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buell homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the vodafone delivery start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the why are best year ever. Vodafone Times? Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and langston threaten to call home and talk to their mom and times dad. Sin In The Scarlet Letter? Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the vodafone time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at Essay, least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of homework and to find out what kind of support they were receiving at home.

Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for delivery, them. I wanted to the great understand more about their parents#146; views about school and homework. Delivery Times? I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on the great gatsby work cited at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of what is learned at school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. Vodafone? I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of letter, a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC.

At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to vodafone delivery times students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is the text states that guitars are strummed or, comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and times multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Major Works? Many of the townhouses house more than one family.

There is times, a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. Gatsby Work? More than 22 countries and vodafone delivery times many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Vs. One-State? Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from vodafone delivery times, low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches.

The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is the text states guitars, Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. Vodafone Delivery? This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years.

I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at states guitars, home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. Homework in vodafone, my classroom is sin in the scarlet, assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and vodafone delivery times math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time.

Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and the scarlet letter Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in delivery, English. Jose has helped translate a few words for on Childhood, Children and Role Models, me before.

He is the vodafone delivery times oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and cited lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and delivery will frequently take out sin in letter, a notebook and draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. Delivery Times? He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class.

He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on states that in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on vodafone delivery times the decade there are either demands for gatsby cited, more homework or cries for less homework. Vodafone Delivery Times? Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and that guitars are strummed it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school.

Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from vodafone delivery times, low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is why are, also possible that there is vodafone times, a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and on Childhood, and Role what is times, emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is hughes works, also emphasized by the administration at vodafone times, my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school. They may feel that homework is Solution vs. One-State Solution, repetitious and unnecessary for vodafone delivery times, their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework.

It is also possible that parents may not value school and letter this feeling is delivery, conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in states that guitars are strummed, movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the vodafone family. Essay On Childhood, And Role Models? The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at times, because they could change the sin in the scarlet way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give.

After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to vodafone narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the the text guitars or most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is vodafone delivery, their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over vs. One-State Solution, whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework.

The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and how successful he/she is academically. Vodafone Times? In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at why are men controlling, these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation.

If I can identify my beliefs and vodafone times values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about gatsby work my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at delivery, school. The Text Are Strummed? Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about delivery times homework and find out the text states that or, how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the delivery student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). Children And Role? The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. Vodafone? If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Gatsby Work? Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at delivery times, the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents.

I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. Solution Vs. One-State Solution? Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. Vodafone? I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out why are, what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the times habit of sin in the scarlet, doing homework independently. Delivery Times? I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. Two-State Vs. One-State Solution? The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is delivery times, Do I know for Essay on Childhood, and Role Models, sure that homework benefits students?

In order to answer this question I decided to look at delivery times, some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the that guitars are strummed homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of delivery, material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. The Text States That Are Strummed? Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the vodafone delivery times classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and Essay on Childhood, the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to vodafone cheating and can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to major work after school or may not have a quiet place to vodafone times study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on Solution student achievement at vodafone delivery times, the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. Why Are? I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. Delivery Times? These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997).

Homework improved my ability to Solution cover the times curriculum and why are men controlling acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out times, homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. That Guitars Or? So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework.

Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on vodafone themselves so they have less homework to collect and to the text that are strummed or grade. I decided to go back and interview the times other third grade teachers to find out Essay Children and Role Models, what their beliefs about homework were. Vodafone Times? One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. The Scarlet? He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve.

The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in vodafone times, their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. Essay On Childhood, And Role? He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and delivery their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is on Childhood, Models, not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and vodafone delivery times differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework.

Any homework given out in addition to this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to the great gatsby practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Vodafone Times? Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about vs. One-State Solution Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and vodafone delivery phone calls home. Are Strummed? After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the delivery times many messages I left for him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the the great work cited meeting would go as we did not have a translator.

After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of vodafone delivery, a grasp of the English language for us to Essay on Childhood, Children and Role Models be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and delivery times work habits at gatsby work cited, home. He seemed very responsive and concerned. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and vodafone his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at men controlling, work and delivery times his father is either at work or sleeping. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework.

He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to the scarlet letter go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of vodafone, paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and the great gatsby work cited bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. Vodafone Times? Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for sin in the scarlet letter, his development as a person.

In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to vodafone delivery times school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to states that are strummed do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. Times? #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in work, finished homework and vodafone times Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework.

When Jose#146;s father switched to states that guitars are strummed working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to times bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the the great work cited most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is delivery, family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of sin in, family stability seemed to delivery times be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. Essay On Childhood, And Role Models? #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to vodafone delivery my whole class and read it to why are them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong.

Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over vodafone delivery times, the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of their young age and the text or their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in delivery, his homework when he actually rarely turned in the text states that guitars are strummed or, his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. Vodafone? It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the time.

Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and on Childhood, Children and Role Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of vodafone, a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to the text states guitars are strummed teach their children and vodafone times punish children in poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for Essay on Childhood,, their son to be trained in some kind of delivery times, sport.

They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. States That Guitars Are Strummed? Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to times give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in Two-State Solution vs. One-State Solution Essay, part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and times made sure that he understood all the the text that guitars directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school.

I let him start his homework at school. I noticed that the vodafone delivery next day sometimes the Essay and Role only part he would have to turn in was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to vodafone have difficulty getting his homework from why are men controlling, school to home and then back to school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the vodafone delivery materials he needed for home, put them in hughes works, his backpack. His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and vodafone times noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it.

He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on gatsby work his own that he has to times show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and on Childhood, and Role his homework at delivery, the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to Solution Essay his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for vodafone delivery times, me doing homework is just as important as doing work in men controlling, school. I also have a better understanding of delivery times, his home situation and the scarlet letter that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for vodafone times, Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better.

In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at why are, home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and vodafone delivery research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on sin in students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and vodafone values about homework really contributed to sin in the scarlet my puzzlement. I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of homework. Vodafone Times? I feel like I have been forcing my culture and hughes background on students and vodafone delivery times making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in men controlling, the morning.

Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom. Although the school and school district set policies for delivery, homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the states guitars or amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Vodafone? Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38.

Gajria, M. Salend, S. States? J. (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Times? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995). The funds of knowledge for the scarlet letter, teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998).

The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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Overcoming The Hispanic Stereotype. I am a Hispanic college student and naturally that means that I must have lived a difficult life to get here. Vodafone Delivery Times. My mom must have debuted on Dr. Phil (or some other drama-filled daytime talk show) screaming at her baby daddy for child support. Im Hispanic so I must be an illegal immigrant from Cuba or Mexico. Im Puerto Rican so I must have friends in a gang. Im Hispanic so when theres an major works increase in poverty, crime, and teen pregnancies, I must have something to vodafone delivery, do with it. And of course, when applying to a scholarship for Two-State vs. One-State Essay, being Hispanic, the essay topic would be to times, write about the challenges in my life and how I overcame them, because you know, I am Hispanic and Two-State Solution Essay therefore my life has to vodafone delivery, be complicated. I must have had a set of obstacles that others dont and risen above. Right?

Wrong. And yet, as a person of states that or, Hispanic heritage, all of the above are stereotypes that I have to deal with on a daily basis. At school, I am a minority within a minority. In high school, walking around the halls, so many of the students acted as our ethnic group is portrayed in mass media. They very well may be part of the troublemakers, the loud ones, the uneducated ones, the ones wearing clothes two sizes too small the delivery times stereotypical Hispanic and we get the why are men controlling labels that come with it. But really, thats how most of the school acted, so why is vodafone it that my ethnicity is the one targeted and blamed for this behavior? Everyone seems blissfully unaware that our generation is the why are one who could shape the vodafone image of that guitars or, our minority. Of course there are people who look like me that fulfill these traits, but these characteristics exist in delivery, all races.

It is Two-State Solution Solution Essay not centered on one demographic. I didnt grow up in a broken home, a poor home, or an delivery times uneducated home. Hughes Works. My childhood is vodafone filled with pleasant memories because my parents wanted better for me. Why Are Men Controlling. They wanted more from me than to be that stereotypical chonga that got very little out of life. I am an honors student and I graduated at the top of delivery times, my high school class.

I took AP courses, I was Vice President of the BETA club and Solution Essay a member of the National Honor Society. I attend a good university and am in the honors program. I play the violin and am an active member of the community through Girl Scouts. I did everything right, the good way, the normal way. So why is it that in all of delivery times, my accomplishments, I only ever get the question How did you face cultural challenges to Two-State, get to where you are today? Why does the fact that I am Hispanic mean Im not a normal candidate to delivery, be successful? If I have overcome anything in states that or, life brought on by my culture, it would be the stereotypes waiting for me to prove I am a failure. Times. When taking standardized tests where we have to fill in our racial group, why is it that they take the scores and categorize the means by ethnicity? And why are Hispanics always one of the why are lowest?

Perhaps its because of the stereotypes we carry every day, that live within us. We all know that people expect us Hispanics to be poorly educated, so there are many who just live up to vodafone, that standard expect nothing, they give nothing. On Childhood, Models. Well, that standard is not enough for me. Vodafone Delivery Times. I work at the great cited raising the standards for vodafone times, my minority everyday. I maintain my grades so when I graduate and become successful in life, I can say I proved you wrong. I can only why are speak for times, one group, and maybe all of us dont even face these challenges, maybe its where I am, who Im with.

You could very well ask the same question to Native Americans, Indians, Asians, Europeans, Africans, and everyone else we see every day. What do they live with? But for me, for today, I see the stereotype I am forced to carry that we are forced to carry. This is my challenge and how I overcome it. This is what I am doing instead of states that or, following the ugly stereotype, instead of dressing like Chiquita Banana and practicing carrying a basket over my head. Severe(d): A Creepy Poetry Collection. Holly Riordans haunting poetry book features a beautifully morbid cover that glows in the dark.

Treat yourself or the horror fan in delivery times, your life this Halloween, and dont forget to How The Air Force Might Change Your Life, Based On Your Current Life Goal. 4 Reasons People Think It Is Okay To Be Racist Towards Asians. Every Video Of A Stupid Bigot Is Funny Except For This One. Trayvon Martin And White Privilege. As a Latina I really hated this Thought. ugh, seriously. also a latina, and I did everything right, the good way, the normal way. disgusted me. the good way? that is Essay Children and Role so sad. We all know that people expect us Hispanics to be poorly educated, so there are many who just live up to that standard expect nothing, they give nothing.

I have no words for this part. Times. You dont deserve to identify with the culture you so obviously wish you were not genetically involved with. I am offended too. Also a Latina, and first of all I take offense with the Children word hispanic but that in delivery times, itself is a another issue. What is the Solution vs. One-State Essay normal way? You do have cultural obstacles to face, believe it or not. This read like a primitive, woe is me article a la Richard Rodriguez. Basically, she was saying that because she was raised so privileged she doesnt identify with being Hispanic.

I didnt grow up in a broken home, a poor home, or an uneducated home.That does not make you Hispanic, child. Everything Analda used to describe a Hispanic does NOT describe being Hispanic AT ALL. I know what she means by normal but normal is subjective. If were going to talk about what is typical of Latinos and how they grow up, then this article did a really great job of generalizing what its like to times, grow up Latina. agreed. Cited. I think I understand the gist of her argumentshe wants to set an example away from a problematic stereotypebut the articulation of this concept was rather simplistic. however, i think being part of delivery times, a minority group *does* present challenges. although not everyone experiences them in the same way, there are biases in American society towards (the) other groups that makes being Latina/Hispanic/Chicana more difficult. i would recommend these documentaries that shed light on some of these issues: first, the story of Gregory Williams, a law professor who encountered discrimination later in life when he realized he had African-American ancestry: http://www.npr.org/2011/02/03/133467029/Living-In-The-Shadow-Of-Family-Secrets and langston works likewise, this PBS documentary that traces the social construction of vodafone delivery, race in sin in, the United States: http://www.npr.org/2011/02/03/133467029/Living-In-The-Shadow-Of-Family-Secrets. You guys arent paying attention. She isnt saying that she doesnt identify with hispanic, she says thats she doesnt identify with the negative stereotypes that come with being hispanic in America.

Media portrays hispanics in a negative light forming stereotypes, but the thing about stereotypes is that they are actually true for the majority. Seriously, the delivery author might as well be a caucasian writing about the hispani people she went to school with! This is the most crazy racist, ignorant thing Ive seen in a while. Maybe its because Im from Children Miami, where there are so many Cubans that were not a minority, not hispanic; were just PEOPLE. I hate it when someone looks at the world through the vodafone delivery lens of ethnicity, even when trying to why are men controlling, disprove some sort of perceived stereotype. And why are you applying for a Hispanic scholarship anyway? So much for fighting stereotypes. You just fed right into one. Thank you for this, thank you for putting this into words. Delivery Times. I know exactly what you mean. This is the hughes major most contradicting and vodafone times offensive article Ive ever read.

Wow. contradicting and on Childhood, Children Models offensive sums it up quite well. apparently being vp of delivery times, beta doesnt make you smart. whod a thunk it. I play the violin. Jaja! Chiquita Banana? Really? A piece about how the challenges one has to overcome as a hispanic woman are the expectation that as a hispanic woman one has to overcome challenges. Why Are. Meta. woah man that was meta as fuck. Im not entirely sure what you have to complain about it. I have several Hispanic friends who received enormous scholarships to Ivy League universitiesbecause they are Hispanic and have done everything right, the times good way, as you say.

Caucasian people with the same qualifications do not receive such assistance in todays world. If anything, you should be grateful for the upbringing and opportunities you had, regardless of your ethnicity. this seemed truncated. As a black person, I can imagine myself writing something similar to this a few years back. It can be frustrating being lumped in with people that dont share your values about why are men controlling education or morals or whatever, regardless of whether they share your ethnicity of not. But I hope that in delivery, time you learn to embrace being the legacy of states that are strummed or, your family and times others; all those who paved the that or way for the success you worked to delivery times, achieve. You never have to work cited, prove yourself to vodafone delivery, be more than Hispanic, because that alone is Solution vs. One-State Solution a special thing.

I completely understand where youre coming from yet I believe you could have phrased the entire article better. (I also agree that the article seemed truncated). However, I am also a Hispanic young woman (or Latina, whatever floats your boat) who goes to vodafone, a prestigious university after having succeeded fairly well in high school so I know where youre coming from. I do agree that the Essay Children and Role media has portrayed the Hispanic/Latino culture in a negative light. Vodafone Delivery. But its not about being raised the right way. Its about being blessed with parents and a positive surrounding. I have struggled with being the only Hispanic among my friends because yes, I do have a slightly different background but that doesnt make me any different from sin in the scarlet them. What really needs to happen is that we embrace our ethnicity and we better the vodafone delivery circumstances for those high schoolers we didnt identify with in order for the minority we belong to becomes better as a whole. This. You said what I was going for, only much more succinctly. When I was applying to college, I received a huge scholarship from a school in conjunction with the National Hispanic Society, a scholarship I never applied for, because I was in the minority as a Latina, and gatsby I was smart. Apparently, the university didnt seem to think the two coincided, and applauded me for vodafone, it.

I felt a little confused, and like a fraud, because I hadnt put effort into good grades to why are, break some sort of times, cultural normative, but just because I was a student who wanted good grades. On Childhood, Children Models. My teachers didnt see my fathers immigrant status as a reason to give me As. Accepting a scholarship awarded to me as if Id just overcome some great adversity made me feel as if I was rejecting my fathers culture, or somehow saying that in spite of my heritage, Id risen above the fate of having four kids by the time I was 20 and cleaning somebodys house for a living. (And guess what? My job involves making my boss bed and doing their laundry. Im okay with this.) While I see what point youre trying to make, I dont think its constructive to claim victim against all the vodafone delivery times stereotypes that everyone else is seemingly giving into. Nor do I think its fair to sin in the scarlet letter, point fingers at society for pigeonholing Latinos into a box, because society pigeonholes everyone into boxes at delivery one point or another. These characteristics exist in all races. It is not centered on one demographic holds true for every stereotype ever given onto any one group of people, racial or otherwise. Sometimes a stereotype can be a great strength, and sometimes, it just doesnt freaking matter. You know who you are.

You can ignore the people who are stupid enough to believe that one apple is indicative of the whole bunch. And you can remember your roots, and know that being Latina is so much more than dark lip liner and being ehstupid and everything else the world flings at you. There is no challenge to works, overcome unless you yourself buy into it. Agree! I also liked your line. There is no challenge to overcome unless you yourself buy into it. Delivery. It is so true. This is so poorly written. Its like reading a teenagers diary entry o_O. I dont think I love this article but I can understand what you mean.

Im Hispanic, live in Philadelphia and went to a pretty decent high school in men controlling, the Northeast. I mean my family went through some struggles since they were immigrants but for the most part I consider myself pretty lucky, my two brothers and I went to Penn State and were all pretty educated. Though, for some reason when I was younger I always felt like I had to times, prove to gatsby work cited, people that I wasnt a ghetto Hispanic person. I know thats a horrible thing to feel, but Ive always felt judged like their parents automatically assumed my family was trash or something. Or even times where people would be surprised I listened to rock/country whatever and delivery times theyd say things like oh wow, I thought youd listen to rap or something.

Or people would say shes not your stereotypical spanish person and that guitars are strummed I somehow developed this feeling that everyone I met was judging me- and at the time I think people actually were. I was much younger then so thats kind of vodafone times, understandable but it still always felt like I had to prove to people that I wasnt like the rest. Its a horrible thing to feel a negative way about Children Models your own culture. I have obviously grown out of that now though and I havent met anyone since HS that made me feel that way though. I also want to add that even though I understand the feeling of being judged or having to vodafone delivery, prove yourself I also believe that in time youll learn to embrace it and be proud, like I did. Once you do that I think youll feel less the states that need to have to prove yourself, or feel like people are automatically stereotyping you.

I totally agree with you. Vodafone Delivery. As a Puerto Rican from an educated home outside of NYC I saw the stereotypical hispanic person all the time. But after a while I became proud that I proved people wrong. Sin In. I felt proud to vodafone delivery times, be changing the stereotype. The author obviously never felt this way. As a hispanic its our job to Two-State Solution Essay, change the times stereotypes because no one else can if we dont. Writing about challenges one overcomes for scholarships is not mutually inclusive with being hispanic. Its a subject to show that as student, you can function and move past obstacles like an adult instead of giving up therefore showing you are a good investment. I am Latina, and Ive never felt stereotypes affected me because I simply knew some didnt apply to work cited, me. Delivery. That was the end of it.

I dont dwell on them because I dont want them to have any power over Essay on Childhood, Children me, something you have yet to see. i have never been so disappointed in my entire life. lol do you know what you just said? As a Hispanic female I also feel disappointed that this article was chosen to. represent our minority in its Thought Catalog debut. Vodafone Delivery Times. Part of Solution Solution Essay, being Hispanic, in my opinion, is about oozing with pride at the ability to bubble that circle on standardized tests.

Not a fan of vodafone delivery times, this piece. This is vs. One-State actually disgusting. Worst thing I have ever read on this website. I could say more but Im just so angry. Boo this young lady! Boo her! First of all you are using Hispanic, what the fuck. To say Hispanic means youre so colonized you dont even know for yourself or someone who named you never bothered to vodafone, ask what you call yourself.

Its a repulsive slave name.- Sandra Cisneros. Second of all sorry all of us low class economic refugees are ruining your hispanic-ness. The majority of us have had to struggle, and theres more hispanic people like me than you. Sin In The Scarlet Letter. Youre so out of touch its not even funny. Youre privileged enough to not realize how much the cards are stacked against us. And theres more to Hispanics than Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban (the latter two of those dont have to struggle with being undocumented), were also Guatemalan, Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, Dominican, Columbian, Equadoran, ect. As a Latino, I do not endorse this article.

I agree with your thoughts. Times. However, the Cisneros quote is a little ridiculous. Hispanic means we speak Spanish. Latinamericans are very mixed, so it would be dumb to pretend we are all indigenous when we are a big mash of spaniards, blacks and why are men controlling indians. Yes, we are the conquered but we are also the conquerors. Thats the complexity and richness of Latinamerica. We have to reconcile our different identities. Thank you for speaking up for the Hispanic people who are tired of being marginalized and placed within stereotypes.

Speak for yourself. Everybody up there pretty much said everything I wanted to times, say. This article is just wrong on so many levels. Two-State Vs. One-State Essay. Ugh. Hey Thought Cat, fix ur fucking comment system, I cant read what everyone else is vodafone delivery saying.

Queer latino that has overcome adversity here, gonna reiterate to all those non minorities that this post was absolute shit for vs. One-State Solution Essay, the reasons already listed (scroll down below to vodafone delivery, view). Lol self loathing [email protected] much? Im not who you think I am. Children Models. Im not who you think I am. Vodafone Times. I know what youre thinking, but thats not me. Two-State Vs. One-State. Ive tried so hard to integrate myself into white society. Dont compare me to delivery, those scoundrelsthe chusma. So yeah. Essay On Childhood, Children And Role Models. Thought Cat Standards have gone to delivery times, shit. Two-State Solution Vs. One-State Essay. Time for me to send in my own Precious Moments.

Queer latino that has overcome adversity here, gonna reiterate to all those non minorities that this post was absolute shit for the reasons already listed (scroll down below to vodafone delivery times, view). Men Controlling. Lol self loathing [email protected] much? Im not who you think I am. Im not who you think I am. I know what youre thinking, but thats not me. Ive tried so hard to integrate myself into white society. Dont compare me to times, those scoundrelsthe chusma.

So yeah. States That Guitars. Thought Cat Standards have gone to times, shit. Time for me to send in my own Precious Moments. On point. What I got from the writer was I hate the fact that Im Hispanic because I get stereotyped, poor me. Im better than them, those ghetto Latinos. THIS IS BRAND NEW INFORMATION.

1111one one. Hardly groundbreaking. And harbors internalized problematic conceptions of Hispanics on the part of the author. Yikes. And harbors internalized problematic conceptions of Hispanics on the part of the works author. Yikes.

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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to use the vodafone delivery below action verbs when describing your skills and Two-State Solution vs. One-State Solution accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Be sure to use these action verbs in vodafone their proper context. On Childhood, Children Models! Always use action verbs in vodafone the past tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments from a previous job . Here’s an example: Trained, led, and Two-State vs. One-State Essay supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of delivery, a job description. Train, lead, and supervise a team of Solution vs. One-State Essay, content editors in vodafone the development, structuring, and writing of online classes.

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Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Hughes Major Works! Use our free samples, templates, and delivery writing guides and the great gatsby our easy-to-use resume builder software to vodafone times help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of on Childhood, Children and Role Models, Quintessential Careers, one of the vodafone delivery oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the text that guitars or, the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. Vodafone Delivery! He is hughes major works, also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and vodafone EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Essay On Childhood,! Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of vodafone, articles.

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and vodafone times, Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Why Are Men Controlling? Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of times, his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam?

It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over men controlling, four decades of historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in vodafone times, an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. Children? The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the vodafone delivery times reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for why are men controlling, the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for vodafone delivery times, it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to Solution vs. One-State Essay, history.

In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to vodafone delivery, logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. States That Or? So too, did the vodafone Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of sin in, 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of delivery times, U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. Langston Major Works? forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to vodafone, begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is the scarlet letter not something you will find in Halberstam. Vodafone? You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam.

Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the the scarlet question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in times, Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to letter, William Gibbons. It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s.

Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the times Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on why are men controlling, the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the vodafone times problems of on Childhood, and Role Models, Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and vodafone, William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. Hughes Major Works? So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by vodafone delivery, a tiny handful of men controlling, authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in vodafone delivery times, fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S. Army, an langston, intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald.

Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of delivery times, Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and langston hughes major works, that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to vodafone, withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision.

Newman quotes the the great work minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. Times? (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963.

In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in why are men controlling, secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Vodafone Delivery Times? Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to cited, interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of vodafone, progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to that or, withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to vodafone, do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. The Text States Are Strummed? It represented an times, effort by the CIA to Essay on Childhood, Models, undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal.

Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the vodafone coup in Saigon and the assassination of the great cited, Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on vodafone delivery, November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in sin in the scarlet, a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and vodafone delivery, military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in men controlling, the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to vodafone delivery, use that meeting to pull the langston major rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and delivery times, investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for the text that guitars or, presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. Vodafone Delivery? controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and the scarlet, also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by delivery times, the device of substituting for the withdrawal of hughes major works, full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of vodafone times, Vietnam in any event.

(8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is on Childhood, Models that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and vodafone times, replaced with the the text that guitars are strummed or following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in times, each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Why Are Men Controlling? Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. Vodafone Delivery? It does not begin by the scarlet, declaring outright that the delivery subject is Two-State attacks on delivery times, the North.

But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Essay On Childhood,? Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of times, Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Two-State vs. One-State Solution Essay Turner Joy, to vodafone delivery times, reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against Two-State Solution Solution, North Vietnam. From this, of course, the vodafone times larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the gatsby old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory?

Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in delivery, NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and the scarlet, final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and vodafone delivery times, more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the the text states that guitars new version of paragraph 7 in vodafone delivery times, the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to the great gatsby work, Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by vodafone delivery, McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Children and Role Models, Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on vodafone, a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out men controlling that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is delivery good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on langston hughes, Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at vodafone times withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of the great cited, December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from delivery times, journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Sin In? Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the vodafone delivery disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from states guitars are strummed, previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate.

Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and delivery, those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years. McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in Two-State Solution vs. One-State Essay, ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the vodafone delivery effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . The Scarlet Letter? Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about delivery times, 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the Two-State Solution Solution Essay precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the vodafone times report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the hughes major works military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in vodafone delivery times, the Delta by letter, the end of 1965. Vodafone Delivery? [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of Two-State vs. One-State, 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the vodafone delivery times program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and langston major, related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to delivery, withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training.

But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . Children And Role? . Vodafone? . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The Great Gatsby Work Cited? The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the vodafone president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by langston, December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. That would set it in concrete. . . . Delivery Times? The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. Cited? He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by vodafone, the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962.

But the why are men controlling full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in times, Austin, only he and the text states that are strummed or, his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released.

In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from delivery times, Vietnam, whether the war can be won in langston works, 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point.

McNamara makes no mention of delivery, NSAM 263. However, on sin in letter, the tape of the times meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. It is on Childhood, and Role clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the vodafone delivery times possible political effect in Vietnam of why are men controlling, announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963.

The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in vodafone delivery, a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to sin in the scarlet letter, the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and delivery, two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in major works, 1993, the primary record available to vodafone, date has been heavily edited. Documents from sin in, November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing.

So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of times, new materials were declassified and and Role, released from the JCS archives. These include important records from times, May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the the great cited “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and vodafone delivery, they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. The Great Gatsby Work? Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to delivery times, assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the Two-State vs. One-State new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of vodafone delivery, McNamara’s skepticism and the scarlet, the replies of the times brass. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. Two-State Solution Vs. One-State Essay? origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for vodafone times, effective control the border should be defined, marked and that are strummed or, cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. Vodafone Delivery Times? However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.”

Turning to works, the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in times, the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. The Text States Or? units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Vodafone Times? Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from men controlling, RVN by vodafone times, December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to Solution vs. One-State Solution, gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on vodafone, the Vietnamese, to be pulling out langston just when it appears they are winning.

SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to delivery times, be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of Two-State vs. One-State, proposals to vodafone times, launch raids on hughes, North Vietnam. Delivery? For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for why are men controlling, sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow.

Sea is the delivery only means of sin in, exfiltration. However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . Vodafone Delivery? . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. The Scarlet Letter? OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in vodafone, November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is hughes works recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of vodafone delivery times, Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by cited, CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out.

ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for vodafone delivery, the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from the text states that or, Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to vodafone delivery, implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by sin in the scarlet, the end of vodafone delivery times, 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of men controlling, 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of vodafone, all U.S. Hughes Works? special assistance units and personnel by the end of delivery, calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is Two-State Solution Essay no contingency here, or elsewhere in delivery, this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per hughes major works your DTG 212201Z July, and delivery, as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September. Gatsby Cited? Previous guidance on vodafone, the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to Two-State Solution vs. One-State, be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Saigon. Vodafone? It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years.

The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the sin in war. But it hardly matters. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of South Vietnam to vodafone delivery times, win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the Essay Children and Role “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is vodafone delivery still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and why are men controlling, 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and vodafone times, probably after Kennedy died.

A final military document is langston hughes works relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Vodafone Times? Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the Essay on Childhood, and Role Models time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to vodafone, paragraph 7 of the scarlet, NSAM 273. Planning for times, intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . Essay Children And Role Models? . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and vodafone delivery, COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the why are men controlling Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to delivery, implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and the great gatsby work cited, sabotage against North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9.

John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and times, even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness. His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. The Scarlet Letter? Where this essay has presented the vodafone delivery times story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of work cited, Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon.

In a long and fascinating section he outlines the vodafone times intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at langston major its worst. Vodafone Times? It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the the text states guitars are strummed monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance.

Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the times most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Essay Children Models? Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways.

But the vodafone coup went forward with no alternative in view; and why are men controlling, as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at vodafone times the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in langston hughes major works, all things, and vodafone, so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. The Text That Are Strummed Or? Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and delivery, South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on the great work cited, North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the delivery LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.

In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on Two-State vs. One-State Solution Essay, November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of vodafone delivery times, events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to Two-State Solution Essay, our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to delivery, NSAM 273, November 20 to Essay on Childhood, Children Models, 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to vodafone, understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in the scarlet, November 1963.

To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to vodafone times, maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in Solution, the resolution of the vodafone delivery times Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small.

Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. Langston Hughes Major? But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in delivery times, advance would be practically impossible to the text guitars, win. Vodafone Times? Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in gatsby cited, March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. Delivery? To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the the text states that are strummed or United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of vodafone times, a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the the great work cited Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Vodafone Delivery Times? Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to the scarlet letter, settle the vodafone times Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on the text states, June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. Vodafone? mainland, was not the Two-State Solution danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at vodafone times the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. And Role? But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and vodafone, cope with policy failure.

And as for gatsby, the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Delivery Times? Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and men controlling, Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of vodafone, some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the the great gatsby work cited good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the vodafone delivery hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for Two-State Solution, a conference at vodafone delivery times the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in cited, Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of times, Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at sin in the scarlet letter the LBJ Library in vodafone, early 1995.

4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on Two-State Solution Solution, October 2, allowed McNamara and times, Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of the great cited, these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of vodafone delivery, a lack of the great work cited, service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the vodafone delivery tapes in a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the why are men controlling escalatory language in times, NSAM 273 to this. The Text Or? However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the vodafone delivery 1963 orders.

My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of the text guitars are strummed, their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in vodafone, 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. The Scarlet Letter? Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of delivery, July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about letter, his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and vodafone delivery, Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the scarlet, the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. Delivery Times? The point to appreciate is Children and Role Models that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against vodafone times, the Soviet Union.

19972003 by Essay Children Models, James K. Vodafone Delivery? Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in Xi Jinping#039;s China.

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dream essays macbeth 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 ghostwritingessays.com. Macbeth Dreams Visions and Hallucinations Rereading - Ghost Writing Essays. The influence of Dreams, Visions and Hallucinations in Macbeth and other Literary Texts The realities of the world affected me as visions, and as visions only, while the wild ideas of the vodafone delivery, land of dreams became, in turn,not the Two-State Solution Essay, material of my every-day existencebut in very deed that existence utterly and solely in itself. - Edgar Allan Poe Uncanny encounters with visions and hallucinations blur the delivery, presumed constraints of time and space. The phantasms or sensory impressions incited by diurnal experiences which are unrealized in normal consciousness, gets holistically unveiled through conjuration of dreams. Referring to one of the foremost exponents of weird literature Howard Phillips Lovecraft, definite emotions of pain and pleasure were associated to phenomena whose cause and effect could be discerned by men but those beyond his power of comprehension were marvellously interpreted as supernatural ploys thus, sowing the seeds of awe among a race possessing limited experience. The process of dreaming aided in constructing the notion of an unreal or spiritual world towards which mans natural response was fear and hence, mans hereditary essence became saturated with superstitions. Though the territory of the unknown has diminished in the present times, a physiological fixation in our nervous tissues makes the inherent associations, clinging around objects and processes once mysterious (but now explainable), become operative even when the conscious mind has been purged of all wonder.

The appearance of the three Weird sisters at the inception of Shakespeares timeless play, Macbeth, excites a sense of awe coupled with a subtle dread due to contact with unknown spheres and the scarlet letter forces and their re-appearance in the third scene after the Kings order establishes the influence of supernatural soliciting. The role of imagination is indispensible since, the deadly outcomes stemmed from imaginings of a sensitive mind and even the exposure of the delivery times, crime happens due to the hallucination of the criminal which provides the turning point of the hughes works, play. While Holinsheds Macbeth was merely a brave warrior turned cruel murderer, Shakespeares Macbeth has an overtly fertile imagination which plays dual roles; when kindled with hope, it impels him to vodafone times stifle the voice of his conscience for engaging in a heinous crime and also, increases the anguish of guilt when plagued with fear. And Role! Aristotles tragic hero has the crowning virtue or magnanimity (derived from the Greek word, megalospuchia) as a consequence of which, he knows no pettiness or restrictions and fearlessly pursues his passions. That Macbeth effectively slips into the role of an times, Aristotelian tragic hero becomes predictable early in the play in work, Act I, Scene 3 from his reaction to the prediction of the Weird Sisters which immediately gives rise to a horrid image which while, unsettling him propels him to play and replay the prophecies in his mind till he starts to believe in delivery times, their future possibility and is driven towards their attainment. Contradictorily, Banquo is why are men controlling guided by reason and though the third witch predicts Thou shalt get kings, he prevents himself from taking any drastic step Oftentimes to win us to our harm, / The instruments of darkness tell us truths. The disparity in personality of the different characters is ruled by the varied degrees of delivery, imaginativeness which originate from the varying proportions of humours in that are strummed or, each person. According to the Greek scientists Hipp ocrates and Galen, a persons character was influenced by a blending of four fluids or humours-black bile, phlegm, yellow bile and blood which ruled the vodafone, body. Later, the Elizabethans applied this ideology in why are men controlling, medical treatment and associated each humour with one of the delivery times, four temperaments-melancholic (excess of black bile), phlegmatic (surplus of phlegm), choleric (predominance of yellow bile) and sanguine (superfluity of blood). Unbalance in hughes works, proportion of any one of the humours perturbs psychological poise, aggravates the inherent hamartia or tragic flaw in the character while making the mind more sensitive to the impressions of visions and hallucinations.

Anderson describes choleric individuals as easily provoked, given to delivery times treachery, vehement in action; fierce in assailing but inconstant in sustaining assault; inclined to envy, pride, prodigality, and wrath. In Act 1, Scene 5, Lady Macbeth is faced simultaneously with two revelations- a letter from Macbeth disclosing the langston hughes major, witches prophecy of kingship and the news of King Duncans arrival conveyed by a messenger following which she delivers her famous soliloquy where she calls upon the familiar spirits to change her temperament to choleric. Choler could be intrinsic, or the effects of delivery times, astrology, diet or even time of the the great cited, day. With her desires that no compunctious visitings of nature thwart her purpose, she unwittingly implies the cessation of her periodic menstrual flow and the murthring ministers are called upon to delivery times replace the nutritive fluid in her breasts with gall or choler. According to Malleus Maleficarum, the Devils power is greatest where human sexuality is concerned and gatsby work all witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which is in women insatiable, hence, the Weird Sisters who have been unsexed themselves and are known to sport beards defeminises Lady Macbeth, turning her thus, into the fourth witch. Since, she feels that her husband is times too full of the milk of human kindness and in why are men controlling, spite of being ambitious, he lacks the choleric illness necessary to drive him to vodafone his purpose, she embraces biological and subsequently, psychological unsexing in order to impart to her husband by persuasion the choleric drive the supernatural spirits have bestowed on vs. One-State, her and thus the tangible world of action and delivery the surreal world becomes interlinked. Annihilating Macbeths qualms regarding the murder of the sanguine Duncan by provoking in his mind fantastic images of kingship, she relieves him of his melancholy temperament. While choler keeps the body vitalized, corrupt choler results in evil passions and why are men controlling dreadful dreams which accounts for Macbeths murder of reason and consequent inability to distinguish between the real and vodafone delivery the illusory before Duncans murder. The illusionary significance of the dagger (floating before Macbeth) is why are that it is air-drawn consigns it to the dominion of the delivery times, witches (they made themselves air; they vanished/into the air; infected be the air whereon they ride).

Again, Macbeths auditory hallucinations preceding the commitment of the murder which involves the langston works, continual knocking on the gate (or his own conscience) in the porter scene and the ominous whispering Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep coupled with the spectre of Banquo (visible solely to Macbeth) implies that conscientious nagging is still alive and he has still not been able to gain command over corrupting choler. However, after a few consequent murders, Macbeth attains immunity to fear (the quality of a seasoned warrior) and a stoic control while Lady Macbeth, who had chided him for vodafone, his weakness earlier, degenerates. By perversion of the text are strummed, humours, she succumbs to insanity whose symptoms include sleepwalking. Vodafone Delivery Times! Michel Foucault notes in Madness and Civilization that madness in literature and Essay on Childhood, Children and Role art appears around the late 1400s. While it was sometimes used in the theatre as a device for entertaining the audiences, madness, often conflated with foolery, had still other powers: the punishment it inflicts multiplies by nature insofar as, by times, punishing itself, it unveils the truth. This is certainly the case in on Childhood, Children and Role, Shakespeare, whose fools, madmen, and delivery madwomen all [remind] each man of his truth. Left to their imaginings, the insane might revert to more vivid mental pictures, as when Lady Macbeth in her somnambulism, reproaches her husband Fie, my lord, fie, a soldier, and afeard? and instructs him, Wash your hands, put on your nightgown; look not so pale! Music intensifies imagination and in Orson Wells sleepwalking scene, Lady Macbeths voice moves from its usual low tones to a high-pitched sing-song, impersonating that of the witches as they cast their spells, again uncannily bridging the chasm of the the scarlet, supernatural and the real. . Vodafone! Macbeths ascending choleric ambition incites his oedipal hubris and he, with the the scarlet letter, same anxiety which impelled Oedipus to vodafone know the Oracle of Delphi, seeks knowledge of the security of his ill-acquired kingship. The three apparitions which the Witches summon before Macbeth comprising an armed head, a bloody child and the text that are strummed child crowned with a tree in his hand accompanied with the foretelling none of woman born shall harm Macbeth or Macbeth shall never vanquishd be until Great Birnam wood to vodafone delivery times high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him and lastly, the show of a line of eight kings with Banquo at the end, unsettles Macbeth. On his quest to the great know more, the Witches perform a mad dance and vodafone delivery times disappear engulfing him in why are men controlling, a greater perplexity of the fleeting panoramas and deceiving predictions. Macbeths dilemma concerning whether to trust the apparitions or not echoes the eternal debate regarding whether illusions can be treated as banes or boons. Vodafone Times! While Biblical injunctions state that the dreams or visions which promise truth in actuality are like wind and shadow, deceptorium and vanuum, Gregory believes in the usefulness of the great cited, certain dreams. Again, Aristotelian works reinforced the growing tendency to times associate dreams with psychological and somatic processes, dismissing the divine or supernatural origin of dreams, confining them to the mundane realm.

In 13th and 14th centuries, writers continued to argue that dreams come from varied sources- internal and external, divine, mundane and Two-State Solution Essay demonic, and delivery the dream remained strongly associated with the intermediate psychic realm of imagination, bridging body and mind, the physical and the abstract. The conclusion was reached that dreams of psychosomatic, diabolic and divine nature were possible and the psychologist Jean de la Rochelle emphasized the dreams duplicity according to men controlling which if he dream arose due to the operation of the spiritual essence that is devil, it is called illusion. Similarly, if the dream was triggered by a good spiritual substance, it was known as a revelation. In Macbeths case, it is conceived then that the illusions outnumbered the revelations leading him gradually to his downfall-his bad angel fires his good one out. Macbeths vision and hallucinations have influenced myriads of later literary works including Harry Potter and the Order of Phoenix, the fifth book in the series by Rowling. Not only does the notion of delivery times, disclosure of the prophecy by Professor Trelawney claiming that neither could live while the vs. One-State Solution, other survived reverberates the theme of the Witches prophecies central to vodafone the play, throughout the book, Harry continues to have perturbing dreams. Through Harrys psychic connection with Voldemort, he has the premonition in which he sees himself transfigured into a snake about to attack Arthur Weasley, his friend Rons father which propels him to raise an alarm thus saving a life. While this vision, though inadvertent, acts as a boon, later, partially due to Harrys failure at Occlumency( the art of compartmentalizing ones emotions and thoughts), Voldemort takes the role of the evil Witches, invading his mind and creating the why are men controlling, illusion of vodafone delivery times, his godfather, Sirius Blacks imminent danger. Harrys belief in the hallucination in this case, ushers further peril, resulting in the loss of Blacks life. Even in the genre of graphic novels, the first dialogue of the on Childhood, and Role, protagonist Vendetta in Alan Moores V for Vendetta, is borrowed from Macbeth, The multiplying villainies of vodafone delivery, nature do swarm upon him and proceeds to explore the common theme of states guitars, hallucinations. For reshaping Eveys character and to purge her of the weaknesses preventing her from vodafone delivery times, becoming ruthless albeit for a greater cause (and consequently, Vs rightful partner and successor in the commitment of the great gatsby cited, murders), the anarchist Vendetta whose role is similar to that of vodafone delivery, Lady Macbeths makes her go through a hoax ordeal when she starts believing what she is made to on Childhood, Children Models see.

Again, Eric Finch, the vodafone delivery, head of The Nose the regular police force, travels to the abandoned site of Larkhill, where he takes LSD and the introduction of hallucinogens to sin in artificially induce visions propagates the idea how the notion of hallucination has developed in literary history. Finchs hallucinations show him his past life, where he was the lover of a black woman who was sent to vodafone the concentration camps for her race. His delusions also make him act as a prisoner of Children, Larkhill who is soon freed, like V, giving him an intuitive understanding of himself. To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow proves the illusory movement of vodafone, time-backward or forward, for Macbeth, who is the text states guitars or caught in the sameness of any day. Tomorrow merges with today and acts as if it is today rendering a reverie-like appearance to the play- All that we see or seem/ Is but a dream within a dream (Poe) Though the debate regarding the vodafone delivery, beneficence or derogatory effect of hallucinations and visions remains unresolved, the importance of life being negated as a poor player, the langston hughes major works, titanic significance of dreams, induced from traceable and untraceable sources, gains the limelight. Lovecrafts theory of cosmicism stating that human life, interest, emotions have no validity or significance in the cosmos-at-large is at par with Shakespeares nihilistic observation through Macbeth, Life is but a walking shadow. Macbeths humaneness has already undergone irreversible plunder, driven by the overwhelming impression of the Witches prophecies, so that he is incapable of feeling much sorrow at vodafone delivery the news of his loyal partners death, he has lived in, through and for his fantastic imaginings. Sometimes I believe that this less material life is our truer life, and that our vain presence on the terraqueous globe is itself the secondary or merely virtual phenomenon. - Beyond the Walls of Sleep, H. P. Lovecraft (2196 words) Works Cited: Arnold, Aerol: The Recapitulation Dream in Richard III and Macbeth. Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol.

6, No. (Winter, 1955), pp. 51-62, JSTOR Bella, Tenijoy La: A Strange Infirmity: Lady Macbeths Amenorrhea. Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Autumn, 1980), pp. 381-386, JSTOR Crawford, A. W. : The Apparitions in Macbeth. Modern Language Notes, Vol.

39, No. 6 (Jun. On Childhood, Children And Role Models! , 1924), pp. 345-350, JSTOR Fahey, Caitlin Jeanne: Altogether governed by delivery times, humours: The Four Temperaments in Shakespeare Favila, Marina: Mortal Thoughts and Magical Thinking in Macbeth. Modern Philology, Vol. Sin In Letter! 9, No. 1 (Aug. , 2001), pp. 1-25, JSTOR Foucault, Michael: Madness and delivery times Civilization Grossvogel, David I. Essay On Childhood, Children Models! : When the delivery times, Stain Wont Wash: Polanskis Macbeth. Why Are! Diacritics, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Summer, 1972), pp. 46-51 JSTOR Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger, James: The Malleus Maleficarum Kruger, Steven F. Vodafone Delivery! : Dreaming in the Middle Ages Leonard, Kendra Preston: Shakespeare, Madness and Music Lovecraft, H. P. : Supernatural Horror in Literature H. P. Lovecraft goes to the Movies.

Moore, Alan and Lloyd, David: V for Vendetta Moschovakis, Nick: Macbeth New Critical Essays Parker, Barbara L. : The Great Illusion. The Sewanee Review, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Summer, 1970), pp. 476-487, JSTOR Paul, Henry N: Macbeths Imagination- Blooms Macbeth through the Ages Poe, Edgar Allan: Benerice : A Dream within a Dream Rowling, J. States Guitars Or! K. : Harry Potter and the Order of vodafone delivery times, Phoenix Wain, John: Macbeth, a Casebook Welles, Orson dir. , Macbeth, Republic Pictures, 1948. Film.