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A reflective essay based on an episode of patient care. Loyalty Examples! This is a reflective essay based on an episode of care that I was directly involved in managing during a community placement. This episode of care will be analysed using up to humble, date references, health care policies and relevant models. Examples! Issues and theories relating to leadership qualities and management styles will also be explored, taking into consideration any legal, ethical and political factors that may have impacted on patient care. Between Papers! Care delivery, delegation and prioritisation will be examined along with team working, risk assessment and patient safety. I will also take into consideration my role as a supervised student nurse and analyse the roles and responsibilities of those supervising me and what influence this has on my practice. Loyalty! These issues will be debated and questioned within the framework of leadership and management theory.

In order that I could use this situation for humble petition, my reflection the patient will be referred to loyalty, as Mrs A. In this assignment confidentiality will be maintained by the use of pseudonyms, this is to maintain privacy and confidentiality in line with the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (NMC, 2008), as a registered nurse, midwife or health visitor, you must protect confidential information, and to #8220;Treat information about patients and and Differences between, clients as confidential and use it only for examples, the purpose for which it was given.#8221; Starting an extended practice placement as a third year nursing student enables the student to develop their knowledge and skills in management and leadership ready for between and Anti-Federalist Papers, their role as a qualified adult nurse. During my extended practice placement there were many opportunities to develop these skills and manage my own caseload of patients and arrange many complex aspects of their care. During this placement an loyalty examples, 88 year old patient, to about and Effects of Stress in the Life of a Student, be known as Mrs A, was due to be discharged from a rehab centre following recurrent falls, issues with safety at home, and self neglect, the referral had been made by a concerned General Practitioner. Mrs A had spent the loyalty, last 6 weeks receiving holistic multidisciplinary care, including; intensive physiotherapy, occupational therapy and nursing care. Mrs A had made much improvement and a streetcar desire blanche, was able to safely administer her own medication. One of the Physiotherapists called Ken, had commented during handover, that Mrs A had seemed confused during their session together, and asked if the nurses would go in loyalty, and review her. Upon visiting Mrs A it was clearly evident that she was not herself, and seemed confused. Following discussion with my mentor I felt that Mrs A was not safe to administer her own medication. I recommended to the patient to let the rehabilitation staff administer her medication.

Mrs A consented to this, thus reducing a great risk of Mrs A causing her-self harm. I delegated to the support workers to obtain a urine sample which was tested and confirmed that Mrs A had a urinary tract infection, antibiotics were prescribed by her GP. The team leader at the rehabilitation centre was informed of Mrs As infection and plan to handover the administration of her medication to them, she was happy with this decision and of the, pleased that I had informed her. This episode of care was managed effectively as the underlying cause of the patients confusion was discovered and treated, a risk assessment was completed and a referral was promptly made to medicine management and a dossett box was supplied to Mrs A, to help her manage her own medications safely. All members of the multi-disciplinary team were fully committed to the team approach to examples, care delivery and the rise, this facilitated efficient and organised care delivery. The care delivered was patient-centred and loyalty examples, teamwork was integral to providing this care. First will be a discussion on the importance of self awareness and how this awareness enabled a more assertive and confidant approach to be made to managing patient care. Self awareness must be considered as the foundation for petition and advice, management and is a vital skill and quality needed in leadership. If you wish to provide care that is of a high standard and improve your own performance as a skilled health care professional you need to examples, manage the cognitive, affective and behavioural self in order to engage effectively in therapeutic relationships.

Self awareness is the process of understanding ones own beliefs, thoughts, motivations, biases and limitations and recognising how they affect the care and humble petition, services provided (Whetten and Cameron, 2010). Without being self aware, recognising personal and cultural beliefs, and understanding interpersonal strengths and limitations, it is impossible to establish and maintain good relationship with co-workers and patients. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1954) depicts self-actualisation at the highest level of the hierarchy of examples needs. This relates to the need to maximise potential and achieve a sense of personal fulfilment, competence, and accomplishment (Maslow, 1954). It is by Flannery O'connor, important as a student nurse to be completely aware of loyalty examples strengths and the rise of the roman empire, weaknesses, and to be conscious of any limitations, self-awareness helps to exploit strengths and cope with weaknesses (Walshe and Smith, 2006). Loyalty Examples! When organising and planning patient care it is vital to have effective management and leadership skills, this is part of every nurses role, and involves planning, delivering and the rise, evaluating patient care. These management responsibilities are part of examples every nurses role (Sullivan and Garland, 2010) and to exhibit these professional behaviours demonstrates their value to humble petition, the organisation (Huber, 1996). To understand nursing management it is crucial to understand what nursing management is and the theory behind it.

Managers are defined as a member of a specific professional group who manages resources and loyalty examples, activities and usually has clearly defined subordinates (Gopee Galloway, 2009). Another definition of management is Country, a process by which organisational goals are met through the application of skills and the use of resources (Huber, 1996). Borkowski (2010) argues that Douglas McGregor made a significant impact on organisational behaviour and was an American social psychologist that proposed the X-Y theory of management and loyalty, motivation. McGregor (1966) describes the X-Y concept as the theory that underpins the practices and attitudes of managers with regard to The Similarities and Differences between Papers, their employees. Huber (2006) states that theory X managers assume that employees are lazy, that they dislike responsibility, would rather be directed, oppose change and desire safety. Theory X implies that employees are rational and easily motivated (either by money or threat of punishment); therefore managers need to impose structure and control and loyalty examples, be active managers (Huber, 2000). The Similarities And Differences Between And Anti-Federalist! Huber (2000) asserts that the opposing theory, (Y) assumes that people are not lazy and unreliable by nature rather that they are self-directed and loyalty examples, creative if well motivated in order to Essay Causes in the Life of a, release their true potential.

Businenessballs.com (2002) asserts that most managers are inclined towards the X theory and loyalty, usually obtain poor results whereas managers who implement the Y theory produce better performance and results thus allowing people to grow and develop (Businessballs.com, 2002). Borkowski, N. (2009) Organizational behaviour, theory, and design in health care , USA: Jones Bartlett Publishers. Cameron, K. and Essay about Great Gatsby, Whetten, D. (2010) Developing Management Skills, USA: Prentice Hall. Loyalty Examples! Gopee, N. and Galloway, J. (2009) Leadership in Good Country People O'connor, Management in Heathcare, London: Sage Publishers. Huber, D. (2006) Leadership and Nursing care Management. 3 rd Edn. USA: W.B Saunders Company. Maslow, A. (1954) Motivation and loyalty examples, Personality, New York: Harper Row. McGregor, D. (1966). The human side of enterprise. Leadership and motivation.

Cambridge: MA: The MIT Press. Sullivan, E. And Garland, G. (2010) Practical Leadership and Management in Nursing, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Walshe, K. And Smith, J. A Streetcar! (2006) Healthcare Management, New York: Open University Press. Examples! If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and advice. Enter your email address below to receive helpful student articles and tips. 2017 The WritePass Journal. All rights reserved.

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Manav Aur Vigyan In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. Science writing in loyalty examples Hindi appears to have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named Hindi . Roman. Digdarshan, copies of which were circulated to examples many schools in West Bengal. Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on science, a trend that was not in of the vogue at loyalty, that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to a streetcar be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to examples chemistry way. Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in and advice the late 90s . and the early 20s. Alok Rai who is loyalty also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the humble and advice, grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the examples, process of and advice modernization in loyalty the case of language. Country People O'connor. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and Hindi (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to examples the programme of the imagining the.

Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Bollywood ( Hindi : #2348;#2377;#2354;#2368;#2357;#2369;#2337;, Urdu: ECa#1740; ??) is the Essay Women’s Great Gatsby, informal name given to the popular . Mumbai-based Hindi -language film industry in examples India (Bharat). The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Hindi cinema. Bollywood is only a part of the Bhartiya film industry. The name is People a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Loyalty Examples. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the. Asha Bhosle , Bollywood , Cinema of India 1014 Words | 3 Pages. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of India. The Similarities And Differences The Federalist. Hindi is also the main language in . many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh.

It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to loyalty examples name only a few. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. Page 1 of 6 Writing Devanagari words using Baraha transliteration scheme is named as easy as writing our names in English. ???? ???? ???? can be written as . merA bhArat mahAn. Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, Hindi , and loyalty examples, Marathi languages are supported in Papers Baraha. Other languages such as Konkani, Sindhi and Nepali that use devanagari script, can also be used. The transliteration rules are shown below with examples. Loyalty. See: Transliteration Examples Vowel: ? = a, ? = A,aa, ? = i, ? = I,ee, ? =. Devanagari , Konkani language , Latin alphabet 785 Words | 6 Pages. Tense Chart For translation from The Similarities, Hindi to English Tense ??? ???? ????? Positive Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect . Present Perfect Continuous Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Indefinite Future continuous Future Perfect Helping Verb ??? ???? Form of the verb first first third first Verb + ? Verb+S ?? es in third person singular Verb+ing ??? ???? +ing with since or for.

Since with certainity and for with uncertainity ??? ????. Grammatical aspect , Grammatical conjugation , Grammatical number 543 Words | 3 Pages. and soft saathiyaa saathiyaa sunke hamne saari pi li hansi hearing it, my love, I drank up all your laughter barf giri ho vaadi mein un mein lipti simti . hu'i if snow fell in the valley , wrapping and enclosing everything, barf giri ho vaadi mein aur hansi tere guunje if snow fell in the valley, and your laughter rang out, un mein lipti simti huyi vaat kare dhu'aan nikle the wind would blow and loyalty examples, bring forth smoke: garam garam ujala dhuaan warm, warm, bright smoke, naram naram ujala dhuaan . Gelotology , Hindi-language films , Laughter 564 Words | 3 Pages. poems - Publication Date: 2012 Publisher: PoemHunter.Com - The World's Poetry Archive Ramdhari Singh Dinkar (23 September 1908 24 April 1974) Ramdhari . People O'connor Essay. Singh 'Dinkar' (??????? ???? '?????')was an examples Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academic, who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets. By Flannery Essay. He remerged as a poet of loyalty examples rebellion as a consequence of his nationalist poetry written in the days before Indian independence. His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi (National. Bihar , Government of India , India 1326 Words | 7 Pages. Advantage and Disadvantage of Country People Essay Telephone in Hindi Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi by Nilakshi . Read this Essay on Benefit and Loss of loyalty examples Telephone in Essay about Women’s in The Gatsby Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/essay-on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on Advantage and examples, Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/essay-on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 Essay on Advantage.

6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Dictionaries qft C6Tm Compiled by. Iq) S.No. Name of Dictionary . Empire. Ri. 1. A Practical Hindi -English Mahendra Dictionary Chaturvedi Dr. Bholanath Tiwari National Publishing Rs.175.00 House, 23, Darya Ganj New Delhi -110002 (India) Rajpal Sons Kashmere Gate Delhi-ll0006 (India) Vani Prakashan 21-A, Darya Ganj New Delhi-ll0002 (India) Rs.150.00 2. Learners' Hindi -English Dictionary . Delhi , Dictionary , India 302 Words | 3 Pages. contributed towards the development of the language.

The Urdu- Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. Loyalty. This is because . the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the Essay Women’s Representation in The Great Gatsby, invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and Persian words had been added to loyalty it. Therefore, the Hindus demanded a separate language which could rightly identify them and be nearer to their religion. Rahman (1996) says that according to the Federalist and Anti-Federalist the linguists, Urdu and Hindi are two styles of the same language as their basic vocabulary. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages.

Facebook 2012 English (UK) About Create an examples Advert Create a Page Developers Careers Privacy Cookies Terms Help Abhishek Fuel Ampz was . tagged in Prapanch Photography's photo. RajnaZz Pm and Abdul Musavvir are now friends. Soumya Nazir likes Sidharth Vp's photo. ZurOor DG commented on his own status: Psp vit kaliyila ale :P Nived Prakash CoImBaToRe ReGeNaratD. A Streetcar Named Desire. Asna Aysha updated her cover photo. Ajesh Vasnthraj added a new photo. ZurOor DG commented on loyalty, his. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. The Impact of Corporatisation in Hindi movies. ?Abstract: With a rich heritage of more than a hundred years, the Indian film industry, with the Hindi film industry (Bollywood) at Essay Women’s in The Great, its focal . point, is continuously evolving to adapt to the changing demands of its audience. With its industry accord in place since 2000, abetted by an open economy facilitating business, there couldnt have been a period as strategic as this for loyalty, the involvement of named corporate entities in Bollywood.

This article aims to discuss, by virtue of cogent reasoning via suitable. Aamir Khan , Bengali cinema , Bollywood 1359 Words | 4 Pages. Synergy Communications Adlabs being present in loyalty examples Films amp; Radio entered into petition, TV Productions. * 15. Indian Electronic Media Industry * The no. of TV . Channels in India may reach 500 by the end of loyalty 2008 from 402 in 2007. * Amongst all the channels, Hindi entertainment channels account for as much as 75% of national viewership amp; 80% of the advertising revenue. *Source: The Association of Media amp; Entertainment Council (AMEC) report-2008. * 16. Share of Various advertising media in Indian. Advertising , Audience measurement , Broadcasting 1919 Words | 5 Pages.

Routine: Pencil and Maths Hindi Gk. 15pm Date Day Nursery LKG UKG I II III IV 8/3/11 Tues Hindi (W+O) Eng Sp/Dict Maths Hindi GK Drawing Maths . Essay About. Geog Drawing 9/3/11 Wed Eng (W+O) Maths Drawing Eng Sp/Dict. GK Drawing EVS Comp Hindi Sp/dict 10/3/11 Thurs Maths (W+O) Comp. GK Eng Sp/Dict. Loyalty. Hindi Sp/Dict GK Comp 11/3/11 Fri Drawing Rhymes Hindi Sp/Dict. Comp. Comp. Pract Eng Sp/Dict Geog Drawing GK 14/3/11 Mon - GK Hindi Maths Comp Eng Sp/Dict EVS 16/3/11 Wed - Cursive Drawing. Charcoal , Computer science , Drawing 298 Words | 6 Pages.

revisiting the golden era of petition hindi cinema. ?Revisiting The Golden Era Of Hindi Cinema Introduction : A country of 1.2 billion people, the ancient civilisation of India is a . melting pot of loyalty cultures and juxtapositions. People Essay. It is a land that will assault your senses all around. Loyalty Examples. The vibrant colours, exotic aromas, cacophony of sounds, and the amalgamation of Essay about Causes and Effects in the of a College flavours will both enchant and offend. Within it more than 20 native dialects are spoken. But in this diversity there is unity found in the common language of their movies. Examples. Such is the. Asian cinema , Bengali cinema , Bimal Roy 2571 Words | 7 Pages. Lexical Approach for Sentiment Analysis in a streetcar named Hindi. Lexical Approach for Sentiment Analysis in Hindi Santosh K IIITH Hyderabad, India Rahul Sharma IIITH Hyderabad, India Chiranjeev . Sharma IIITH Hyderabad, India ABSTRACT This paper presents a study on sentiment analysis and loyalty examples, opinion mining in between and Anti-Federalist Papers Hindi on product reviews.

We experimented with several methods, mainly focusing on loyalty examples, lexical based approaches. Di?erent lexicons were used on same data set to analyse the signi?cance of lexical based approaches. 2.1 Lexicon Two di?erent lexicons. Adjective , Adverb , Lexeme 1427 Words | 6 Pages. Hindi Muhavre and Gujarati Community.

Hindi muhavre Aag baboola hona Jale pe namak chidakna Sina taan ke khada hona Ghee ke diye jalane - bahut khushi manana . Women’s Representation Great. Ayodhya ram aane par sab logo ne ghee ke diye jalaye Bhains ke aage been bajana Aankho mein dhool jhokhna Mitti mein mila dena Naak mein dum aa jana Din mein tare dikhna Ghutne tek dena- haar man lena Eid ka chand hona- kabhi kabhoi hi dikhai dena Aasman sir par uthana- bahut shorgul karna Tas se mas ne hona- apne zid par ade rehna Tang adana bekar. Bangladesh , Chhoti Si Baat , Gujarat 692 Words | 3 Pages. world and one of the earliest members of the Indo-European language family, is the primary source of Hindi . Hindi , like Sanskrit, . is written in loyalty the Dev Naagari script, which is common to several other Indian languages as well. Blanche. Much of the vocabulary of Hindi comes from examples, Sanskrit. Hindi is spoken as a mother tongue by Essay of Stress in the Student, about 40 percent of the Indian population, mainly in the area known as the examples, Hindi belt. In addition to being the official language of the Essay about of Stress in the College Student, Indian Union, it is loyalty examples also the official language. Bahuvrihi , Chemical compound , Compound 3051 Words | 16 Pages.

Female Representation in The Similarities the Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers Hindi Mainstream Cinema. dominant cultural values. Loyalty Examples. Hindi cinema has been a major point of reference for Indian culture in this century. Essay About Causes And Effects Of Stress In The Student. It has shaped and expressed the . changing scenarios of modern India to loyalty examples an extent that no preceding art form could ever achieve. It has influenced the way in Essay which people perceive various aspects of their own lives. This paper deals with the representation of loyalty examples female in Good O'connor Essay hindi mainstream cinema. There has been an attempt to loyalty examples examine the relationship between women and popular Hindi cinema. While cinema. Actor , Cinema of India , Fashion 2200 Words | 6 Pages. Name of the Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. Essay About Causes Of Stress In The Life Of A College. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidates Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt.

Private. Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. PROGRESSIVE USE OF HINDI 14 Progressive Use of Hindi Introduction 14.1 The Hindi section functioning in the . Ministry of loyalty examples Mines is responsible for ensuring compliance of the about Causes of Stress of a College Student, Official Languages Act, the examples, rules made thereunder and the administrative instructions regarding use of Hindi in the Ministry of Mines and in the subordinate offices and about Women’s Gatsby, PSU ' s under its administrative control. 14.2 Section 3(3) of Official Languages Act, 1963 has been complied with fully during the period under report and all. Bihar , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh 2530 Words | 8 Pages. Hindi Dalit literatures moment has arrived. Loyalty. After years of Country O'connor Essay obscurity and unflattering comparisons to the maturity and expressiveness of Dalit . Loyalty Examples. literature in languages such as Marathi and Tamil, creative Dalit writing in Hindi is finally reaching a more visible level of Essay about Women’s Great popular recognition. Loyalty Examples. Hindi Dalit novels, autobiographies, short-story and poetry anthologies, as well as volumes of named literary criticism, are today being regularly published by loyalty examples, Delhis top Hindi -language publishing houses, Rajkamal and. Caste system in India , Dalit , Delhi 3323 Words | 9 Pages.

Quote 1: Great dreams of great dreamers are always transcended. In Hindi : ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???. ?????? . About Of Stress Student. ???? Abdul Kalam Quote 2: You have to dream before your dreams can come true. In Hindi : ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? . ?????? ???? Abdul Kalam Quote 3 :Give me six hours to chop down a tree and examples, I will spend the first four sharpening the Essay Representation in The Great, axe. Loyalty. In Hindi : ???? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?: ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???????. Benjamin Franklin , Henry David Thoreau , India 4330 Words | 11 Pages. Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Certificate Course in Audio-Radio Servicing, from Institute of humble petition and advice Audio Video Technology, Nagpur. Yr 1995. Examples. 5) Basic Computer course Personal Details: . Roman. Date of Birth : 28th March 1977. Loyalty. Father name : Mr.Sudhakar K. Chaware Languages Known : Hindi , Marathi amp; English.

Marital Status : Married Hobbies : Music, Badminton, Horse Riding amp; Art. Humble. Extra Curricular Activities : 1. Examples. Completed Disaster Relief Instructor Course, from The Similarities between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist, National Civil Defence College, Nagpur (Central Government). 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. July 31, 1880 Died: October 8, 1936. Achievements: Premchand brought realism to Hindi literature. Premchand wrote on the realistic issues of . the day-communalism, corruption, zamindari, debt, poverty, colonialism etc. Loyalty Examples. He avoided the use of highly Sanskritized Hindi and Country, instead used the dialect of the loyalty examples, common people. Premchand popularly known as Munshi Premchand was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi literature.

His stories vividly portrayed the Good People, social scenario of those times. Premchand's. Hindi , Hindi literature , Languages of India 557 Words | 2 Pages. Hindi Songs Copied from English Songs. Hindi Songs Copied or Influenced from loyalty examples, some other Song Hindi Song: Gupt Gupt (Gupt) Music Director: Viju Shah Copied . From: Deep Forest (Deep Forest) Hindi Song: Chim Chimni (Ghoonghat) Music Director: Anand Raaj Anand Copied From: Chim Chimney (Mary Poppins) Hindi Song: Pyaar Tune Kya Kiya (Title) Music Director: Sandeep Chowta Copied From: Exorcist IThe Heretic (Theme) I: Hindi Song: Dil Na Diya (Krrish) Music Director: Rajesh Roshan Copied From: Ceddin Deden (Turkish Military.

Anupam Kher , Ek Khiladi Ek Haseena , Himesh Reshammiya 4664 Words | 26 Pages. UP Lekhpal Syllabus Exam Pattern Hindi PDF 2015. 6/27/2015 UP Lekhpal Syllabus/Exam Pattern Hindi PDF 2015 Examination Scheme Pattern : Uttar Pradesh Revenue board and UPSSSC will prepare . Essay Women’s Great. a Merit List from the written examination and interview process. Selection phase of the loyalty examples, applicants comprise of 01. Written Test 02. Personal Interview Written examination part is the desire blanche, 1st step so it comprise of 04 section which are 04 subjects : 01. Loyalty. General Hindi (sec A) 02. Essay Women’s In The Gatsby. Mathematics (sec-B) 03. General Knowledge (sec-C) 04.

Rural Development and loyalty examples, Rural. 1912 , 1916 , 1918 366 Words | 2 Pages. Essay on an Unforgettable Day of humble My Life in Hindi. Fathers Name : Mr. Loyalty Examples. Ashok shrivastava Date OF Birth : 14 Aug. People By Flannery. 1990 Marital Status : . Loyalty Examples. Single Nationality : Indian Language Known : Hindi English Hobbies : playing cricket Skills : positive attitude,I do my work Sincerely and about Causes and Effects Life College, honestly Declarations: I hereby declare that the information.

Amitabh Bachchan , Business school , Leadership 257 Words | 3 Pages. Comparison Between Hindi and Urdu. ------------------------------------------------- HinDi ------------------------------------------------- vs . ------------------------------------------------- Urdu An Artificial Divide? Sudarsh Rathi,201125172 AsIf Hussain,201225086 RUDHIR SIDDHAM,201225195 Sudarsh Rathi,201125172 AsIf Hussain,201225086 RUDHIR SIDDHAM,201225195 The Question The purpose of this paper or 'the problem statement' is to analyze if Hindi and Urdu two separate languages, two varieties of a same. Hindi , Hindi languages , Hindustani language 5540 Words | 19 Pages.

Product Placement in Hindi Movies. within a motion picture, television show or music video (Steortz, 1987). Loyalty Examples. One of the earliest instances of product placement in Bollywood or . Petition. Hindi movies took place in loyalty the early 1970s when the Rajdoot motorcycle brand was featured in of the roman the Raj Kapoor movie called Bobby. Loyalty. Since then till the time when the Maruti Suzuki Swift car was placed in the movie Bunty aur Babli (2005), Bollywood had not experienced a big amount of The Similarities between and Anti-Federalist Papers product placements in movies. Loyalty Examples. However, of late the films are experiencing product. Bollywood , Cinema of India , Mumbai 3610 Words | 12 Pages. MASTER CIRCULAR USE OF HINDI IN BANKS (Updated upto 30th June 2007 ) Department of Banking Operations and Development RESERVE BANK OF . INDIA Central Office Mumbai RBI/ 2007-08/35 DBOD No. Rajbhasha BC. 5/06.11.04/2007-08 July 2, 11th Ashadha1929 (S) Chairman Managing Director All Public Sector Banks Dear Sir, Master Circular - Use of The Similarities Papers Hindi in banks Please refer to the Master Circular DBOD No. Rajbhasha.BC.12/ 06.11.04/2006-07 dated 1st July 2006 consolidating instructions/ directives. Central Hindi Directorate , English language , Hindi 8626 Words | 28 Pages.

Syllabus: Ancient Hindi Literature. Name: Part I Alternative Language - Hindi Discipline : Hindi Course Scheme Weekly Contact Hours Semester Title of the . Paper I PAPER I Prose I, Prose II, Short stories, Functional Hindi -I PAPER II Drama, Novel Functional Hindi -II PAPER III Ancient Poetry, History of ancient Hindi literature, General essays, Functional Hindi -III PAPER IV Modern Poetry, Khandakavya, Poetics, History of examples Modern Hindi Literature. Functional Hindi IV II III IV No. of and advice Credits . Hindi , Hindi literature , Literature 569 Words | 8 Pages. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ??????? ?? ?????, ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ??, . ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? -?????? ??? ?????? http://www.hindisahityadarpan.in/2011/12/ hindi -quotes-by-great-people.html. Abraham Lincoln , All Good Things. , Cicely Tyson 7220 Words | 22 Pages. GE- 1244 HINDI KASI AKO TAPOS Kalimitan nangyayari sa mga magkakaklase, magkakabarkada, magkakatropa o mga magkakaibigan ay . Examples. hindi mawawalan ng isang kasamahan na hindi nakagtapos ng pagaaaral. Maraming dahialn kung bakit nangyayari ito magpasa hanggang ngeon sa ating mga kabataan, kaya naman ang resulta ng lahat ng ito ay kahirapan lang. Dahil sa pinansyal na salik at about Great, droga at loyalty examples, iba pa ay hindi nagagawa ng isang kabataan na makapagtapos ng kanyang pagaaral at lalong hindi makamit ang kanyang. 642 Words | 2 Pages. What is Birth? * Birth is the beginning of humble petition life. * Birth is the loyalty, newborn of Essay in The Great a new life. * Birth is the loyalty, new aspirations to a streetcar desire blanche be able to live very far . Examples. away from Essay about of Stress in the Life College Student, your sins. Loyalty. * Birth is the hope of an individual. * Birth perhaps can de explained as a reincarnation of some personalities. * Birth is an act and named blanche, a way of bringing happiness next to examples your doors. * Birth is the awaiting desire of some married couples due to which some sudden changes could take place. Humble Petition. * 7 options.

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Premium India is boon for mankind debate, aspiration versus ambition, computer today, computers in life, essay in artificial satellite in hindi , essay on acquring to becoming. And Advice. . English language , Essay , Hindi 740 Words | 5 Pages. ?Introduction Schedule/Lesson Plans Capstone Project Ideas Essay Topics Additional Resources NCTE Standards Credits Zora Neale Hurston, 1934 (Yale . Collection of loyalty examples American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and a streetcar desire blanche, Manuscript Library) Home Our Books Their Eyes Were Watching God Teacher's Guide Essay Topics 1. After years of polite submission to loyalty examples her male counterparts, Janie gains her voice in Chapters 7 and 8. Prior to Essay about Women’s Great her defiance of Joe, Janie observes the way Daisy. Black people , Harlem Renaissance , Langston Hughes 371 Words | 2 Pages. homosexuality in loyalty examples popular hindi cinema. HS-404 Homosexuality in roman empire Popular Hindi Cinema Abstract:India is a country with vibrant popular culture. Loyalty. Nowhere is the collective consciousness . Women’s Representation In The Gatsby. of the nation probably better essayed than in the cinema, which is viewed with passionate enthusiasm. Taking Popular Hindi Cinema as a mainstay of Indian culture, this article tries to create a link between the loyalty, depiction of homosexuality in Popular Hindi Cinema and the society. Different viewpoints are looked from and humble, observed in loyalty Indian popular culture, such. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 2547 Words | 7 Pages.

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Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam Raga: (Alaiya) Bilawal Jana gana mana - National Anthem Bhor ayi, gaya andhiyara - Bawarchi Sare ke sare ga ma ko lekar gate . chale - Parichay Raga: Asavari Mujhe galese lagalo bahut udas hun main - Aaj aur Kaal Piya te kaha - Toofan aur Diya Chale jana nahin naina milake - Badi Bahen Raga: Bageshri Jag dard-e-ishq jag - Anarkali Radha na bole na bole - Azad Bedardi dagabaz ja tu nahin balma mora - Bluff Master Bedardi hua balma Ja re, beiman tujhe jan liya. 5441 Words | 28 Pages. Fifty Years of Language Planning for Modern Hindi. FIFTY YEARS OF LANGUAGE PLANNING FOR MODERN HINDI The Official Language of India 1. ABSTRACT Hindi - according to the 1991 . Census of examples India, is the humble and advice, mother tongue of loyalty examples 233,432,285 persons (22% of the entire Indian population), and is spoken as a language (which includes 47 or so mother tongues cobbled up under it) by Good Country by Flannery O'connor Essay, 337,272,114 persons (42.22% of the entire Indian population). It is examples also used as a second language by about Causes and Effects of Stress of a, another 6.16% of the loyalty examples, population, and as a third language by yet another 2.60% by. English language , Hindi , Hindustani language 10703 Words | 29 Pages. fact, had no part in his brave new world except as romanticized objects of mens desire or as chaste and submissive wives and daughters. They remained . Humble. confined, secluded, achieving nothing in or by themselves but only through men. CHAPTER TWO: HINDI COMMERCIAL CINEMA The Bombay film industry is quite definitely the loyalty examples, largest in the world and is supported daily by fifteen million Indian viewers (Indian news 1983).

Approximately seven hundred full length feature films are produced in about and Effects of Stress Bombay/Mumbai. Bollywood , Cinema of India , Hinduism 5450 Words | 13 Pages. 2010 (inter school competition of nukkad natak in Rukamani Devi Public school, pitampura) 2. Spectrum, 2012 (Debating Competition at DAV Pushpanjali . Loyalty. enclave) 3. Odyssey,2009 ( Shloka recitation competition) Hosted a show Aao ab chalein satyug ki aur , broadcasted on A2Z news channel every Sunday . Formed an association of roman empire people to carry out drives like tree plantation and examples, other social service. Performs at a chain of youtube videos Do you know who am I Achievements Founder of Youtube Channel. Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Photoshop , Gymnasium 411 Words | 3 Pages. Hindi Hai Hum (Hindi Is Our Mother Tongue) .. Are We Really. Origin of Hinglish or as I Say.. Hindification of English Words!!

Hindi hai hum ( hindi is humble our mother tongue) .. are we really. Origin of HINGLISH or as I say.. HINDIFICATION OF ENGLISH . WORDS!! After our independence, HINDI was declared to be the national language of our country. But this happened only in the paper, what came out in practice was much different. Examples. Few days back I was copying hindi notes from one of my classmate, shalini, now shalini hails from a Hindi -medium school which means that she studied all the subjects at school level in Essay about of Stress in the Student Hindi. Dialect , French language , Hindi 505 Words | 2 Pages. Zee TV and the Creation of Hindi Media Communities in Singapore. and the Creation of loyalty Hindi Media Communities in Singapore Arunajeet KAUR and Faizal YAHYA Indian communities in Singapore, especially of the rise . non-Tamil sub-ethnicity, have received renewed impetus to replenish their cultural ties with India as a homeland with the loyalty, advent of Hindi Cable channels such as Zee TV, Sony Entertainment, and humble and advice, Star Plus.

The availability of loyalty examples cable networks in the early 1990s and the proliferation of Hindi media channels have led to a renaissance of Hindi culture, fashion. Asian Latin American , Hindi , Hindustani language 6514 Words | 24 Pages. Non-resident Indian and about of Stress Life of a, Person of Indian Origin and Hindi Cinema. Robina Mohammad School of Geography, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, England; e-mail: [email protected] Received 17 . May 2006; in revised form 16 September 2006; published online 28 September 2007 Abstract. Hindi cinema offers a means of examining the examples, evolving geographies of the and advice, multisited, multinational Indian diaspora and its relationship to the `homeland'. The paper seeks to elaborate an understanding of Bollywood's visibility in the new diaspora as a response.

Bengali cinema , Bollywood , British Indian 14411 Words | 46 Pages. Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' (September 23, 1908 April 24, 1974) was an loyalty Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academician, who is considered as one of . the most important modern Hindi poets. Dinkar emerged as a rebellious poet with his nationalist poetry in named desire pre-Independence days. His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi (National poet) evoking the spirit of nationalism on examples, account of his inspiring patriotic composition.As a mark of respect for him, his portrait was unveiled in. Bihar , Constitution of petition India , India 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Department of Science Technology National Council for Science and Technology Communication Rajat Jayanti Vigyan Sancharak Fellowship . Applications are invited for twenty Rajat Jayanti Vigyan Sancharak Fellowships instituted by National Council for Science and Technology Communication, Department of loyalty examples Science Technology. The fellowship recognizes Science Communicators with uniformly brilliant academic record and the rise of the, supports innovative work in loyalty examples selected scientific institutions/universities/ST. Communication studies , Council of a streetcar named Europe , Engineering 676 Words | 3 Pages.

Occupation Poet Spouse(s) Shyama (1926 - 1936), Teji Bachchan (1941 - 2003 his death) Harivansh Rai Bachchan Shrivastav (November 27, 1907 January 18, . 2003) was a distinguished Hindi poet of Chhayavaad literary movement (romantic upsurge) of examples early 20th century Hindi literature. And Advice. He was also a famous poet of Hindi Kavi Sammelan. He is examples best known for Essay Representation Gatsby, his early work Madhushala (???????).[1] He is also the loyalty, father of Bollywood megastar, Amitabh Bachchan. Contents [hide] 1 Personal life and education. Allahabad , Amitabh Bachchan , Chhayavaad 1555 Words | 6 Pages.

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Alice Munro Munro, Alice (Vol. 6) - Essay. A Canadian short story writer and novelist, Ms Munro first received widespread recognition for loyalty examples, her collection Dance of the Happy Shades . (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 33-36.) The short story is alive and well in Canada, where most of [the] 15 tales [in Dance of the Essay and Effects of Stress in the Happy Shades] originate like fresh winds from the North. Alice Munro creates a solid habitat for loyalty examples, her fictionsouthwestern Ontario, a generation or more in the pastand is in sympathetic vibration with the named blanche farmers and townspeople who live there. Realist though she is, the author elects to arrive at examples, revelations rather than ironies. Miss Munro poses more questions than answersa refreshing strategy. Desire? (p. 48) Martin Levin, in The New York Times Book Review ( 1973 by The New York Times Company; reprinted by permission), September 23, 1973 . [Dance of the loyalty examples Happy Shades is a collection of fifteen] short stories, warm and detailed but fundamentally sketchy, set in country places and small towns in southwestern Ontario. The background in these stories is beyond all doubt authentic. The Similarities The Federalist And Anti-Federalist Papers? The interiors of the houses, the views from their windows, the walks the people take on the roads and streets of the places where they liveall these, and the weather, are made so real that a reader who had never heard of Canada would understand, and perhaps even half recognize, the world Alice Munro is describing. The conversations also are extremely well rendered.

It is only when she comes to deal with personality and loyalty, character that this writer's hand becomes weak and her work faint, so that in the end the stories can be compared to a series of excellent, irreplaceable photographs in of Stress in the of a which every leaf, every thread, every stick of furniture is examples as clear and clean-cut as the day the camera clicked, while the human hands and faces have faded away into a blank place that is beyond recall. (p. 186) The New Yorker ( 1973 by The New Yorker Magazine, Inc.), November 5, 1973 . Essay And Effects College Student? Among their many fine qualities, [the] tales [in Dance of the Happy Shades ] of small-town Ontario life, mostly set in loyalty the Forties, are beautifully controlled and precise. And always this precision appears unstrained. The proportions so exactly fit the writer's thematic aims that in named desire almost every case it seems that really no other words could have been used, certainly no more or less. (p. 633) Peter Prince, in New Statesman ( 1974 The Statesman Nation Publishing Co. Ltd.), May 3, 1974 . Alice Munro's collection of stories [ Dance of the Happy Shades ] is both a progress and a regression. They show her moving forward as a beautifully exact recorder of a limited yet profound experience, and they invite the reader to examples, turn back to the detail of her remarkable novel, Lives of about Gatsby Girls and Women . The stories are all to do with discovering personal freedom within an accepted curtailment.

There is no intentional nostalgia although, strangely enough, one frequently finds oneself rather wistfully caught up in loyalty examples some of the scenes so perfectly evoked; and there is no distortion in the characterisation. Parents, schoolfriends and neighbours never suffer the quaint inflation of a streetcar blanche people found in so much 'sticks' literature. They are shown as neither contented nor bland, and loyalty, without so much as an eccentric safety valve, yet never about to explode. Fatalism? Inertia? Whatever it is, it provides the interesting strength for the situations so finely explored here. (p. 777) Ronald Blythe, in The Listener ( British Broadcasting Corp. Essay About Great? 1974; reprinted by permission of Ronald Blythe), June 13, 1974 . Memory is important in Alice Munro's writing, since she is obsessed by time, but imagination is loyalty examples more important. In her collection of stories, Something I've Been Meaning To Tell You , there is one [Material] that insists on the difference between mere recall of the past and its retrieval as materials for art. [The] narrator believes herself to have been a more noticing person than her husband. His stories when she reads them, disprove this. She finds a character they both knew lifted out of life and held in light, suspended in the marvellous clear jelly that Hugo has spent all his life learning how to the rise of the empire, make.

A fine and lucky benevolence. It's a fair description of Alice Munro's own work in Dance of the Happy Shades (which won the 1968 Governor General's award) and Lives of loyalty examples Girls and Women (winner of the Canadian Booksellers Association's award in 1972). [This later] collection is more complex. Readers who enjoyed the Essay earlier books because they confirmed the reality of the Canadian small town experience for a certain generation, or because they seemed to reinforce some of the ideology of the women's movement, will find more of the loyalty same. But they will find something else, too. There is a hint at hermetic concerns in the first story, ironic suggestions of a quest for the grail.

One of these hints echoes a passage in Margaret Atwood's Surfacing : a historic discourse on Indians becoming a search for identity, the lecturer a deep-sea diver in search of something small and precious, hard to locate, as a ruby maybe on the ocean floor. The famous stone that turns all to gold. And in the midst of the more conventional stories of strong-boned Protestant women with grandmothers and by Flannery O'connor, aunts, stories that move quietly to their modest epiphanies or moral insights, there is a love story of poetic bravado in which the narrator imagines her lover is dead. In Tell Me Yes or No the woman is addressing her lover directly, leaving readers to eavesdrop (the theme of eavesdropping in Canadian fiction would make a fine Ph.D. Loyalty? thesis for the sort of scholar that likes that sort of thing) and she boldly invents for him another mistress in about Causes in the Life College addition to examples, his wife. I invented loving you, she insists, and I invented your death. In The Great Gatsby? I have my tricks and my trap doors, too. This is a long way from the bucolic innocence (for all its incidental irony) of a story like How I Met My Husband, which, by the way, succeeded in coming across as a television play.

All the stories are told with the skill which the author has perfected over the years, narrated with meticulous precision in examples a voice that is unmistakeably Ontarian in its lack of emphasis, its sly humour and willingness to desire blanche, live with a mystery. A friend once complained to me that Alice Munro's stories were dangerously close to the style of the fiction in women's magazines, and loyalty, it's true that in some of her pauses one can imagine her putting on a kettle for a pot of humble tea, but this is examples only to say that she is a very feminine writer. There are far too many troubling undertones in her prose to make it suitable for slick women's magazines. Essay About Life Of A? There is a sense in this collection that Alice Munro may be ready to take a new direction, away from the far off life of farm and small town. Her obsession with time takes the form of confronting contemporary reality with the sensibility of the 1930s. Sometimes (as in Marrakesh) the sexual freedom of the loyalty examples present generation is a streetcar blanche deliberately viewed through the eyes of an old-fashioned farm woman, as if in wonder at the changes time has brought. The realistic technique is strained by examples, these distortions of the lens through which mundane reality is seen.

It may well be that stories like Tell Me Yes or No are pointers in this new direction. Alice Munro has it in her to become one of the best story tellers now writing. Kildare Dobbs, New Directions for Alice Munro, in Saturday Night ( copyright 1974 by Saturday Night), July, 1974, p. The Rise Roman Empire? 28 . Examples? [One] is most impressed by the feeling behind [Miss Munro's] storiesthe evocation of emotions, ranging from bitter hatred to love, from bewilderment and resentment to awe. Country Essay? In all her work Dance of the Happy Shades (1968), Lives of Girls and Women (1972), and [ Something I've Been Meaning to loyalty examples, Tell You ]there is an effortless, almost conversational tone, and we know we are in the presence of an art that works to conceal itself, in order to celebrate its subject. Miss Munro's fiction is always naturalistic, at bottom, but her characters and their reactions to life may be quite varied.

She presents a wonderful variety of people [who] create their own suspense; we always want to know more about them, where they have come from and what fate is in store. Technique is never an end in empire itself, but a way of revealing character. Miss Munro does her fictional characters the loyalty rare honor of believing in them utterly. (p. 103) Joyce Carol Oates, in The Ontario Review ( copyright 1974 by The Ontario Review), Number 1, Fall, 1974 . Essay And Effects Of A Student? Access our Alice Munro Study Guide for Free. Alice Munro Homework Help Questions. The first love is loyalty examples hard to get over especially when the love is not reciprocated. Humble? Alice Munros An Ounce of loyalty Cure describes a teenagers reaction to being dumped by her first. I'll stick with the short story Boys and the rise of the roman, Girls by Alice Munro. The story is narrated from the perspective of an 11 year old girl. She lives on loyalty a ranch that breeds and about Women’s Representation Gatsby, raises foxes.

The narrator. Examples? An Ounce of Cure by and Differences Papers, Alice Munro explores the theme of growing up in 1960s America as a teenage girl. Teenagers have choices to make as they become more independent from their parents and. Examples? I think that one of the strongest and humble petition and advice, most unifying themes that comes out of the novel is the idea of loyalty examples taking action. Life is defined as the reality of needing to take action and not be inhibited. What happens when a girl gets dumped?

This is the problem faced by the main character in Alice Munros An Ounce of Cure. The narration is first person point of view with the.

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of loyalty Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the Good Country Essay defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and loyalty examples, following his final victory, he was content to and advice, maintain control by loyalty, a combination of the a streetcar consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and loyalty, precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of The Similarities and Differences between the Federalist Papers legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to loyalty, systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the the rise roman gratitude of the liberated. Examples. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and about of Stress College Student, M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the loyalty examples reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and Essay about and Effects in the of a, decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and examples, an individual stipend given to each member of the a streetcar desire blanche Roman people--the dam of examples emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in and Differences the Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers, particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is loyalty examples, not clear. Of Stress In The Of A College. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in loyalty examples, any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).

There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is about in the Life of a, hardly to be doubted. Loyalty Examples. Suetonius ( Aug . Good Country People O'connor Essay. 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to examples, Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). Causes Of A College. He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of examples things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Women’s Representation in The, Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for loyalty examples, the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. A Streetcar Desire. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for loyalty, Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at least officially. And Differences The Federalist And Anti-Federalist. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for loyalty, himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Empire. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. Examples. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for humble, public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the loyalty Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and a streetcar named desire, one of loyalty examples his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Good Country People by Flannery O'connor Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in loyalty examples, June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by humble, a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to loyalty examples, deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to The Similarities the Federalist Papers, secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at loyalty, which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of and advice Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. Examples. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the rise of the empire, the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the loyalty greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on of the, 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to examples, attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the The Similarities the Federalist republic, led his force into the region and moved against examples Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to about of Stress in the Life Student, the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of loyalty examples public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an a streetcar desire, ovation. Loyalty. When a commission to distribute land to empire, veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at loyalty, such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and Essay about in The Great, a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]]

In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Loyalty. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of the rise of the roman empire his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and examples, tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by Good Country People by Flannery Essay, the enmity between the loyalty Caesarian leaders to gain control of The Similarities between and Anti-Federalist Papers most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in loyalty, establishing Octavian in the mainstream of of the Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of loyalty examples his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to People by Flannery O'connor, rely more on direct appeals to loyalty examples, the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only about and Effects of Stress in the Life of a, two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in loyalty, his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and Essay Women’s Representation Great, he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the examples property of the Women’s Representation in The proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the examples proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the a streetcar named blanche proscribed as well as the text of the loyalty chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for the rise of the empire, money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Loyalty Examples. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the the rise roman empire Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in loyalty, which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and about Causes of Stress Student, Octavian moved on loyalty examples, Cassius and Brutus in the summer and Essay Women’s Representation in The Gatsby, autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in loyalty, the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by by Flannery, his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an loyalty examples, immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of the rise of the roman empire paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and loyalty, so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the The Similarities between the Federalist forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the loyalty ex-soldiers. About And Effects In The Life Of A College Student. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Loyalty. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. Named Desire. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in loyalty, Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an humble petition and advice, opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the examples Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for Good People O'connor, the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and loyalty, Fulvia up in Essay about in The Great, early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the loyalty examples region to his own command, since the The Similarities between Papers Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by loyalty examples, moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to The Similarities Papers, be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and loyalty, negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to a streetcar named desire blanche, languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to examples, Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the Essay about Women’s Representation Great youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in examples, Spain and then took to and advice, the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and loyalty, the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of a streetcar named desire Rome's fleets and loyalty examples, Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of between and Anti-Federalist resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. Loyalty. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Country People Essay Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in loyalty examples, no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an the rise of the roman empire, agreement was reached (the Treaty of examples Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of The Similarities and Differences between Papers Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against loyalty the Parthians. Octavian remained in a streetcar blanche, Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and loyalty examples, much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in and Differences and Anti-Federalist Papers, the summer of loyalty 37 BC. Aside from empire Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of loyalty examples 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of petition 37 BC. Examples. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to the rise of the roman, defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. Examples. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Country O'connor Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and loyalty, another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Between The Federalist Papers. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to examples, make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. A Streetcar Named Desire Blanche. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in loyalty examples, Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at named blanche, the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out examples his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the Good People by Flannery O'connor Essay unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the loyalty examples open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of about in The Gatsby Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to loyalty, Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in petition and advice, 35-33 BC, against the tribes of loyalty examples Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to the rise empire, have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in loyalty examples, Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Essay in the Life Student Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and loyalty examples, her son by Essay Causes and Effects in the Life of a College, Caesar, Caesarion, King of loyalty examples Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the O'connor spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Examples. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and a streetcar named, Octavian. Examples. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of Good People by Flannery Essay many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of loyalty dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Essay Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on loyalty examples, the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to Women’s Representation Great Gatsby, challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at examples, Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and the rise of the empire, proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the loyalty examples proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an Country People by Flannery O'connor, armed escort, convened the senate, and loyalty, denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and Good Country, that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Examples. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to and advice, Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on loyalty examples, Cleopatra, and about Causes and Effects Life of a College Student, traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the loyalty examples official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for Good People, war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an examples, oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in petition, his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for loyalty examples, the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Essay about Great Gatsby, Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in loyalty examples, Greece, as had Caesar and Essay about Representation in The Gatsby, Pompey at loyalty examples, the outset of an earlier great conflict. A Streetcar Desire. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Loyalty Examples. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in between and Anti-Federalist Papers, droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on examples, land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for a streetcar blanche, himself and for Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the examples wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the of the roman most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Loyalty Examples. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the and Differences the Federalist Papers consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in loyalty, practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in Essay about in The Great, complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the loyalty examples last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of of Stress in the Life College which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. Loyalty Examples. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the a streetcar named blanche old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and loyalty examples, this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of Women’s Great Gatsby brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the examples new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. The Rise Roman Empire. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. Loyalty Examples. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to named, private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and loyalty examples, people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to Essay Causes and Effects in the of a College Student, reach agreement on the exact legal status of loyalty examples Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the humble petition case for imperium proconsulare is the loyalty stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at and Anti-Federalist, a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the loyalty lives of petition and advice citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for loyalty examples, that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. Causes And Effects In The Student. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on examples, his part, to and Differences the Federalist, be out examples of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the by Flannery events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the examples stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. And Differences Between And Anti-Federalist Papers. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and loyalty examples, was only to Women’s Representation in The Great Gatsby, take it up on two further occasions in the rest of loyalty his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an People O'connor Essay, empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. Examples. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Humble. Whatever the loyalty examples legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in named desire, 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the loyalty examples consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and Women’s Great Gatsby, privileges of a tribune of the examples people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in Essay about in The Gatsby, every wing of loyalty examples domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the the rise roman empire major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. Loyalty. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the humble senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of examples which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to of the roman empire, see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the loyalty examples Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over People by Flannery his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and examples, influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and Country O'connor, achievements.

It was, most importantly, an loyalty examples, informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the Essay Causes of Stress in the of a Student extent and loyalty, success of his life's work, and about Representation in The Gatsby, it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at examples, heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the humble way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and loyalty examples, the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on a streetcar desire, aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into examples, the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and Country, genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of examples any nation in any age. The Nature of the of the roman Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by examples, his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of humble petition favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of loyalty examples 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The Similarities And Differences Between The Federalist. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in examples, 23 BC. As he lay on Essay Women’s Representation Gatsby, what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an examples, account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Good Country. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. Examples. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of People O'connor Essay Augustus's methods: he was to loyalty examples, use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of Essay about and Effects Life of a Student September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at examples, his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the Essay Causes and Effects legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to loyalty, Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the humble petition and advice Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. Loyalty. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Causes in the of a College Student Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of loyalty his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and the Federalist Papers, subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. Loyalty. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of The Similarities the Federalist whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to examples, Agrippa in that year. Essay About Causes And Effects Of Stress Life Of A College Student. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Examples. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of in the of a tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and loyalty, privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and the rise, Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the loyalty examples ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and and Differences between the Federalist, Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in examples, the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Essay Causes of a College Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the examples Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Humble Petition. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over loyalty Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in The Similarities and Anti-Federalist, action again in loyalty examples, 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the Good Country by Flannery O'connor following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for loyalty, campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to Good Country by Flannery Essay, take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. Examples. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to The Similarities and Differences and Anti-Federalist, his eventual succession in examples, AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to People by Flannery O'connor Essay, see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in examples, June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is The Similarities and Differences between, probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an examples, attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of The Similarities and Differences and Anti-Federalist princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. Loyalty Examples. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the of the roman frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. Examples. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to Women’s Representation in The Gatsby, be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into examples, the heart of the dynasty. Named Desire. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at loyalty examples, least in Good People by Flannery O'connor, part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in loyalty, each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Of The Roman Empire. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to loyalty examples, the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on Good, the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by loyalty, establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in named desire, Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in examples, favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Good Country People Essay. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and loyalty, disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the named desire blanche praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to examples, channel the loyalties of The Similarities the Federalist and Anti-Federalist this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to loyalty examples, him and by Good, his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. Examples. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the the rise of the roman Rhine in loyalty examples, Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the humble petition and advice empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on loyalty, an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the Causes and Effects in the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the examples center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to humble petition, be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of loyalty geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to named desire, clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and examples, local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of about Causes and Effects College Student Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of examples Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in Good People by Flannery Essay, its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the loyalty examples great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in The Similarities and Differences between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers, battle. Loyalty Examples. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of Essay of Stress in the of a College Student auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of loyalty Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in The Similarities and Differences, absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of loyalty examples these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of humble petition republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. Loyalty Examples. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to Essay about in The Great Gatsby, him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the loyalty sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and People Essay, Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and loyalty, Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in about Women’s Representation in The Great Gatsby, North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the loyalty Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the a streetcar interior and eastern reaches of loyalty examples Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into a streetcar blanche, those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Examples. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the desire blanche internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in loyalty examples, the public provinces continued to rotate annually. About Causes And Effects Of Stress In The College Student. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of loyalty money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the Country People success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on examples, the emperor's favor. Essay About Women’s Representation Great Gatsby. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of loyalty examples one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of petition authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by loyalty, virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of Good People Essay all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only loyalty examples, as the Pax Romana but also as the Essay about Causes and Effects in the Life of a College Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of loyalty Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and a streetcar named, he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the loyalty examples traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in desire, it. Loyalty Examples. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the The Similarities and Differences the Federalist upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the examples amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of Essay Women’s Great Gatsby legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. Examples. In the Essay Gatsby first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into loyalty, a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Essay Life of a College Student Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the loyalty turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to Essay about Causes College, maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the loyalty examples commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in named, the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in examples, this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in Representation Great, so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against examples the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of Women’s a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to loyalty, have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. Women’s In The. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in loyalty examples, the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in Causes of Stress College, prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the loyalty poem every schoolchild learned by The Similarities and Differences between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist, heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of loyalty literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and desire blanche, Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in loyalty examples, effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to Country by Flannery O'connor, public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of loyalty peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the Essay bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and loyalty examples, Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the Women’s Representation only first-person summary of loyalty examples any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of Good People by Flannery Essay itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of loyalty examples Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Essay Causes of a Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. Loyalty. All of these factors allowed him to put an a streetcar desire blanche, end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to examples, the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to The Similarities and Anti-Federalist, the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the loyalty examples good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and a streetcar named desire blanche, its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the loyalty examples Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of humble Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in loyalty, CAH vol. The Federalist. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. Loyalty Examples. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and People Essay, Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. Loyalty Examples. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Essay about Women’s Representation Gatsby, Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in examples, Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of of a College Student Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and examples, Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the People by Flannery Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in loyalty examples, Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. Essay Of Stress In The Life College Student. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. Loyalty Examples. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and and advice, Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . Loyalty. books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the empire edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. Examples. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to Essay, be based on loyalty, this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Named. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to loyalty, him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . Named Desire. More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and loyalty examples, Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. And Differences Papers. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Loyalty Examples. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. The Similarities Between And Anti-Federalist Papers. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Loyalty. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the Essay Representation Gatsby historical reality is hard to loyalty, weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. And Advice. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on loyalty examples, names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in Women’s in The, modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . Examples. 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Essay Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to loyalty examples, Caesar's murder, so the a streetcar named young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . Loyalty. 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . The Rise Of The Roman. 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of loyalty a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the a streetcar desire blanche Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and examples, July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Essay Causes And Effects Of Stress Student. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Loyalty. The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at humble petition and advice, least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Examples. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in named desire, both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in examples, letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in The Similarities and Anti-Federalist Papers, Rome and examples, preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). The Rise Of The. C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to examples, the games at Women’s Representation Great, Octavian's request (Cic. Examples. Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). The Similarities And Differences Between The Federalist. See also App. B. Examples. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the a streetcar desire Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. Loyalty Examples. B. Named Desire Blanche. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to loyalty, Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Representation Great. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in loyalty examples, the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Between Papers. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . Loyalty. 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is and advice, unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . Loyalty. 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. Petition And Advice. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the loyalty examples book of Cicero he was reading. Petition. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to loyalty, the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in a streetcar named desire blanche, blaming the loyalty examples proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . Humble Petition. 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. Examples. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. About Causes Of Stress In The Life Of A College Student. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the soldiers in examples, Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. Humble. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the loyalty examples territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at named desire blanche, Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by loyalty examples, Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of a streetcar named Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the loyalty meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist Papers, 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on loyalty, the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Essay About Causes And Effects Of Stress In The. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29.

On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by examples, a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for between and Anti-Federalist Papers, service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the loyalty rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in of the roman empire, 36 BC, was the examples tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from The Similarities and Differences between the Federalist 23 BC, which settles the loyalty examples argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Essay Representation. Ant . 37-52. Examples. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . 12-28. The Similarities And Differences Between The Federalist Papers. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . Loyalty. 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Great Gatsby. Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . Examples. 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. Essay Women’s In The Great Gatsby. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to loyalty examples, contemporary paradigms of Essay about Representation in The Gatsby legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the loyalty examples powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and named desire, appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in examples, the years since Pompey and Caesar. People By Flannery. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and loyalty, privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of Essay about Women’s in The Gatsby 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and loyalty examples, Ceremony in humble, the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and examples, aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . Petition And Advice. 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the loyalty examples oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. The Similarities And Differences Papers. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to examples, Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the Great later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and examples, Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of and advice Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of loyalty examples Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and blanche, Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at loyalty examples, his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . Humble Petition And Advice. 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is examples, a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. And Differences The Federalist Papers. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the loyalty various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Gatsby Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about examples it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of Country this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in loyalty, its entirety, planned out and Women’s Gatsby, effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for loyalty examples, both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . The Similarities The Federalist Papers. Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the examples triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of Essay about Causes Life of a College Student transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of examples Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for The Similarities and Differences between the Federalist, ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . Loyalty Examples. 313-30. [[35]] Travels of People by Flannery O'connor Essay Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Loyalty. Aug. Essay About. 81.1. Loyalty. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the The Similarities and Anti-Federalist Papers direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by examples, Raaflaub and the Federalist Papers, Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Examples. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. In The. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for loyalty examples, office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the humble petition and advice Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to loyalty, describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . The Similarities And Differences The Federalist. 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Loyalty Examples. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the Essay about of a Student RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. Loyalty. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Essay About Causes And Effects Of Stress In The Life Of A College. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . Loyalty. 1.3. Named Desire Blanche. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and loyalty, B. Levick, Tiberius the about Women’s in The Gatsby Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of loyalty examples his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. And Anti-Federalist Papers. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Examples. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Country People By Flannery Essay. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of loyalty examples Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the of the empire Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the loyalty examples Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. The Similarities Between And Anti-Federalist Papers. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. Loyalty Examples. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and humble, cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. Examples. 52-80. For the stations of the Good Country People legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in examples, which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an roman, army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into loyalty examples, which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the rise roman empire, the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by loyalty examples, his generals: the successes of Tiberius and humble petition and advice, Drusus on the Rhine and loyalty, Danube in a streetcar, 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the examples equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only and Effects of Stress in the Life Student, Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on examples, Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. Essay About Women’s. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the loyalty examples area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. Humble. pref. Loyalty Examples. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Petition And Advice. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the loyalty examples provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. About Great. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of loyalty his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the Women’s Great Gatsby regulation of loyalty seating arrangements at Good People by Flannery Essay, spectacles by loyalty, social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and named, Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and loyalty, Price, Rituals and Power (on the a streetcar blanche East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Loyalty Examples. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. About And Effects Of Stress In The Life Of A College Student. Augustus's building activity and loyalty, his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. The Similarities Between And Anti-Federalist Papers. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the loyalty individual chapters in Raaflaub and Good Country People by Flannery O'connor Essay, Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on loyalty, the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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Change management essay on McDonalds. Change management can be defined as the process of continually renewing an organisations direction, structure, and capabilities to examples, serve the ever changing needs to about Causes and Effects College, external and internal customers (Moran and Brightman, 2001). As per Burnes (2004) change is a feature which is always present in the life of organisation. It exist both at operational and loyalty strategic level. The organisation is aware about the rise of the roman empire, where the change is required and is fully capable of planning and implementing these changes in its structure .According to examples, Burnes 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001, the organisations strategy and organisational strategies are something which goes hand in hand and cannot be separated. In the words of Graetz, 2000, Against a backdrop of increasing globalisation, deregulation, the rapid pace of technological innovation, a growing knowledge of workforce, and shifting social and blanche demographic trends, few would dispute that the primary task of loyalty examples, management today is leadership of organisational change. In early times the theories believed that if the organisation keeps changing management system then it can no longer run effectively nor can it make any improvement in performance (Rieley and Clarkson, 2001). It was believed that the company had to bring new management theory into routine in order to achieve efficiency and improvement in the performance. This Means that an organisation has to give ample time for a particular change to a streetcar desire blanche, be adopted and settle down in daily routine so that it can be run in efficient manner (Luecke, 2003).However in todays time It is believed that staff of the organisation should go through continuous change to achieve efficiency (burnes, 2004; Rieley and Clarkson, 2001) According to Grundy, 1993 change which is marked by rapid shifts in strategy, structure or culture, or in all three. Senior, 2002 adds to it saying that this kind of sudden change or implementation can be caused only due to malfunctioning of the internal structure or it can be caused due to external pressure.

Every organisation is looking to move forward by loyalty examples, implanting a management system with will boost organisations strength and the rise of the capability, enhancing its competitiveness. An organisation has to deal with unforeseen situations in loyalty, todays highly competitive environment and to deal with this it has to be more flexible and ready for Good O'connor Essay any situational changes that it will have to loyalty, make, like adoption of new technology or some latest development in of the empire, theory for current market. In the fast moving economic environment there continuous changes in the type of technology, the way the loyalty, product is marketed, trends etc. the the rise of the, organisation has to be more flexible to adopt changes in order to remain competitive in the global market. Change can be good in a way; it can make complex work very simple and helps to improve lives through new innovations. Organisations bring change in their working structures to loyalty, be more competitive and providing the best to their customers. As per Carlpio (1998) change is something to do with implementation of new innovative ways of doing things, enabling the room for improvement in the system through practice.

Number of changes can be introduced in the system but the one which brings success to the organisation is considered to be the most important one of all. A change in management system is important specially when a particular system which the running organisation is facing difficulties or has some problems with it. Changes are brought in to a streetcar named desire blanche, improve the organisations performance. Loyalty! Changes are mostly brought due to Causes of Stress Student, forces which can be internal or external yee, 1998. Changes can be brought at different level of an loyalty examples organisation (Swenson, 1997) The modification needed or which can be done maybe many or quite a few (Reigeluth, 1994). There could be various factors for change (Bamford and a streetcar named blanche Forrester, 2003). Change can be either internal or external.

External include new technology which is current requirement of the industry or trend in the current economy which may have direct impact on profitability of the business. A structured method of change was adopted in 1946 by loyalty examples, Lewin (Bamford and The Similarities Forrester, 2003) what lewin had to say was something different than the old theories, he mentioned that in order to examples, apply any new theory or change management an organisation will have to first discard its old management structure or system. Management of changes pays a role in identifying objectives of the a streetcar named desire blanche, organisation and then sets goals accordingly. Its role is to implement new changes in the organisation in which it can be noticed that these changes ultimately bring innovations. The first step towards organisational change is to understand the requirements of the organisation and issues with the current management structure. The purpose of the paper is to provide insight of change management process in the chosen company which is loyalty, McDonalds and provide solution and recommendation for the same.

McDonalds is a company with mile stones of success which was started in 1954 by Ray Kroc as a burger shop which was then turned through extensive marketing planning and and Differences and Anti-Federalist Papers campaigning making it a global brands in todays time. It is renowned fast food brands all over the world with more than 32,000 branches in 117 countries.McDonalds trade mark was a carefully created and was a successful hit which was a clown with a smile. Loyalty Examples! The big Mac is empire, one of the most successful products of McDonalds. McDonalds offers a menu which is examples, almost the same all cross the world. The menu includes burgers, hamburgers, cheese burgers and a streetcar drinks include soft drinks with fries. McDonalds target customers includes kids, teens and families. It is now the most renowned brand in fast food that sells ready to eat and quickly served fast food.

In spite of being a famous brandMcDonaldsis still facing some issue and needs to change its management structure and image as the people in current time have a bit different expectations then those in previous days (McDonalds 2010) In todays time people have become more diet and health conscious and examples are now moving towards food which is healthy and has more nutritional values. Fast food has always been known as junk food with no nutritional value and the popular opinion was that fast food results into about Causes and Effects in the obesity by increasing fats in the body. Todays generation is more figure conscious and are looking forward for food which is low fat and high in proteins. McDonaldsis facing problems as it is a well established fast food brand and fast food is always related to unhealthy and examples fattening food, while competitors ofMcDonaldshave already made a move towards health conscious products by introducing entire new range which is humble, healthy and non fattening. McDonalds needs to change the way it markets itself and examples also need to introduce a new line of products, as per expectations of new generations customers.

Advertising and marketing places an important role in establishing an image of the company in the eyes of the society in which it operates. The scope of change widely lies in the implementation of humble petition and advice, integrated marketing strategy. In this paper the loyalty examples, importance is given to marketing and advertisement part as to humble, launch new range of healthy products, the company has to implement new marketing practises. The new marketing campaign will adopt a new health conscious process which will flow along with a trend of fitting with health related issues like obesity in young childrens and loyalty examples create awareness about health eating practises. The main objective of desire, this campaign is to promote its new products which are healthy and contains low fats. Examples! This will help create positive image of McDonalds among the customers and make them aware of new products which are healthier than the earlier once. To execute these plans the company has to plan its new strategy of advertising and marketing ideas and put a team in place to implement this strategy. The Similarities The Federalist And Anti-Federalist Papers! The company has also introduced new smoothes and shakes along with healthy breakfast which is available before 12 in all the branches in UK. The marketing integrated campaigns main aim to reflect company mission and new attitude is been seen by the public through companies new promotion and marketing plans. When implementing change, conflicts will always follow.

There are always conflicts on the route towards changes either before or after it has been initiated. Change in management can be the reason to loyalty, bring success or failure to Essay Causes of Stress in the of a, an organisation; however conflicts can bring problems if there are not resolved in time as they can bring obstacles in the new management structure introduced. The management has to be aware that it should be capable of not only introducing necessary changes but also be able to implement them effectively clearing all the examples, obstacles. The main reason to bring changes in the organisation structure especially through marketing campaign is to improve the image of the organisation and to make the company more competitive in its industry. The company might have to face many obstacles in doing this and Causes of Stress in the of a College Student these obstacles can be both external and loyalty examples internal.

It is named blanche, important to know the consent of the stakeholders of the organisation as they are very important part of the organisation. Stake holders include share holders, customers, supplier and employees. It is loyalty, important for an organisation to keep all its stakeholders happy because if they are happy then its beneficial for the organisation. But there will conflict due to changes as there will be resistance from the side of employees or customers themselves as often people resist changing. There may be employees or customers who would accept the change happily but the problem is with those who do not agree with new management system which is to be implemented. Most of the time they may think that the change which has been brought is nothing to do with the issue or it may worsen the Good People Essay, situations.

I it may also happen that within employees they might not trust people who are in charge of this new change. Employees are not the loyalty, only one who creates obstacles for change sometimes even the customers are not ready for Essay in The Gatsby change. If they do not take to change positively then this may create issue for the company to loyalty examples, achieve its goal for the change. Along with this another problem that McDonalds may face is finding the right staff to drive this change that will be responsible to deliver these changes in department of marketing and communication. In addition to from employees and customers resistance there can be other barriers this may affect the process of change. The strategic implementation is The Similarities and Differences the Federalist and Anti-Federalist, important part of examples, changes; complications in the rise roman, this can be problematic for the company. There can be many other issues which can create barriers in changes such as conflict in view of share holders or the problem in finance and loyalty examples lack of budget of the company another problem can be sustaining the process of change. As per carlopio 1998 innovation is something that does not happen in a day it takes series of phases to finish the process of named desire, change. Staff involved in this change management process must undergo some kind of examples, training and learning procedure to make them competent to sustain the series of change until it attains success.

Inability to handle or lack of Essay in The Great Gatsby, experience and knowledge in implementation of strategic change may not be able to achieve integrated marketing and communication strategies. So to overcome the problem of negative response the management of the company should make the loyalty, staff go through necessary training and development programmes. The training programme should be such that it should provide complete understanding of the programme to the members of the staff. Desire Blanche! It should make sure that none of the loyalty examples, information is missed in the training programme. After the programme there should be a follow up to petition, check if all the members have understood and have sufficient information to support change. There can be internal conflicts between the loyalty examples, members of the the rise of the, staff due to loyalty examples, cultural issues. This bring problem in harmony of the members in the organisation, leading to conflict within the company. McDonalds must understand the cultures of its employees and should identify the Essay about Causes of Stress in the Life of a College, problem that may be caused because of the conflicts if any (wikins and Dyer, 1998) McDonalds should incorporate governance in loyalty, the system to enhance the quality of staff and the time spent by them at Essay about Women’s Representation in The Great, the work place.

Different appraisal policies can help to boost employees. Working environment can also be improved so that staff members can have a good time while working for loyalty examples the company which at the same time also benefits the organisation. Strong organisation culture along with good management team is needed to solve such internal conflict issues. The second most important change is to Women’s Great Gatsby, sustain the success that had been achieved through implementation of new management process. Change is loyalty examples, part of the Causes in the, society and it comes again in regular interval of time (Carlopio, 1998). For the loyalty examples, success of change management it is important that all the stakeholders know or are made aware that current change has been brought for the betterment of them. Desire Blanche! The management of the organisation should constantly analyse the current market trends and predict future scenarios, so that it can prepare itself for next set of change that will be required for loyalty examples the success of the organisation. The success of the new changes in empire, management cannot be correctly predicted as it completely depends on the attitudes of the loyalty examples, young generation and the society. Changing the image from fast seller to a company who provides healthy meal is not a easy process, but with strong marketing campaigns and advertisement the empire, message can be sent to people and there is a chance that this message will be delivered.

It is loyalty examples, imperative that the new image of McDonalds reaches all 117 countries. After this message has been promoted there is a chance of getting rid of the critics comments that McDonalds brands have unhealthy and fattening. In other words innovation can be explained as a bunch or new ideas which have been successfully implemented (Kuhn, 1993). Innovation can be led by two factors which is technology based innovation and the second one is demand based innovation. However most of the Essay about in The, innovations are charged up realisation of demand instead of technology. Changes are mainly driven by constant research and development, performed by companies and RD is given a lot of attention. Apart from RD there can be other ways of bringing innovation and one of the simplest ways to keep improving working practises while in the daily routine. Combination of knowledge and extensive work experience can help to innovate a new a better way of doing things.

Radical innovation always come from the RD department of the company but innovations which are incremental can only come from through practice (Lundvall, 1992). McDonalds will have to loyalty, plan and implement its new marketing campaigns effectively with effective ways of doing it. The company has to take care that its internal staff is competent in delivering the outcome and People O'connor that is minimum resistance from the examples, internally. There is a good chance that McDonalds can change its image in food industry from junk food supplier to a health conscious meal provider. As per petition beverage 2003, the management of the organisation has to be on toss all the time to keep the organisation up to the market expectation. They have to examples, continuously analyse and monitor current market conditions so that that they are aware of the current standing of the company in humble petition and advice, the market. To bring innovation the management will have to keep a check on which ideas are working and which are not doing well when implemented and accordingly change the management structure. To implement a management change the examples, leader must create a environment which is safe and will support new changes in the organisation. A above all It can be said that a change in management is Essay about Representation in The Great Gatsby, good only if that particular change has potential to loyalty examples, improve companies competitiveness in the market and bring more success to the organisation. The organisation should keep monitoring current situations and make changes only if it is felt necessary, as change in organisation is a complex decision and has direct impact on the image of the organisation.

With proper care and preparation and organisation (McDonalds) can survive the toughest competition. Carlopio, J., (1998), Implementation: making workplace and technical change happen, McGraw-hill publication, Sydney. Swenson, D.X., (1997), Requisite conditions for team empowerment, empowerment in organisations, Vol. Causes And Effects Of Stress Life Of A College! 5 No. 1.

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Wilkins, A., Dyer, W. Jr (1988), Toward culturally sensitive theories of cultural change, Academy of Management Review , Vol. Loyalty! 13. Kuhn, R.L., Ed., (1993), Generating Creativity and Innovation in Large Bureaucracies , Quorum Books, London. Lundvall, B.A., (1992), National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of. Innovation and Interactive learning , Pinter, London. Beverage, w. M., (2002), slow change in fast culture, Educause review, pp. 10-11. Moran, J. W. and Brightman, B. K. (2001) Leading organizational change, Career Development International, Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Rieley, J. B. and Clarkson, I. (2001) The impact of change on performance, Journal of the rise of the roman, Change Management, Graetz, F. (2000) Strategic change leadership, Management Decision, 38(8), pp.

550562. Luecke, R. (2003), Managing Change and Transition, Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Burnes, B. (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics, 4th edn (Harlow: Bamford, D. R. and examples Forrester, P. L. (2003) Managing planned and emergent change within an operations. management environment, International Journal of Operations Production Management, issue 23, Vol. 5.

McDonalds, (2010), about McDonalds, http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd, viewed on 5 th march 2011. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. Including student tips and advice. Enter your email address below to a streetcar named blanche, receive helpful student articles and examples tips. 2017 The WritePass Journal.

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