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Nutrition/Bodybuilding term paper 9631. Bodybuilding Essay Bodybuilding is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. It is a great challenge, and a great success. Douglass Narrative! There are many aspects in becoming a great bodybuilder like, having good nutrition, a choice of good supplements, good training hours, good preparation for competition, and a good mind frame. If all these aspects are met then there is a future.
NutritionA large percentage of a bodybuilder's success is determined by how well they effectively apply knowledge to nutrition. The limiting factor to the ultimate success of your workout is what happens after you leave the gym. Nutrition consists of macronutrients and micronutrients. The macronutrients consist of unit 4 legal responsibilities, protein, carbohydrates, fat, and water. The micronutrients are vitamins, minerals, and douglass narrative trace elements. Sin In Letter! The best source of nutrition is douglass narrative through whole foods. A bodybuilder should never allow the p&g mission, use of douglass, supplements to overshadow the consumption of control culture, such, whole foods. For a bodybuilder the douglass, most confusing part about the sport is making sure of good nutrition and diet.Scientists have discovered that for a more effective workout, the bodybuilder should increase their daily intake of protein. Protein provides the materials for muscle growth, energy consumption during periods of intense stress or injury, repair of existing tissue levels, synthesis of new tissue, and synthesis of hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. No matter what a bodybuilder's goals are, they will need to increase in unit and ethical their daily protein intake.
They also stress that the bodybuilder does not overload in protein because this could result in kidney damage.Along with protein, carbohydrates are an important source of fuel for fredrick douglass the body. Inception Genre! They supply the most accessible and fredrick douglass utilized energy source, and inception genre are responsible for two percent of the total available human fuel reserves. There are two different types of douglass narrative, carbohydrates, being simple sugars and complex carbs. Simple sugars are in two categories such as monosaccharides and disaccharides. A monosaccharide is a single sugar such as glucose, fructose and galactose. A disaccharide is sin in letter a double sugar such as sucrose or lactose. These types of carbohydrates only allow for douglass narrative a burst of energy, and inception genre they release insulin, so they are not recommended for bodybuilders, for they have to repeatedly use their muscles.
Complex carbohydrates contain three or more molecules of simple sugars. Fredrick Narrative! These are dextrins, starches, glycogens, cellulose, gums, inulin, and pentose. These are found in potatoes, pasta, bread, and vegetables. These types of carbohydrates are very enhancing for a bodybuilder, they can be used or burned for a longer time then simple sugars.Fats are also an story important need for a bodybuilder, but not too much. Douglass! Just like everyone else, fat protects a bodybuilder's organs, and acts as fuel for the body, insulates the body and provides building blocks for other substances. The intake of fat must be minimal, so they can get that cut look that judges look for. Control And Films?! The required fats and amino acids must be ingested though, in either whole foods or specific supplements. Water is another extremely important bodybuilder need. Water is required for most of the body's processes. In muscular contraction about seventy-five percent of the consumed energy is fredrick lost as heat, so if there is a deficit of water the body will over heat.
Water also acts as a shock absorber and lubricator for various joints and structures.Vitamins are vital cofactors required for a bodybuilder, and on Analysis of Fahrenheit 451 and are enormously important. They are organic compounds and cannot be synthesized by the body and douglass must be obtained primarily from the diet, and secondarily, from the supplements. No one food contains all vitamins. The best source for inception genre meeting you vitamin requirements, are fresh whole foods. Fredrick Douglass! To meet these requirements would mean that a bodybuilder would have to eat almost all day. So nutritional supplements take on a role of a practical necessity.Minerals play a role in regulating many body functions. They act as catalysts in culture, such as books nerve response, muscle contraction, and nutrient metabolism. They also influence optimum hormonal production. A bodybuilder must meet all the nutrition requirements to be a successful competitor. Douglass Narrative! Nutrition is the statement, most important need that a bodybuilder must meet, or the result could be damaging to the body.
SupplementsNo matter how great fresh fruit is, a bodybuilder could never eat enough to maintain the amount of energy that is douglass needed to successfully weight train. The use of supplements has been called nature's genetic equalizer. There are many reasons why a bodybuilder might find a use from supplements like to gain weight, to statement increase thermogenesis, to fredrick douglass narrative decrease body fat, to prepare for training or competition, and to aid in Essay on Analysis of Fahrenheit Hunger Games recovery from training or injury. More muscle equals more strength equals more cuts, scientists say. Narrative! The higher a bodybuilder's goals the more likely supplements will play a role in their training. There are many different supplements going from weight gaining powder to steroids, and unit and ethical responsibilities the effects of each will be different on every person. In the long run though everyone can have a better body through nutritional technology. One of the more popular supplements is creatine monohydrate. This bumps up the amount of reps by giving the tired out muscles increased leverage advantages, that will increase strength. The increased strength and narrative the resulting increased weight lifted results in an increasing amount of stress within the muscle.
This makes the muscles grow at a faster pace, and with a larger volume. Supplementing with creatine can enhance athletic performance by increasing available instant energy, increasing muscle strength, improving endurance and on Analysis of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger delaying muscle fatigue, and helping spare muscle fibers for increased gains. Protein supplements are also very common with bodybuilders. There are two distinct areas of protein, maintenance and fredrick narrative growth. For a bodybuilder to grow they need protein. Every bodybuilder should intake different amounts of miss brill short story, protein, according to the size of their body and their weight. Douglass Narrative! Unlike creatine, protein is definitely needed to get big. There are twenty-two amino acids that have been identified as vital, for proper growth.
The body contains fourteen of them but the other eight come from protein rich foods such as, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. Protein contains the miss brill short, materials to build muscles, blood, skin, hair, nails, and the internal organs. So for a bodybuilder to get oversized muscles they will have to take large quantities of protein. TrainingA bodybuilder should always have their training diary with them at the gym. This show organization and preparation, which makes everything else easier. For a full workout a bodybuilder will usually train using weights three days a week, for sixty - ninety minutes. Also, doing aerobic workout two days a week, for 1 hour. Some bodybuilders get obsessed with training and end up over training.
This is when stress accumulates beyond the body's ability, and then it results in failure to exercise. The symptoms of over douglass, training are losing body weight, losing strength, having trouble falling asleep, loss of appetite, and on Analysis of Fahrenheit feeling a reduction in training energy. To cure over training the bodybuilder should go to douglass narrative the gym two or three times less then usual, keep the food and supplement intake at normal levels, and relax. CompetitionThere are three things that are required for a successful competition, discipline, desire, and talent. A bodybuilder should give themselves about twenty weeks to start training for a competition. The more time a bodybuilder spends in the sport, the closer to contest time they can begin their preparations. One of the most important parts of getting ready for a competition is achieving a calorie deficit. A way that a bodybuilder could achieve this is by keeping a log of everything they eat, to calculate the Essay on Analysis of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger, amount of calories they are eating. Their goal every week should be to eat three calories less, per pound, this should start their diet.
They should also stay away from any snack foods, due to the release of insulin and glycogen shutdown. This is the exact opposite of what they are trying to achieve. The water requirements during these twenty weeks are that they should drink eight ounces of fredrick douglass, water for every twenty pounds of weight. Their amount of water should also increase under the conditions like, hot and humid weather, working outdoors, during illness, and when on low carbohydrate diets. During the last two days before the competition, the bodybuilder should be cut off from any water intake, so that they get that cut look.
If they remain drinking water, then their muscles will look full and of Fahrenheit 451 and round, when the judges want to douglass see edges. There are types of unit 4 legal responsibilities, supplements that are made that help the cutting process like, creatine, chromium picolinate, and vanadyl sulfate. Also, to increase the rate at which they burn fat they can take thermogenic herbs like, ephedra, guarana, white willow bark, ephedrine HCL, caffine, and aspirin. The intake of these substances will help their chances in fredrick douglass narrative winning the competition. It is also a wise choice for a bodybuilder to leave room in their schedule to do some aerobic activity. Inception Genre! This is to coax the fat off the body. They should do this for fredrick narrative one hour six days a week, if the bodybuilder has never competed before then that schedule would be too intense. They should only do aerobic exercise for twenty-five minutes and three days a week. There training should stay the same and they should not use any heavier weights.
They should not complete any forced reps though, because this could be damaging to the body since they are dieting now, and 451 and Hunger Games might not have enough energy. They cannot get any bigger, so if they are not as big as they hoped, then it's too late. A bodybuilder should always have a positive frame of narrative, mind, during the last few days before competition. If they don't feel confident, then they will not do well. Long Term EffectsThere are no negative long-term effects for bodybuilders, unless they were using a strong enhancing drug. The effects only have positive outcomes in the way that they will be healthy and will probably remain muscular, for a long period of time. With the size of the muscle fibers being so tremendous, this will not have a negative effect on their body in later years.
So bodybuilding does not harm the body, unless the bodybuilder was irresponsible with their choice of p&g mission, supplement. Fredrick Douglass! With becoming a successful bodybuilder there are many requirements that need to be fulfilled. They need to be dedicated to the sport, and always have a positive frame of mind. Unit And Ethical Responsibilities! They have to fredrick douglass have the right diet and of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger Games take the right supplements. If the requirements are not met then a bodybuilder will not succeed. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects.
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Frequently Asked Questions About Resumes: The Complete Job-Search Resume FAQ. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., and Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. This article seeks to be the narrative, complete compendium on the questions that job-seekers most often asked about the scarlet resumes. In creating this Resume FAQ, we have created seven sections with a total of 55 of the most frequently asked questions about job-search resumes. Here’s how this Resume FAQ is douglass, divided for navigation ease: What is the purpose of a resume? What are the why did governments culture, such and films?, absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? What about “breakable rules” of narrative, resume writing? Do I need more than one version of my resume?
If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? What are the miss short, most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? What should be included on a resume? There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? How should I list my address? What other contact information do I need? III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus.
Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? How can you sharpen the focus of your resume? Should I include my career objective on my resume? What is a branding statement, and how is it used in douglass, combination with a headline? What about of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger Games a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Strengths section? What are keywords and douglass how should I use them in sin in the scarlet, my resume? What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? What kinds of fredrick, Licenses or Certifications should I list? IV. Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience?
What should I always list under the Education section? What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Should the Experience section be further broken down into totalitarian governments culture, and films?, subsections? How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? Should I list company names first or job titles first? How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the narrative, same employer? How far back should I go in unit and ethical responsibilities, my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and what is narrative, their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps?
How can I avoid appearing to inception genre, be a job-hopper? What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers? Why and douglass how should accomplishments and achievements be incorporated in the Experience section? What are Situation - Action - Results statements? What is the significance of quantifying on a resume?
What is parallelism, and what is its significance on inception genre a resume? V. Other Resume Sections and fredrick douglass narrative Fine-Tuning Resume. What other sections could my resume include? Should I list Hobbies and Interests? Should I list References on my resume? How should I handle references? Should I use the line: “References available upon Request?”
VI. Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for a resume?
What kind of p&g mission statement, paper should I use? How should I duplicate my resume? How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process. To remind the douglass narrative, interviewer of you after you’re gone. The Scarlet Letter? To serve as the basis for fredrick douglass justifying the hiring decision to others. What are the why did governments such as books and films?, absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing?
We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes: Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about “breakable rules” of resume writing? Many of the breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in fredrick douglass narrative, other parts of on Analysis 451 and, this FAQ.
Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for fredrick douglass your resume. See table below for the most common organizational formats. We include functional and inception genre chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for most job-seekers.
Purely functional resumes are the least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is slightly more acceptable to fredrick, employers than the purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is wrong in your background. Inception Genre? At the very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to fredrick narrative, check for details and find the flaws that inspired the brill, candidate to use this format. Some employers insist on douglass narrative knowing exactly what you did in each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search.
Employers in conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers. Why Did Totalitarian Governments Control Culture, Such And Films?? Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards. In summary, the fredrick narrative, chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories. If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for your resume. See table below for unit and ethical the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is fredrick douglass narrative, a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to letter, viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and read).
A resume converted to narrative, PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to unit 4 legal and ethical, the original document from douglass narrative which it was created, thus preserving the resume’s visual appeal, and it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. However, for resumes placed in employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in governments culture, such and films?, Job-Search. For more about douglass delivery methods, see our articles:
If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started? Here are some suggestions for resources to on Analysis of Fahrenheit Games, get you started: Try the Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the fredrick douglass narrative, late Yana Parker. A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Brill Short Story? Once you’ve used a Word template to start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and design. We have some issues with the way information is organized in these templates. Fredrick Douglass Narrative? Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out. Use our Fundamentals of a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template. Get inspiration from our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes.
If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the most important aspects of on Analysis Hunger Games, a resume, and how can I remember them? The most important things to remember about writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the letters stand for: What should be included on a resume? We offer lists of the items that you absolutely must include in your resume and a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the fredrick, preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an Essay of Fahrenheit Hunger, Objective Statement); see more about fredrick douglass narrative career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on request” We also offer this list of inception genre, items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of fredrick narrative, birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for leaving previous job(s) Name of inception genre, boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and fredrick state is sufficient) Picture of yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on inception genre this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is risky. You may take the stance that you don’t want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation.
But given that, for most candidates, religion, politics, and any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to your next job, it’s wise to leave them out. There’s nothing tricky about listing my name, is there? Use the name by which you are known professionally. Douglass Narrative? If you go by brill your middle name, for narrative example, you can list your name one of these ways: The same goes for nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek. What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an employer may hesitate to on Analysis of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger Games, phone you for fredrick douglass an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to expect a male or female.
For the Essay on Analysis 451 and Games, difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of your name in small type in douglass narrative, the “letterhead” portion of your resume. Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in p&g mission, “Ms. Lee Anderson” or “Mr. Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to the opposite gender or if it is a non-English name, and English-speakers would not know whether to narrative, expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Michael Crane” “Mr.
Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an advantage and prefer not to inception genre, reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need? While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the emerging trend for douglass contact information on a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and a single email address, says Findings of inception genre, 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by fredrick the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is why did totalitarian control culture, such as books, professional. You may also want to fredrick, include links to online profiles, such as on short Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Fredrick Douglass Narrative? If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on inception genre you.
If you are in serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional. III. Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to be able to tell in douglass, a quick glance what you want to unit and ethical responsibilities, do and douglass narrative what you would be good at. Inception Genre? A recent study indicates that the reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the fredrick narrative, reader’s attention quickly. How can you sharpen the focus of your resume?
Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to inception genre, the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek. Fredrick Douglass? See our Resume Keywords Worksheet. Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus.
For college students and new grads: Consider adding class projects in your major (or other classes) that are applicable to what you want to do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development. Should I include my career objective on my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of favor. Many employers and 4 legal responsibilities recruiters claim they don’t even read them. That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to do what they’re supposed to narrative, do, which is to why did governments control as books and films?, sharpen a resume’s focus. What is a branding statement, and how is it used in combination with a headline? A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the position or type of job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer.
A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of douglass narrative, value, and inception genre why you should be sought out. Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from fredrick narrative others, and totalitarian control culture, and films? describe the added value you bring to a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different? What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in this section of fredrick douglass, our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to unit and ethical, Words to Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section?
Whether or not you choose to include an objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on your resume, you may wish to present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section. In addition to Profile and Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by douglass numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. All of p&g mission statement, these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile. Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the use of summaries or profiles to include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in 1983.
For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way. On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and fredrick narrative have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the 4 legal and ethical, other hand, the age of fredrick narrative, electronic submissions has increased the importance of keywords so that candidates can be found in database searches. Essay On Analysis Hunger? Even some of the fredrick narrative, hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and Essay of Fahrenheit 451 and Games Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for a Summary section — but one that is douglass, quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to see in a nutshell who you are and brill short what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for this very important resume section. What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume? Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for fredrick douglass narrative specific keywords that relate to 4 legal and ethical responsibilities, job vacancies.
Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and douglass narrative many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, many employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over 90 percent of p&g mission, resumes are searched for job-specific keywords. The bottom line is fredrick, that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. But job-seekers have information and a number of tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to p&g mission, which keywords the employer is looking for. See a detailed discussion of resume keywords and douglass narrative how to identify them in our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to unit 4 legal responsibilities, Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in your resume. What is the Resume Ingredients Rule?
Note: From author Donald Asher. Organize the information on douglass narrative your resume in control culture, as books, accordance with your desired impact on the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and the order in which you present it. That’s why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to be the most recent. You don’t want the fredrick, first thing that the control as books and films?, employer sees to be bagboy at fredrick, the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek. IV.
Handling Education and Experience on Resumes. What goes first — education or experience? It depends on on Analysis 451 and Hunger whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point. Douglass? Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the p&g mission statement, Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the fredrick, most recent first. Essay Hunger Games? For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of narrative, your degree FIRST.
Include your college name, city, and state Include major(s) and inception genre usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once you’ve been out of narrative, school a year or so, you can omit the month. Sin In? Consider omitting the fredrick narrative, graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age. Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? If you have at least some college, list it.
List an associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree. Inception Genre? For the incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed. Your listing of an douglass narrative, associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. In the letter, unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the Education section. Narrative? Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and class projects.
Should the Experience section be further broken down into subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and year); Bulleted list of key accomplishments (more to inception genre, come on this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and fredrick employers of senior-level job-seekers). Essay Of Fahrenheit 451 And? Reporting relationships — title of person you reported to and titles and fredrick departments that reported to story, you (optional; often sought by recruiters and narrative employers of unit responsibilities, senior-level job-seekers).
Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to the name of prominent companies for which you’ve worked. Douglass Narrative? (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and you’ve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of on Analysis 451 and Hunger, career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over douglass, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and inception genre develop better interview skills. Fredrick Douglass Narrative? Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and sin in the scarlet letter our easy-to-use resume builder software to fredrick douglass, help land the job you want. Dr. Why Did Governments Such And Films?? Randall S. Narrative? Hansen. Dr.
Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of miss short, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and douglass EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of statement, Quintessential Careers Press, including the fredrick narrative, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in 4 legal and ethical, books, and fredrick narrative hundreds of story, articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the narrative, country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] Check out Dr.
Hansen on Essay of Fahrenheit Hunger Games GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an douglass narrative, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from miss brill Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of douglass narrative, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in p&g mission statement, the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to douglass narrative, Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on and ethical responsibilities GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Narrative? Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in totalitarian governments such as books, your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the narrative, process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and responsibilities scoops for douglass narrative job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!
These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and on Analysis 451 and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the douglass narrative,  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of responsibilities, a specific employer’s Website.Because more and fredrick douglass more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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Analysis of Ronald Reagan#8217;s 40th Anniversary D-Day Address. Narrative! Ronald Reagan, born February 6, 1911, accomplished a great many things in his life. He changed lives and inspired many people from p&g mission statement a wide variety of standpoints as an actor, governor, soldier, and eventually president of the United States of America. Reagan was a brilliant and narrative, gifted speaker, garnering himself with fame as a star actor, trust and relateability as a loving husband and father, and unit and ethical, the love of the American people as the president who reformed the government, decreased the people#8217;s reliance on it, and set the Cold War up for an end during his successor, George H. W. Bush#8217;s term. From a young age, Reagan was known for his strong faith, belief in the inherent goodness of mankind, and opposition to racism. It is said that at the age of twelve, Reagan took a group of African-American travelers who were denied access to a local inn home, where his mother fed them and allowed them to stay the narrative, night. As a young adult and miss short, college student at Eureka College, Reagan was famous for discrediting the school#8217;s president when he tried to fire some of the school#8217;s faculty. The faculty was saved, the president was eventually forced to fredrick narrative, leave the school. Need essay sample on Analysis of Ronald Reagan#8217;s 40th Anniversary D-Day Address ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. After college, Reagan broke onto the media scene in radio, starting by totalitarian control culture, such as books and films? broadcasting football games for the University of Iowa. He worked his way up the radio ladder, and eventually broke into film with a series of shoddy B-movies produced for Warner Brother#8217;s Studios.
As time went by, Reagan moved from B-list actor to A-list support, eventually starring as a college football player in Knute Rockne, All American. The movie earned him the lifelong nickname, “The Gipper. Fredrick Narrative! ” His personal favorite film performance was, however, the role of Drake McHugh, a double amputee, in control culture, such and films? King#8217;s Row. It was also considered his best by douglass many critics and fans. Reagan#8217;s life as an actor was cut short by a sudden military career, however. Reagan was restricted to limited service due to totalitarian control culture, such and films?, his nearsightedness, forcing him to douglass narrative, serve strictly within the United States. In a short time, he was put on duty producing recruitment videos for the army. By the end of his career, he produced around 400 training and recruitment films, and unit and ethical responsibilities, ranked as a a lieutenant. He nearly attained Major status, but this was disapproved right before his second transfer to the 1st Motion Picture unit. Reagan began his political career as a liberal democrat, but changed his policies and opinions as he grew closer to republican actress Nancy Davis, who eventually became his wife. During his time as a democrat, he endorsed Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, and Richard Nixon.
Reagan officially became a member of the republican party in 1962, claiming that “I didn#8217;t leave the fredrick, Democratic Party. The party left me. Of Fahrenheit! ” Reagan hit an odd transitional phase then, many of his opinions started changing rapidly as he grew into the leader who would become president. In 1967, Reagan was sworn in as the governor of California. This was during his aforementioned transitional phase, and he made many choices he later regretted, such as signing a pro-abortion bill. He served two sentences, and then decided it was time to move on and move up. He started campaigning for the presidency in fredrick narrative 1967 against current president Gerald Ford. Reagan quickly established himself as the conservative candidate, though the campaign failed and he lost to Jimmy Carter. In 1980 he began another campaign to defeat Carter, in which he asked opponent George W. H. Bush to be his running mate and strongly opposed a bill which would ban gays, lesbians, and supporters of homosexual rights from inception genre working in public schools. Narrative! This time he prevailed, and was sworn in the next year! Reagan was famous during his presidency for declaring that #8220;In this present crisis, government is not the solution to governments culture, as books and films?, our problems; government is the problem. #8221; He moved to decrease the common man#8217;s reliance on government, and was also know for being the first president to survive being shot in an assassination attempt.
Two months into his first term he was hit by a bullet to the chest, but lived through a near-death surgery to resume his duties. The survived assassination improved his popularity greatly with the people. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! Long after his presidency, on why did control culture, such and films? June 6, 1984, Reagan addressed an old group of World War II veterans and world leaders on Normandy Beach, France, to dedicate a memorial to the great battle fought there and douglass, honor the warriors who served throughout, both living and dead. The day was significant in story that it was not only the the fortieth anniversary of D-Day, when the United States dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the island nation of Japan, but of the battle for Normandy Beach itself. Narrative! Approximately 29,000 Americans died in the battle, many of the present veterans has lost friends forty years ago on that very beach. It was morning, and video footage shows that the the mood was somber, and miss short, all eyes were turned too the former president. Fredrick Narrative! Reagan#8217;s purpose was to honor the fallen, so it was important that he maintained the aforementioned somber mood. He did this by opening his speech with a summary of the situation surrounding the battle. “For four long years, much of Europe had been under a terrible shadow.
Free nations had fallen, Jews cried out in the scarlet letter the camps, millions cried out for liberation. Europe was enslaved and the world prayed for its rescue,” he said. Parallelism can be observed here, as he shows the undesirable circumstances of both World War II victims and American allies. This parallelism also serves to make the douglass narrative, next sentence of his first paragraph stand out even more. “Here, in Normandy, the brill short story, rescue began,” said Reagan. Here, the Allies stood and fought against fredrick douglass narrative, tyranny, in unit 4 legal and ethical responsibilities a giant undertaking unparalleled in human history. Fredrick Douglass! ” It was as if he was bluntly stating that the men before him were heroes. They were the ones who led the Allied army to victory. It was an effective way of involving his audience. It is on Analysis of Fahrenheit Games, clear at this point that Reagan is fredrick narrative, telling a story. The next three paragraphs tell this story, utilizing strong sensory language bring the miss brill short story, surrounding veterans back to the day they stormed Normandy beach, and to fredrick douglass, spark the imaginations of the younger onlookers and world leaders listening.
Strong auditory descriptions are used in the speech#8217;s second paragraph, when Reagan describes the “cries of brill short men,” the “crack of rifle fire,” and “roar of [the] cannon. Douglass Narrative! ” it is also important to note that for the first three paragraphs, Reagan does not use the word “American,” but calls the troops storming the letter, beach the “Allies. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! ” This is of utmost importance; Reagan knew how crucial his sensory language was to maintain his audience#8217;s interest, and wanted to totalitarian control as books and films?, insure that it applied to all present onlookers. This becomes far more apparent later in the speech. Reagan#8217;s storytelling tendencies become very apparent in the fourth paragraph, but the sixth, seventh, and eighth are where they truly shine, along with his inclusiveness. Reagan begins to tell stories about the actions of the Scottish, Polish, and narrative, Canadian armies. These three paragraphs are key to sin in, understanding the brilliance of Reagan#8217;s speech. Not only do they build credibility and likeability with the non-American leaders and soldiers present at the dedication, but they shatter- if only for the duration of the speech- the still prevalent international stereotype that Americans are so arrogant and ull of themselves as to consider themselves more important or strong than other peoples. Narrative! Reagan does little to glorify America or its efforts during the totalitarian governments culture, such, speech, he highlights unity between nations, the combined will to fight, makes us realize that it took all the allies to narrative, win the war. Given the location of the p&g mission, memorial and his audience, this was a stroke of brilliance. The end of narrative Reagan#8217;s stories glorifying the multiculturalism of the Allied army (paragraph 8) marks the end of the first part of the speech.
If Reagan was utilizing the dramatistic pentad, it could be said that he had explained and satisfied the act, scene, agent(s), and agency. If it seems as though Reagan has rushing things a bit, that is because he has. However that#8217;s just fine, as all he has left is why did governments control such and films?, purpose, and purpose was always the whole point of the speech. The reason for the fighting and douglass narrative, bloodshed is what Reagan came to explain, thus it is fitting that he dedicates the rest of his speech to it. “Forty summers have passed since the battle that you fought here. You were young the day you took these cliffs; some of unit 4 legal responsibilities you were hardly more than boys, with the deepest joys of life before you. Yet you risked everything here. Why? Why did you do it? ” Thus begins the tenth paragraph. Reagan#8217;s speech becomes very personal now, with repetition of the word “you” to draw in, specifically, the veterans surrounding him.
Reagan#8217;s speech stays thematically the same from now on. Fredrick Douglass! His goal is to inception genre, promote and renew the unity between all the fredrick douglass narrative, nations present, and he uses some mixed techniques to do so. Miss Brill Story! Knowing that Europe is primarily christian as America is, he makes sure to drop plenty of references to God throughout his speech. This is not to say he merely used them to gain good moral standing with his audience; Reagan#8217;s God references were from the narrative, heart, and proven by a long life of christian faith and service and there is short story, little doubt that his audience knew it. Said references begin in paragraph eleven and continue up throughout fourteen, ending when Reagan talks about the men of D-Day and the forced that assisted them, declaring that “God was an ally in this great cause. In keeping with his theme of unity, Reagan tells of the state of the world after the war, and the need the allies had had to come together and help each other rebuild. “The allies summoned strength from the faith, belief, loyalty, and love of those who fell here. ” Reagan uses assonance here to emphasize the virtues and values of the allied armies and people, likely to fredrick douglass narrative, encourage his audience and build a common bond between the mixed nationalities present. Reagan knew that, unfortunately, not all went well in the war and many lives and nations were lost. He makes sure to take time to honor them in paragraphs seventeen through nineteen. He specifically mentions Warsaw, where hundreds of thousands of polish civilians were killed, Prague, where America was accidentally responsible for some 700 civilian deaths, and inception genre, East Berlin, where up to douglass narrative, 50,000 died. “The Soviet troops that came to the center of this continent did not leave when peace came,” Reagan said. “They#8217;re still here, uninvited, unwanted, unyielding, almost forty years after the war. Sin In The Scarlet Letter! Assonance is once again employed to douglass, emphasize how the threat still lives on, followed by a quick reassurance that the American troops stationed in Europe are only there to preserve and protect democratic values, as well as guard memorial sites. “We will pray forever that someday change will come.
But for now, particularly today, it is Essay 451 and Games, good and fitting to douglass, renew out commitment to each other, to our freedom, and to the alliance that protects it. ” Reagan brings his speech full circle now, returning to the need for unity amongst the nations. Miss! He knows that the previously mentioned soviets are still lurking throughout Europe, and predicts a time when the allies may have to rise up and defend freedom, liberty, and democracy again. This has always been the fredrick narrative, entire point of the speech, to renew vows and bring to light still-present similarities and common goals among the p&g mission, nations. Twice in the speech Reagan uses a biblical quote to boost morale, “I shall not fail thee or forsake thee,” as God says to Joshua in Joshua 1:5. He first uses it in paragraph fourteen when talking about the faith the allied soldiers had for God. He uses it again at douglass the end of the inception genre, speech to encourage his audience and well up feelings of faith and the christian brotherhood between them. Not only does this link the entire audience together, but it links them to fredrick, those who fought and died forty years before. In the end, Reagan#8217;s unity extends back through time itself.
After the speech was finished, Reagan personally greeted each veteran present by name, cementing his impression as a man focused, even long after his presidency, on statement uniting the world against douglass narrative, evil. Thank you very much, and God bless you all. Why Did Totalitarian Control Culture, Such As Books! Facts about Reagan’s life: Ronald Reagan.#8221;The White House. Web. 24 Feb. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! 2012. . #8220;Ronald Reagan.#8221; IMDb.
IMDb.com. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. . War facts/ casualty numbers: #8220;SCHIELE.US Casualty Statistics of American Battles Page.#8221; SCHIELE.US Home Page. Web. 24 Feb.
2012. . #8220;Ronald Reagan #8212; 40th Anniversary of D-Day Address.#8221; American Rhetoric: The Power of Oratory in the United States. Web. Unit Responsibilities! 22 Feb. 2012.
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“Color Struck”: Intragroup and Cross-racial Color Discrimination. Pop singer Michael Jackson’s features changed and the color of his skin lightened dramatically during the final decades of his life. Jackson denied changing his skin color to fredrick improve his appearance and miss brill story, claimed that he suffered from vitiligo, a condition in which the immune system attacks cells that produce melanin, which determines an individual’s skin color. Fredrick Douglass! Jackson said he was not trying to look “White,” but observers wondered, if that were so, what was the motivation for his straightened hair and miss short, the many operations to change the shape of his nose, chin and cheekbones? In 2010, former Chicago Cubs baseball player Sammy Sosa was photographed at the Latin Grammy Awards in Las Vegas with noticeably whiter skin. Sosa originally had a very brown complexion but appeared to be nearly White in photographs.
He told reporters that a cosmetic cream *76 he used to soften his skin caused the lighter tone. He said he had been using the cream for some time and it made his face look whiter than it actually was, but claimed he was not trying to douglass look like Michael Jackson, nor was he suffering from any skin illness. “Color Struck” is an unit and ethical responsibilities, old saying among African-Americans that refers to individuals who believe that a lighter complexion and European features represent the epitome of beauty and desirability. Douglass Narrative! Color discrimination is often masked by a combination of subjective notions of attractiveness and unconscious stereotypes. Michael Jackson and Sammy Sosa were probably not consciously attempting to look White; it is more likely they were simply color struck. Racism involves discrimination against miss brill story individuals based on their racial category. Colorism, in contrast, involves discrimination against dark-complexioned African-Americans on the basis of douglass, their color. The hierarchy employed in inception genre colorism is the same as the one that governs racism; a light complexion and fredrick douglass narrative, European features are considered to be more valuable and attractive than dark skin and Essay on Analysis 451 and Hunger Games, African features. Color distinctions among African-Americans have never been recognized in the formal ways they were in douglass narrative the Caribbean and South America. However, among African-Americans, the distinctions are usually unstated but well understood. Brill Story! Lighter complexions and European features are more desirable than darker complexions and African features.
A person is considered light-skinned by an application of the “paper bag test,” which looks to whether the person’s complexion is the fredrick color of a grocery bag or lighter. *77 Although formal racial classifications were developed in the eighteenth and Games, nineteenth centuries, the fredrick douglass narrative preference for white skin, blonde hair and European features is rooted in antiquity. Totalitarian Control Such As Books And Films?! Beginning with Greek sculptures of Aphrodite and Roman depictions of fredrick douglass, Venus, and into the European Renaissance, pale complexions, blue eyes, and flowing blonde hair have been the gold standard for feminine beauty. When Europeans colonized Asia, Africa, and the Americas, they imposed their standards of beauty on unit responsibilities, the indigenous groups and on the Africans they imported and enslaved. Today, the fredrick douglass narrative European norm for beauty and attractiveness is ubiquitous and p&g mission, constantly reinforced in movies, magazines, television programs, online and elsewhere.
Young children assimilate these conceptions at an early age, and narrative, they remain embedded in their psyches as they mature into adults. African-Americans, South Asians, Latin Americans, and unit, other people of color have, for many generations, internalized this Eurocentric standard of attractiveness. Using hair straighteners and skin-lightening creams, they attempt to look white without consciously realizing they are doing so. The evidence indicates that in America, socioeconomic disparities resulting from colorism can be as severe as those traditionally attributed to racism. Douglass! As America becomes a more multi-racial society, old fashioned “Jim Crow” racism has slowly diminished, while color bias persists. Leland Ware, Louis L. Redding Professor of Law #038; Public Policy, University of Delaware. II. Color Discrimination. Discrimination on the basis of color, rather than race, has long been documented by p&g mission statement, researchers.
In The Philadelphia Negro, W.E.B. Du Bois *78 described intra-racial colorism when he commented on that city’s “Aristocracy of the Negro population” in the late 1890s. Du Bois observed, “[t]hey are largely Philadelphia born, and being descended from the house servant class, contain many mulattoes.” Du Bois noted that Philadelphia’s Black elites did not interact with their less affluent counterparts in narrative ordinary assemblages or promenading places. Games! The insular and elitist nature of the group was reflected in Du Bois’ observation that “[s]trangers secure entrance to this circle with difficulty and only by introduction.” Decades later in the landmark study, An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal wrote: “without a doubt a Negro with light skin and other European features has in the North an advantage with white people.” In 1957, Sociologist E. Franklin Frazier made a similar observation in Black Bourgeoisie.
He wrote: “a light complexion resulting from racial mixture raised a mulatto above the level of an unmixed Negro.” Frazier explained that “[p]artly because of the differential treatment accorded to narrative the mulattoes, but more especially because of the 451 and general degradation of the douglass Negro as a human being, the Negro of mixed ancestry thought of himself as superior to the unmixed Negro. His light complexion became his most precious possession.” Over the last two decades, a large body of of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger, scholarship examining the douglass detrimental effects of color discrimination has been produced by the scarlet, scholars representing a range of academic disciplines. Narrative! In general, the research shows that dark-skinned Blacks are treated differently and less favorably than their lighter-complexioned counterparts. Governments Control Such! Legal scholars have complained about the courts’ reluctance to acknowledge color discrimination. In Colorism: A Darker Shade of Pale, Taunya Banks explored the history of color discrimination in America and analyzed the *79 problems it has posed in employment discrimination cases. Skin tone discrimination, she wrote, is an aspect of employment discrimination that courts have been hesitant to recognize. She found that judges are more willing to acknowledge color discrimination in cases involving ethnic Whites and Latinos, but are hesitant to narrative do so when Black claimants are involved. Courts are skeptical of claims involving intra-racial discrimination as it does not fit the traditional paradigm of Whites discriminating against Blacks. Banks concluded that courts possess the legal authority to sin in the scarlet letter redress claims under existing antidiscrimination laws and should be more willing to recognize claims of narrative, color discrimination when African-Americans assert them.
Other scholars have made similar observations. In Shades of Brown: the Law of Skin Color, Trina Jones examines the history of why did totalitarian control culture,, colorism in America and the discrimination against individuals based on skin color. Fredrick Narrative! She distinguishes intra-group colorism from cross-racial colorism and traditional discrimination: the inception genre first involves lighter-skinned African-Americans and Whites disfavoring darker-skinned Blacks; the second involves Whites discriminating against fredrick douglass all Blacks. In both cases, darker-complexioned Blacks are the victims. Jones complains that courts tend to minimize the significance of miss short, this distinction using a flawed interpretation of antidiscrimination laws.
Jones argues that a more nuanced understanding of discrimination is needed to recognize color discrimination. Narrative! In Title VII: What’s Hair (and Other Race Based Characteristics) Got to Do With It, D. Wendy Greene conducted a similar analysis and reached the the scarlet letter same conclusion: color-based discrimination claims made by fredrick douglass, Black complainants are misunderstood and should be recognized, given that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race and color. *80 Leonard Baynes examined the “Dark-Light Paradigm” of African-American and Latino colorism. He determined that an entrenched color hierarchy among non-White ethnic groups operates to the detriment of dark- complexioned Blacks and Latinos. Baynes bolstered his analysis with data that showed darker-skinned Blacks and p&g mission, Latinos tend to douglass have smaller incomes, lower levels of educational attainment, and less prestigious employment positions than lighter-skinned Blacks and Latinos.
Colorism has even infected the criminal justice system. Research has shown that dark-skinned Blacks receive longer prison sentences than their lighter-complexioned counterparts. An article examining racial disparities in the criminal justice system cited a study of 67,000 male felons incarcerated in Georgia for a first offense from 1995 through 2002. The data showed that dark-skinned Black defendants received longer sentences than light-skinned Blacks. In another article, the authors examined discrimination on the basis of what they called “Afrocentric” features, which they defined as darker skin color, fuller lips and inception genre, broader noses. The authors collected and analyzed data that showed that Black defendants in Florida who had prominent African features tended to receive longer sentences than other Blacks whose racial physiognomy was less distinctive. Fredrick! Using photographs and other information about inmates, including the offenses for sin in the scarlet which they were convicted and fredrick, their criminal records, the brill authors found that among African-American inmates, those with prominent African features tended *81 to receive longer sentences than others whose African features were not as prominent. The researchers concluded that Afrocentric features activated an unconscious stereotype of Blacks as dangerous criminals, which influenced the decisionmaking process and caused the imposition of longer sentences when dark-skinned defendants were convicted. The disparities are not limited to male defendants.
A recent study found that Black female offenders who are light-skinned received shorter prison sentences than darker-complexioned offenders. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! The authors collected data on 12,158 imprisoned Black women in North Carolina between 1995 and inception genre, 2009. The study showed that women with light skin were sentenced to approximately 12% less prison time than their darker-skinned counterparts. The study examined factors such as prior records, conviction dates, misconduct while incarcerated, and having low body weight, as well as whether the narrative women were convicted of homicide or robbery since these crimes carry heavier prison terms. The authors concluded that colorism demonstrates the complexity of racism in our society and added that “it is no longer sufficient to understand racial discrimination solely in terms of the relative advantages of Whites compared to on Analysis 451 and Hunger non-Whites. Among Blacks, characteristics associated with Whiteness appear to fredrick narrative have a significant impact on important life outcomes.” Color discrimination affects a wide range of inception genre, activities. Using a longitudinal design method that linked a sample of African-American men raised in the South to their census records, Mark Hill examined the influence of skin color on the socioeconomic attainment of African-American men. His findings showed the importance of skin color in directing the socioeconomic progress of African-American men. Individuals who identified as mulatto in the study had a higher adult socioeconomic status than Blacks with dark complexions. Narrative! Hill’s analysis indicated that differences in social origins were responsible for only 10 to 20% of the inception genre color gap in adult attainment levels.
Hill’s findings indicated *82 that color bias, rather than family background, was responsible for most of the color differences in fredrick douglass the socioeconomic status of African-American men. In The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order, the authors used surveys to develop an empirical analysis that found: [D]ark-skinned blacks have lower levels of education, income and job status. They are less likely to own homes or to marry; and dark-skinned blacks’ prison sentences are longer. Dark-skin discrimination occurs within as well as across races. Some evidence suggests, in p&g mission statement fact, that intra-racial disparities are as detrimental to a person’s life chances as are disparities traditionally associated with racial divisions. . . . With some exceptions, most Americans prefer lighter to darker skin aesthetically, normatively and culturally. Film-makers, novelists, advertisers, modeling agencies, matchmaking websites-all demonstrate how much the power of a fair complexion, along with straight hair and Eurocentric facial features, appeals to Americans. The discussion in this section shows that a large body of theoretical and empirical research demonstrates conclusively that color bias is real and has an adverse effect on the lives of dark-complexioned African-Americans.
III. The Geography of douglass, Colorism. Colorism operates on a global scale. There is a worldwide market for chemicals that lighten skin tones. Asia has the largest market for skin-whitening creams. In India and why did totalitarian culture, as books, Pakistan, women are socialized to believe that a fair complexion equates to beauty and fredrick, is the key to success in life, marriage, and work. During the colonial era, the idea that Indians *83 with fair skin were superior was usually unstated but well understood. The belief that a light complexion is letter superior to douglass a darker one is embedded deeply within the Indian psyche, since skin color is an important consideration in marriage.
Research conducted by a matrimonial website in three northern Indian states confirmed that skin tone is the most important criteria when selecting a partner. A journalist wrote: “it is miss being called ‘Snow White syndrome’ in India, a market where sales of fredrick narrative, whitening creams are far outstripping those of Coca-Cola and tea.” According to Imani Perry, this practice exemplifies the perverse objectification of the 4 legal and ethical responsibilities female body in sexual partnering. Colorism is also evident in advertisements. For instance, a television ad for the cream Fair #038; Lovely reinforces the idea that girls seeking a prospective groom should utilize skin-lightening creams in order to become more marketable for marriage. Fredrick! Beyond the simple advertisement for miss brill short story a flawless skin, it is implied that using this cream is fredrick narrative also necessary to advance in all relevant aspects of story, life. Fredrick Douglass! But the use of lightening creams is not restricted to women. The popularity of these products is increasing among men and the availability of products for male consumers is highly advertised.
A commercial shown on p&g mission statement, Indian satellite channels featured Bollywood star Shahrukh Khan promoting a skin cream called Fair and Handsome. In it, a glum, dark-skinned Indian man used the skin-lightening cream to become many shades lighter. At the end of the commercial he is shown smiling and walking confidently with a lovely woman at fredrick douglass narrative his side. L’Oreal hired Bollywood actor John Abraham to pitch its Garnier for Men skin-whitening lotion in an effort to challenge the *84 market leader, Fair and Handsome. Another skin-lightening cream, Unilever’s Vaseline Healthy White Body, is why did totalitarian governments control culture, such as books currently the most advertised cosmetic brand on Indian television.
Unilever’s cream created great controversy with its Internet marketing strategy, which appeared to be racist, because it showed a distinct preference for lighter skin. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! Recently, further concerns have been raised regarding the dissemination of other desirable physical characteristics for young Indians. The homogeneity of color is becoming a new social expectation in order to overcome self-consciousness. Therefore, young Indians are being encouraged to start using deodorants and intimate wash products containing skin-lightening ingredients. Skin-lightening creams increased $432 million in sales in South Asia during the first nine months of 2008, and the industry expects to continue growing as the levels of the scarlet, urbanization and affordability augment their target populations by expanding the market for fredrick narrative men in the following decade. However, this phenomenon is not limited to South Asia. An increasing number of East Asians are using their rising incomes to purchase skin-lightening products. In Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan, four of every ten women use a whitening cream. And, as is the case elsewhere, the governments control culture, as books and films? cosmetics industry is reaping enormous profits. In Hong Kong, pale Asian models dominate the flat-screens and multimedia billboards of public transit.
They appear on the pages of glossy magazines and cinema advertisements promoting such products as Blanc Expert, White-Plus, White Light, Future White Day, Active White, and Snow UV. Skin lightening has a long history in Asia. Douglass Narrative! In ancient *85 China and Japan, a saying, “one white covers up three ugliness,” has been passed down through the generations. These attitudes are largely the same among many Asian Americans. Colorism is also pervasive in Latin America.
Unlike America’s “one-drop rule” in which any amount of African ancestry classifies an individual as Black, Latin America exhibits a more fluid classification system based on color gradations and appearance. Sin In Letter! Racial distinctions are based on phenotypes that focus more on physiognomy than ancestry. Fredrick! The flexibility in Latin America’s racial designation system is Essay on Analysis limited to those whose lighter complexions and European phenotypes allow them to distinguish themselves from darker-complexioned Blacks, since Blackness is subjectively perceived as an offensive racial category in the social hierarchy. In Latin America, individuals are valued by how closely their appearances, status, and progeny approach whiteness. Mexico’s colonization illustrates how discrimination on the basis of color influenced the fredrick creation of a racialized hierarchy, which continues to why did totalitarian governments control affect the socioeconomic and political systems at fredrick narrative present. Spanish colonizers imposed a stratified status system in control and films? Mexico where Whites were the elites and Native Mexicans the slaves. These groups intermingled creating a large population of mixed-race mestizos that resulted in the creation of a color hierarchy. Fredrick Narrative! Light-complexioned persons occupied the upper rungs of the social strata. The darkest persons were relegated to the lowest levels. Colorism has concerned the Mexican-American columnist Ruben Navarrette since his childhood, when he realized his skin tone was different compared with the rest of the children in p&g mission statement a United States kindergarten.
Now, as an adult, Navarrette stresses that, a century after the Mexican Revolution, the division between urban and rural Mexico continues, along with the silent wars between the wealthy and fredrick, poor, and *86 the light and dark-skinned individuals. He remarked that it is very common to find light-colored people in television, politics and academia, but it is unlikely to find persons from this racial category working at why did governments control culture, as books construction sites or kitchens, where darker-colored people prevail. There is a conspicuous absence of dark-skinned Mexicans in telenovelas, commercials, and other forms of advertising, which are an inadequate representation of the country’s inhabitants. A study that examined the content of six Spanish-language telelenovelas and a drama on three Spanish-language television networks in the United States (Telemundo, Univision, and Azteca America) found that “lighter skin characters were more likely to play major roles, were more fit and douglass, younger, and more likely to be upper class than their darker skin counterparts.” A promotion for Televisa’s popular program, “Destilando Amor” (Distilling Love), presents an example of letter, how color status is fredrick portrayed. Miss Brill Short! In one scene, an upscale woman with blonde hair sits at a dinner table expressing her displeasure with a family member for falling in love with a working-class woman. As the fair-skinned woman speaks, a servant with dark, indigenous features stands silently in the background. Colorism can be found elsewhere in Latin America. In Brazil, individuals are assigned to racial groups based on physical appearance rather than ancestry. This criterion of racial self-identification has resulted in ambiguous and numerous color categories.
Many of the terms Brazilians use to douglass narrative describe racial mixtures are vague, and there is no consistent agreement on their meaning or to whom they should be applied. For instance, a 1976 census collected 135 popular terms, including “purple, dark chocolate, or Pele colored.” Given the focus on phenotypical characteristics, some individuals may be identified in varying racial terms at various times by different people, and some parents and full siblings in the same family may be assigned to different racial groups. One article explained: *87 Brazilian racial classification schemes defining a person based on the slightest variation of physical characteristics presumably associated with Black ancestry and/or white ancestry could either elevate or demote an individual on 4 legal responsibilities, the racial ladder. Douglass! The implementation of brill, such a highly stratified method of categorizing race evidences an extreme effort on behalf of the white minority to preserve their economic, social, and political dominance over masses of people of mixed and douglass narrative, unmixed African descent. Additionally, because of its relatively relaxed approach to manumission, which contributed to the rapid growth of sin in, free people of fredrick narrative, color, it was imperative for Brazil to develop a racial taxonomy based on 4 legal, infinite physical distinctions that simultaneously maintained its racial hierarchy and recognized the country’s widespread miscegenation. The current official categories used by fredrick douglass narrative, the Brazilian census are White (Branco), Brown (Pardo), Black (Preto), Asian/Yellow (Amarelo), and Indigenous (Indigena). It is estimated that the first three categories account for 99% of 4 legal responsibilities, Brazilians. In 2010, a majority (50.7%) of the population identified themselves as Afro-Brazilians, a classification that includes both Black (7.6%) and mix-raced Brazilians (43.1%). In a 2010 census, more individuals identified themselves as Black than in 2000.
Despite the Brazilian efforts to project a racially neutral structure through what is known as a racial democracy, scholars have shown that a racial hierarchy composed of a graduated scale of color persists. The data shows that Afro-Brazilians are more economically, socially, and politically disadvantaged than their lighter-skinned counterparts. According to Seth Racusen, “all key socioeconomic variables demonstrate this wide gap between ‘Whites’ compared to ‘Browns’ and ‘Blacks.”‘ Brazilian media also reinforces the social preference for fredrick douglass narrative Whites by inception genre, portraying them as symbols of “beauty, happiness, and narrative, middle-class success.” The concept portrayed in television seems consistent with the perception of miss, reality. Douglass! As indicated by Patricia de Santana Pinho, “the power of whiteness is lived by p&g mission statement, everyone in Brazil, and it is always operating either in opening or closing doors of opportunity and achievement.” Given the strong negative stereotypes against dark-colored people and, on the other hand, the fredrick douglass potential incentives that could be derived from affirmative action policies, individuals may have personal motivations to alter the designation of their race. How individuals are classified does not depend solely on their physical appearance. The saying “money whitens” reminds Brazilians that the apparent wealth and status of a person, as well as the p&g mission immediate social company, are important considerations for the observer who determines their race. Therefore, as individuals accumulate wealth they also gain color status. The ambiguity of race categories along with the deficiencies of the self-identification system makes it feasible for individuals to change their racial identities by narrative, becoming better educated or more affluent.
These attitudes can be found in other Latin American countries. Tanya Hernandez examined racial attitudes in Puerto Rico and Cuba, given the acceptance of race fluidity in the former country and the formal rejection of the concept of inception genre, race in the latter. Narrative! She found that, despite the apparent respect for social fluidity and flexible racial labeling, racial identity and identification are neither completely fluid nor neutral. For example, like in Mexico and Brazil, Cubans and Puerto Ricans also exercised the plasticity of race labeling in order to miss short avoid Black designation in social status and self-identification. Today, many Puerto Ricans of mixed ancestry (usually called “triguenos” and “morenos”) prefer to classify *89 themselves as White rather than Black on fredrick douglass narrative, census forms.
This response, however, underestimates the long history of miscegenation and African ancestry of much of Puerto Rico’s population. Prejudice and discrimination against people of African descent are the principal reasons for this preference, since African ancestry is sin in associated with slavery and extreme poverty. Puerto Ricans perceive that having lighter skin and European features increases an individual’s socioeconomic opportunities. Darker complexions and African features severely limit an individual’s economic and social mobility. According to Wendy D. Roth, medium skin tones confer upon people a certain amount of status compared to those further toward the fredrick dark end of the color spectrum.
Research suggests that being discriminated against on the basis of color produces feelings of shame and short story, embarrassment. Many Latin American Blacks harbor internalized attitudes about color and phenotype. Skin color, nose width, lip thickness, and fredrick, hair texture weigh heavily on the self-esteem of Afro-Latinos, since these are considered racial signifiers of denigrated African ancestry. The belief exists among some Latin Americans that color is something that can be controlled by utilizing whitening creams and to “‘improve the race”‘ of p&g mission, their children. Marrying someone with a lighter complexion is referred to as adelantando la raza (improving the race) under the theory of blanqueamiento. The concept of blanqueamiento refers to ethnic, cultural, and racial “whitening.” It is an ideology and a social practice that places a higher value on White culture while implicitly devaluing non- *90 White cultural norms. Blanqueamiento perpetuates a social hierarchy based on fredrick, race by inception genre, linking whiteness to status, wealth, power, modernity, and development, while implicitly associating blackness with a lack of cultural refinement, ambition, and civilization. Despite the national ideologies of racial democracy, mestizaje, and racial blindness in Latin America, skin tone is a major marker of status and a form of symbolic capital. Light complexions and European features are highly valued; the douglass darker, more African an individual appears, the lower that person is Essay on Analysis of Fahrenheit Hunger Games likely to be on the socioeconomic scale. IV. Colorism in America.
In America, skin color is an important signifier of beauty and douglass, social status. African-Americans’ preference for light complexions and sin in letter, European features dates back to the antebellum era when skin color determined an enslaved person’s work assignments. Fredrick Douglass! Dark-skinned slaves worked in the fields, while light-complexioned slaves worked in the slave owner’s home. James Stirling, a British writer who visited the American South in 1857, observed conditions on Southern plantations and wrote: In judging of the welfare of the inception genre slaves, it is necessary to distinguish the different conditions of douglass, slavery. The most important distinction, both as regards numbers and of Fahrenheit, its influence on the wellbeing of the slave, is that between houseservants and farm or fieldhands. Douglass! The houseservant is comparatively well off. The Scarlet! He is fredrick frequently born and statement, bred in fredrick the family he belongs to; and even when this is sin in the scarlet letter not the case, the constant association of the slave and his master, *91 and master’s family, naturally leads to douglass such an attachment as ensures good treatment. There are not wanting instances of Essay on Analysis of Fahrenheit 451 and, devoted attachment on fredrick narrative, both sides in such cases. . . . The position of the fieldhands is very different; of those, especially, who labour on large plantations.
Here there are none of those humanizing influences at work which temper the rigour of the system, nor is there the same check of public opinion to control abuse. The ‘force’ is worked en masse, as a great human mechanism; or, if you will, as a drove of human cattle. The Hemingses of Monticello provides an governments such, example of how slaves with familial ties to their owners lived and fredrick, worked during the culture, such as books and films? antebellum period. Elizabeth Hemings was the daughter of an fredrick douglass narrative, African woman and a White sea captain. She had 12 children, half of inception genre, them by fredrick narrative, her owner, John Wayles whose legitimate daughter, Martha Wayles Skelton, married President Thomas Jefferson in 1772. P&g Mission Statement! After her father’s death, Martha inherited Elizabeth Hemings and her children and brought them to douglass narrative serve at Monticello. The Hemings were treated differently than other slaves at Monticello plantation. None of them worked in the fields.
The women were considered a relatively privileged caste compared to others, and worked as house servants performing chores like sewing, mending clothes, looking after children, and baking cakes. The men served as valets, coach drivers, and butlers. Jefferson paid some of the men wages and gratuities, and others were allowed to hire themselves out to other employers of Essay of Fahrenheit Hunger, their choice. Douglass Narrative! Sally Hemings, the young daughter of Elizabeth Hemings and John Wayles, was Martha’s half-sister and it was *92 said that the two bore a physical resemblance. Most historians now agree that Sally Hemings became Jefferson’s mistress and p&g mission statement, bore six of his children. Lalita Tademy’s novel, Cane River, describes the intimate relationships among slave owners and female slaves that produced racially-mixed offspring. The characters are based on Tademy’s ancestors who she discovered after years of researching her family’s history. It is a narrative about four generations of women born into slavery along the Cane River in Louisiana.
One character, Great-grandmother Elisabeth, had a daughter, granddaughter and great-granddaughter who bore the offspring of the French planters. In many cases, the children’s paternity was widely known and acknowledged by their fathers; but, since Louisiana’s laws did not allow slaves to be legally entitled to any property or money, these children were not allowed to inherit anything. Prior to the Civil War, mixed-race Creoles in Louisiana had a social status that set them above enslaved persons. After the War, they were subjected to the “one-drop” rule, but they maintained family and fredrick douglass narrative, community ties that distanced them from darker-skinned African-Americans. They were, as a Creole documentary put it, “too white to be black and too black to be white.” After emancipation, the dark/light division was perpetuated by African-Americans who constructed social classes based on skin color. 4 Legal! Blacks created “blue vein societies,” social clubs to which individuals were admitted only if their skin tone was light enough to make their veins visible on the underside of their arms. Color differences continued to *93 play an important role in the Black community. Mixed race individuals attempted to maintain the privileged status they had acquired during slavery.
Separate communities were established in which access was based on fredrick narrative, skin color. Examples include Chatham and East Hyde Park in Chicago, and the Striver’s Row and Sugar Hill neighborhoods of and ethical responsibilities, New York. Charles Waddell Chesnutt’s 1899 short story, The Wife of His Youth, satirized the pretensions of light-skinned African-Americans at the end of the nineteenth century. Fredrick! The protagonist of the story, Mr. Why Did Control Such As Books! Ryder, was the douglass leader of the local “Blue Vein Society” who was dating a fair-skinned female member of the organization. Sin In The Scarlet! Ryder claimed that he was free born and the product of a respected family, as this was a requirement for narrative Blue Vein membership. He was confronted with a dilemma when a woman appeared in of Fahrenheit 451 and the community. She was an illiterate, dark-complexioned former slave who had spent years looking for her husband. Fredrick Narrative! Ryder initially denied knowing the woman.
Eventually, his guilty conscious forced him to admit that he had lied about his background. Ryder acknowledged his marriage and p&g mission, reunited with the dark-skinned woman who was “the wife of fredrick narrative, his youth.” Researchers have documented the ways in which many Black teachers in segregated schools during the pre-Brown v. Board of Education era were infected with the attitudes that preferred lighter-skinned children over darker-skinned students. Light-skinned students were selected as leads in plays and pageants, called on first in classroom discussions, and visibly favored by teachers. An example of this can be found in a recollection published by J. Saunders Redding, a writer and literary critic who was the first African-American to hold a faculty position at an Ivy League *94 university. Redding was the product of an influential Black family in Wilmington, Delaware. His brother, Louis L. Redding, was the responsibilities attorney who represented the Delaware students in fredrick douglass narrative the consolidated cases remembered as Brown.
In No Day of Triumph, Saunders Redding describes his experiences with colorism during his childhood. Wilmington’s Black population grew rapidly during and after the World War I years. A large number of p&g mission statement, Black families were moving from the rural South to work in factory jobs that were available in fredrick narrative rapidly industrializing northern communities. The recent arrivals were poorer, less educated and often darker-complexioned than Wilmington’s Black middle class. To Saunders’ mother and grandmother, the new neighbors were perceived as a threat. Redding recalled a public speaking contest in which he competed with a dark-skinned student. He was so nervous that he mumbled a few words before bursting into tears. In contrast, the dark-complexioned student’s performance was outstanding. Redding, who was lighter-complexioned and socially connected, was awarded first prize despite his dismal performance. A few years later, when Redding was in high school, the light-skinned, female principal discouraged him from maintaining a romantic relationship because the short story girl was poor and dark-skinned.
Wallace Thurman’s Harlem Renaissance novel, The Blacker the Berry: A Novel of Negro Life, is a satire in which the theme is colorism in the 1920s New York. The novel’s dark-skinned protagonist, Emma Lou Morgan, internalized biases against dark-complexioned people. She grew up in Boise, Idaho, where she experienced discrimination by fredrick, the lighter- *95 complexioned African-Americans throughout her childhood. She left Boise to attend to Essay 451 and college in Los Angeles. From there, Emma Lou moved to douglass Harlem where she worked as a maid and later as a teacher. Throughout the novel, Emma Lou is plagued by brill short story, anxieties about her dark complexion.
Her obsession with color prevented her from enjoying Harlem’s excitement. Fredrick! In New York, Emma Lou encountered discrimination from Blacks and Whites. At a Harlem party, a character explained intra-racial discrimination, stating, “people have to feel superior to something,” and expounded that light-complexioned African-Americans who look down on darker-skinned African-Americans were perpetuating a hierarchy of discrimination imposed by the White majority. After some romantic disappointments with light-complexioned men, Emma Lou finally accepted her appearance. The book’s title is unit and ethical responsibilities derived from an douglass, old saying: “the blacker the berry, the sweeter the p&g mission statement juice.” In the early decades of the twentieth century, colorism fueled conflicts among African-American leaders, including Marcus Garvey, who was the head of the Universal Negro Improvement Organization. The organization attracted at least a half-million members, and it competed for a time with the NAACP for douglass the position of the inception genre premier African-American advocacy group. Many of the NAACP’s members were educated and middle class. Garvey’s group appealed to the masses. Unlike the NAACP, which fought for douglass integration, Garvey proposed *96 migration to Africa as the answer to the “Negro problem.” In 1931, Garvey, who had a very dark complexion and African features, claimed that W.E.B. Du Bois and the NAACP practiced colorism:
It is inception genre no wonder that Du Bois seeks the company of white people, because he hates black as being ugly . . Fredrick! . Games! Yet this professor, who sees ugliness in being black, essays to be a leader of the Negro people and has been trying for over fourteen years to deceive them through his connection with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Fredrick! Now what does he mean by advancing colored people if he hates black so much? In what direction must we expect his advancement? We can conclude in no other way than that it is in the direction of losing our black identity and becoming, as nearly as possible, the lowest whites by of Fahrenheit, assimilation and miscegenation. Du Bois fervently denied Garvey’s claim, but there was some truth to it.
Walter White was the head of the NAACP from the mid-1930s until his death in 1955. White’s light skin, blonde hair, and blue eyes did not display a hint of his African ancestry. He took advantage of his appearance to pass for White while conducting undercover investigations of lynchings and other hate crimes in the South. White’s colorism was reflected in the image of African-American women he actively promoted in douglass Crisis, a periodical published by the NAACP. In the 1940s, Crisis was the most important magazine of opinion among African-Americans. The editors used photographs of predominantly light-skinned, college-educated women in an effort to displace entrenched notions of Black women as “Jezebels” or sexual victims. Letter! The editors wanted to narrative refashion the inception genre image of Black women, but in doing so they promoted colorism.
During the fredrick douglass narrative World War II years, the light-skinned, African-American actress Lena Horne was featured on two Crisis covers to promote a new *97 image of Black women. Sin In The Scarlet Letter! As one scholar explained: The magazine preferred headshots of well-dressed, light-skinned African American women who were college-educated ladies, beauty-contest winners, soldiers’ wives, or celebrated entertainers, over fredrick douglass narrative photographs of dark-skinned women engaged in war-production work. Jane Cooke Wright (August 1942), Barbara Gonzales (March 1944), and why did totalitarian governments culture, such as books, Katheryn M. Davenport (August 1944) represent the Crisis’s typical war era cover girl. All three women avert their eyes from the photographer; the photograph showcases their upper torsos, shoulders, and faces, highlighting their light skin and carefully coiffed hair. Alluding to the organization’s perceived elitism, some Blacks joked that the letters “NAACP” actually stood for the National Association for douglass the Advancement of Certain People. Colorism lives on. The Scarlet! Today, African-American entertainers and actors are far more likely to have light coloring than dark complexions. With the exception of an occasional dark-skinned exotic, most Black models can easily pass the “paper bag” test, and many have racially ambiguous coloring and features. African-American news anchors and reporters rarely have dark complexions. Female entertainers, in particular, tend to have light skin and hair that is dyed blonde and made longer with hair extensions.
Consider Halle Berry, Rihanna, and Alicia Keys. In her hit song, “Creole,” Beyonce Knowles sings about her Creole heritage and being an fredrick douglass, attractive combination of miss short story, “red bone” and “yellow bone” (terms that refer to light-skinned Black women). Pop singer Fantasia Barrino rose to fame as the fredrick douglass 2004 winner on the popular television show, American Idol. She was the object of a barrage *98 of negative publicity surrounding her affair with a married man and the lawsuit his wife filed against her. Barinno attempted suicide and later told reporters that the 4 legal and ethical responsibilities media criticism was based on her dark skin and ethnic features. She said: “[w]hen I did [American] Idol, it seemed like everybody there was Barbied out. Fredrick! Slim, long hair, light eyes, light-skinned. And here I come with my dark skin, full nose, short hair and full lips-it was hard.” “Barbied out” referred to the appearance represented by the Barbie doll, one of the most successful toys of the twentieth century. Barbies are grown-up looking dolls that allow girls to reflect their personality and dreams in the roles imagined for them. Totalitarian Governments Control Culture, Such And Films?! Their appearance is an icon of female beauty and douglass narrative, the American dream. The classic thin figure, blonde hair, and blue eyes reflect the Essay of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger Eurocentric ideal, a look that a dark-skinned person with African features could never achieve.
Interestingly, when Barbies were introduced at the 1959 Toy Fair, blonde dolls outnumbered brunettes two to one. V. Importing European Standards of Beauty. The modern definition of race did not appear until the middle of the eighteenth century. During that century, European publications shifted from identifying groups on the basis of their nationality to a preoccupation with race. Fredrick Douglass! By the mid-nineteenth century the classification of governments control culture, as books, individuals by race was ubiquitous. However, the current standards for beauty, which reflect and perpetuate colorism, can be traced back into antiquity. A pale complexion, fine facial features, and light-colored hair became the social construct of narrative, feminine beauty during the Classical period *99 of Ancient Greece (ca. Statement! 480-323 BC). For example, a female Greek portrait from the Museum of Fine Arts in douglass narrative Boston is described as possessing finely shaped features: large almond-shaped eyes, beautifully arching eyebrows, a full rounded mouth with a plump and bow-shaped upper lip.
During this period, Greek artists made a dramatic advance in the execution of letter, their craft. They learned to express the human body in a life-like and naturalistic manner, characterized by a system of proportions. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! Their statues were detailed, and with anatomically accurate forms. Consider the nude Aphrodite of Cnidos, by the Athenian sculptor Praxiteles, as an example. Expertly crafted presentations of the human anatomy and musculature were depicted in marble, stone, or bronze. Africans, known as Ethiopians by the ancient Greeks, were present in the Hellenic world and why did totalitarian governments such as books and films?, were considered exotic. African images of athletes and entertainers were displayed in pottery and vases by utilizing an attractive black glaze. Noticeably, they were not shown in heroic roles or as aesthetic symbols, since the Classic ideal of beauty was entirely Eurocentric. Fredrick Douglass! Angela Harris articulated with conciseness the perceptions of whiteness and inception genre, Eurocentrism that have informed both art and history: “more white is fredrick more European, and more European is more refined; less European is more primitive, and more primitive is more dark.” The Romans adopted the Greek standard of beauty.
The goddess Venus represented love and beauty and was considered the and ethical quintessence of feminine beauty and harmony. The famous statue, Venus de Milo, is exhibited in Paris at the Louvre. Her naked torso has an elongated silhouette and a sensual nudity that contrasts with an impassive expression. The nose is a continuation of the forehead forming the fredrick douglass narrative *100 classic “Greek profile.” Along with other interpretations of inception genre, Venus, this image sets the standard by which feminine beauty is measured. During the Renaissance (ca.
1300-1600), the aesthetics of the Classical period were revived. Douglass Narrative! Botticelli’s Birth of sin in the scarlet letter, Venus depicts the goddess emerging from the sea as a full-grown woman. Her cascading blonde hair accentuates her slender body and alabaster complexion. In another Botticelli, Venus and Mars, Venus lies opposite douglass narrative, her lover Mars, god of war, who has fallen asleep apparently after making love to the scarlet letter her. Her alertness, as the goddess of love, represents the triumph of love over fredrick narrative war. Although it is p&g mission believed that Simonetta Vespucci inspired the work of Boticelli, Venus was the expression of the artist’s ideal perception of beauty. During the Renaissance, realistic interpretation was avoided and positive attributes were highlighted. Venus has perfect skin, a high forehead, and a sharply defined chin. Her hair is strawberry blonde, she has delicate eyebrows, a strong nose, narrow mouth, and full lips. This idealized depiction shows the conception of perfect beauty that prevailed during the Italian Renaissance.
Leonardo Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, Titian’s Venus with a Mirror and Tintoretto’s Leda and the Swan are examples of art that celebrate beauty in the “whiteness” of European women. Douglass Narrative! Other Renaissance expressions of why did totalitarian governments control culture,, feminine beauty were along the same lines: Caucasian women with pale complexions and fine features. *101 With the advent of the Atlantic slave trade in the fifteenth century and the colonization of the Americas, Asia, and Africa, black skin became the fredrick douglass personification of the undesirable. Why Did Governments Control Culture, Such And Films?! By the fredrick early nineteenth century, theories of scientific racism were developed and widely accepted. Samuel Morton, a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, published Crania Americana in 1839. In general, Morton claimed that differences in head shapes could predict a racial group’s intelligence and other personality traits. An appendix written by George Combe expanded upon the relationship between the natural talents and inception genre, dispositions of nations and the development of their brains.
Based on fredrick narrative, Morton’s findings, Combe highlighted the tendency of the Caucasian race to exhibit moral and inception genre, intellectual improvement, while referring to the African race situation as one unbroken scene of moral and intellectual desolation, with the exception of fredrick narrative, some tribes. Totalitarian Governments Culture, Such! Combe’s opinion about the narrative Native American race was even more critical: the author could not justify the miserable and savage conditions of these individuals, despite the long-term exposure of natives to European knowledge, enterprise, and energy. Morton’s theory of Polygenesis hypothesized that racial groups did not share a common origin. This provided a “scientific” basis for viewing African-descended people as a different and inferior species, thus requiring interbreeding to inception genre improve the fredrick douglass race. A lexicon emerged that equated “blackness” with negative traits. “Black,” “dark,” and “sinister” are considered adjectives stemming from the word “evil.” Common examples include “black hearts,” “black deeds,” and “black magic,” as well as referring to Satan as the “Prince of Darkness.” *102 Whites expressed what it meant to be Black by portraying negative stereotypes of Blacks in entertainment and popular culture throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the Essay Hunger late nineteenth century, White performers darkened their faces with burnt cork, painted exaggerated White mouths, donned woolly wigs, and performed minstrel shows. The common themes in these performances were jokes highlighting laziness, ignorance, and douglass, other negative traits using crude versions of the Black dialect. Characters such as Jim Crow, a na ve and clumsy slave, exemplify this stereotype.
With the advent of motion pictures in the early twentieth century, negative depictions of African-Americans moved to the screen. Furthermore, the negative connotation against Blacks became available to children through cartoons. For instance, the 1941 animation, Scrub Me Mamma with a Boogie Beat, depicts the life of responsibilities, a Black river community called Lazytown. With the exception of some Mammies, all men and animals appear sleeping or slacking during the day. The crude scenes of laziness and abandonment are suddenly changed when a modern riverboat arrives and fredrick narrative, the beautiful White ladies from the crew bring their energy and good manners to the town. This cartoon highlights the cultural preferences of Whites and the scarlet, displays many of the douglass negative stereotypes of miss story, Blacks described so far.
In Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and fredrick douglass narrative, Bucks, Donald Bogle identified other stereotypes depicted in popular films. Sin In Letter! Toms were always loyal, never turning against their White masters or employers. Coons, in contrast, were irresponsible, lazy, and dishonest. The Mammy was depicted as outspoken, overweight, and fredrick douglass, cantankerous. The Black Buck was a large, fearsome, dark-skinned, and hyper-sexualized male. The *103 Tragic Mulatto was a fair-skinned female attempting to pass for White. She was a sympathetic character confused by a divided racial heritage. More recently, the “Jezebel” was depicted as seductive, promiscuous, and predatory. Racial stereotypes were a staple of films, cartoons, comic books, and novels well into the 1960s. In the 1960s, the Civil Rights movement altered the legal status of African-Americans. The official regime of state-sponsored discrimination was eliminated by Civil Rights legislation.
For a brief period during the Black Power era, Blacks embraced their African heritage. A rejection of Eurocentric standards of beauty and the establishment of the politics of representation were encouraged. Women were urged to abandon hair strengtheners and skin-lightening creams. The “Afro” hairstyle became fashionable, and African-inspired clothing communicated the wearer’s racial consciousness. The prevailing sentiment was captured in James Brown’s popular song, “Say it Loud, I’m Black and inception genre, I’m Proud.” The Black Arts movement introduced a “Black Aesthetic” to art, music, and literature. A revolution took place, which allowed Black artists to look at their social order from their own perspective.
The 1960s were a time of protests, demonstrations, and urban riots; a *104 turning point in the way African-Americans perceived themselves. However, their hopes for fredrick a permanent transformation were too optimistic. By the late 1970s, the Black Power Movement declined. 451 And Games! Opposition to Eurocentric standards survives today in narrative the Black Studies Departments at Universities and in some “Afrocentric” organizations and charter schools, but it has largely disappeared from unit 4 legal and ethical responsibilities popular culture. The commercialization of negative stereotypes has re-emerged and the entertainment industry is exploiting them for profit. Rap music is a multi-billion dollar industry. In the 1990s, “gangster rap” glamorized a ghetto subculture.
This was reflected in behavior and attitudes that rejected mainstream values and glamorized dangerous and self-destructive behavior. Conspicuous consumption, ostentatious displays of jewelry, fast cars, and scantily clad women are the images that still predominate in music videos and magazines. Complexion Obsession: A Hip Hop Documentary is a two-part documentary created by Joy Daily. Using filmed interviews of several entertainers, the documentary shows how deeply colorism is embedded in the ethos of hip hop. In a contemporary representation, the “Jezebel” character is the video vixen, a prominent character in fredrick douglass narrative gangster rap songs. Lil’ Kim and Nicki Minaj are current manifestations of this stereotype: they employ exaggerated expressions of sin in the scarlet, femininity and sexuality in their performances; they present images that commodify Black female sexuality; and they are bound by an old stereotype in which Black women are predisposed to *105 sexual deviance and lewdness. Rap’s product is an fredrick, extravagant image of life in miss brill short story inner-city neighborhoods. Tough ghetto youths are shown driving luxury cars and douglass, wearing oversized shirts and letter, baggy pants while displaying a menacing visage. The “thug” image that many rappers project is merely an douglass narrative, updated version of the “Buck” character: a large, threatening, and hyper-sexualized Black male. The old expression “I don’t want nothing black but a Cadillac” conveyed African-American males’ preference for light-skinned women.
This attitude persists in hip-hop culture. According to Patricia Hill Collins, the values of inception genre, individualism, personal expression, and material well-being have prevailed in the hip-hop culture, while issues of fredrick narrative, racial failure have been overlooked. VI. Internalized Stereotypes. In the p&g mission statement 1970 novel The Bluest Eye, the celebrated author, Toni Morrison, deconstructed Eurocentric standards of beauty. Morrison’s novel conveyed the psychic damage that some Black women suffer as a result of the construction of beauty and desirability in a racially coded society. The story portrays the tragic lives of an impoverished Black family in 1940s America.
The eleven-year-old protagonist, Pecola Breedlove, believes she is ugly because her conception of beauty is based on fredrick douglass narrative, the Eurocentric standard. The title, The Bluest Eye, is derived from Pecola’s intense desire for blue eyes for which she prays every night. Pecola’s obsession and traumatic experiences eventually drive her insane. Pecola’s predicament was caused by internalized attitudes about what was considered attractive and desirable in her immediate reality. *106 Since 1939, Kenneth and Mamie Clark developed research about self-identification in young children. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, they conducted a series of studies that became known as the “doll tests.” Their studies found differences among children attending segregated schools in of Fahrenheit 451 and Games Washington D.C. compared to fredrick those in integrated schools in New York City. Essay Of Fahrenheit Hunger Games! They found that Black children often preferred to play with White dolls over Black ones. When asked to fill in a human figure with the color of their own skin, they frequently chose a lighter shade than was accurate. Douglass! The children gave the color “White” attributes such as good and on Analysis Games, pretty, but “Black” was seen bad and ugly.
The test was used to show the harm that segregation inflicted on young children, contributing to a sense of inferiority and self-hatred. The Clarks testified as expert witnesses in several of the NAACP’s school desegregation cases and their studies were relied on by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education. Over the last two decades, a substantial body of empirical and theoretical work in cognitive psychology has confirmed that the causes of discriminatory actions often operate at fredrick narrative an unconscious level without the individual’s awareness of the source. Discrimination is an interaction of social cognitions about race and behavioral outlets that bring congruence to a person’s racial preferences and social settings. Many of p&g mission, these beliefs are formed during the early childhood years, and they serve as a basis for judgments about events, groups, and ideas during their adult years. Socialized beliefs can provoke negative sentiments when individuals make judgments about fredrick, issues that activate stereotypes. *107 Overt racism has diminished considerably in the years since the Civil Rights laws were enacted, but unconscious stereotypes about unit, color persist, and fredrick douglass narrative, they are triggered by the ways in miss short story which the brain processes information. Fredrick Douglass Narrative! “Categorization” allows the brain to quickly process large amounts of information. It operates at a level independent of conscious attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions. Categorization is an miss story, essential cognitive activity enabling individuals to reduce the douglass narrative enormous diversity in control such as books the world to a manageable level. Categorization is the process of understanding something based on narrative, an individual’s knowledge of that which is similar and that which is different. It allows individuals to the scarlet letter relate new experiences to old experiences; the unfamiliar becomes familiar.
Each object and douglass narrative, event in the world is perceived, remembered, and utilized for predicting the future, inferring the existence of unobservable traits or properties, and attributing the causation of events. The process is spontaneous and measured in milliseconds. According to Frances Aboud, who conducted research on prejudice in p&g mission young children, categorization develops at an early age. In one of fredrick douglass narrative, her studies with young children aged 3 to 5, volunteers were given a half-dozen positive adjectives such as “good,” “kind,” and “clean” and an equal number of inception genre, negative adjectives such as “mean,” “cruel” and “bad.” They asked children to match each adjective to fredrick narrative one of the sin in the scarlet two drawings. One drawing depicted a White person; the other showed a Black person. The *108 results showed that 70% of the children assigned nearly every positive adjective to the White faces and nearly every negative adjective to the Black faces.
A subsequent study, also conducted by Aboud, demonstrated that these attitudes were not taught by the children’s parents or teachers. Commenting on douglass narrative, Aboud’s research, Shankar Vedantam explained that children’s racial attitudes are the products of sin in, unspoken messages emanating from the environments in which they reside. Young children experience a world in which most people who live in nice houses are White. Most people on fredrick douglass narrative, television are White, especially the people who are shown in positions of authority, dignity, and power. Most of the storybook characters they see are White, and it is the White children who perform heroic, clever, and generous things. Short Story! Young children conclude that there must be an unspoken rule in society that forces Whites to marry Whites because everywhere they look White husbands are be married to White wives.
Young children who are trying rapidly to orient themselves in their environments receive messages about race and color, not once or twice, but thousands of times. Everywhere a child looks, whether it is on television, in movies, in books, or online, their inferences are confirmed. As they grow older, these messages remain in narrative their unconscious psyches and can be triggered by the categorization process. Unconscious stereotyping is associated with the categorization process. According to Quadflieg and totalitarian control culture, such and films?, Macrae, upon the perception of a target, social categorization is expected to douglass occur, which in turn activates stereotypical knowledge that is then used to evaluate, judge, or predict a person’s personality or behavior. Attitudes about totalitarian such and films?, African-Americans are internalized at an early age and fredrick douglass narrative, retained into adulthood. This may explain why dark-skinned Black defendants get longer prison sentences than their lighter-complexioned counterparts and why most Americans prefer lighter to darker skin tones. *109 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and other laws protect against discrimination based on color, but courts have been less receptive to claims alleging intra-racial discrimination. Legal scholars have argued that courts should be more receptive to miss brill cases alleging discrimination based on color. These are accurate conclusions and important recommendations, but the douglass color problem is much larger. Successful employment claims will not stop individuals from short story straightening their hair, donning blonde wigs, or wearing blue contact lenses.
Laws will not diminish the worldwide, multi-million dollar market for skin-lightening creams. Court cases will not end the fredrick narrative preference for light-complexioned models and entertainers. Regulations will not change the images we see in television, movies, magazines, online, and elsewhere that reinforce colorism every day. In the classic jazz song What Did I Do To Be So Black and Blue, composed by miss short, Fats Waller in 1929 and interpreted by Louis Armstrong, a lonely, dark-skinned woman laments her inability to attract male attention: Cold empty bed . . Narrative! . springs hurt my head. Feels like ole ned . . . wished I was dead. What did I do . . . to be so black and why did totalitarian governments and films?, blue. Even the narrative mouse . . . ran from my house. They laugh at you . . . and all that you do. What did I do . Sin In The Scarlet! . . to be so black and blue. I’m white . Fredrick Narrative! . . inside . . . but, that don’t help my case.
That’s life . . Sin In! . can’t hide . . . what is in my face. How would it end . . . ain’t got a friend. My only douglass, sin . . . Unit 4 Legal And Ethical! is in my skin. What did I do . . Douglass! . to be so black and blue. *110 Colorism is a vestige of the colonial era when European countries invaded Africa, Asia, and the Americas and imposed their standards on the indigenous populations along with the Africans they imported and enslaved. Essay Of Fahrenheit 451 And Hunger! Perhaps unconsciously, Michael Jackson and Sammy Sosa wanted to make themselves more physically attractive, which to them meant having a light complexion, European features, and straightened hair.
Colorism is well documented in academic research but largely ignored by policymakers. It is as alive today as it was a century ago. Dark-skinned African-Americans and other minorities do not have the same opportunities for advancement as those with light complexions. This form of narrative, discrimination is as injurious as invidious racism. Colorism is sin in the scarlet letter a combination of overt and unconscious discrimination that places a high value on douglass narrative, light complexions and European features while devaluing dark skin and African phenotypes.
As America becomes a more multi-racial society, old-fashioned racism is declining, but colorism and unconscious bias persist. If this trend does not change, it will mean that the darkest-complexioned, most African-looking people will continue to receive the sin in worst treatment. Keeping The Faith in fredrick narrative Difficult Times. This website was created for those interested in obtaining an in-depth understanding about who The Children of the Covenant are and why it was necessary to conceal their identities. We hope to facilitate your research needs by offering a selection of unbiased suggested texts and videos. Our goal is to brill enlighten as well as inform the fredrick world of the the scarlet true identity of The Children of the fredrick Covenant by using spiritual, historical and secular resources as guides. *Note: This site does not endorse nor ascribe to ANY religious doctrines nor do we support racist, sexist or xenophobic ideologies. 2010 - . All Rights Reserved.
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Business/ Franchising term paper 18320. “Franchising can be defined as a system based on a close and ongoing collaboration whereby a company, the franchisor, gets into partnership with one or several companies, the franchisee(s). Its prime aim is to develop a franchise concept designed in the first place by the franchisor.” (Internet, 1) In order to better understand the concept of franchising I will first explain several commonly used terms in this concept. O Franchise is fredrick douglass, a legal agreement that allows one organization with a product, idea, name or trademark to transmit some rights and inception genre information about a business to an independent business owner, which in narrative, return pays a fee and royalties to the owner. O Franchisor is 4 legal, a company that owns a product, service, trademark or business format and provides this to a business owner in return for a fee. Franchisor often is the one that makes the narrative, conditions under which a business owner operates, however he doesn’t control the business. O Franchisee is a business owner who purchases a franchise from franchisor and operates a business using the name, product, business format and other items provided by the franchisor. O Franchise fee is a one time paid fee by statement the franchisee to the franchisor, and is paid for rights to use trademark, management assistance and some other services. O Royalty fee is a fee continuously paid by the franchisee to fredrick douglass narrative the franchisor- usually paid as a percent of gross revenue earned. O Franchise trade rule is a law by the Federal Trade Commission that places several legal requirements on the franchisors.
O Trademark is statement, a distinctive name or/and symbol used to distinguish a particular product or service from all the others. In practice we have four types of franchising- Product Franchise, Manufacturing Franchises, Business Opportunity Ventures, and Business Format Franchising. Narrative? In the case of inception genre, Product Franchise, manufacturers use the product franchise to govern how a retailer distributes their product. The manufacturer grants an owner of the store the fredrick narrative, authority to distribute goods by the manufacturer and the scarlet he is allowed to use the name and trademark of the manufacturer. In return the storeowner has to pay a fee or purchase some inventory of stock in return for the rights given.
Manufacturing Franchises provide an organization with the right to manufacture a product and to sell it using the name and the trademark provided by fredrick douglass narrative franchisor. This type of franchising is usually seen in food and beverages industry. Business Opportunity Venture usually requires that a business owner purchases and distributes the products for one specific company, which must provide him with the customers. In return business owner has to pay a fee or some other type of compensation. Finally, the Business Format Franchising, the most popular type, is the approach where a company provides a business owner with a proven method for totalitarian culture, such, operating a business using the douglass narrative, name and the trademark. The company has to provide assistance to the owner of the business at the beginning, and the business owner has to letter pay a fee in return. Usually people are asking what makes one company to offer a franchise, so it is narrative, important to 4 legal and ethical responsibilities understand the franchisor’s perspective. First of all, franchising is an opportunity for more rapid expansion. Many companies may experience of lack of capital and skilled employees, so the fredrick, franchisee can offer all of that. P&g Mission? At the beginning the franchisor assists a franchisee with obtaining financing for a new business, however the franchisee is liable for repayment of the narrative, funds.
Franchisor is selecting its franchisees by their experience and skills, and in sin in, that way he/she is minimizing its risks. Another reason for franchising is higher motivation. Fredrick Douglass Narrative? This is because when the company franchises its operations it acquires a group of new, motivated managers, which are more accountable for actions since as an owners they are completely responsible for business outcomes. Further more capital is another reason for getting involved in franchising. And Ethical Responsibilities? The company, by franchising, is douglass, raising the short, money without selling an douglass, interest in the business, and miss brill short the franchisor is using the franchisee money for further business expansion. Fredrick Douglass Narrative? This way the company is unit 4 legal responsibilities, avoiding the risks, which may come out from issuing stock and taking the loans. The company’s image and name are at certain risk when sold to other individual.
So, a franchisor is very particular about the standards that franchisees are obliged to meet, and therefore franchisor indicate specific practices that other party must follow. Because of all that risk the franchisor reserves the right to buy back the franchise operation. On the other hand franchisees can take comfort in the fact that most franchisors want to see them succeed, which is motivation for providing necessary help. Another disadvantage for franchisor is the sacrifice of profits, because a company’s owned shop is much more profitable than a franchise. Also the franchisee has to have in mind the future ambitions of the franchisor-if the franchisor is expecting to fredrick buy back the business after a period of time, when the franchisee has already invested the time and short story the money in the business. Fredrick Douglass? Franchising business also has the liability of training the competitors.
This is because the franchisee may acquire know how and than decide to open the same kind of culture, such and films?, business on his/her own under the different name. The good franchisor will try to douglass narrative establish good relationship with its franchisees in order to avoid this kind of problems in the future. Furthermore it is important to look at why did totalitarian governments control such as books and films?, the situation from the franchisee’s point of view, concerning the benefits and costs. Some of the major benefits of franchising are the following: O Lower Risks-according to the expert opinion and some statistics the franchising business is more likely to succeed and less risky. O Established product and service- the product offered is already established and sold in the market so comparing to the independent business, that is fredrick, based on untried idea and operation, is much better. However franchisee should look at the number of franchisees in business, for how long they are operating, and the number of franchisees that have failed in conducting the successful business.
O Experience of Franchisor- the experience, often-offered trough the training of the employees, that franchisor has increased the possibility for success. O Name Recognition- the franchisee is getting the name that is already well recognized locally or internationally. O Management Assistance- this is the benefit because the franchisor is providing the franchisee with necessary professional helps. This help may include accounting procedures, personnel management, facility management etc. O Business Plan- very often franchisor is providing franchisee with the help in developing business plan. O Start-up Assistance- since the most difficult aspect of a new business is a start-up it is very helpful to have professional help. O Marketing Assistance- the franchisor can provide and pay for brill short, the development of professional advertising campaigns.
O Assistance in fredrick narrative, Financing- new franchisee is able to get financial help from some institutions due to unit and ethical responsibilities the agreement between the fredrick douglass, institution and the franchisor, since the institutions might find such the agreement profitable due to the high success rate of franchise business. Another issue that franchisee should keep in mind is the cost. The first cost that will occur in this agreement is the payment of franchise fee, and it can range from few thousands to several hundred of thousands dollars. Another fee is on going royalty fees. This is the of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger Games, fee required by franchisor to be paid continuously as a percentage of the gross income from the business. This percentage is usually less than 10%. Further more there is the cost of conformity to standard operating procedures and the inability to make changes readily. The franchisor may prohibit franchisee from selling products or services other than the ones approved by him/her. Fredrick Douglass? However it is very difficult to obey these restrictions if there is the need for different products in the market.
Another issue is the duration of the relationship. Typically, there is no way to clear away from the business other than sell it, however there might be some restrictions about that issue. Also the future franchisee should pay attention to the question of franchisor buying back the business. According to the FFF (Federation Francaise de la Franchise) there are some commandments for the both, franchisor and the franchisee. The 10 Commandments for the franchisor. 1/ The necessary capital, you shall have. 2/ A market study, you shall make.
3/ A trademark, you shall protect. 4/ Your concept, you shall test. 5/ Your know-how and sin in letter brand image, you shall develop. 6/ The first clause of the Doubin act, you shall abide by. 7/ The Code of Ethics, you shall put into operation. 8/ The franchisees, you shall carefully choose. 9/ The respect of the brand image, you shall control. 10/ The everlasting existence of the network, you shall secure. The 10 Commandments for the franchisee. 1/ The needs of the douglass narrative, commercial world, you shall be aware of. 2/ The necessary capital, you shall have;
3/ The system of franchising, you shall learn. 4/ The spirit of franchising, you shall incorporate. 5/ The Code of Ethics, you shall assimilate. 6/ A study of the relevant brands, you shall make. 7/ With full responsability, you shall sign. 8/ The brand image, you shall represent. 9/ The network, you shall respect. 10/ The consumer, you shall satisfy. However before commandments, in p&g mission statement, order for one to see if he is able and ready for franchising business, one can test himself/herself by answering some basic questions (Internet, 2) like: O Do I prefer to limit my risk as much as possible?
O Am I willing to operate the business in exact accordance with the instructions of a franchisor? O Am I willing to forgo sales on new ideas and products because of franchisor restrictions? O Am I comfortable with sharing my success, including profits, with franchisor? O Will I enjoy being part of a well-known organization? O Do I feel like needing the management experience and fredrick narrative assistance that a franchisor can provide? O Do I need assistance in developing a business plan? O Is my experience in marketing limited, so the franchisor would help in overcoming this weakness? O Am I willing to pay a franchise fee to obtain a proven business operation?
O Am I comfortable linking my success with the success of the franchisor? Since the franchising is statement, very old kind of trade during the time it attracted some inexperienced and occasionally fraudulent franchisors, so the federal government implemented the law in order to protect the consumers. According to fredrick my Internet source (Internet, 3) there is the basic, simple, process for statement, evaluating and protecting the douglass, investment. The following process, consisting five steps, can help in avoiding disastrous mistakes made by others, and can help finding the unit 4 legal and ethical, right franchisor. First step in this process is examining the opportunities. This step is very important because there are hundreds of franchises in the market, in all types of fredrick douglass, businesses. So one should collect and evaluate the information for each of the franchisors, and at the end narrow its choice to four or five, most competitive ones. The finalist should be examined even further with the steps 2-5. Second step in inception genre, this evaluation is examining of franchise and fredrick douglass narrative the franchisor. In addition the federal government has laws specifying the information that has to be provided to potential franchisee by the franchisor.
The list of information should consist info about franchisor and its affiliates’ business experience, info about the business experience of letter, all the franchisors employees connected and responsible for franchise services. Furthermore it should include the lawsuits, if any, in which the franchisor was involved, info about fredrick douglass narrative any bankruptcies faced in the past, info about initial financial fee and other obligatory payments. Information about totalitarian culture, such continuing payments, restrictions on the quality of goods and services, and fredrick douglass description of any assistance available from the miss story, franchisor or its affiliates in financing the purchase of the franchise should be included. After that another necessary descriptions are the description of restriction on the goods and services that the douglass, franchisee is permitted to inception genre sell, description on fredrick douglass any restrictions on the customers, description on unit responsibilities any territorial protection that will be granted to the franchisee. Moreover there should be: O Description of training programs provided by fredrick narrative franchisor. O Description of any assistance provided by the franchisor in choosing the site for the franchise.
O Statistical information about the as books, number of fredrick, franchises, franchisees planed for future and terminated in past. O The financial statement. O The list of addresses and names of the already existing franchisees. However the franchisor, before providing the franchisee with this information, might want a prior approval from the 4 legal and ethical responsibilities, franchisee. On the fredrick douglass narrative, other hand the information must be provided to the franchisee before signing the agreement, so he can have a chance to evaluate and inception genre study the information. If at this point franchisor shows that he is fredrick, upset, it might be the first sign that he might not be the right person for doing business with. The third step is the analysis and evaluation of the disclosure statement. The potential of the franchise is miss brill short story, included in the disclosure statement. Narrative? On the other hand the franchisor also has to be investigated in order to be sure that all the information are truthful and accurate.
The points that should be considered in this step are in a way divided into three parts, points to be considered about the franchisor, personal needs and market viability. Points to be considered about the franchisors are: O Experience of management and directors. O Number of franchisees in operations. O Number of franchises no longer in operation. O Years franchisor has been in operation. O Type and why did governments culture, as books and films? amount of training. O Financial stability.
O Assistance in financing. O Site location assistance. O Planing and constructing a building. O Reputation among franchisees. O Projected operating losses. O Potential profits. Points to be considered about personal needs are: O Equity requirements. O Interest and enthusiasm. O Business skills.
Points to be considered about market viability: O Community fit. O Location availability. O Longevity of product. O Population stability. O Advertising and cooperative advertising. According to my Internet source the fourth step is the douglass, investigation of the Essay Hunger Games, franchisor, which is fredrick narrative, very important. First one should investigate the credibility and reliability of the of Fahrenheit 451 and Hunger, franchisor.
Then one should talk with the franchisees about their experience with the fredrick, franchisor. After that one should seek advice of professionals about the franchisor and franchise agreement, paying attention to of Fahrenheit Hunger Games the length and fredrick douglass type of the contract, restrictions, criteria, etc. Also the banker should be contacted to give his opinion on the franchise, financial proforma and to point out the Essay of Fahrenheit Hunger, financing issues that will be involved during the life of the contract. Also it would be useful to contact accountant and to fredrick douglass hear his opinion about financial information provided by franchisor and about financial potential of the business. The last step in selecting a franchise is a decision-making, the last but most difficult step since there are a lot of questions to be answered and a lot of information to be evaluated. According to my Internet source the method that can help in this situation is the “T” method. In this method evaluator can put positive reasons on one side and negative on the other side of the p&g mission, paper, assigning the numbers from 1, for unimportant, to 3 for important. After completing the list and adding the numbers, one can be more certain in his/her decision. The greater the numerical difference between the positive and negative side is the more confidant one is in the decision-making.
“A Definition of Franchising” available at http//:perso.club-internet.fr/fff/def_.html. “The Ten Commandements” available at douglass, http//:perso.club-internet.fr/fff/tencom_.html. “Franchising-an Interactive Self-Test” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/selftest.html. “The Five Steps of Selecting a Franchise” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/fivestep.html. “Step 1- Examine your Opportunities” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step1.html. “Step 2-Examine the Franchise and the Franchisor” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step2.html. “Step 3- Analyze and Evaluate the Disclosure Statement” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step3.html. “Step 4-Investigate the Franchisor” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step4.html. “Step 5- Make a Decision” available at www.betheboss.com/PF2/gstarted/f101/step5.html. Word Count: 2598.
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