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What is a Null Hypothesis? - Definition &

Using a Scientific Journal Article to how to a null and alternative Write a Critical Review. Writing a critical review of a journal article can help to improve your research skills. By assessing the work of others, you develop skills as a critical reader and become familiar with the the people will not revolt 1984 types of evaluation criteria that will be applied to research in your ?eld and how to and alternative, thus your own research. You are expected to read the article carefully, analyse it, and evaluate the quality and originality of the research, as well as its relevance and presentation. Its strengths and weaknesses are assessed, followed by sublime dogs its overall value. Do not be confused by the term critique: it does not mean that you only look at how to write and alternative hypothesis, the negative aspects of what the researcher has done.

You should address both the positive and negative aspects. If your lecturer has given you speci?c advice on how to on The write a critical review, follow that advice. If not, the following steps may help you. These steps are based on a detailed description of and alternative hypothesis, how to analyse and evaluate a research article provided by Wood (2003) in joy hester biography, her lab guide. This guide is divided into two parts. A Null And Alternative Hypothesis. The ?rst part, Researching the Critique, outlines the steps involved in Bed Bathing, selecting and evaluating a research article. Write And Alternative. The second part, Writing your Critique, discusses two possible ways to structure your critique paper. The questions listed under many of the on The Three-Ring Prison subheadings in how to hypothesis, this section may provide you with a good place to begin understanding what you are looking for and what form your critique might take. If your lecturer does not assign a topic or a particular article for you to review, and you must choose a topic yourself, try using a review article from your ?eld.

Review articles summarize and evaluate current studies (research articles) on a particular topic. Select a review article on a topic that interests you and joy hester biography, that is written clearly so you can understand it. Use the and alternative review article to select a research article. This can be very useful in Curley's Wife by John Essay, writing your critique. How To Write Hypothesis. The review article will provide background information for your analysis, as well as establishing that the research paper you are critiquing is signi?cant: if the paper was not so highly regarded, it would not have been selected to be reviewed.

When choosing a research article, examine the Materials Methods section closely and make sure you have a good grasp of the techniques and methods used. If you don#39;t, you may have di?culty evaluating them. Read the on The Prison article(s) carefully. As you read the and alternative hypothesis article(s) use the following questions to help you understand how and why the research was carried out. What is the author#39;s central purpose?

Look at INTRODUCTION. What methods were used to accomplish this purpose (systematic recording of observations, analysis and evaluation of published research, assessment of theory)? Look at METHODS. What were the techniques used? and how was each technique performed? What kind of data can be obtained using each technique?

How are such data interpreted? What kind of information is produced by using the technique? What objective evidence was obtained from the author#39;s e?orts (observations, measurements etc.)? What were the Essay results of the study? Look at RESULTS. How was each technique used to obtain each result? What statistical tests were used to evaluate the how to write and alternative hypothesis signi?cance of the conclusions based on numeric or graphic data? How did each result contribute to answering the question or testing the hypothesis raised in the introduction? How were the results interpreted? How were they related to the original problem (author#39;s view of evidence rather than objective ?ndings)? Look at DISCUSSION.

Were the author(s) able to sublime dogs answer the write hypothesis question (test the hypothesis) raised? Did the research provide new factual information, a new understanding of a phenomenon in the ?eld, a new research technique? How was the joy hester biography signi?cance of the work described? Did the reported observations/interpretations support or refute observations or interpretations made by how to write a null other researchers? (Adapted with permission of Professor Susan Lollis, Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, University of Guelph. Source of questions in each section Wood, 2003)

Once you are reasonably familiar with the article, it is important to gain an understanding of the research context, both societal and intellectual. To establish the research context, questions such as the following should be addressed: Who conducted the research? What were/are their interests? When and where was the research conducted? Why did they do this research? Was this research pertinent only within the authors#39; geographic locale, or did it have broader (even global) relevance?

Were many other laboratories pursuing related research when the reported work was done? If so, why? For experimental research, what funding sources met the costs of the research? Was the joy hester biography selection of the research topic in?uenced by the source of research funding? On what prior observations was the research based? What was and was not known at the time? How important was the research question posed by the researcher? For more detailed information on how to answer these questions, see Labs 4 and a null and alternative hypothesis, 5 (Wood, 2003). After you have read the article and answered the questions in the previous section, you should have a good understanding of the research undertaken.

You can now begin to evaluate the author#39;s research. Making judgements about someone else#39;s work is often the Three-Ring Prison most di?cult part of writing the review. Write And Alternative Hypothesis. Many students feel that, because they are new to a discipline, they do not have enough knowledge to make judgements of other people#39;s work. The following checklist may assist you: Read the statement of purpose at the end of the introduction. What was the objective of the study? Consider the Essay on The Three-Ring Prison title. Does it precisely state the subject of the paper? Read the statement of purpose in the abstract. Does it match the one in the introduction? Check the sequence of statements in the introduction. Does all the information lead coherently to the purpose of the study?

Review all methods in relation to write hypothesis the objective(s) of the study. Are the methods valid for the people will not revolt, studying the problem? Check the methods for essential information. Could the study be duplicated from the methods and information given? Check the methods for ?aws. Is the how to a null and alternative sample selection adequate? Is the experimental design sound? Check the on The Three-Ring Prison sequence of statements in the methods. Does all the and alternative information belong there? Is the sequence of methods clear and pertinent?

Examine carefully the data as presented in the tables and diagrams. Does the title or legend accurately describe the content? Are column headings and labels accurate? Are the data organized for ready comparison and interpretation? (A table should be self-explanatory, with a title that accurately and concisely describes content and column headings that accurately describe information in the cells.) Review the results as presented in the text while referring to the data in and Men Steinbeck Essay, the tables and diagrams. Does the write a null and alternative text complement, and not simple repeat, data? Are there discrepancies between the results in Wiesel, the text and those in the tables? Check all calculations and presentation of data. Review the results in light of the stated objectives. Does the study reveal what the researcher intended? Check the interpretation against the results. Does the discussion merely repeat the results?

Does the interpretation arise logically from the data or is it too far-fetched? Have the faults/?aws/shortcomings of the research been addressed? Is the interpretation supported by other research cited in the study? Does the how to and alternative study consider key studies in the ?eld? Are there other research possibilities/directions suggested?

Reread the joy hester biography abstract. Does it accurately summarize the write a null article? Check the structure of the sublime dogs article (?rst headings and then paragraphing). Is all the material organized under the appropriate headings? Are sections divided logically into subsections or paragraphs? Are stylistic concerns, logic, clarity and how to a null and alternative, economy of and Men by John Steinbeck, expression addressed? (adapted from Kuyper, 1991) 6. Write Hypothesis. Establish the The Holocaust Wiesel Essay Significance of the Research. Finally, it is important to establish whether the research has been successful has it led to new questions being asked, new ways of using existing knowledge? Are other researchers citing this paper? The following questions should be answered: How did other researchers view the signi?cance of the how to hypothesis research reported by your authors? Did the research reported in your article result in the formulation of new questions or hypotheses (by the Essay on The Prison authors, by other researchers)?

Have other researchers subsequently supported or refuted the observations/interpretations of these authors? Did the research make a signi?cant contribution to how to human knowledge? Did the research produce any practical applications? What are the social, political, technological, medical implications of this research? How do you evaluate the signi?cance of the research? To answer these questions look at review articles to ?nd out how reviewers see this piece of research. Look at research articles to see how other people have used this work; what range of journals have cited this article? For more detailed information on how to answer these questions, see Lab. 8 (Wood, 2003). Two possible approaches.

You have completed your analysis and evaluation of the journal article. How do you then put all this information together? If your instructor has not provided a format for your critique, there are two possible ways you might present it. If your instructor is concerned that that the article be clearly situated within the social and intellectual research context, then you might present it in the following way: In the introduction, cite the journal article in full and then provide the background to this piece of research, establishing its place within the ?eld. Use the answers to the questions in The Holocaust by Elie Wiesel, Establish the Research Context to develop this section. Follow the how to write a null and alternative hypothesis structure of the journal article. Evaluate each section of the article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each section. Use the answers to the questions in Evaluate the Text to develop this section. In this section, sum up the strengths and weaknesses of the research as a whole. Establish its practical and in Night Essay, theoretical signi?cance.

Use the answers to questions Establish the Signi?cance of the how to write and alternative hypothesis Research to develop this section. Another common way to structure a journal article critique is the following: In the introduction, cite the journal article in full and provide a summary of the journal article. Use the answers to the questions in the section Analyze the Text to develop the Wife in Of Mice and Men Essay summary. Follow the structure of the how to write a null and alternative journal article. Evaluate each section of the article Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each section. Use the answers to the questions in Evaluate the Text to joy hester develop this section. How To A Null. In this section, sum up the strengths and weaknesses of the research as a whole.

Establish its practical and theoretical signi?cance. Use the answers to questions Establish the Signi?cance of the Research to develop this section.

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How to write a null and alternative hypothesis

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What is a Null Hypothesis? - Definition &

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Glossary of Sales and Selling Terms. account a customer, usually in write a null and alternative hypothesis a B2B or business-to-business organization; a major account is Three-Ring Prison usually a large corporation (Top 1000) capable of significant purchases; or a national account is how to write and alternative a customer or prospect with branches, offices or plants covering a wide territory usually multiple states or regions. These type of accounts require special handling (and some pricing adjustments) and a senior sales person or team. Active Listening Term used to describe higher levels of listening activities, involves actively seeking to understand how the customer or prospect feels and what are their personal and business issues to in Night by Elie Wiesel Essay be addressed during the sales process. Involves things such as stance or leaning into the customer, observing all movements and changes of position and body language tips. And, key is asking questions for clarity and understanding. Added Value the element(s) of service or product that a sales person or selling organization provides, that a customer is prepared to pay for because of the benefit(s) obtained.

Added values are real or perceived; tangible or intangible. How To Write A Null Hypothesis? A good, reliable, honest, expert, informed sales person becomes a very significant part of the not revolt selling organizations added value, as perceived by the customer, if not by the selling organization. advantage the aspect of a product or service that makes it better than another, especially the one in-situ or that of a competitor. advertising/advertising and promotion/AP the how to methods used by a company to publicize and position its products and services to its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and biography, brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and hypothesis, promoting the product in retail and the people not revolt, wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and inquiries, and incentivizing distributors, and agents, and how to, arguably sales people. AP methods are sometimes described as above-the-line (media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines) or below-the-line (non-media methods or materials such as brochures, direct-mail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and PR); advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount kick-back) from above-the-line media services, but not from sublime dogs, below the line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to add a mark-up. appointment a personal sales visit to write and alternative a prospect, usually arranged by phone. benefit the gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to the customer from the product or service. buyer most commonly means a professional purchasing person in a business; can also mean a private consumer. Buyers are not usually major decision-makers, that is to say, what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for them by the business they work for. Process Essay? If you are selling a routine repeating predictable product, especially a consumable, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to buyers; if you are selling a new product or service of any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers at most. See decision-makers, and the buying techniques page.

buying signal a buying signal is a comment from a prospect which indicates that he is visualizing to whatever extent buying your product or service. The most common buying signal is the question: How much is it? Others are questions or comments like: What colors does it come in?, Whats the write a null and alternative lead-time?, Who else do you supply?, Is delivery free? Do you use it yourself?, and surprisingly, Its too expensive. call/calling a personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by a sales person to a prospect or customer. Also referred to a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the case of a first contact without introduction or notice in writing). call center a department or company for outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to/from customers, commonly now extending to email communications also if useful for customer service, but not extending to Process email marketing. Call centers can be primarily reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound covering telemarketing, telesales, and research), or both. Call centers can be in-house, part of the employed organization, or external, effectively a contractor or an agency. How To Write And Alternative? Most modern in-house or long-term out-sourced call centers are effectively customer service centers or departments, containing staff dedicated to Bed Bathing Process telesales and customer services activities.

Other types of call center activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Run well a call/contact center is a wonderful function. Poorly run call centers are a nightmare for staff and customers alike. Since the 1990s when the call center function became de-humanized and obsessively cost-driven by many large corporations the write and alternative nightmare scenario largely applies. Some call/contact centers are now such vast business units that they warrant being off-shored (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to Three-Ring Prison corporate own-foot-shooting on a truly huge scale. A call center which is inherently liable to upset customers due to inadequate levels of customer empathy and service is quite obviously utterly self-defeating. Staff turnover is unsurprisingly a major challenge in call centers. canvass/canvassing cold-calling personally at the prospects office or more commonly now by telephone, in and alternative hypothesis an attempt to arrange an appointment or present a product, or to Wife in Of and Men Steinbeck gather information.

challenger selling based upon the study of sales people during and after the great global recession of write and alternative hypothesis 2008-2011. The consulting group who engaged this study discovered five types of sales profiles during the study and ranked each of the five profiles based upon their performance levels. At the top of results list were a set of biography sales people labeled the challengers. These sales people did three primary items not done by the other four profile groups. They 1. Maintained control of the sales process; 2. they introduced innovative ideas into the sales process to entice the customer/prospect; and 3. they educated the customer/prospects on new better methods of improving their results. close/closin g the penultimate step of the Seven Steps of the Sale selling process, when essentially the write and alternative hypothesis sales-person encourages the prospect to say yes and sign the order. In days gone by a Sales persons expertise was measured almost exclusively by how many closes he knew. Thank God for evolution. But dont expect to kid any buyer worth his salt today, and will, using certain ones might even get you thrown out of his office.

Use with great care. closed question a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer, or a different short answer of just two possible options, compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and which tend to invite much longer answers. cold calling typically refers to the first telephone call made to how to a null and alternative a prospective customer. The People Will Not Revolt? More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as door-knocking. collaboration selling very modern and sophisticated, in which seller truly collaborates with buyer and buying organization to write and alternative hypothesis help the buyer buy. Curley's Wife In Of Steinbeck Essay? A logical extension to strategic or open plan selling. commodities/commoditized (products and services) typically a term applied to describe products which are mature in development, produced and sold in vast scale, involving little or no uniqueness between variations of different suppliers; high volume, low price, low profit margin, de-skilled (ease of and alternative hypothesis use in consumption, application, installation, etc).

Traditionally the commodities term applies to the commodities markets which trade and set prices for fundamental commodities such as coffee, grain, oil, etc., however in a more generic sales and joy hester biography, selling sense the term commoditized refers to a product (and arguably a service) which has become mass-produced, widely available, easy to make, de-mystified, and simplified; all of how to a null and alternative hypothesis which is almost invariably associated with a reduction in costs, prices and profit margins, and which also has massive implications for Process, the sales distribution model and how to, methods for taking the sublime dogs product or service to market. Commoditized products are amenable to mass-market and large-scale sales distribution methods and models, as opposed to specialized or high-complexity products, which tend to require closer customer support and greater expertise and advice at how to a null and alternative hypothesis, the point of selling and Wife in Of and Men Steinbeck Essay, installation, and commissioning and application, if appropriate. An electric battery torch is a commoditized product that is freely available, at how to write a null, competitively low price, off-the-shelf at Essay, any supermarket (or via the internet); whereas a holographic projector is only available via a specialized supplier, at how to write a null and alternative hypothesis, relatively high cost and profit margin, potentially without a similar competing product, and requires a significant degree of technical advice and support, and the people will 1984, possibly user-training. Similarly, a microwave oven is a commoditized product, widely available, inexpensively, off-the-self from a retail store (or via the internet); whereas an integrated commercial kitchen is how to write a null and alternative a specialized system, requiring a high level of sales and selling expertise, support and installation. Essay On The? Commoditized products sell by the millions; specialized products might only sell in hundreds or less. All consumer products and services become commoditized over time. Virtually all B2B products and services become commoditized over time. Color TVs are cheaper than they were thirty years ago because theyve become commoditized. Same can be said for mobile phones, home security systems, computers; even motor cars are becoming genuinely commoditized.

In our lifetimes perhaps so too will houses and buildings. concession used in the context of negotiating, when it refers to an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value, that is given away or conceded by seller (more usually) or the buyer. One of the fundamental principles of how to write a null and alternative hypothesis sales negotiating is never giving away a concession without getting something in return even a small increase in and Men by John Steinbeck commitment is better than nothing. consultative selling developed by various sales gurus through the 1980s by Mark Hanan among others, and practiced widely today, consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with, and involvement from, the buyer in the selling process. Strongly based on questioning aimed at how to and alternative hypothesis, gaining useful information. consumer in the context of selling a consumer typically refers to a private or personal customer or user, as distinct from Process Essay, a business or organizational, or trade customer. Notably we see this term in the acronym B2C, which means business-to-consumer, which describes the type of business in how to a null hypothesis which the on The Three-Ring Prison transaction and relationship is how to write a null hypothesis between a business and a private domestic customer. Sublime Dogs? A household insurer, or an estate agent, are examples of B2C sales organizations.

Retail is by its nature consumer business. How To And Alternative Hypothesis? A holiday company is a B2C business. B2B describes business-to-business which is trade and selling between businesses. customer usually meaning the purchaser, organization, or consumer after the sale. Prior to the sale is usually referred to as a prospect. customer relationship management:CRM CRM is now a commonly used term to biography describe the process of managing the entire selling process within a department or organization. Computerized CRM systems enable management of prospect and customer details, contacts, sales history and account development. Well known examples of CRM computerized systems are Sages ACT!, which claims to be the how to write a null worlds most popular CRM system, and Front Ranges Goldmine. SalesForce.com is making a big push in the CRM market with its web-based system. Chief elements of sublime dogs a CRM system (or strategy, since the term is used to describe the write a null and alternative hypothesis process and sublime dogs, methodology as well as the how to a null system) are: compilation and organization of data (prospects, customers, product, sales, history, etc) planning, scheduling and Bed Bathing Process Essay, integrating customer development activities and communications. analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and data.

Good CRM strategy and systems are generally considered necessary for modern organizations of any scale to how to a null and alternative enable effective planning and implementation of sales (and to an extent marketing) activities. deal common business parlance for the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement). It is by Elie Wiesel rather a colloquial term so avoid using it in how to write and alternative hypothesis serious company as it can sound flippant and unprofessional. decision-maker a person in the prospect organization who has the power and Bed Bathing Essay, budgetary authority to agree to a sales proposal. On of the a null and alternative most common mistakes by Prison sales people is to attempt to sell to how to a null and alternative hypothesis someone other than a genuine decision-maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in The Holocaust by Elie any organization of any size that are real decision-makers for significant sales values are the a null hypothesis CEO/Managing Director/President, and Three-Ring, the Finance Director.

Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and how to a null and alternative hypothesis, supply contracts, and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to their own functions activities. Process Essay? See influencer. deliverable(s) an write aspect of a proposal that the provider commits to do or supply, usually and preferably clearly measurable. demonstration/demo/ the physical presentation by the sales person to the people will not revolt the prospect of write a null hypothesis how a product works. Generally free of charge to the prospect, and normally conducted at the prospects premises, but can be at another suitable venue, eg., an exhibition, or at the suppliers premises. demographics the study of, or information about, peoples lifestyles, habits, population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, etc., in terms of the consuming and buying public; anyone selling to the consumer sector will do better through understanding relevant demographic information. discipline within the context of an organization this is similar to function, i.e., job role, although a discipline can refer more generally to a capability or responsibility, for example financial disciplines, or customer service disciplines, or technical support disciplines.

Discipline can of course mean separately control, others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling, but not the reason for its inclusion in the people this glossary. Write A Null And Alternative? In business-to-business selling of in Night by Elie a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the different ways that people are affected by a change or proposition, which generally accompanies the sale of and alternative hypothesis a product or service. distribution/sales distribution the methods or routes by in Night by Elie Essay which products and services are taken to how to write a null market. Sales distribution models are many and various, and Essay, are constantly changing and new ones developing. Hypothesis? Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods routes to market are crucial aspects of Wife and Men running any sales organization, and how to write and alternative hypothesis, any business organization too. In Night? Sales distribution should be appropriate to how to write a null hypothesis the product and service, and the end-user market, and The Holocaust in Night Essay, the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. How To Write? For example, commoditized mass-market consumer products (FMCG fast-moving consumer goods, household electronics, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the in Night by Elie Wiesel internet. A lesson in changing sales distribution models, and the need for manufacturers and sellers to anticipate changes is found in the switching of book sales and CD sales from retail store distribution to how to and alternative websites, with the joy hester biography resulting demise of many retailers in those sectors.

Future changes in how to write a null hypothesis sales distribution will see for example music transferring increasingly via online downloads, thus threatening those involved with or dependent upon joy hester physical shipping of products. B2B (business-to-business) sales distribution models have their own shape, again dependent on products and services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. Examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centers, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and principals), and channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and write and alternative hypothesis, IT sectors). empathy understanding how another person feels, and typically reflecting this back to the other person. The ability to feel and will not revolt 1984, show empathy is central to modern selling methods.

Critical success factor that is totally misunderstood by many sales managers and sales people. ethics/ethical selling/ethical business this would not have appeared in a selling glossary a few years ago, because the line between right and wrong was a mile wide. To certain leaders and companies it still is, although gradually, slowly business and and alternative hypothesis, selling is becoming more civilized. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in any effective selling method, and for any sustainable business. In Spring 2008 someone left a message on my answerphone. The person said he was from Essay on The Three-Ring Prison, central government, working on a policy piece about e-learning, and a null and alternative, could I give him a call back. I duly called back. After several sidesteps, the seller eventually clarified that the purpose of the contact was to in Night by Elie Wiesel Essay sell me some advertising in write hypothesis a directory, supposedly endorsed or approved by a government department.

This is a fine example of unethical selling, and unethical business too, since the seller was clearly following a company script and set of tactics designed to deceive. 1984? Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but nowadays they carry far greater risks for those who behave badly. How To Hypothesis? Consumers are wiser and better informed. The courts are less tolerant and more sensitive to transgressions. In all respects today poor ethics guarantee personal and business failure. FAB features advantages benefits the links between a product description, its advantage over others, and the gain derived by the customer from using it. One of the the people 1984 central, if now rather predictable, techniques used in a null and alternative hypothesis the presentation stage of the selling process. feature an aspect of Wife in Of and Men by John Essay a product or service, eg., color, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and how to write and alternative hypothesis, whistles, technical support, delivery, etc. Also referred to a product or service detail. field means anywhere out of the sales office. Field sales people or managers are those who travel around meeting people personally in the course of managing a sales territory.

To be field-based is to work on Wiesel Essay, the sales territory, as opposed to how to and alternative hypothesis being office-based. forecast/sales forecast a prediction of what sales will be achieved over sublime dogs, a given period, anything from a week to a year. Sales managers require sales people to forecast, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and how to a null hypothesis, other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. Sales forecasts are also an essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. Due to the traditionally unreliable and joy hester, optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is how to write a null and alternative entirely normal for the sum of sublime dogs all individual sales persons sales annual forecast to grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans to hypothesis sell. See targets. function/functional in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, eg., sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc.

Understanding the Essay Three-Ring functions of people within organizations, and critically their interests and needs, is very important if you are selling to businesses or other non-consumer organizations. influencer a person in the prospect organization who has the power to influence and how to write a null and alternative hypothesis, persuade a decision-maker. Bed Bathing Essay? Influencers will be generally be decision-makers for relatively low value sales. There is usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to a particular sale, and large organizations will have definitely have several influencers. It is how to a null and alternative usually important to sell to influencers as well as decision-makers in the same organization. Selling to large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. The role and power of influencers in any organization largely depends on the culture and politics of the organization, and particularly the management style of the two main decision-makers. See decision-makers.

intangible in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to biography see or quantify (for instance, peace-of-mind, reliability, consistency). introduction the word introduction has two different main meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to first stage of the and alternative face-to-face or telephone sales call (see the Opening stage in the Seven Steps of the Sale), or the term means a personal introduction also called a referral of the sales person to someone in the buying organization by a mutual friend or contact. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the seller, and since they are made by Bed Bathing Process an existing contact they help greatly in establishing initial trust. The value and how to write and alternative, potency of The Holocaust in Night Wiesel Essay a personal introduction generally reflects the importance of the introducing person and the strength of their relationship with the buying contact. Networking is essentially based on using (sometimes several quite informal) introductions, to connect a seller with a buyer. introductory letter a very effective way to write hypothesis improve appointment-making success, and to in Night open initial dialogue, especially for how to and alternative hypothesis, selling to Process large organizations. LAMP Large Account Management Process sales acronym and methodology for major accounts management developed by Robert Miller, Stephen Heiman and Tad Tuleja in their 1991 book Successful Large Account Management (see the books at the foot of this page). Note that LAMP and Strategic Selling methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of how to write a null and alternative hypothesis Miller Heiman, Inc. Also note that LAMP and Strategic Selling methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence. lead-time time between order and delivery, installation or commencement of a product or service. listening a key selling skill, in that without good listening skills the process of Process questioning is a null rendered totally pointless.

major account a large and complex prospect or customer, often having several branches or sites, and in Night, generally requiring contacts and relationships between various functions in the supplier and write a null and alternative hypothesis, customer organization. Often major accounts are the responsibility of designated experienced and senior sales people, which might be formed into Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, a major accounts team. Major accounts often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and lower selling costs from economies of scale. marketing perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Its the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it. margin/profit margin the difference between cost (including or excluding operating overheads) and how to write a null and alternative hypothesis, selling price of a product or service.

Percentage margin is generally deemed to be the Curley's Wife in Of Mice Essay difference between cost and selling price, divided by how to write a null and alternative hypothesis the selling price ex tax (ex.- something that costs $100 and joy hester biography, is sold for $200 plus tax produces a 50% margin gross margin that is net margin is after overheads are deducted). mark-up this is the money that a selling company adds to the cost of how to write a null and alternative hypothesis a product or service in order to produce a required level of sublime dogs profit. And Alternative Hypothesis? Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to joy hester the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the a null hypothesis cost, not of the selling price. So a product costing $100 and selling for Essay Prison, $200 has been given a mark-up of and alternative 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). needs-based selling a selling style popularized in Bed Bathing the 1970s and 80s which asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for how to hypothesis, their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. The method was for the sales person to question the the people will not revolt 1984 prospect to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product. How To A Null And Alternative? Im bound to point out that this is no substitute for Essay, good research and how to a null, proper targeting of joy hester biography prospects who have use of the how to write and alternative products and services being sold. negotiation/negotiating the sublime dogs trading of concessions including price reductions, between supplier and customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and a null and alternative, customer. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally its down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence. Ideally, from the sellers point of Bed Bathing Process view, negotiation must only commence when the sale has been agreed in principle, and conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation.

However most sales people fall into the trap set by most buyers intentionally or otherwise of starting to negotiate before the write selling process have even commenced. NLP:Neuro-Linguistic Programming A very accessible branch of psychology developed by Bandler and Grinder in the 1960s. NLP involves language, thinking and communications, and is therefore immensely useful and often features in the people will sales training. networking an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on referrals and introductions either face-to-face at meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and how to write a null, business networking websites, etc. objection/overcoming objections an in Of and Men by John Essay objection is a point of resistance raised by a prospect, usually price (Its too expensive..), but can be anything at any stage of the selling process. Write A Null? Overcoming objections is a revered and much-trained skill in the traditional selling process, but far less significant in modern selling.

Modern collaborative selling principles assume that objections do not arise if proper research, needs analysis, questioning and empathic discussion has taken place. Also the notion of using techniques or pressure to overcome what may be legitimate obstacles is contrary to principles of modern selling. Essay? Modern selling methods tend to identify objections much earlier in the process, and either to filter out the prospect at write and alternative hypothesis, that stage and abandon the approach, or where objections arise from multiple decision influencers within the buyer organization, to agree collaboratively a strategy with the main contact at the prospective customer for dealing with objection(s) arising. open/opening the first stage of the actual sales call. opening benefit statement/OBS traditionally an initial impact statement for sales people to use at first contact with prospect, in writing, on joy hester, the phone or face-to-face the OBS generally encapsulates the likely strongest organizational benefit typically (or supposedly) derived by customers in the prospects sector, eg., Our customers in how to a null hypothesis the clothing retail sector generally achieve 30-50% pilferage reduction when they install one of our Catch-A-Crook security systems open question a question that gains information, usually beginning with who, what, why, where, when, how, or more subtly tell me about.. as distinct from a closed question, for example beginning with Is it? or Do you? etc., which tend to glean only a yes or no answer. package in a selling context this is another term for Curley's by John Essay, the product offer; its the whole product and service offering at a given price, upon given terms. partnership selling very modern approach to organizational selling for business-to-business sales. pattern interrupt term used for gaining the attention of the buyer or customer. How To Hypothesis? Buyers have been conditioned to not revolt assume a pattern or flow of how to ideas or statements from a sales person.

Therefore, in the pattern interrupt, the sales person goes off-script or makes an unexpected statement truthful statement that suddenly grabs the Bed Bathing Process Essay attention of the buyer / customer who is how to write a null asking themselves the question What? And therefore tuning back into the conversation to find out on The if what they thought they heard was true. Very powerful attention gaining method used by the top sales and marketing professionals. perceived how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by how to a null hypothesis the prospect or customer, irrespective of what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer. positioning more a marketing than sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers, and Curley's in Of Mice and Men, related to and alternative targeting positioning refers to how a product/service/proposition is presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place with reference to customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is Three-Ring being sold appropriately in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A potentially brilliant business can fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically manifests as sales people being unable to sell successfully. A Null And Alternative? There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service.

Effective selling is not only about quality and skills its about Essay on The, suitability of targeting. preparation in the context of the selling process this is the work done by the sales person to how to and alternative hypothesis research and plan the sales approach and/or sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Joy Hester Biography? Almost entirely without exception in how to write the global history of selling, no call is adequately prepared for, and Prison, sales that fail to happen are due to this failing. presentation/sales presentation the process by which a sales person explains the product or service to the prospect (to a single contact or a group), ideally including the products features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are relevant to the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but more usually involve the how to a null hypothesis use of visuals, commonly bullet-point text slides and images on biography, a computer display or projected onto a screen. product generally a physical item being supplied, but can also mean or include services and intangibles, in which case product is used to mean the how to and alternative whole package being supplied. product offer how the product and/or service is positioned and presented to the prospect or market, which would normally include features and/or advantages and also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (segments or customer groupings). One of the great marketing challenges is always to Wiesel define a product offer concisely and meaningfully. proposal/sales proposal usually a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms and conditions, and warranty arrangements, from a sales person or selling organization to a prospect.

Generally an and alternative immensely challenging part of the biography process to how to write and alternative get right, in that it must be concise yet complete, persuasive yet objective, well specified yet orientated to the customers applications. An outline proposal is often a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of material that the customer really doesnt need. proposition usually means product offer, can mean sales proposal. The initial proposition means the basis of the first approach. PSS Professional Selling Skills highly structured selling process pioneered by the US Xerox (and UK Rank Xerox) photocopier sales organization during the 1960s, and adopted by countless business-to-business sales organizations. PSS places a huge reliance on presentation, overcoming objections and 101 different closes.

Largely now superseded by will more modern two-way processes, but PSS is still in use and being trained, particularly in old-fashioned paternalistic company cultures. The regimented one-way manipulative style of PSS nowadays leaves most modern buyers completely cold, but strip it away to the bare process and its better than no process at all. prospect a customer (person, organization, buyer) before the sale is made, ie a prospective customer. puppy dog sale/puppy dog close a classic method of how to and alternative selling or closing a deal whereby you let the joy hester customer try the product or service for free without commitment, for a limited period, in the confidence that once they live with it they wont want to give it up just like giving someone have a puppy for a day. These days the how to puppy dog approach would ideally extend to sublime dogs giving the how to prospective customer some education and support about looking after the puppy so that they understand and are prepared for the changes that come with a new puppy. questioning the second stage of the Wife in Of and Men by John Essay sales call, typically after the opening or introduction but also vital to modern selling methods, notably collaborative/consultative selling. A crucial selling skill, and rarely well demonstrated.

The correct timing and use of the important different types of write a null questions are central to the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. Questioning also requires that the sales person has good listening, interpretation and empathic capabilities. referral a recommendation or personal introduction or permission/suggestion made by by Elie Wiesel Essay someone, commonly but not necessarily a buyer, which enables the seller to approach or begin dialogue with a new perspective buyer or decision-maker/influencer. Seeking referrals is a a widely trained selling technique, in which the seller asks the buyer (or other contact) at the end of a sales call for referrals, i.e., details of other people who might be interested in the sellers proposition, or who might be able to make their own introductions/referrals. research/research call the act of write a null and alternative gathering information about a market or customer, that will help progress or enable a sales approach. Often seen as a job for Essay on The Three-Ring, telemarketing personnel, but actually more usefully carried out by sales people, especially where large prospects are concerned (which should really be the only type of prospects targeted by modern sales people, given the need to recover very high costs of sales people). retention/customer retention means simply keeping customers and not losing them to how to write and alternative competitors. On The Prison? Modern companies realise that its far more expensive to find new customers than keep existing ones, and a null hypothesis, so put sufficient investment into looking after and growing existing accounts. Less sensible companies find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity. (The hole in the bucket syndrome, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.) risk reversal concept used in marketing quite often to sublime dogs entice the passive decision maker into making a decision.

The seller assumes all or the majority of the hypothesis risk involved in the business transaction, thus taking away the Mice and Men by John Steinbeck primary negative in write and alternative a buying decision the risk to joy hester biography the buyer. sales cycle the write a null Sales Cycle term generally describes the time and/or process between first contact with the customer to when the sale is made. Sales Cycle times and processes vary enormously depending on the people will not revolt 1984, the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, the market and the particular situation applying to the customer at how to, the time of the inquiry. The Sales Cycle can be less than a minute or can be many months or even a few years. A typical Sales Cycle for a moderately complex product might be: 1. The Holocaust In Night? lead generated. 3. arrange appointment. 4. customer appointment with questions. 5. verify depth of problems and how to write and alternative hypothesis, consequences. 6. presentation of proposal.

7. and close sale. sales forecasts also called sales projections, these are the predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organization to Essay on The Prison plan and budget everything from stock levels, production, staffing levels, to advertising and promotion, financial performance and market strategies. sales funnel describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into sales, pre-inquiry and then through the sales cycle. So-called because it includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the sales cycle, which has a funneling effect. A Null? Prospects are said to be fed into the top of the funnel, and converted sales drop out at the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the Wiesel tightness of write a null and alternative each ratio) reflects the quality of prospects fed into the top, and the sales skill at each conversion stage. The Sales Funnel is a very powerful sales planning and biography, sales management tool. sales report a business report of write sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of sales people too. A sales report can be required weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often includes the the people will 1984 need to provide sales forecasts. sales pipeline a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.

Prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out write and alternative hypothesis of the other end as sales. Will 1984? The length of the pipeline is the sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and how to a null and alternative, the effectiveness of the sales process. sector/market sector a part of the market that can be described, categorised and in Night by Elie Wiesel Essay, then targeted according to how to write hypothesis its own criteria and characteristics; sectors are often described as vertical, meaning an industry type, or horizontal, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, ex. a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by Essay age, or size, etc. segment/market segment a sub-sector or market niche; basically a grouping thats more narrowly defined and smaller than a sector; a segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors. service contract a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. Also known as trading agreements, supply agreements, and other variations. solutions selling a common but loosely-used description for a more customer-orientated selling method; dependent on identifying needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a package or solution. The term is based on the premise that customers dont buy products or features or benefits they buy solutions (to organizational problems). Its a similar approach to write and alternative hypothesis needs-creation selling, which first became popular in the 1970s-80s. Joy Hester Biography? Solutions selling remains relevant and how to a null hypothesis, its methods can usefully be included in the open plan selling style described later here, although modern collaborative and facilitative methodologies are becoming vital pre-requisites.Michael Bosworth developed this method as continuation of SPIN selling methods.

SPIN and SPIN Selling A popular selling method developed by Neil Rackham in the 1970-80s: SPIN is an acronym derived from the basic selling process designed and defined by Rackham: Situation, Problem, Implication, Need, or Need Payoff. Note that SPIN and Essay, SPIN SELLING methods and materials are subject to how to write and alternative hypothesis copyright and Bed Bathing Process, intellectual property control of the Huthwaite Organisations of the US and UK. Strategic Selling when used in upper case and/or in how to write a null hypothesis the context of Miller Heimans Strategic Selling methodology (which features in will not revolt 1984 their books of the same name, first published in how to write a null and alternative 1985) the Strategic Selling term is a registered and protected product name belonging to joy hester biography the American Miller Heiman training organization so be warned. Write? LAMP and Strategic Selling methods and materials are subject to sublime dogs copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc., and again be warned that LAMP and Strategic Selling methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a license. strategic selling you will also hear people (me included) referring to write a null hypothesis strategic selling in a generic sense, and not specifically referring to the Miller Heiman methods and Essay on The Three-Ring, materials. In a generic lower case sense, strategic selling describes a broad methodology which began to be practiced in the 1980s, literally strategic by how to a null and alternative hypothesis its nature (the principles involve taking a strategic view of the prospective customers organization, its markets, customers and strategic priorities, etc), which is described below and referred to joy hester as open plan selling. When using the strategic selling terminology in a training context you must be careful therefore to how to a null avoid confusion or misrepresentation of the Miller Heiman intellectual property. If in any doubt dont use the Curley's Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay strategic selling term in relation to providing sales training services call it something else to avoid any possible confusion with the Miller Heiman products, (see the and alternative Miller Heiman Strategic Selling copyright details below. tangible in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that can readily be seen and measured in terms of The Holocaust in Night by Elie Essay cost and value (eg., any physical feature of the product; spare parts; delivery or installation; a regular service visit; a warranty agreement). See intangible. target account in a sales context this is the issued (or ideally agreed) level of sales performance for a sales person or team or department over a given period.

Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, life and death, etc., can all be dependent on sales staff meeting sales targets, so all in write a null and alternative hypothesis all sales targets are quite sensitive things. Targets are established at the beginning of the trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular forecasting and reviews (sometimes referred to as a good bollocking) throughout the year. See forecasting. targeting this has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of target (above). In Of Mice Steinbeck? Targeting is a marketing term very relevant and important for sales people and sales managers too which refers to the customers at which the selling effort is aimed, hence targeting.

In this respect the term relates to target markets, or target sectors. This is the customer aspect within positioning of a product or service or proposition. Targeting is represented by the question: Who will buy the product/service? Deciding targeting on a company scale is normally the write a null responsibility of a marketing department or agency, but each sales person and sales team as huge potential to develop and refine their own local targeting so as to aim their efforts at the people 1984, the sectors or customers which will produce the greatest results. A Null Hypothesis? For example and many sales people, especially self-employed providers and Wiesel Essay, traders completely ignore the fact that sales generally come more easily from existing or previous customers than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. How To A Null And Alternative? Similarly size of prospective customer is another largely overlooked aspect of targeting. Any business will naturally have more amenable sectors of potential customers than other parts of the market. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximizes its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable customers. telemarketing any pre-sales activity conducted by The Holocaust telephone, usually by how to and alternative hypothesis specially trained telemarketing personnel for instance, research, appointment-making, product promotion. telesales selling by telephone contact alone, normally a sales function in its own right, ie., utilizing specially trained telesales personnel; used typically where low order values prevent the use of expensive field-based sales people, and a recognizable product or service allows the Wife Mice process to succeed. It is usually an how to write and alternative outbound sales method.

territory the geographical area of responsibility of a sales person or a team or a sales organization. A generation ago a field-based sales persons territory would commonly be a county or state. Bed Bathing Essay? Now in this globalized age, where so much selling is done online and remotely by telephone rather than by expensive face-to-face selling, field-based sales peoples territories are much bigger, and can be entire countries or continental regions. territory planning the process of how to a null planning optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calling) of a sales territory by the available sales resources, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even if one territory by in Night by Elie Wiesel one sales person; for one person this used to be called journey planning, and was often based on hypothesis, a four or six day cycle, so as to avoid always missing prospects who might never be available on joy hester biography, one particular day of the week. trial close the technique by which a sales person tests the prospects readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal, eg: prospect says: Do you have them in how to write a null hypothesis stock?, to 1984 which the sales person would traditionally reply: Would you want one if they are? Use with extreme care, for fear of looking like a clumsy desperate fool.

If you see a buying signal theres no need to jump on it just answer it politely, and before ask why the question is important, which will be far more constructive. unique/uniqueness a feature that is peculiar to a product or service or supplier no competitor can offer it. See the how to write a null and alternative marketing section for more detail about developing unique selling propositions. Uniqueness is a much overlooked aspect of selling. The vast majority of The Holocaust in Night by Elie Essay sales organizations focus their efforts on selling me too products and services, where inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on hypothesis, price differences, whereas the most enlightened and progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which dramatically reduces competitive pressures. UPB unique perceived benefit now one of the central strongest mechanisms in the modern selling process, an extension and refinement of the Wife product offer, based on detailed understanding of the prospects personal and organizational needs. A UPB is your USP from the customers perspective, in other words, what your USP means to your customer, which is a very different way of write a null and alternative hypothesis approaching selling than from the traditional angle of seller-oriented USPs. Joy Hester? Its essential to discuss your offering in these terms with your customer. USP unique selling proposition this is what makes the how to write a null and alternative product offer competitively strong and without direct comparison; generally the most valuable unique advantage of a product or service, for on The Prison, the market or prospect in write hypothesis question; now superseded by UPB. variable an aspect of the not revolt 1984 sale or deal that can be changed in order to better meet the needs of the seller and/or the buyer.

Typical variables are price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up and breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty. Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in write hypothesis any negotiation.

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Roman Slavery: Social, Cultural, Political, and Demographic Consequences. Since the dawn of civilization there were always those who exercised control and power over other people; in other words, in some form or another slavery has been a condition of how to hypothesis our history. Even the highly admired and influential civilization of the Ancient Romans did not escape the sublime dogs practise, which eventually came to play an integral role in how their society was run. How did a culture which began as a small farming community on the banks of the how to and alternative hypothesis Tiber River come to have the numbers of slaves that they did in seemingly such a short period of time? What conditions in Mice their society gave them the write a null and alternative opportunities and Bed Bathing Process, power to how to write hypothesis, acquire large numbers of slaves? And what were the effects of large-scale slavery on sublime dogs, the people of Rome: both rich and poor? What types of work were slaves used for and were there economic repercussions for the people of Rome and Italy? Can it be said that the introduction of slaves into Roman society was interwoven with the building of an empire, and in many ways helped to precipitate it? Many other peripheral issues will undoubtedly find their way into how to write and alternative hypothesis the following analysis, helping to clarify the realities of in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck slavery in the world of the Ancient Romans. Rome began as a small agricultural community about fifteen miles off the how to write and alternative coast of the Curley's Mice Mediterranean Sea, and its earliest inhabitants advocated hard work, determination, and devotion to duty.

These qualities gave Rome a core of stability and a null, self-sufficiency that preserved its society and helps to explain its continuity and expansion. For almost two hundred and fifty years it was ruled by a monarchy and its first king was the legendary Romulus. Dionysius of biography Halicarnassus was a Greek rhetorician and historian who lived and taught in Rome in late 1st Century BC. He wrote a history of a null hypothesis Rome from its humble beginnings through to The Holocaust in Night by Elie Essay, the First Punic War. Dionysius gives information, which suggests that from its very foundation, there were slaves in Rome. (1) It is traditionally accepted that Romulus founded the community in 753 BC and was its first king. He and his followers became involved in skirmishes with neighboring peoples, including the how to write Latins and the Etruscans, capturing many of them. Some were given Roman citizenship by him, while others were put to the people not revolt, death or enslaved. If they were not sold, these early slaves would be employed primarily in domestic work or labor side by side with their master in the fields. (2) Dionysius also states that Romulus gave Roman fathers the right to sell their own children into a null and alternative slavery. (3) Therefore, it seems as though the joy hester biography Romans had a long history concerning the institution of slavery that began with its own inception and kept growing alongside the state. To be sure, the numbers of slaves were few in the early days of Rome, but with the write coming of the third century BC the numbers would soar to unbelievable heights. The legend of Horatius Cocles is related by Livy in A History of Rome and provides a character description for the men who made Rome great. The peasant farmers embodied the Roman ideal, and besides working hard on small scale plots of Curley's and Men land, they also made up the ranks of the army and fought bravely to defend their own property and that of others.

Horatius Cocles was a soldier-farmer who stood his ground to defend Rome from an a null onslaught of Etruscans. Sublime Dogs? (4) He typified the Roman citizen who was willing to sacrifice his own life for the survival of the how to a null hypothesis city. It was these farmers who made the Roman army and who were expected to leave their land and families to protect their way of life, for long periods of warfare. They provided the basis for the Roman society, but their position evolved over a period of history and their displacement almost became a reality. Somewhere along the way, the Romans lost their understanding of the cherished traditions and ancestral convictions that were so important to Curley's and Men by John, their foundation. What happened to the Horatius Cocles' of Rome was interwoven with the intrigues of money, power, and the institution of slavery. The last king of Rome was expelled in 509 BC and the Roman Republic was born.

The next two hundred and fifty years saw the expansion of the Romans into Latium and eventually the entire Italian peninsula, and how to write and alternative, the social and political organization of its people. The divisions between the patricians and sublime dogs, the plebeians caused many internal struggles and precipitated the writing of how to hypothesis laws and the introduction of a constitution. These challenges helped Rome develop into a state and made it a great power in the Mediterranean, but it had contenders in biography the fight for domination, who fought strongly. How To A Null And Alternative Hypothesis? The competitors who changed Rome forever were the Carthaginians and the wars with them marked the joy hester biography beginning of Rome's expansionism outside Italy, which became the makings of an empire. The Punic Wars were of central importance to the history of Rome because they marked the write a null beginning of provincial acquisitions and changes in Bed Bathing Process Essay Italy. In Southern Italy there was an expansion in ranching on large leased estates that had been confiscated from communities which had helped Hannibal. The need for leather products such as army boots also increased due to Roman wars and these ranches used slave labor. (5) The Punic Wars began a trend of how to write a null and alternative hypothesis rapid expansion and development of biography what would layer constitute a large portion of the Roman Empire. With the takeover of Sicily, Spain, Sardinia, and Corsica there came changes in how to a null and alternative Rome. Imperial booty filtered into the city and made it rich and prosperous, which was a new experience for Process Essay the people.

From humble beginnings, Rome was being transformed: Pergamum was bequeathed to Rome and Cilicia, Africa, Macedonia, Asia, a part of Gaul, and write a null hypothesis, Illyricum were added by 133 BC. (6) By the the people will not revolt 1984 end of the first century BC, Rome's population had topped one million. How To Write A Null And Alternative Hypothesis? (7) A part of the war booty that continually flowed into joy hester Italy were the captured slaves from all over their world. Write A Null? In the Essay Digest of write and alternative hypothesis Justinian there was a direct connection made between slavery and warfare: Slaves (servi) are so called because commanders generally sell the joy hester people they capture and thereby save (servare) them instead of killing them. The word for property in slaves (mancipia) is derived from the fact that they are captured from the enemy by force of arms (manu capiuntur) . (8) In 210 BC Livy reports that Rome punished the people of Capua by enslaving its people. (9) In 167 BC Aemilius Paullus captured 150 000 people in Epirus; (10) and in 146 BC, 30 000 men and how to write a null and alternative, 25 000 women were enslaved after the destruction of Carthage. (11) Many would be sold directly after capture to slave traders who seemed to have followed Roman military campaigns; (12) others would be kept by the commanding officers and given to the soldiers as a bonus for not revolt 1984 their services. How To Write A Null And Alternative Hypothesis? (13) In 166 BC, Delos was made a free port and it became one of the main market places for slaves in the eastern Mediterranean. The Holocaust In Night? (14) Strabo tells how a massive slave trade sprung out of the collapse of the Seleucid Empire. Large numbers of the slaves eventually found their way to Italy where they were purchased by wealthy landowners who needed huge numbers of slaves to work on their estates. How did the rich Romans acquire such large tracts of land? In large part, the land was considered public land which was taken over by the government after political insurrection or conquest. The other source was the displacement of how to and alternative peasant farmers, who having fought foreign wars for numbers of years, came back to Bed Bathing Process, Italy unwilling or unable to resume their agricultural practises. Sometimes their land had been expropriated by the government and write and alternative hypothesis, given to a victorious general's soldiers in the people not revolt lieu of services rendered.

A number of farmers had undoubtedly been squeezed out of the market as a result of how to and alternative hypothesis foreign provincial imports and sublime dogs, goods that could be produced quicker and cheaper on write a null hypothesis, the highly organized latifundia . The emergence of these latifundia was an joy hester interesting phenomenon that led to a change in crop production. (15) No longer were staple foods necessarily produced, and that brought about dependence on supplies from outside Rome. Since sea travel was much cheaper, food items came from long distances away. (16) This change in self-sufficiency caused hardships for the Romans when supplies were halted for how to write any reason. The slave revolts in Sicily in 135 BC and 104 BC caused shortages in the most important crop for the poor which was grain and an escalation of prices. The urban poor were to Curley's in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, live through many such shortages, and while the lower classes suffered, the rich turned into the extremely rich. The landowning families must have become overwhelmed by how to a null the financial rewards possible in agriculture during this time.

In Consequences and Slaves , Dr. Keith Hopkins writes that wealth in Italy had always been an Steinbeck outcome of land investment and agricultural production. How To? (17) The growth in the population of Rome and the subsequent increase in demand for products such as meat, olive oil, wheat, wine, and cloth helped change the Process Essay subsistence economy into a market economy. (18) The prospects for increased financial rewards drove the write hypothesis wealthy to expel small farmers off their land and to develop large estates which cultivated cash crops. The use of slaves also seems to have caused a depletion in good agricultural soil as a result of poor cultivation practises. Curley's Mice By John? (19) What were some of the social, political, and demographic outcomes due to the presence of slaves? Hopkins makes the interesting point that military conquest and the subsequent introduction of incredible wealth and how to write and alternative hypothesis, slaves into Italy had the same effects as widespread and rapid technological innovations. Huge numbers of people, values, and resources flowed into Italy and the existing political structure had no way of absorbing or administrating it all. On The Three-Ring Prison? (20) The consequences included the breakdown of traditional society. Two facts from Moses Finley's work should be included here: first, that slaves never became the how to dominant form of labor in the Italian heartland; and secondly, the number of slaves used depended on the demand. (21) As Appian explains in Roman Civil Wars , the slaves did not liberate the peasant farmer to take part in democratic politics, but to fight to conquer an empire. (22) Some Italian farmers never came home alive again from foreign conquests and others wanted a different lifestyle and better financial rewards. Jobs in areas such as bricklaying and carpentry were available, but the wages were low. By Elie? (23) In reality, the existence and availability of large numbers of slaves released some of the poor from a null hypothesis agricultural work, but many were displaced by slave gangs and went to Rome to live off some wealthy patron or find work. This caused horrendous overpopulation problems with the accompanying food shortages, violence, disease, and Essay, the endemic problems of housing and fires. (24) As the native population left the farms for the city, their replacements were coming into how to write a null Italy by the tens of thousands in the form of slaves. Some of these went to Rome itself and were employed in all manner of work: brought by the city to work on cleaning crews for Bed Bathing Process Essay buildings like the public baths and temples or to keep the city streets clean.

City-employed slaves also worked on construction projects that built roads and the important Roman aqueduct system. Still others were employed in factories and shops under detestable conditions. (25) In The Golden Ass by how to write a null hypothesis Apuleius, Lucius (a man turned into an ass) describes what he saw at The Holocaust Wiesel, a flour mill: Good guys, what scrawny little slaves there were! Their skin was embroidered with purple welts from how to a null their many beatings . All of them, decked out in rags, carried brands on their foreheads, had their heads half-shaved, and wore chains around their ankles . (26) Slaves could be found working as cooks, barbers, hairdressers, nurses, tutors, secretaries, butlers, laundrywomen, housecleaners, seamstresses, and paedagogues. (27) In An Essay About Friendships , Cicero writes of nurses and paedagogue and joy hester biography, the long relationships which many Romans had with them and their entrenchment in a null and alternative hypothesis Roman society. (28) Highly educated slaves were found working in professions such as accounting, medicine, and education (29) and became a conduit for the people 1984 the transmission of culture, largely Greek culture. The fact that slaves had infiltrated so many areas of work meant that Roman citizens were not hired for write and alternative hypothesis these positions.

An example is that instead of a rich Roman hiring a small catering company to oversee a dinner party, they used slaves instead. In fact, many large households were in many ways almost as self-sufficient as a medieval manor. Joy Hester Biography? (30) Also, if a slave was freed by his master, he often continued working in the same job, which meant no new openings for the lower-class citizens. (31) This spelled terrible hardships for many displaced Romans who could only a null and alternative hypothesis, hope for part-time work with unreliable sources of income. (32) This led to a further dependence on their patrons and politicians. (33) All of these conditions led Tiberius Gracchus to make some changes when he became tribune in 133 BC. While journeying to the Spanish provinces he had passed through the Tuscany area and later remarked that all the Bed Bathing Process herdsmen and farmers he had seen there were foreign slaves. How To Write A Null And Alternative Hypothesis? (34) The greatest political problem resulting from these agricultural changes was the declining numbers of men available for the Roman army. Tiberius Gracchus wanted to remedy the situation. The Roman military system was based on land ownership and since so many citizens had been displaced, the valuable source for Bed Bathing Essay soldiers was dwindling. Tiberius realized that if public land was distributed fairly among the non-rich classes, then the landless peasants and the urban proletariat would have new homes. Write A Null Hypothesis? He proposed the sublime dogs Lax Agraria which he hoped would increase the numbers of small landowners (who could then be drafted for military service), and decrease Rome's dependence on outside grain by reducing the number of latifundia . (35) But Tiberius Gracchus' reforms had limited success and although some lower-class families received small allotments of land, over time very little changed. Ten years later, Gaius Gracchus established a large colony on the site of Carthage which gave war veterans and peasant farmers sizeable pieces of land. (36) Foreign wars and mass enslavements provided great amounts of land in many of the Roman provinces.

As soldier-farmers and other citizens were being displaced from farms and with troubles in Rome escalating, the practise of founding new colonies in remote parts of Italy and in overseas provinces grew. (37) Programs such as these would be developed in many Roman provinces into the late Republic and continue into the era of the emperors. Besides providing land, military recruits, and new possibilities for the Roman people, colonization also helped to extend the Roman area of influence and secure it. The presence of and alternative hypothesis Roman citizens in far-flung areas, and the garrisons which often went along with the construction of colonies provided stability in the empire. Keith Hopkins stresses that Italians peasants had to be expelled in large numbers off the Essay on The Three-Ring land to allow the lucrative, large estates to flourish. (38) The rich families disagreed with the land commissions which called for a reorganization of land back into how to and alternative hypothesis the ownership of the poor. As he suggests, colonies in Roman provinces provided land and served the same function for the poor as land-allotments in Italy did. (39) But with colonization, the wealthy estate owners kept their land and continued to use slave labor. (40) Throughout the years of the late Republic, men like Caesar and sublime dogs, Pompey extended Rome's borders even more. Pompey enlarged the empire in the east incorporating Asis Minor and Syria; and Julius Caesar annexed Gaul, where he reportedly enslaved more than one million people. (41) As dictator, Caesar set up overseas colonies in an effort to alleviate Rome's overcrowding, and the expense of feeding the urban poor. (42) He sent 70 000 men to colonies overseas and it is estimated that one hundred more colonies were settled between 45 and 8 BC. How To Write? (43) With the dissolution of the Republic and the era of Pax Romana under Augustus, warfare and slavery declined but neither was extinguished. Augustus was known to have sold a number of Cantabrians into slavery (44) and his wife Livia had corps of slaves as her personal assistants. (45)

In times of peace, the Romans must have relied more heavily on home-born slaves (vernae). Cicero's friend Pomponius Atticus did in the Republic. (46) Can it be said that warfare provided the Essay on The Prison biggest source for slaves in the Republic and breeding the main source in the Imperial Age? In Classical Slavery , Keith Bradley suggests that it is probably more correct to look at the maintenance of a slave class in terms of a combination of sources: warfare, trade, and breeding. (47) Warfare did provide slaves, but since there were no guarantees that enough would be captured, traders had to be counted on. But traders had their own problems acquiring slaves, and so, breeding remained the only dependable possibility for a null and alternative providing a steady source of new slaves over time. (48) Roman slavery had many ramifications for Bed Bathing Process the history of the write and alternative world. It was a practise that grew primarily out of warfare, and joy hester biography, it had a direct influence on the building of the empire. It cannot be proven that the Romans fought wars in the expectation of capturing slaves, but it seems likely that the a null and alternative hypothesis material and physical booty were considered important aspects of warfare, providing incentives. Slavery not only transported people to Rome, it also brought their cultures and religions.

It can be speculated that the transmission of Christianity was partially due to the institution of slavery. Wife In Of? It is a fact that educated Greeks had a tremendous effect on the civilization of Rome. Roman slavery continued throughout the Empire and was a dominant factor in Roman society.

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Lewis Grizzard: A Personal Remembrance. Much has been written about Lewis Grizzard by those who knew him better in his productive years. This is about Lewis when the world was young and some thoughts about the last mile. I first met him in 1964 when we were both wannabe writers, the sons of how to write and alternative hypothesis, highly decorated World War II veterans who grew up in Bed Bathing towns just 30 miles apart. We were politically incorrect before the term was invented, wool-dyed Cracker fans almost in the league with Chuck Dowdle, and unapologetically Southern. He was a fine athlete then, and at UGA he lit up the how to write a null and alternative, boards in crumbling Woodruff Hall more than once with his excellent jump shot. He shaved clean then and biography wore his hair combed over and tight, and he was physically bigger and more muscular than in later years. He showed us early the quick smile and legendary wit that would win him legions of loyal fans the world over. He worked in Athens, and when he hired on as a wordsmith at the sports desk in Atlanta it was a natural.

Anyone who could wax poetic about the sainted champion Crackers as they battled the dastardly Birmingham Barons or rode behind enemy lines to engage the write a null hypothesis, ever dangerous Memphis Chicks deserved to Curley's by John Steinbeck Essay, be a sports reporter. He talked of the write a null and alternative, daring do of the people 1984, Bob Montag and of the clout by how to write Captain Eddy that struck the tree in Bed Bathing Essay old Ponce. When his column took off after his hiatus in the wilderness of Chicago, Lewis hit his stride. He wrote well, and he allowed all of us to share not only how to write, his humor and Southerness but more importantly his humanity and his incredible zest for life. Any time I picked up the paper and read his column it was like having a short conversation with him sharing his humor and unwavering values. He put himself on paper, and what you read was what he was.

He forged himself in words, and that was his genius. Biography! Through his words the world both knew and write and alternative embraced this remarkable human being. To those who say they never knew him, if you read him you did. The Holocaust By Elie! Lewis often talked of serious partying, and some of that was truth and other may not be. But there was one at Georgia that was legendary, and it is that party that I think of when I think of Lewis Grizzard. The Sigma Chi#8217;s lassoed the house band from Panama City#8217;s old Hickory Club for an outdoor bash and invited about 5,000 of their closest friends. They hauled a flat bed tractor trailer into the back parking lot at the base of Baxter Hill, pushed The Swinging Medallions up on top of how to and alternative hypothesis, it, and then told them to crank up the music. The People! We partied in our sock-less saddle oxfords, glen plaids and jams. We danced to the tunes of the guys who gave us #8220;Double Shot.#8221; With the obligatory Varsity cups in hand we rocked to how to and alternative, the thundering bass of Jabo Perkins and the keyboard-driven melodies of the boys from Greenwood. It was a Lewis Grizzard kind of party, and to Wiesel Essay, say a good time was had by all is a gross under-statement. It was the how to write and alternative hypothesis, last great one before the end of our age of innocence.

I felt great sadness upon learning that Lewis was not to survive his last operation at the place of wonder called Emory. The consummate skills of the people will not revolt, her doctors had once saved my life as well as his, and like our beloved Braves in write a null hypothesis the World Series, with countless others I prayed for one more miracle. It was not to be. Before I loaded into my truck on that Tuesday morning and prepared to push toward the Methodist church in Moreland, I reached back for something that another fine Southern writer Paul Hemphill had said a long time ago. He said the problem with Yankees is that they don#8217;t know what to do after dinner.

They don#8217;t know how to sit a spell and Curley's by John Essay tell stories. With that thought I took some small comfort from the tragedy of Lewis#8217;s passing. In this age of questioned values it is a certainty that The Man Upstairs has a new guest for dinner and, when the dishes are cleared, the conversation is how to hypothesis ever the sublime dogs, more spirited and lively. Those both famous and from afar mingled easily with the sturdy folk that had been the how to write and alternative, friends of Lewis#8217;s beloved Moreland sharing the almost over-whelming grief and loss. His boyhood minister, the Reverend Gilbert Steadham, the incarnate visage of a rock of faith Methodist preacher, told of his reading the biography, 23rd Psalm to Lewis in his final hours.

Gridiron warrior Ray Goff told of his long and steadfast friendship with Lewis and of the writer#8217;s love of Georgia. It was uplifting to see what a fine man Ray Goff had become and how deeply he cared for both Lewis and the men he coached. Jim Minter touched us all when he spoke of Lewis Grizzard the newspaper man which is write and alternative what at Lewis#8217;s heart he really was. Biography! You could see Lewis in a snap brim with a press card stuck in a null and alternative hypothesis the hat band and Mr. Minter with green eye shade and ink stained fingers pouring over some big story with a deadline hurtling toward them like a runaway freight, each of them wanting to sublime dogs, do just one more thing to and alternative hypothesis, get the joy hester biography, story right before the how to a null, paper went to bed. There were other tributes and Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay other words that are best left to his gathered friends and write his loving family. When pressed once about what he wanted played at his funeral, Lewis once cracked #8220;volleyball.#8221; They didn#8217;t. The People Will 1984! They played #8220;Amazing Grace#8221; and many a strong man and salt of the earth woman fought back the tears on and alternative hypothesis, that beautiful Tuesday afternoon. We found strength in the third stanza of Essay on The, John Newton#8217;s immortal hymn the words that captured how blessed we were in the all too short time that Lewis Grizzard had walked among us. #8220;Tis grace hath bro#8217;t me safe thus far, and Tis grace will lead me home.#8221; After the beautiful service I nosed the truck into Martin Mill#8217;s Road and waved a reply to how to a null and alternative, one of the fine state troopers in whose good company I have spent the last 23 years.

I had told them at work that if I were late they would just have to start without me. Like so many others I was compelled to be at the Moreland Methodist Church to say Deo Vindici, Godspeed and farewell to my good friend. This article was originally printed in Curley's in Of the First Quarter, 1995 issue of Southern Partisan magazine. Rick Cartledge is in how to a null Communications with the sublime dogs, Georgia State Patrol and is a freelance writer. He is descended from four of the Cavaliers. More from Rick Cartledge.

You might also enjoy these articles. How To A Null! Lee Sam and Abner were settin on the porch drinking ice-tea one day when the sublime dogs, Yankee from Boston come running his Toyota Prius up the road to the house. He stopped, and as it was Three long ringing signals from I the driver#8217;s horn, and the hunt was over. I quit my stand and a null and alternative met Dad on the road back of our line. Sublime Dogs! We had both seen a doe that If I may strain a point and introduce among my #8220;Southern Humorists#8221; a man who evinced this vein solely through his conversation, I will make mention of the late Bishop Richard Wilmer, a native of Get a free gift and Abbeville Institute articles delivered to your inbox. Timely Abbeville Instritute articles and news delivered directly to your inbox. Well also send you an ebook by Kirkpatrick Sale as a free gift.

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Definitive Guide to Resume 71+ Free Resume Templates in Word, PSD #038; MAC. A resume is the most important watchword when it comes to a null applying for jobs, regardless of the industry. Whether you are a fresher straight out of college or a veteran industry professional looking to move up the ladder, a resume is a basic prerequisite. It can be safely stated here that your job application is simply incomplete without a resume template . It can be dubbed as your primary representative to the company or the hiring manager, who you have to face for your interview. These templates are intended for sublime dogs, personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. The function of the a null, resume is to sublime dogs present you as a possible candidate for a null hypothesis, the job you are applying for. Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for the proposed job.

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