursuit Life Essay, words) or non-verbally ( body language or behaviours). Essay About The Healthful Benefits Of Gratitude! (DeVito (2004) as cited by Videbeck (2009). Interpersonal skills are a core nursing skill. Essay! Nurses interact with people of different cultures and benefits, walks of life on a day-to-day basis so they must be able to communicate effectively. Communication , Message , Nonverbal communication 1696 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay on Bilingual Education Bilingualism is the ability to speak two languages . Bilingual . Education is The Pursuit Life Essay, being taught school subjects in two different languages . Media Has Caused A Radical On Communication Essay! The United States is home to millions of immigrants each with their own native backgrounds. The United States require the of Happiness in Everyday Essay, immigrants to learn the full English languages when settling into the country.
The schools should give the opportunity to bilingual students, or new student immigrants the advantage to learn the the drinking age, English. Education , English language , German language 1278 Words | 4 Pages.
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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of Life gender inequality in Essay, the United States.
While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. We know a lot about The Pursuit of Happiness Essay gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and about The Healthful Benefits much more. The outpouring of in Everyday Life research and commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.
Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in about The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude, frustration over The Pursuit in Everyday Essay what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. Essay Of Gratitude. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and in Everyday Life Essay verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. Essay On The CV Makes. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. Rather than focusing on the old, discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of The Pursuit Life our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the of lowering age analytical tasks each week. Of Happiness Life. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the sea the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and of Happiness papers. Implementing In Nursing. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to of Happiness Essay, the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. How Social Media A Radical Essay. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the of Happiness Life Essay syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for who wrote downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from of Happiness Essay Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on benefits age, the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for of Happiness in Everyday Life an analytical task , one for Has Caused a Radical Change recommended readings , and of Happiness in Everyday Life one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the implementing in nursing page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the Essay viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an Essay and Lasting Impression, obstacle if we want to The Pursuit in Everyday, search the the drinking age page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, examine what is and Lasting, shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the in Everyday hidden sections to show everything on of lowering the drinking age, the page by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look).
The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to in Everyday, know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in Essay CV Makes the First and Lasting Impression, ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. Of Happiness. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Media Change on Communication Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay. What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.
81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. The Old. We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about of Happiness Essay why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and How Social Media Has Caused Change on Communication Essay self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay, explain why women and Essay on The men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. In Everyday. To the on Communication Essay degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about How Social Media a Radical Change all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in Life, a couple pages. Thinking Tools . The starting point of implementing most causal analyses is in Everyday, a comparison. When we start with the Essay CV Makes and Lasting Impression general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to in Everyday Essay, produce an answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in Essay of Gratitude, summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle?
The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in who wrote the old man and, a way that could explain X and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to about Benefits of Gratitude, the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of of Happiness in Everyday social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to on The the First and Lasting Impression, act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is The Pursuit Essay, that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. Who Wrote Man And. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?
What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. The Old The Sea. But seemingly everywhere men and The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the implementing in nursing expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. Essay. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to of Happiness Life Essay, explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by the sea age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. Of Happiness Life. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.
If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in man and, dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and in Everyday Life Essay men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and change in nursing men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. 1960.
Determinism in of Happiness Essay, History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Benefits Of Lowering Age. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Life Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is How Social Has Caused a Radical Change Essay, gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay, everyday life? To start our investigation of the benefits causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to Life, day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?
How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of on The Impression gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . The Pursuit In Everyday. Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the of lowering the drinking age role of The Pursuit gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and Anthem sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.
First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the The Pursuit in Everyday Essay context we chose) fit the Anthem expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the The Pursuit Life Essay wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Implementing Change. Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the The Pursuit of Happiness phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the implementing like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Of Happiness Life. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and man and same-sex encounters.
We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about in Everyday these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by Essay on The the First and Lasting Impression these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in of Happiness in Everyday Essay, our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.
For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to Essay about The Healthful Benefits, the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . The Pursuit Essay. We can take the analysis of interactions another step by who wrote man and the sea considering how the influence of gender on The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay, these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . A Radical On Communication Essay. Whenever we try to in Everyday Life Essay, explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions.
When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and Essay on dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.
4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Who Wrote The Old The Sea. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . The Pursuit In Everyday Life. Oxford: 2011. . IV. On. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?
And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. The Pursuit In Everyday Life Essay. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of change in nursing their different approaches . Life Essay. In doing this, try to the sea, pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to The Pursuit of Happiness Life, deepen and sharpen your arguments.
It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the Essay women and men have similar credentials and of Happiness Essay accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. The Sea. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and in Everyday Life the crew must abandon it. Man And. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into The Pursuit of Happiness a community, pairing off to the old man and, reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?
What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. The Pursuit Life Essay. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Has Caused A Radical On Communication. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.
Here are some starting points for learning the The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the implementing in nursing more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.
A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for The Pursuit of Happiness a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Who Wrote The Sea. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Of Happiness. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans. Has Caused On Communication Essay. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.
10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. The Pursuit Of Happiness Life. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . About Of Gratitude. Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. In Everyday Life. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Essay. Randall Collins.
A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. The Pursuit Life. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. Benefits. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.aˆ?A Theory-Guided Way of of Happiness in Everyday Essay Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. Essay On The The First. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Of Happiness Life Essay. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. Benefits Of Lowering The Drinking. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.
22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and The Pursuit Life Evolution in Essay Anthem, Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of The Pursuit in Everyday Essay Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. About Of Gratitude. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.
80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.
3 (Sep., 1978), pp. Life Essay. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and change in nursing P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of The Pursuit Life Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.
Reproduction and Essay Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. The Pursuit Life Essay. Probably the benefits the drinking two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and The Pursuit the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.
We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to Anthem, provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by The Pursuit Life these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to who wrote the old the sea, sort this out. The Pursuit Life. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of Essay the First and Lasting Impression summaries of The Pursuit Life Essay what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Implementing In Nursing. Thinking tools . The Pursuit Of Happiness Essay. We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to CV Makes the First and Lasting Impression, be explained, the of Happiness in Everyday Essay second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the Essay Benefits of Gratitude principal causal problems addressed by The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of Essay on some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. The Pursuit Life Essay. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and Benefits of Gratitude which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. The Pursuit Of Happiness Life Essay. For each of Essay the First and Lasting Impression these, after summarizing the causal logic of the The Pursuit of Happiness Life framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the Essay Anthem range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on of Happiness Life Essay, the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and on gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to on, an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to of Happiness in Everyday Essay, do well and on The CV Makes the First and Lasting thoroughly.
At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to of Happiness in Everyday Essay, achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and CV Makes the First and Lasting the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and of Happiness in Everyday Life Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.
Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Essay CV Makes The First. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and The Pursuit Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. On The And Lasting Impression. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay. Bianchi.
How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and man and the sea Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay. Greenstein and J. Essay On Anthem. G. In Everyday. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Essay The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of of Happiness in Everyday Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in How Social Media a Radical Change on Communication Essay, Housework. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.
Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and Essay on The and Lasting family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay. Soares, Bruno L. S. Benefits. FalcA?A?o. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. How Social Media Has Caused On Communication Essay. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.
1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. In Everyday Life Essay. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and Essay Benefits the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay. What is the Essay the First and Lasting Impression role of sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Benefits Of Lowering The Drinking. Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes.
Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and Benefits men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to The Pursuit in Everyday, explain some aspect of Essay The Healthful of Gratitude gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for of Happiness in Everyday Life this task.
This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to of lowering age, merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is of Happiness Essay, plausible. For example, the who wrote the old man and the sea facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. Benefits Of Lowering. The explanations should be succinct but clear. The Pursuit In Everyday. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Benefits Of Lowering. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the of Happiness Life perspectives. The five types of on The the First and Lasting Impression explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the following perspectives.
Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of The Pursuit essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the who wrote man and the sea sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of Essay CV Makes the First and Lasting explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.
Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the of Happiness fictitious ones for below. The Old The Sea. Indirect biological - Formulate an The Pursuit in Everyday, explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the change in nursing biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of Life Essay weapons, and Media Has Caused on Communication men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and Life Essay social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Benefits Of Lowering The Drinking Age. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and implementing change dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in The Pursuit Life, business.
This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of Anthem gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and The Pursuit in Everyday that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. The Drinking Age. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered.
For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. Essay. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The Pursuit Life. The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. Change. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only The Pursuit of Happiness, biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the who wrote the old the sea immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and of Happiness Essay a Patriarchal Society. Essay About. Econometrica, Vol.
77, No. Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. About Benefits. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Feminist Psychology.
Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. Essay Anthem. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Of Happiness. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Media A Radical Change On Communication. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.
4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). Of Happiness In Everyday. The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. How Social A Radical Change On Communication. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.
Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Of Gratitude. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. The Pursuit Life. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).
Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Anthem. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the of Happiness in Everyday Essay Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.
Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of on The CV Makes and Lasting Postmodern Feminist Theory. In Everyday Life Essay. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.
649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. Benefits Of Lowering. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.
Including Mechanisms in of Happiness, Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.
Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to the First Impression, theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the The Pursuit in Everyday following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.
Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of man and the sea this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of of Happiness some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the Essay CV Makes the First Impression fictional belief in this difference would arise and become prevalent. The Pursuit In Everyday. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for Essay this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?
Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to The Pursuit in Everyday Life, be clear about the Essay The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]
The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. In Everyday Life. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. On The And Lasting Impression. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and The Pursuit Essay reasonable account of Anthem some part of the relationship between inequality and The Pursuit in Everyday Essay sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. Who Wrote The Sea. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the in Everyday proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.
Which way it is important is Essay, wide open. The role of the The Pursuit in Everyday Essay chosen sexuality characteristic relative to The Healthful, gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. The Pursuit In Everyday Life Essay. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes? And why is Essay CV Makes the First and Lasting Impression, this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. The Pursuit Of Happiness Essay. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. Essay Of Gratitude. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and of Happiness Life a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.
When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of Essay CV Makes and Lasting Impression these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to The Pursuit Essay, understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to implementing change in nursing, assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and of Happiness Life the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Essay Methodological Critique of Two Decades of of Happiness in Everyday Essay Research. Of Lowering The Drinking Age. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. The Pursuit In Everyday Life Essay. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.
Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Essay On Anthem. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and Life the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. Essay CV Makes Impression. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.
Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. Of Happiness Essay. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.
95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. The Healthful Of Gratitude. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.
Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. The Journal of The Pursuit in Everyday Life Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of CV Makes the First and Lasting Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.
107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Life Essay. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. Man And The Sea. (2006). Life. Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.
Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. Anthem. What is the role of violence and The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a Radical on Communication, a cause of inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and of Happiness in Everyday Essay their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to implementing change, those of men.
Here, our strategy is to reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the Essay (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on in nursing, Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to in Everyday Life Essay, the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the implementing degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the Essay aggressive acts, and man and (3) the existing relationship between the The Pursuit Essay relevant men and women. In simple terms, the who wrote the old aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. The Pursuit. These actions are especially linked to inequality by about The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes.
The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and Anthem lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for of Happiness sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is change, a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to The Pursuit of Happiness, explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . Essay And Lasting Impression. We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the in Everyday Essay possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and Essay about The Healthful of Gratitude harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.
This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in of Happiness Essay, circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of Essay on men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. In Everyday Essay. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.
Another way to look at it is the Essay Impression old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to in Everyday, one or two possible causes, just because they happen to on The the First, be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.
We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to implementing change in nursing, conform to the standards for The Pursuit Life Essay a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. Implementing Change. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. The Pursuit Of Happiness Life Essay. It should show what happens in the world that produces the Essay Anthem outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the The Pursuit Essay relevant behavior, and so forth.
This may be abstract at the level of the causal model. The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to How Social Media Has Caused a Radical Change Essay, ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, the alternatives. Implementing Change In Nursing. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay societies, parts of implementing change society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to The Pursuit Life Essay, be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.
Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in gender inequality by a fear of violence. The Sea. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of The Pursuit of Happiness gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of implementing fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by The Pursuit of Happiness such conditions as forms of economic and implementing in nursing political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and Life Essay the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of man and violence. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay. In what ways do fears of Essay on violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and Essay behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.
Removing inequality as a source of the drinking discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of The Pursuit of Happiness Essay aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. A Radical Change. (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.
34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to The Pursuit Life, the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Essay the First Impression, Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.
719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and The Pursuit of Happiness Essay Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.
4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by on Anthem male and female university students in The Pursuit in Everyday, 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Change. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of The Pursuit of Happiness sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and on The the First Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.
Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Life Essay. Feminist Studies, Vol. About. 12, No. Of Happiness Life Essay. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. On The The First Impression. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.
American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol.
19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. Of Happiness. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and implementing in nursing Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and of Happiness Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . Essay On. 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.
384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. On The The First And Lasting. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. Essay. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. About The Healthful Of Gratitude. Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. Life Essay. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of Essay CV Makes gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from The Pursuit in Everyday Essay kinship and political organization. Essay Of Gratitude. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see).
Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay two-thirds or more of the those in the occupational category. The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of who wrote man and males. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011.
Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of on Anthem course, to interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and in Everyday men. It is benefits of lowering the drinking, recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to Life Essay, considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. How Social Has Caused A Radical. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. The Pursuit In Everyday. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. One way to who wrote the old, think about this is in Life, terms of age what we don't see in the tables.
Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?
What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on The Pursuit in Everyday, wives' earnings with the Essay about data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of of Happiness Life Essay women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the change in nursing economy and The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of Has Caused a Radical Change on Communication Essay gender inequality implies a causal problem. The Pursuit Of Happiness. For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and benefits of lowering are now still under represented in them.
In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is The Pursuit in Everyday Essay, influenced by about The Healthful of Gratitude economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at in Everyday Essay, the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the who wrote the old persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . In Everyday. Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the a Radical on Communication three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the of Happiness in Everyday Life relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.
For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in and Lasting, the literature concerning the The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to implementing change in nursing, learn which causal explanation is more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the of Happiness Life Essay circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. On The CV Makes Impression. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and of Happiness Life economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Man And. Blau.
Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Of Happiness In Everyday. Kahn. Implementing Change In Nursing. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.
68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Of Happiness Life. May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec.
Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Essay on The Mary Malloy. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. On The CV Makes And Lasting. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.
267-287 Shelley J. Of Happiness In Everyday. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of in nursing Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. The Pursuit In Everyday. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.
Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. On The The First Impression. 13, No. The Pursuit In Everyday. 4, The Measure of benefits the drinking American History (Spring, 1983), pp. In Everyday Life. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. Man And The Sea. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and Life the Status of Women. American Journal of Essay on Sociology , Vol. Of Happiness In Everyday Life Essay. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. Anthem. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.
3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in The Pursuit in Everyday Essay, Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the who wrote man and College Gender Gap. In Everyday Essay. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.
20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Essay The Healthful Benefits. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Of Happiness. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. On The CV Makes And Lasting. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.
The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the on The Twentieth Annual Congress of the The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.
The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . How Social Media Change On Communication Essay. 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of of Happiness Life World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.
81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. Who Wrote The Old Man And The Sea. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in Household Work. American Journal of of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. People's conceptions of masculinity and who wrote man and femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of in Everyday Life Essay women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of Essay about The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and in Everyday Life female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the Anthem influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of The Pursuit in Everyday distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in Media Has Caused a Radical Change on Communication, levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.
While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the of Happiness Life Essay analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about Essay on The CV Makes the First Impression women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. The Pursuit In Everyday. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to on Anthem, women.
Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to of Happiness Life Essay, be restricted for Essay on The CV Makes and Lasting women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of The Pursuit in Everyday Essay restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to Essay about of Gratitude, be a bit creative. It can be helpful to in Everyday Life, focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . How Social Media Has Caused On Communication Essay. The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the The Pursuit of Happiness Essay chosen example to Essay on The Impression, do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. The Pursuit In Everyday Life. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the Essay on Anthem basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the The Pursuit Life differences between more or less of it, and Anthem how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of of Happiness Life Essay that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.
The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and benefits the drinking age they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the The Pursuit in Everyday difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and on ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in in Everyday, conflicts over benefits of lowering age inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, be in opposition. On Anthem. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. Of Happiness In Everyday Life. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of in nursing beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.
Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to of Happiness Life Essay, be high or low, and what difference does the benefits of lowering the drinking age degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the The Pursuit of Happiness Essay beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to Essay on The the First and Lasting Impression, it. In Everyday Life Essay. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance.
For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by on comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and of Happiness in Everyday imposed by cultures or acquired as the Impression common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. Implementing In Nursing. At the social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.
What kind of in Everyday Life effect and how much effect we attribute to change, a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the the old man and presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is Life Essay, affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and Has Caused a Radical Change on Communication Essay considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to find women and The Pursuit of Happiness Life men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. Who Wrote Man And. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is of Happiness Life, not to include everything. Essay CV Makes. Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about whatever we happened to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, think about who wrote the old first. We are trying to figure out of Happiness Essay what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of benefits the drinking gender inequality.
Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the inequality that they legitimate and The Pursuit in Everyday motivate. Man And. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to in Everyday Essay, be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at change in nursing, some point in time this type of gender inequality came into in Everyday Life existence.
Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the the drinking emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of of Happiness Life Essay reality and justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is Essay on The Impression, minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to Life, those where it is high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the on beliefs associated with a facet of The Pursuit gender inequality exist without the benefits presence of this facet of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality.
The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of of lowering the drinking inequality per se, not dependent on the type of inequality. The Pursuit In Everyday. The second possibility suggests the prospect of Has Caused a Radical Change beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the in Everyday Essay beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of the old man and the sea gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to Essay, consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the implementing change transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to implementing, both women and The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs.
XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in of lowering, every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and on The CV Makes Impression changed by the actions of women and men.
The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay altering laws, policies, or the the First balance of power, although even in The Pursuit of Happiness, these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an of lowering the drinking, exception). The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to Life, compare the causes, motives, and effects of implementing in nursing these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to The Pursuit in Everyday Life, take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period.
The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of How Social Has Caused a Radical Change being either in certain enduring categories of in Everyday Life women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for Media Has Caused a Radical long periods). The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the of lowering age degree of The Pursuit of Happiness Life Essay gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the Essay the First and Lasting persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of in Everyday Life Essay gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by who wrote the old the sea women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the The Pursuit Essay following: Identify what kind of How Social Media Change Essay women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the The Pursuit of Happiness action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the Essay about The Healthful of Gratitude number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the The Pursuit in Everyday Essay effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).
Try to Change Essay, specify the reasons why this type of The Pursuit of Happiness Essay action occurred. These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the actions and Essay The Healthful Benefits make them seem necessary, sensible, and The Pursuit in Everyday Essay just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the implementing change same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney.
Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. On. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. The Pursuit In Everyday Essay. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol.
2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.
Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. Who Wrote Man And. 545-566, Oct 2004. Life Essay. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and on Gender Equality in a Danish Context.
Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. The Pursuit Life. Gender in the old the sea, Families: Women and Men in The Pursuit of Happiness, Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. Change In Nursing. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.
How have political processes and The Pursuit in Everyday structures sustained men's and implementing change in nursing women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, changes in on The the First, the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to of Happiness Life Essay, its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of How Social Change on Communication individual acts to collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from Life Essay appearing. Through the Essay law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.
States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by on Anthem that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of The Pursuit of Happiness state policies will reinforce the exercise and How Social Media Has Caused a Radical Change on Communication persistence of the inequality. Essay. A fundamental problem for all state theories is change in nursing, who or what decides state policies and actions. The Pursuit. To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. About The Healthful Of Gratitude. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.
In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.
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Essay on Youth Violence and in Everyday, Media. There has been a lot of research conducted on the notions that violence portrayed in media - such as television, video, film, music, newspapers and books - can have adverse effects on the children viewing it. Many people have suggested that media has allowed violence to become so prevalent in our societies. Essay! It has also been suggested that media has been responsible in making the Life Essay, children violent as well. Statistics have shown that an average person watches as much as 7 hours of television every day. It does not come as any surprise that a child between the of lowering the drinking, age of two and five watches approximately 28 hours of television ever week (Johnson, 1990: Hoffman, 1990). Another thing that comes to The Pursuit, mind is that there has been a lot of Essay on The Impression, allowance of violence in the media ever since broadcasting was deregulated in 1980. These images of violence and anti-social behavior tend to entice the same in people who watch them (Fox, Kaslow, Lewvant, McDaniel, Norton, Storandt Walker, 1994). It has been recognized that children who are continuously being exposed to violent images in the media tend to incorporate the ideas behind violence in their learning process (Bandura, Ross Ross, 1963; Cannon, 1989; Wilson Hunter, 1983). The phenomenon of violence is also very complex and there are many factors that can or cannot induce violent behavior in a human being. Many people have suggested that the individuals' personalities, their family backgrounds, their cultural, educational, and in Everyday Life, religious implications, all contribute to acts of violence.
It is believed that children learn from things that happen around them and also by observing people who are important to them, e.g. parents, teachers, priests etc. This is Essay on, because children start to develop a sense of The Pursuit Essay, themselves and others and a sense of right and wrong very early (Piaget, 1932; Sullivan, 1953; Winnicott, 1965). Children who are raised in a society where inequality is supported, they find more evidence of selfishness, competition and domination, they are more likely to grow up to be violent people (West, 1993). From this we can derive the fact that children are more likely to Essay about of Gratitude, be exposed to violent material in the media if they are not supervised properly and are not guided properly. Many researches have contributed to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Life, this as realizations have been made that prolonged exposure to violence and anti-social behavior in the media to children causes them to on The, be more involved in the use of alcohol and drugs (Evans, 1987; McBee, 1982), and The Pursuit Life, cheat more in school, (Greene, 1992; Greene Saxe, 1991; McBee, 1982). Even though it has been said that there is change, a very positive relationship between violence in a person and violence that he/she has been exposed to in the media (Freedman, 1984; 1986), there are many other factors that also have to Life Essay, be considered when viewing the exact effect of CV Makes the First, violence in media on a child or a person. Although almost everyone would agree that children who view violence in of Happiness Essay, media might turn out to be violent in Media Has Caused a Radical, their real lives, this cannot be the only factor that must be considered when drawing such a conclusion. That is to say that some of the evidence that has been gathered from the laboratory experiments and other correlational research tend to The Pursuit, point otherwise.
Some of the laboratory findings have suggested that watching violent images on television can increase the age, probability of subsequent maladaptive behavior (Evans McCandless, 1978). According to some researchers, this was especially true when the violence was rewarded (Bandura et al., 1963). Andison (1977) found that the effects on aggression by viewing violence on The Pursuit in Everyday Life Essay, television are not necessarily more in benefits the drinking age, children as compared to the adult viewers. Of Happiness In Everyday Essay! This research, even though inconclusive, also found that the effects of violence in media were slightly stronger on adults than they were on CV Makes, preschool children. These findings are very different from those that have suggested that media can have more effects on children since they are more susceptible in their growing years. Research that has been conducted in the field and also by correlation also provides some other important perspectives on this issue. These researches show that the The Pursuit, images of violence viewed on television can have various different kinds of effects on the viewer and these effects largely depend on the personality of the viewer. It was noted that male children who watched only nonviolent shows on television were found to be generally more aggressive than those who had watched violence on television (Feshbach Singer, 1971). Findings by Friedrich and Stein (1973), however, have suggested that there exists a complex relationship between interpersonal aggression and in nursing, the watching of violent television programs. The Pursuit Of Happiness Essay! It was also found that people who were high on the aggression list and those who saw violence in the media, took a longer time in coming down from Media Has Caused Change on Communication Essay their aggressive state than did high-aggressors who saw neutral or nonviolent images.
On the other hand, those who were low on aggression and who saw nonviolent images became more aggressive than those who saw violence on television. This means that even those images that were nonviolent evoked an The Pursuit in Everyday Essay, aggressive response under certain conditions (Gadow Sprafkin. 1989). The programs that were used to who wrote man and the sea, determine this included Sesame Street and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (Coates, Pusser Goodman, 1976). These findings have made many researchers question the The Pursuit of Happiness, true nature of violence in the media and how it can or cannot affect the implementing change in nursing, child in various ways. Some studies have also suggested that it is not the nature of the programs but the number of hours that a child spends in front of the television that is the cause of the adverse effects. This is so according to Belson (1978), who believes that aggression could be derived from watching violent television as often as it could be derived from watching nonviolent images. The research on children has been restricted to because of many factors. It is believed that children are a special audience (Dorr, 1986). They are generally considered to The Pursuit in Everyday, be more vulnerable to the exposure of various contents on television, more than adults are known to be affected. This is because the minds of children are in a stage of implementing change in nursing, cognitive immaturity and in Everyday Life Essay, the cognitive pathways in their minds can easily be shaped by various media that are fed into it.
It has been found that television is a particularly attractive thing for the old the sea, the children and the children tend to view television more than they indulge in other activities. This is why television has an of Happiness Life Essay, enormous potential of the old man and the sea, shaping the way a child might think and act. The Pursuit Of Happiness In Everyday Essay! There are many kinds of programs that come on the television and many of them have been specifically designed to mold and nurture the who wrote, minds of The Pursuit in Everyday Life, children. Thus it is also very possible that children who view violent images on television can have certain adverse affects on their brains. This can in turn affect their personalities and instill a fascination with violence for the rest of How Social Media a Radical Change on Communication, their lives. As discussed above, there is much disagreement as to exactly how television viewing can or cannot affect the minds of children. One that that is for sure is that children do tend to watch a whole lot of television. Although there are many estimates, a slightly more conservative estimate gives that an average child watches as much as 3 hours of The Pursuit Essay, television everyday (Huston et al., 1990). The effects of viewing tend to depend largely on the nature of the programs but this is also debatable since the factors involving individual personalities are also to be considered. Most of the children who watch television are not discouraged to do otherwise by their parents (Bryant, 1990). In an average American family, a television is Essay Anthem, a very important part of family life.
Families sit together and watch many television shows and most of the times young children are watching television in front of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday, their parents. One study concluded that children watched television with children more than seventy percent of the time (St. Peters, Fitch, Huston, Wright, Eakins, 1991). It has also been determined that television habits are formed in the early years of a child. Of Lowering The Drinking! A child watches a considerable amount of television after the age of 3 onwards mostly because the family around him is watching television (Huston, Wright, Rice, Kerkman, St. Peters, 1990). The parents are mostly blamed for The Pursuit of Happiness, not regulating their children's television viewing habits. This has also been found that not many parents put in an effort to regulate their children's television viewing patterns.
Children learn by their parents' examples and if the parents watch a lot of television, so do the children. (St. Peters et al.,1991). The parents also play an integral role in the children's mind about the contents of what they view on television. If the parents also enjoy watching violent images on television, the children are also more likely to like and thus view more violence on television. Many studies have indicated that explaining what the child just saw on television can greatly help resolve many issues in the child's mind and also helps them to make better and informed decisions later on. It is the old man and, believed that if the of Happiness in Everyday Essay, parents discuss the ideas behind the aggression shown on CV Makes the First, television with their children, the violent images tend to have a considerably less affect on the child (Desmond, Singer, Singer, 1990; Wright, St. Peters, Huston, 1990). It has also been theorized that television may also affect the The Pursuit Essay, whole family as a group, that is, in the way that they spend their time and events together (Bryant, 1990).
There are many television programs on the air that show other families interacting with each other. These families have served as role models for many American families all over the nation for many years. It is very likely that your normal average family is akin to these families and takes up and who wrote the old man and, adopts many or some of the patterns that they see being interacted on television. These patterns can be considered as what defines normality for these people. For the of Happiness in Everyday Essay, most part, it is very relevant to Essay The Healthful Benefits, study the literature that is on Life, the topic of the benefits of lowering age, effects of The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, televised violence on aggression (Geen Thomas, 1986; Hearold, 1986; Roberts Maccoby, 1985). The fact that keeps recurring is that it is only the televised viewing that brings about an increased aggressive state but it other factors also have to be considered. How Social Media Change On Communication! There are also many people who do not agree with this and say that televised violence really does not affect the people in any negative way (Freedman, 1984, 1988; McGuire, 1986). Since most of the studies that have concluded the adverse effects of television violence on people have been based in laboratory experiments, many people tend to reject the conclusions. “Critics of laboratory research base their arguments on allegations that such studies represent only analogs of aggressive behavior and not cross-sections of it (e.g., Freedman, 1984). Partly because of such arguments, interest in laboratory experiments began to The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, wane in the 1970s as research on the effects of televised violence became based more and more on studies in natural settings.
Some of these studies, usually called field experiments, involved the of lowering the drinking age, use of experimental methodology in natural settings. A number of such investigations were reported during the 1970s and, although they have been criticized as lacking internal validity (Freedman, 1984), these studies yielded consistent findings of a positive relationship between observation of televised violence and aggression” (Geen, 1994). Friedrich-Cofer and Huston (1986) provide a detailed discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of The Pursuit Essay, these studies. Also, Wood, Wong Chachere (1991) also reported the results and meta-analysis of 28 filed experiments that were conducted between 1956 and 1988. “The studies included in this analysis were chosen because they investigated the effects of media violence on aggression among children and adolescents during unconstrained social interaction with strangers, classmates, and friends. Wood and her colleagues concluded that media violence does enhance aggression in such settings and that, because all the experiments involved short-term immediate reactions to observed violence, the effects may be due to temporary changes in affect and arousal as well as to long-term processes like modeling” (Geen, 1994).
A very large amount of research was done on the correlation between television viewing and aggression during the 1980s. “One such investigation was the man and the sea, final phase of a longitudinal project begun in the late 1950s by Eron and his associates (Eron, Walder, Lefkowitz, 1971). The research began with the in Everyday Essay, study of third-grade students in a rural county in upstate New York. Each child's level of aggressiveness was assessed through ratings made by Essay the First, parents, peers, and the children themselves; each child's preference for violent television programs was also measured. Measures of the same variables were obtained 10 and 22 years later from many of the same children. The method of cross-lagged panel correlation was used for analysis of the data. The results of the 10-year follow-up (Lefkowitz, Eron, Walder, Huesmann, 1977) revealed that among boys the amount of televised violence watched during third grade was positively correlated with aggressiveness 10 years later, whereas the correlation between aggressiveness during Grade 3 and the amount of The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, violent television watched a decade later was essentially zero. Following the the sea, assumptions of cross-lagged correlation analysis, Eron and his associates inferred a causal relation between observing violence and aggressiveness from of Happiness in Everyday Essay these data. Benefits Of Lowering Age! For girls, both correlations were not significantly greater than zero. In 1984, Huesmann, Eron, Lefkowitz, and Walder reported the results of the 22-year follow-up.
A positive relationship between childhood television viewing and subsequent aggressiveness was again suggested: The seriousness of crimes for which males were convicted by age 30 was significantly correlated with the The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday, amount of television that they had watched and their liking for violent programs as 8-year-olds. Who Wrote The Old Man And The Sea! Again, aggressiveness at age 8 was not related to either overall viewing practices or preference for of Happiness in Everyday, violent programs at age 30” (Geen, 1994). Singer and the drinking age, Singer (1981) also conducted a study and showed a connection between how watching violence on television affected the in Everyday Essay, aggressiveness in children. This study was conducted on nursery school age children for 1-year. “At four times during the benefits, year, 2-week periods were designated as probes during which parents kept logs of their children's television viewing. Of Happiness In Everyday Life! Meanwhile, observers recorded instances of aggressive behavior by the children during school hours. When data were combined across all four probes, aggressive behavior was found to be significantly correlated with the total amount of time spent in watching “action-adventure” programs, all of which manifested high levels of violence. This effect was found for How Social a Radical on Communication, both boys and girls. The pattern of cross-lagged correlations over the four probe periods led the in Everyday Life, Singers to conclude that the television viewing was leading to the aggressive behavior over the first two comparisons (i.e., from probe 1 to probe 2 and from probe 2 to probe 3). Over the final comparison (from probe 3 to probe 4), however, the cross-lagged pattern showed that not only Essay on was earlier viewing correlated with subsequent aggression, but also that earlier aggression was correlated with subsequent viewing.
In other words, by the latter phase of the study a reciprocal effect was being shown. As in earlier periods, observation of violence was presumably eliciting aggressive behavior; in The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday, addition, aggressive children were also watching more of the violent “action-adventure” shows” (Geen, 1994). This second finding, that people who are high on the aggressiveness scale might like to watch more violence on television is consistent with the results of the laboratory experiments conducted by Fenigstein (1979). In this experiment, people who had had a history of physical aggression against others tended to select television viewing material that was more violent in nature than compared to those who were not as aggressive. The Sea! In a similar correlational study, Diener and DuFour (1978) also presented similar results.
Media has always provided children with entertainment and visual imagery and Essay, imagination that have worked to enhance their minds and Essay Anthem, also develop their brains. Media has also helped the Life Essay, children in keeping their fears in check and on The CV Makes the First and Lasting, controlling their anxieties. “Many preschool children begin a secure night's sleep by having a parent read a story about three pigs whom a wolf sought to eat. The two pigs who quickly built shelters of straw and The Pursuit of Happiness in Everyday Essay, of wood so that they could play the rest of the day were devoured by the wolf. The third built his house of brick and Essay on The the First, would go out early in the mornings to obtain food while the wolf was still asleep. He eventually scalded to death and The Pursuit of Happiness Essay, ate the big bad wolf. According to Bettelheim (1975), this story “teaches the nursery age child in a most enjoyable and dramatic form that we must not be lazy and take things easy, for if we do we may perish. Intelligence, planning, and foresight, combined with hard labor, will make us victorious over even our most ferocious enemy--the wolf!” (pp. 41-42).
It may at first seem odd that a child would choose to be frightened at bedtime, a time often already characterized by anxiety brought on by darkness and by the prospect of Essay, being alone. The fairy tale initially increases that anxiety, then provides a mechanism for relief. The child's serial identifications with the helpless and terrified, then resourceful, then victorious pig lend strength to the child's struggle with his or her anxieties and facilitate sleep” (Derdeyn et al, 1994). The Pursuit Of Happiness Life! Thus some researchers stress the fact that violent images in the media are necessary for children since it helps them deal with many things and to motivate the mastery of their own emotions and states of mind. So what is the conclusion that we come to? Is the violence in media bad for the children, or is some of who wrote the old man and the sea, it necessary? Does viewing violence on television have any adverse affects on the children? Is it the nature of television programming that is more harmful or just watching any kind of television bad? Although many of the laboratory experiments that have been reviewed herein suggest that there is a positive relationship between aggressiveness and television viewing, the research remains inconclusive. The Pursuit! But it will not be wrong to Essay Anthem, face the direction of The Pursuit in Everyday Life, thought that violence in the media does lead to aggressive behavior, as pointed out by the longitudinal studies that were conducted during the 1980s. “The issue may never be settled to everyone's satisfaction, and certainly more research, using state-of-the-art methodology, is needed to How Social a Radical Change, settle the many remaining problems before conclusive evidence may be forthcoming. Even so, at the present time we do appear to have a fairly large amount of what Cook and his colleagues (1983) have called “circumstantial evidence” for a hypothesis that observation of violence on The Pursuit of Happiness Life, television produces some increase in aggressiveness of the on Anthem, viewers” (Geen, 1994)
Various scholars and researchers have tried to explain the The Pursuit in Everyday, relationship between television violence and benefits the drinking, aggression in different ways. “Until recently, such explanations were based on theoretical concepts that were popular during the 1960s, such as disinhibition, arousal, and activation of of Happiness in Everyday Essay, conditioned responses. During the change, 1980s, two new theoretical explanations emerged, both of which are based on of Happiness in Everyday, more recent cognitive models of behavior” (Geen, 1994). So far, the evidence that has been collected from various types of studies, including laboratory experiments, field experiments, longitudinal studies, and archival studies, are in favor of the How Social Change on Communication, notion that viewing violence on of Happiness in Everyday Life, television does have adverse affects on the aggressiveness of the subjects who are watching the programs. These studies have focused on children, adolescents and of lowering the drinking age, young adults, and a wide range of constrained and The Pursuit in Everyday Life, unconstrained behaviors. Even though there might be many limitations to these studies due to the large number of population and the small number of sample, the results from change so many researchers have seemed to point to the same direction. “Underlying processes that mediate the effect have not been extensively studied to date.
However, some promising developments in theory are taking place, involving the development of models derived from affective, cognitive, and motivational psychology. The debate over the consequences of television violence for aggression is by no means over, and future studies of the problem will benefit from both the large literature on the subject and the emergence of the of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, new theoretical approaches” (Geen, 1994). A comprehensive literature review has been presented herein that has purported the role that media can play in the aggressiveness of the viewers. It can be concluded that even though media can play a big role in the way a person grows up to react in a negative way, it is not the only factor that is to be taken in consideration. “But to the extent to which the media can influence behavior and facilitate the implementing, expression of violence in certain individuals, it is important that carefully designed interventions be implemented. This is particularly the case since the media can also have clear educational influences in teaching a prosocial message and the complexity of human motivation as shown in our analysis” (Herron et al, 1998) of the various literature presented above. Television is a very popular media and it is expected that people, especially children, will continue to watch television and The Pursuit, their lives will continue to be affected by the various programs and shows that they watch. It is very important today, for all the parents, teachers, and model citizens, to get involved and try to make the affects of media as non-violent on our children as possible.
All the parents must monitor the television watching activities of the old man and, their children. The parents must make sure that they sit and watch television with their children and keep explaining to Life, them what is going on. The children need to know how the violent images shown on television are not real and Essay Benefits, that they should not try to emulate what they see on television. Parents should not use television as a 'babysitter' and must make the television viewing experience a family affair with the children. “It is our contention that the abdication of parental responsibilities and the erosion of the family are major contributors to the increasing number and the severity of the societal problems we face, including our subject, violent behavior” (Herron et al, 1998). The teachers in schools must also actively participate in The Pursuit in Everyday Life, educating the children about Essay on what they see on The Pursuit, television. “The development of critical viewing skills should be the part of every elementary school curriculum. Curricula for the development of critical viewing skills already exists and Essay CV Makes Impression, has been shown to be effective (e.g., Singer, Singer Zuckerman, 1981). Teaching children how to watch television more productively is extremely important because the use of educational television and of Happiness Life, other media appears to be growing in all educational levels” (Herron et al, 1998). Even those people who are not educators and are not yet parents must also help the children by any which way that they can. The reason for this is that all citizens experience first hand the conditions as posed by the society. The children of today are going to grow up to form the societies of tomorrow. We must all look after our children and make sure that they do not grow up under negative circumstances that can affect their minds and their behaviors. “Our concerns about violence should not only include the The Healthful Benefits of Gratitude, need to monitor the kinds of programs our children watch but to advocate an of Happiness in Everyday Life Essay, understanding of the personal, family and societal issues which cause violence and determine what role television can play in reaching that understanding” (Herron et al, 1998).
This means that everybody in the community must become involved if we are all to minimize the affects of CV Makes, violence in media on our children. The Pursuit! There is on Anthem, a large chance that the violence in the media can propagate the interface and can directly, or indirectly, affect the viewers, especially children. At the Life Essay, same time, however, the same media can also be used to negate the harmful affects. There should be more awareness shows on television that teach children the the drinking age, hazards of of Happiness, violence and these must try to grab their attention without the use of violence or other objectionable material. “As a prime mover in supplying information, it can provide increased awareness of issues such as violence which will impact on large numbers of people. It is of lowering age, our hope that many will seek solutions to such problems by becoming more sophisticated users of what is available to them in the media. It is also our hope that people will become more psychologically aware: better interpersonal skills that come with psychological understanding can only result in The Pursuit Life, a more peaceful world” (Herron et al, 1998). 1. Andison, F. S. (1977). “TV violence and viewer aggression: A cumulation of study results 1956-1976”. Public Opinion Quarterly, 41, 314-331.
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