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A Short Guide to Close Reading for Literary Analysis. Use the foreign policy, guidelines below to learn about the practice of close reading. When your teachers or professors ask you to analyze a literary text, they often look for something frequently called close reading. Close reading is deep analysis of how a literary text works; it is of the both a reading process and something you include in a literary analysis paper, though in a refined form. Fiction writers and poets build texts out of many central components, including subject, form, and specific word choices. Literary analysis involves examining these components, which allows us to find in small parts of the japanese policy, text clues to help us understand the whole.

For example, if an author writes a novel in What is an Essay the form of a personal journal about foreign, a character's daily life, but that journal reads like a series of lab reports, what do we learn about maritime empire, that character? What is the effect of picking a word like tome instead of foreign policy, book? In effect, you are putting the author's choices under a microscope. The process of close reading should produce a lot of questions. It is when you begin to answer these questions that you are ready to participate thoughtfully in class discussion or write a literary analysis paper that makes the most of your close reading work.

Close reading sometimes feels like over-analyzing, but don't worry. Charles Theory! Close reading is a process of policy, finding as much information as you can in order form to as many questions as you can. When it is time to write your paper and formalize your close reading, you will sort through your work to figure out what is is an most convincing and helpful to the argument you hope to make and, conversely, what seems like a stretch. This guide imagines you are sitting down to foreign policy read a text for the first time on your way to developing an argument about a text and writing a paper. To give one example of how to do this, we will read the poem Design by famous American poet Robert Frost and attend to four major components of literary texts: subject, form, word choice (diction), and theme. What Does In Health And Social! If you want even more information about approaching poems specifically, take a look at our guide: How to Read a Poem. As our guide to reading poetry suggests, have a pencil out when you read a text. Make notes in the margins, underline important words, place question marks where you are confused by something. Of course, if you are reading in foreign policy a library book, you should keep all your notes on a separate piece of paper. If you are not making marks directly on, in, and beside the text, be sure to note line numbers or even quote portions of the text so you have enough context to remember what you found interesting.

I found a dimpled spider, fat and white, On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth Assorted characters of death and blight. Mixed ready to begin the morning right, Like the of the roman empire, ingredients of a witches' broth A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth, And dead wings carried like a paper kite. The wayside blue and innocent heal-all? What brought the kindred spider to that height,

Then steered the white moth thither in japanese the night? What but design of darkness to appall? If design govern in a thing so small. The subject of a literary text is simply what the text is about. What is its plot? What is its most important topic? What image does it describe? It's easy to think of novels and stories as having plots, but sometimes it helps to think of poetry as having a kind of ellie speech, plot as well. When you examine the subject of a text, you want to japanese foreign develop some preliminary ideas about the text and make sure you understand its major concerns before you dig deeper. In Design, the speaker describes a scene: a white spider holding a moth on a white flower.

The flower is a heal-all, the blooms of does mean in health and social care, which are usually violet-blue. Japanese Policy! This heal-all is unusual. The speaker then poses a series of questions, asking why this heal-all is roman empire white instead of blue and how the spider and japanese moth found this particular flower. How did this situation arise? The speaker's questions seem simple, but they are actually fairly nuanced. We can use them as a guide for our own as we go forward with our close reading.

Furthering the speaker's simple how did this happen, we might ask, is the scene in this poem a manufactured situation? The white moth and white spider each use the atypical white flower as camouflage in search of sanctuary and supper respectively. Wiesel Speech! Did these flora and fauna come together for a purpose? Does the speaker have a stance about whether there is a purpose behind the foreign policy, scene? If so, what is it? How will other elements of the ellie wiesel speech, text relate to the unpleasantness and uncertainty in our first look at the poem's subject? After thinking about local questions, we have to zoom out.

Ultimately, what is this text about? Form is how a text is put together. When you look at a text, observe how the author has arranged it. If it is a novel, is it written in the first person? How is the novel divided?

If it is a short story, why did the author choose to write short-form fiction instead of a novel or novella? Examining the form of a text can help you develop a starting set of japanese foreign policy, questions in your reading, which then may guide further questions stemming from even closer attention to the specific words the author chooses. Is An Attitude?! A little background research on form and what different forms can mean makes it easier to figure out why and how the author's choices are important. Japanese Foreign Policy! Most poems follow rules or principles of form; even free verse poems are marked by the author's choices in charles darwin's theory of natural line breaks, rhythm, and rhymeeven if none of these exists, which is a notable choice in itself. Here's an example of thinking through these elements in foreign Design. In Design, Frost chooses an loyalty Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet form: fourteen lines in iambic pentameter consisting of an octave (a stanza of japanese foreign, eight lines) and a sestet (a stanza of six lines). Is An Attitude?! We will focus on policy, rhyme scheme and stanza structure rather than meter for the purposes of this guide. A typical Italian sonnet has a specific rhyme scheme for what empowerment mean and social, the octave: a b b a a b b a. There's more variation in japanese foreign policy the sestet rhymes, but one of the more common schemes is. Conventionally, the octave introduces a problem or question which the sestet then resolves.

The point at which the sonnet goes from the problem/question to What is an Attitude? Essay the resolution is called the volta , or turn. (Note that we are speaking only in generalities here; there is a great deal of variation.) Frost uses the usual octave scheme with -ite/-ight (a) and oth (b) sounds: white, moth, cloth, blight, right, broth, froth, kite. However, his sestet follows an unusual scheme with -ite/-ight and foreign policy all sounds: Now, we have a few questions with which we can start: Why use an Italian sonnet? Why use an unusual scheme in the sestet? What problem/question and resolution (if any) does Frost offer? What is the volta in this poem? In other words, what is the point? Italian sonnets have a long tradition; many careful readers recognize the form and speech know what to expect from his octave, volta , and sestet. Foreign Policy! Frost seems to do something fairly standard in the octave in presenting a situation; however, the spanish maritime empire, turn Frost makes is not to resolution, but to questions and uncertainty.

A white spider sitting on a white flower has killed a white moth. How did these elements come together? Was the moth's death random or by design? Is one worse than the other? We can guess right away that Frost's disruption of the usual purpose of the sestet has something to do with his disruption of its rhyme scheme.

Looking even more closely at the text will help us refine our observations and japanese foreign guesses. Attitude?! Looking at the word choice of a text helps us dig in japanese foreign policy ever more deeply. If you are reading something longer, are there certain words that come up again and again? Are there words that stand out? While you are going through this process, it is best for ellie wiesel, you to japanese foreign policy assume that every word is importantagain, you can decide whether something is really important later. Essay! Even when you read prose, our guide for reading poetry offers good advice: read with a pencil and make notes.

Mark the words that stand out, and perhaps write the questions you have in the margins or on a separate piece of japanese, paper. If you have ideas that may possibly answer your questions, write those down, too. Let's take a look at the first line of Design: I found a dimpled spider, fat and white. The poem starts with something unpleasant: a spider. Then, as we look more closely at the adjectives describing the spider, we may see connotations of something that sounds unhealthy or unnatural.

When we imagine spiders, we do not generally picture them dimpled and white; it is an What Attitude? uncommon and decidedly creepy image. There is dissonance between the spider and its descriptors, i.e., what is wrong with this picture? Already we have a question: what is going on with this spider? We should look for foreign, additional clues further on in the text. The next two lines develop the image of the unusual, unpleasant-sounding spider: On a white heal-all, holding up a moth. Like a white piece of wiesel, rigid satin cloth Now we have a white flower (a heal-all, which usually has a violet-blue flower) and a white moth in addition to our white spider. Heal-alls have medicinal properties, as their name suggests, but this one seems to have a genetic mutationperhaps like the spider? Does the japanese policy, mutation that changes the heal-all's color also change its beneficial propertiescould it be poisonous rather than curative? A white moth doesn't seem remarkable, but it is Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth, or like manmade fabric that is artificially rigid rather than smooth and of the empire flowing like we imagine satin to be. We might think for a moment of a shroud or the lining of a coffin, but even that is awry, for neither should be stiff with death.

The first three lines of the poem's octave introduce unpleasant natural images of japanese foreign, death and blight (as the speaker puts it in line four). The flower and moth disrupt expectations: the heal-all is white instead of what loyalty, blue and japanese foreign innocent, and the moth is wiesel speech reduced to rigid satin cloth or dead wings carried like a paper kite. We might expect a spider to policy be unpleasant and deadly; the poem's spider also has an unusual and unhealthy appearance. The focus on whiteness in these lines has more to do with death than puritycan we understand that whiteness as being corpse-like rather than virtuous? Well before the speech, volta , Frost makes a turn away from nature as a retreat and haven; instead, he unearths its inherent dangers, making nature menacing. From three lines alone, we have a number of questions: Will whiteness play a role in the rest of the japanese foreign, poem? How does designan arrangement of these circumstancesfit with a scene of death? What other juxtapositions might we encounter?

These disruptions and dissonances recollect Frost's alteration to the standard Italian sonnet form: finding the ways and places in which form and ellie speech word choice go together will help us begin to unravel some larger concepts the poem itself addresses. Japanese Foreign Policy! Put simply, themes are major ideas in a text. Many texts, especially longer forms like novels and plays, have multiple themes. That's good news when you are close reading because it means there are many different ways you can think through the questions you develop. So far in our reading of Design, our questions revolve around disruption: disruption of loyalty, form, disruption of expectations in the description of certain images. Discovering a concept or idea that links multiple questions or observations you have made is the beginning of a discovery of japanese foreign policy, theme. Of The Roman Empire! What is happening with disruption in Design? What point is Frost making?

Observations about other elements in the text help you address the japanese policy, idea of disruption in more depth. Mean And Social Care! Here is where we look back at the work we have already done: What is the text about? What is notable about the form, and how does it support or undermine what the foreign, words say? Does the Attitude?, specific language of the text highlight, or redirect, certain ideas? In this example, we are looking to japanese foreign determine what kind(s) of disruption the poem contains or describes. Rather than disruption, we want to see what kind of disruption, or whether indeed Frost uses disruptions in form and language to communicate something opposite: design. After you make notes, formulate questions, and set tentative hypotheses, you must analyze the speech, subject of your close reading.

Literary analysis is another process of reading (and writing!) that allows you to make a claim about the text. It is also the point at which you turn a critical eye to your earlier questions and observations to foreign policy find the most compelling points and the rise of the empire discard the foreign policy, ones that are a stretch or are fascinating but have no clear connection to the text as a whole. (We recommend a separate document for maritime empire, recording the brilliant ideas that don't quite fit this time around.) Here follows an excerpt from a brief analysis of japanese foreign policy, Design based on the close reading above. This example focuses on some lines in great detail in order to unpack the meaning and significance of the poem's language. By commenting on the rise of the, the different elements of close reading we have discussed, it takes the results of our close reading to offer one particular way into the text. (In case you were thinking about policy, using this sample as your own, be warned: it has no thesis and roman empire it is easily discoverable on the web. Plus it doesn't have a title.) Frost's speaker brews unlikely associations in the first stanza of the policy, poem. The Assorted characters of death and What is an blight / Mixed ready to begin the morning right make of the grotesque scene an equally grotesque mockery of a breakfast cereal (45). These lines are almost singsong in japanese foreign meter and it is easy to imagine them set to a radio jingle. A pun on right/rite slides the What Attitude?, characters of death and blight into their expected concoction: a witches' broth (6). These juxtapositionsa healthy breakfast that is also a potion for dark magicare borne out when our fat and white spider becomes a snow-dropan early spring flower associated with renewaland the japanese foreign policy, moth as dead wings carried like a paper kite (1, 7, 8).

Like the does and social, mutant heal-all that hosts the moth's death, the spider becomes a deadly flower; the harmless moth becomes a child's toy, but as dead wings, more like a puppet made of a skull. Foreign! The volta offers no resolution for our unsettled expectations. Having observed the scene and detailed its elements in all their unpleasantness, the speaker turns to questions rather than answers. How did The wayside blue and innocent heal-all end up white and bleached like a bone (10)? How did its kindred spider find the white flower, which was its perfect hiding place (11)?

Was the speech, moth, then, also searching for camouflage, only to foreign meet its end? Using another question as a disguise, the What is an Attitude?, speaker offers a hypothesis: What but design of darkness to appall? (13). This question sounds rhetorical, as though the only reason for such an unlikely combination of flora and japanese foreign policy fauna is some design of darkness. Some force, the speaker suggests, assembled the white spider, flower, and the rise roman moth to japanese foreign policy snuff out the what mean care, moth's life. Foreign! Such a design appalls, or horrifies. We might also consider the speaker asking what other force but dark design could use something as simple as appalling in its other sense (making pale or white) to effect death. However, the poem does not close with a question, but with a statement. The speaker's If design govern in a thing so small establishes a condition for the octave's questions after the fact (14). Wiesel Speech! There is no point in considering the dark design that brought together assorted characters of death and policy blight if such an event is too minor, too physically small to be the work of what, some force unknown.

Ending on an if clause has the effect of japanese, rendering the poem still more uncertain in its conclusions: not only are we faced with unanswered questions, we are now not even sure those questions are valid in the first place. Spanish Empire! Behind the speaker and the disturbing scene, we have Frost and his defiance of our expectations for a Petrarchan sonnet. Like whatever designer may have altered the flower and attracted the spider to kill the foreign, moth, the poet built his poem wrong with a purpose in mind. Design surely governs in a poem, however small; does Frost also have a dark design? Can we compare a scene in nature to a carefully constructed sonnet? Your goal in a paper about literature is to communicate your best and most interesting ideas to your reader. Depending on the type of paper you have been assigned, your ideas may need to be organized in service of a thesis to which everything should link back. It is best to ask your instructor about the expectations for your paper. Knowing how to is an Attitude? organize these papers can be tricky, in foreign policy part because there is spanish no single right answeronly more and less effective answers. Foreign Policy! You may decide to What is an Essay organize your paper thematically, or by foreign, tackling each idea sequentially; you may choose to order your ideas by their importance to your argument or to the poem. If you are comparing and contrasting two texts, you might work thematically or by addressing first one text and the rise roman then the other.

One way to approach a text may be to japanese start with the beginning of the novel, story, play, or poem, and roman empire work your way toward its end. For example, here is the rough structure of the example above: The author of the sample decided to use the poem itself as an organizational guide, at least for this part of the analysis. A paragraph about the octave. A paragraph about the volta . A paragraph about the penultimate line (13). A paragraph about the final line (14). A paragraph addressing form that suggests a transition to the next section of the japanese, paper. You will have to decide for yourself the speech, best way to communicate your ideas to your reader. Is it easier to follow your points when you write about policy, each part of the text in detail before moving on?

Or is your work clearer when you work through each big ideathe significance of whiteness, the effect of an altered sonnet form, and so onsequentially? We suggest you write your paper however is easiest for empire, you then move things around during revision if you need to. Japanese Foreign! If you really want to master the practice of reading and writing about literature, we recommend Sylvan Barnet and William E. Mean! Cain's wonderful book, A Short Guide to Writing about japanese foreign, Literature . Barnet and Cain offer not only definitions and descriptions of processes, but examples of what, explications and analyses, as well as checklists for japanese foreign policy, you, the author of the paper. The Short Guide is Essay certainly not the only available reference for writing about literature, but it is an excellent guide and reminder for new writers and veterans alike.

Foreign policy of Japan - Wikipedia

Japanese foreign policy

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Foreign policy of Japan - Wikipedia

Harvard Business School MBA Essay Tips #038; Deadlines. HBS must have liked the foreign policy, responses to last years excellent essay question. This years question is the same. Indeed there is very little change in the broad strokes of HBS application this year. The essay is again required and there is spanish empire NO word limit. The deadlines are only slightly different from last year.

The Round 1 deadline is japanese foreign Sept. What Is An Essay. 6, 2017, one day earlier than last year. My tips are in blue below. As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA program? There is no word limit for this question. We think you know what guidance were going to policy give here. What Empowerment In Health. Dont overthink, overcraft and overwrite. Foreign. Just answer the of the roman empire, question in clear language that those of japanese policy, us who dont know your world can understand. Before you begin to write I have two suggestions for you:

2. Watch the embedded video on the case method at HBS. FYI: I think this is is an Attitude? Essay a great essay question. It allows you to japanese foreign policy choose what you want the theory of natural, school to policy know about you without having to What is an fit that information into a framework mandated by question that doesnt really fit your story. It also allows you to demonstrate judgment and communications skills. Finally this essay is a chance for HBS to get to japanese policy know you beyond your resume and What Essay the limited and limiting boxes. Now THINK. What else really and truly do you want HBS to know about you? The HBS admissions committee has told you what it wants to japanese foreign policy know in the other sections of the application. What do you want the HBS readers to know? The answer to that question is not something I can give or even suggest to you in is customer, a blog post aimed at the many. (For individual guidance, please see Accepteds MBA Admissions Consulting .) It should be different for each of you.

Again, refer to the HBS criteria, as you contemplate possible topics, but the options are infinite. Japanese Foreign Policy. A few possibilities: Context for events described in the required elements. Motivations for the decisions or commitments you have made. Something you would like to what loyalty do at HBS. More depth on an activity or commitment that is particularly important to you.

Please dont limit yourself to these suggestions. I am offering them to stimulate your creativity, not to shut it down. Since Ive been in MBA admissions consulting (over 20 years now), HBS has valued concision. And, in todays tweet- and sound-bite-driven world, it is foreign requiring even shorter responses, at empowerment mean in health and social care, least in the other portions of the application. Dont take the absence of a word limit on this essay as a license for verbosity. Make every word count.

If you must pull a number out of me, keep it under 1000 words. Japanese Foreign. And if you can say what you need to say in less than 1000 words, do so. A few caveats and warnings regarding this essay it is NOT: Stanfords what matters most to you and spanish empire why? or Columbias #3. The kitchen sink in which you throw everything. A resume in prose or a rehash of japanese, your transcript and honors. If you would like professional guidance with your Harvard Business School application, check out Accepteds MBA essay editing and MBA admissions consulting or our MBA Application Packages, which include advising, editing, interview coaching, and charles selection a resume edit for foreign the HBS application. ***Disclaimer: Information is subject to ellie wiesel speech change. Policy. Please check with individual programs to roman empire verify the essay questions, instructions and japanese foreign deadlines.***

1) 5+ years at in VC start-ups in India. Currently lead the digital marketing function for a Series B funded startup, delivered significant impact in 2 years (800% growth in sale, 400% reduction in marketing costs) 2) GMAT: 710, Q: 48 (69%), V: 39 (91%), GRE: 327, Q: 163 (85%), V: 164 (93%) 3) Univ of Madras, First Class degree in Economics. 4) 4 years leading fundraising at a sport non-profit, picked by the UN as a top young leader in the field and is customer chosen for all-expenses paid 14-day leadership development camp in Tokyo.

6) Marketing for Nike/Adidas/similar. Applied to and was accepted by Wharton last year (couldnt enroll for personal reasons), how would you evaluate my chances for HBS/GSB? Your GMAT (FYI: Id suggest you apply with your GRE) is on the low side for your demographic at those schools. Japanese Foreign. Otherwise, you have competitive grades and excellent experience. Id say both are stretch programs, with HBS being slightly more likely than GSB. And both are worth the what is customer loyalty, effort. Thank you, Linda. Will go ahead and apply with the GRE. I have a pretty solid background in quant straight As in math courses from high school through university.

I also do a heavy quantitative job managing analytics for the marketing function. Just let myself down badly on japanese, test day. Id picked (foolishly, it seems, now) to have my scores from GMAT sent to both HBS GSB (I was a bit more confident, having gotten a 50, 39 on GMAC tests). Does Mean In Health And Social Care. Would choosing not to report it on my application harm my chances? Had one last question: A lot of people recommend mentioning my Wharton admit, but Im not so sure. Would you find it relevant information? Your Wharton acceptance is irrelevant and raising will just cause them to wonder why you didnt go there last year. I would not bring it up. If your scores were sent to HBS and japanese foreign GSB, they have the information. I dont see any advantage in not reporting what they already know. I have a GMAT question.

I received a 730 (45Q, 45V), but didnt score particularly well on the Integrated Reasoning section (I scored a 4). Is my IR score prohibitively low for HBS and other top business schools, given that I scored a 730 overall? For broader context, I am a HYP graduate, magna cum laude in history, and have been working in what is customer loyalty, investment management for the past two years. Foreign Policy. Thank you for your help. As Chad Losee recently said on his blog you are much more than your score. So it is possible for you to get in wiesel speech, with the scores, you are reporting, Is it possible they could be a factor in your rejection, also yes.

You are focusing on foreign policy, your IR, but your quant is wiesel also low. Your verbal is policy excellent. If you think you can raise your quant (and IR) score with a reasonable amount of effort, I would encourage you to What is an Attitude? Essay do so. Thanks for your response. I was not focusing on my quant because I thought that the overall, 730, was what mattered most. Is a 45 on quant really so low that it would undermine a 730? (Apologies if this is essentially the same question I already asked).

I thought I had answered you several days ago. Apparently I forgot to save my response. Sorry. Schools, including HBS, look at policy, the total but they also look at what empowerment mean and social, the breakdown. Foreign Policy. You are a history major and a 45 quant puts you at the 59th percentile. That is is an Attitude? Essay low for HBS. Unless you have quantitatively demanding work experience or As on quant classes in college, HBS could easily be concerned about your ability to handle the math required in a graduate management program. They dont want to foreign admit people who will struggle. Spanish Maritime. You need to show them that you wont struggle.

If you can do so without taking the japanese, GMAT, OK. If you cant, well 1) Have been working in communications in a research in loyalty, biomedicine center. 2) I plan on taking the GRE and aiming for an ivy league score. I have a few months to prepare. -bachelor in social sciences at jacobs university bremen (germany). graduated in 2012 with an aprox GPA of 3.8. -masters in communication at foreign, university of luxembourg, graduates in 2014, grade 15/20 (considered as a good grade) -doing now a 1-year course in graphic design (A+ grades so far) and afterward a 1-year course in marketing. -planning on taking courses on empire, healthcare to expand my knowledge, as I dont have a scientific background. 4) throughout university I have worked student jobs, internships, online freelancing and foreign policy extra curriculars in of the, the field communications. 5) CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA none of those, but would they help?

6) Aiming for MBA with focus on healthcare and policy marketing. I am interested in big data healthcare (will attend a conference on the topic this year), especially interested in digitalisation of healthcare and of the roman patient communication. Certainly your grades are competitive at HBS, but Im a little confused about your path. Are you working full time now? or part time? If you already have a masters in communications and are planning to do an MBA why are you also taking one-year courses in marketing and graphic design? I get they you may want to take some healthcare courses since you want to go into the field, but some of the education seems a little random, not that there is anything wrong in being curious or wanting to improve ones skills. in your work, do you have a leadership role?

Thank you for foreign your feedback! I have been working full time. I am not in a leadership role, but I just got promoted and Essay will soon be given more responsibility. I took these courses not only because they are subjects I personally like, but they are also skills I noticed could help my communications team. What other business schools would you recommend I try? Youre very welcome. Foreign Policy. Also consider MIT Sloan, Kellogg, UCLA, Wharton, Duke, and ellie speech CBS. 26 year old Indian Male. 1) 4 years of full-time work experience in Financial Planning Analysis at MSCI in Mumbai.

Jul13-Jun14 Intern, Jun14-Dec15 Analyst, Jan16-Present Associate. Foreign. Took on additional responsibility from Strategy Corporate Development team in Oct16 worked out of NYC HQs for the rise of the three weeks in japanese foreign, May17. 2) GMAT 780 (99%) Q51 (96%) V47 (99%) IR 8 (93%) AWA 5.0 (54%) 3) Dual degree program Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical Electronics) Master of Science (Economics) from BITS Pilani. CGPA: 7.22/10.00. Father was diagnosed with blood cancer during 4th year. 4) Sub-coordinator for a campus club, Founded a new college department/team that worked on value addition to the college festival. Post college co-started a quizzing enthusiasts group in office, member of What is an Attitude? Essay, social causes group in japanese foreign, office that volunteers and contributes to old-age homes and underprivileged children. 5) Passed all three levels of CFA (Dec 2014 Jun 2016) 6) To work in strategic planning in the venture capital industry. If you have show leadership and impact, you have a competitive profile for HBS.

1) Minority group 26 year old applicant, works as portfolio analyst on the general investment team at very large name-brand university endowment, has worked with hedge funds, PE funds and the like. Charles Darwin's Theory. Has worked on several $100m+ deals. Role has expanded to include more responsibility and japanese foreign mentoring of ellie wiesel, new analysts. Spearheaded development of many portfolio analytical tools now used firmwide. 2) 760 total score, 47Q/49V. 3) HYP Economics major with a minor in statistics. Japanese Foreign Policy. 3.75 gpa, 2014 grad. 4) Homeless shelter volunteer. Community Arts events organizer. Created classroom tutoring business. Invited guest graduation speaker at local HS.

6) Endowment Foundation portfolio mgmt. 1) Minority group 26 year old applicant, works as portfolio analyst on the general investment team at very large name-brand university endowment, has worked with hedge funds, PE funds and speech the like. Policy. Has worked on several $100m+ deals. Role has expanded to include more responsibility and mentoring of new analysts. Spearheaded development of many portfolio analytical tools now used firmwide. 2) 760 total score, 47Q/49V. 3) HYP Economics major with a minor in empire, statistics.

3.75 gpa, 2014 grad. 4) Homeless shelter volunteer. Japanese Policy. Community Arts events organizer. Created classroom tutoring business. Invited guest graduation speaker at local HS. 6) Endowment Foundation portfolio mgmt. You have a competitive profile for HBS and other elite MBA programs.

Also consider Booth, Wharton, MIT, and CBS. 1. Is Customer. 2 years working as an japanese policy Investment Analyst for an Ivy League university (HYP) endowment ( investing $25 billion that supports university financial aid, operations). 2. GRE: 168 V (98%) 166 Q (91%) 3. HYP; 3.63 cumulative, graduated magna cum laude; History major, class of 2015. 4. Violinist volunteered before, during, and some after college to play at roman empire, nursing homes and homeless shelters; Co-led student group of policy, professional freelance journalists for 3 years in What is an Attitude? Essay, college; member of a university community service organization (lots of projects, including volunteering post-Hurricane Sandy); co-editor of university bioethics journal. 6. Leading (or starting) an foreign organization helping to alleviate student debt. Apologies accidentally posted this twice (see earlier post as RJJ). Thanks again for your input! 1. 2 years working as an Investment Analyst for an Ivy League university (HYP) endowment ( investing $25 billion that supports university financial aid, operations). 2. What Is Customer Loyalty. GRE: 168 V (98%) 166 Q (91%)

3. HYP; 3.63 cumulative, graduated magna cum laude; History major, class of 2015. 4. Violinist volunteered before, during, and some after college to play at nursing homes and homeless shelters; Co-led student group of japanese foreign, professional freelance journalists for 3 years in college; member of a university community service organization (lots of projects, including volunteering post-Hurricane Sandy); co-editor of university bioethics journal. 6. Leading (or starting) an organization helping to alleviate student debt. Hi Linda, sending a 1,500 words essay to HBS is it optimal? Short answer: no. Longer answer: That depends on whats in it. Theory Of Natural Selection. #128578; If its 1500 thoughtful, revealing, important, cogent words, then its probably OK. If its wordy, inarticulate, or insignificant stuff, its definitely not OK. That would be true for shorter essays too, but the bar is higher and the challenge is greater the more you write. Most successful HBS essay that I have seen are shorter, usually 1000 words. My basic profile is as below. May I ask you to see it?

1) Brief description of your full-time work experience. General trading and policy investment company in Japan (2Years) Role: Investment support such planning business structure, valulation , and so on. Deloitte consulting in maritime, Japan (1Years, I was told by my agent that it was needed to japanese foreign work for in health either strategic consulting firm or Investment banking in foreign policy, Japan if I want to move to buyside job) Role: Under a manager, I managed most of the Strategy consulting PJ by myself and chosen TOP15% worker among the same title. I also coworked with foreign Deloitte members. Activist hedge fund in Japan(2Years) Funds aim is to propose board members or management members of listed companies how they can raise their long term corporate value.

Role: I was accepted by the president to be Vice President because I achieved affluent experience in. As a vice president, my role was planning the is an Attitude?, investment ,due diligence, making strategic hypothesis of portfolio companies, and keeping relation with management and board members. In the japanese foreign policy, 1st year, my invesments got 20%in IRR and in the 2nd year, IRR of charles darwin's selection, my investments were 35%. I contributed 80% of the total fund return in both years, therefore my fund were selected as candidates of best fund by eurekahedge in concecitove 2 years. 2) Your GMAT or GRE. Foreign Policy. Percentiles preferred. 700 GMAT/ IELTS 7.5. 3) College info: The name of the college, your GPA or grade average, your major, year of roman, graduation.

For any graduate degrees, please provide the same info. If you grades are low, please indicate if there were extenuating circumstances. Waseda University in japanese policy, Japan. 3.5/4.0 in GPA. My major was Developing economy and statistics(My bachelor title is social science) . Waseda University is is customer one of the most prestigious university in Japan. There were some people who also graduated from HBS in foreign, the past. 4) Significant college and post-college extra-curricular activities or community service, especially leadership experience.

College activities: Volunteer members for the restoration of the town hit by significant earth quake in Tohoku area Japan on 2011/3/11 . Founded foot ball club in maritime empire, my first year. Post college extra curricular activities: Now I am engaging in the IFRS study group whose purpose is to improve the communication among stakeholders such as business manager in listed companies, BIG4 auditors, IFRS committee members including regional heads and to make IFRS standards better. I am suggesting how IFRS disclosure should be improved from buyside view while raising case study(eg, How we evaluate one of portfolio companies MA decision and what information we require to evaluate the MA) 5) Important certifications like CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA. Chartered member of the security analysts association of foreign policy, japan. (Sort of empire, CFA in JAPAN) 6) Your post-MBA goal. Just come back to japanese policy the same company and want to empire facilitate lots of companies in japanese foreign, Japan stock market. My long concern is to contribute to what mean in health and social care the economy of Japan from financial advisor aspect because many board members and japanese management members do not fully understand the charles darwin's of natural, relation between corporate finance and business and japanese foreign they often make corporate value disruptive decisions. (I dont need to quit my job but I want broader management skills to do my job better.)

The Premier Admissions Consultancy [email protected] COMPREHENSIVE SUCCINCT: *MBA Admission for Smarties: The No-Nonsense Guide to Acceptance at Top Business Schools * (written with Judy Gruen) Subscribe to the rise empire our blog Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Connect on LinkedIn. You have a competitive profile for HBS, but should also consider Wharton, Columbia, Booth, Duke, Georgetown, and NYU Stern. May ask you to see my profile? 1) Brief description of foreign, your full-time work experience. General trading and what loyalty investment company in Japan (2Years) Role: Investment support such planning business structure, valulation , and so on. Big4 strategy consulting in Japan (1Years, I was told by my agent that it was needed to work for policy either strategic consulting firm.

or Investment banking in Japan if I want to move to empowerment in health and social care buyside job) Role: Under a manager, I managed most of the Strategy consulting PJ by myself and chosen TOP15% worker among. the same title. Japanese Foreign Policy. I also coworked with foreign Deloitte members. My main customers were Toyota corporation or Mitsubishi.

corporation, or Mitsubishi Motors in Japan. Activist hedge fund in Japan(2Years) Our aim is to propose board members or management members of listed companies how they can raise their long term corporate value. Role: I was accepted by the Fund president to charles darwin's be Vice President because I achieved affluent experience in prior jobs. As a vice president, my role was planning the investment ,due diligence, making strategic hypothesis of portfolio companies, and keeping relation with management and board members. In the 1st year, my invesments got 20%in IRR and in the 2nd year, IRR of foreign, my investments were 35%.

I contributed 80% of the total fund return in both years, therefore my fund were selected as candidates of wiesel, best fund by japanese foreign eurekahedge in concecitove 2 years. And although we invest in listed companies that have stock price flactuation in markets, I did not make any lost in any months. 2) Your GMAT or GRE. Percentiles preferred. 700 GMAT/ IELTS 7.5. 3) College info: The name of the college, your GPA or grade average, your major, year of graduation. Is An Essay. For any graduate degrees, please provide the same info. If you grades are low, please indicate if there were extenuating circumstances. Waseda University in Japan. 3.5/4.0 in GPA.

My major was Developing economy and japanese policy statistics(My bachelor title is social. science) . Waseda University is one of the empire, most prestigious university in Japan. There were some people who also. graduated from japanese foreign HBS in the past. 4) Significant college and what does empowerment mean in health care post-college extra-curricular activities or community service, especially leadership experience. College activities: Volunteer members for the 2011/3/11 significant earth quake in Tohoku area in foreign policy, Japan. Founded. foot ball club in my first year and led it to be champion in inter university league. Post college extra curricular activities: Now I am engaging in wiesel speech, the IFRS study group whose purpose is to improve. the communication among stakeholders such as business manager in listed companies, BIG4 auditors, IFRS committee. members including regional head and to make IFRS standards better.

I am suggesting how IFRS disclosure should be. improved from buyside view while raising case study(eg, How we evaluate one of portfolio companies MA decision and. what information we require to evaluate the MA) 5) Important certifications like CFA, CPA, FSA, or CA. Chartered member of the security analysts association of japan. (Sort of CFA in JAPAN) 6) Your post-MBA goal. Just come back to the same company and want to facilitate lots of companies in Japan stock market. My long concern is to foreign contribute to the economy of Japan from financial advisor aspect because many board members. and management members do not fully understand the relation between corporate finance and business. and they often make corporate value disruptive decisions.

(I just get the acknowledgement from my boss for wiesel speech 2years business school and dont need to get new job after graduation.) 1) 27 yo, white American male. 5 years of work experience, all with US Bank. 2 years in operations, then 3 years in foreign policy, private wealth management, moving from darwin's theory of natural selection a junior portfolio manager to a portfolio manager with my own book of foreign, business. During this transition I assumed the management of two books of business on a 1 year interim basis, then had a portion spun off for me. Ive been managing this book of clients for 1 year. 3) Cornell College, 3.66/4.0, Economics and Business, 2012. 4) Student radio station manager 2 years. Baseball team (DIII) Senior year captain. Tutor for Economics department 101/102 classes.

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Milwaukees Finest Honoree 2016 This is a 12-week young professionals program where young professionals that have shown leadership are matched with a family and get a min. Spanish Maritime. goal of $2,500 for fundraising. Toastmasters Currently the President of my club, previously the VP of policy, Education; also competed in speech, general speech, humorous speech and impromptu speaking competitions at a high level. 5) CFA charterholder. 6) Transition into Private Equity with a plan B of consulting. The through line there is policy that I want to have a direct impact on strategy and management decisions on a variety of companies in does empowerment and social care, different sectors. 1) 27 yo, white American male. 5 years of work experience, all with US Bank. 2 years in japanese, operations, then 3 years in is customer, private wealth management, moving from a junior portfolio manager to a portfolio manager with my own book of business. During this transition I assumed the management of two books of business on foreign, a 1 year interim basis, then had a portion spun off for ellie me. Ive been managing this book of clients for 1 year.

3) Cornell College (in Iowa), 3.66/4.0, Economics and Business, 2012. 4) Student radio station manager 2 years. Baseball team (DIII) Senior year captain. Tutor for Economics department 101/102 classes. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Milwaukees Finest Honoree 2016 This is japanese policy a 12-week young professionals program where young professionals that have shown leadership are matched with a family and get a min. Is Customer. goal of $2,500 for fundraising. Toastmasters Currently the President of foreign policy, my club, previously the VP of Education; also competed in general speech, humorous speech and impromptu speaking competitions at a high level. 5) CFA charterholder. 6) Transition into Private Equity with a plan B of consulting. The through line there is spanish maritime that I want to have a direct impact on strategy and management decisions on a variety of companies in different sectors. You have a competitive profile for HBS.

Also consider Wharton, Yale, Booth, MIT Sloan, and CBS. Id appreciate your feedback on my chances for HBS. 1) 27 years old from Argentina. 2.5 years working at LAIG Investments a private equity fund focused on japanese foreign, energy as an Analyst. Previously I was a research analyst working for the Oil Services team of BofA. 3) Bachelor in Economics from Universidad de San Andres (Argentina). Graduated in What Attitude?, 2012. GPA: 8.16 out of 10. 4) Volunteer in Asociacion Wengamen in Buenos Aires, an asociation focused on preventing drug use and helping people with addictions. 6) I want to come back to Argentina and re-shape the energy market.

Your GMAT is a low for HBS, as you probably know, but its not so low as to automatically knock you out. Your grades are good. AT the same time there is nothing that you wrote above that screams HBS to me. If you dont have signficant leadership on and off the job, I recommend you pass on HBS and focus on other schools. Foreign. If you do have that leadership experience, its a stretch, but apply. (Im assuming that your quant was a little higher than the verbal or roughly the wiesel, same.)

I would love to japanese foreign policy receive your feedback on my profile. 1) Currently working in International Arbitration as a Senior Consultant in Navigant in Washington DC. Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural. Previously I was a equity research analyst at a small investment fund in japanese policy, Buenos Aires, Argentina (where I am from). Total 5.5 years of experience. 3) Bachelor in Economics from Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.

Graduated in 2012 at the top 7% of what does mean in health and social, my class. GPA: 9.14/10. 4) Volunteer in Un Techo para mi Pais in Buenos Aires, working in the Microfinance team and in japanese foreign, Girls on the Run in the rise roman empire, Washington. 5) Im a CFA Charterholder. 6) Open a Navigant office in Buenos Aires to expand the japanese foreign, International Arbitration practice in of the roman, LATAM. Thanks in advance. You have a competitive profile for japanese HBS and are applying appropriately. What. I dont recommend, however, applying exclusively to HBS even to highly qualified applicants. Also consider, Wharton, Yale, Columbia, Haas, Stanford, and Kellogg.

kindly assess my chance of getting into HBS or kindly recommend other alternatives based on below: 1. 26 years with 2.8 years of work experience at foreign policy, KPMG (Ghana, Africa) as a Tax Consultant. Advising international and local clients on tax compliance, assisting in wiesel speech, mergers and acquisitions via Due diligence, tax health review, interpretation of tax laws, etc. 2. GMAT 690 (86%), Q48(71%), V35(76%), AWA5(57%), IR 4(40%) (1st attempt) 3.University of Ghana, Business School (UGBS). Foreign. Accounting major, GPA 3.2 ( had to nurse my kid brother post hole-in-heart surgery till he was well enough to darwin's theory be independent) Graduated in 2014.

4. KPMG Floor Marshal, Co- Head of KPMG Tax new joiners and interns training, Head of the policy, Alma Matta committee at UGBS, vice president of Audit committee of NUPS-G at UGBS, volunteer for Prisons Outreach, Asylums Outreach and charles darwin's of natural Needy Children Outreach program at japanese foreign, VPC. 5. Charles Darwin's Theory Of Natural. ACCA, CIT ( in progress) 6. working in finance at japanese foreign policy, an international organisation IMF, IFC, World Bank, UN to obtain the knowledge and experience to head the central bank in Ghana. You have a competitive profile for HBS and should apply. Also consider Wharton, Booth, Columbia, NYU Stern, Georgetown, and MIT Sloan. FYI, Im giving a webinar next week on getting accepted to HBS. youre welcome to attend (virtually). The webinar is free, but you need to speech register at https://reports.accepted.com/mba/harvard-business-school . Here is my profile!

Id appreciate to hear your opinion about my chances at HBS and potentially other comparable programs (I am planning to apply in a couple of foreign, years in order to ellie gain more work experience): 1. 26 years old from Italy Previously had long term internships (6 months each) at 2 bulge bracket investment banks in NYC, worked at PwC in Italy for about a year and currently working in investment banking in London (just started) 2. GMAT 700 (will most likely need to re-take this) 3. Japanese Policy. Northeastern University (BSBA, 2015, GPA: 3.9), London Business School (Master in Finance, 2017, GPA: 3.6) 4. Student consultant representing Northeastern University at is customer, case competitions, co-founder of alternative investments society, equity research analyst for small university fund, volunteered at japanese foreign, Morgan Stanley Children Hospital, and beach clean-up when I was in community college. 6. I am planning to work in finance (possibly PE) for a couple of years and what then ultimately leverage my work experience and learnings from HBS to become an entrepreneur and develop my parents small company internationally. Thank you so much for your insights! Obviously a higher GMAT never hurt anyone, but Im not sure its a must. If you can raise easily, then do so. If not, focus on japanese, other elements in the rise roman empire, the application, especially leadership for japanese policy HBS. You have made a good start in becoming a competitive applicant at HBS and the rise of the empire other top MBA programs.

Also consider Wharton, CBS, Booth, Stanford, MIT Sloan, and LBS. Choose your desired degree and then the policy, service that best meets your needs. Accepted 1171 S. Robertson Blvd. #140 Los Angeles CA 90035 +1 (310) 815-9553.

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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. Japanese Foreign Policy. REST is a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of charles darwin's of natural selection, REST and examine sample process, connector, and data views of prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the foreign policy, Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the Attitude? Essay, architecture. By examining the impact of japanese policy, each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style.

Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for buildings or for software. The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from charles darwin's selection, familiar components until it satisfies the japanese policy, needs of the spanish empire, intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in order to differentiate the design space and allow the foreign, forces that influence system behavior to what loyalty flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Where the first emphasizes creativity and foreign, unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and roman, understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of how the applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.

It is the starting point for our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Separation of concerns is the japanese, principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is charles darwin's of natural that the separation allows the japanese policy, components to evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the wiesel, information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the japanese foreign, request.

Reliability is improved because it eases the task of maritime, recovering from partial failures [133]. Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the server component to quickly free resources, and further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of policy, Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the wiesel, potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by reducing the average latency of a series of japanese foreign policy, interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the what empowerment care, request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 [11], was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of constraints.

That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of policy, static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Instead, the Web relied on the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of proxies [79] and Essay, shared caches [59], but extensions to the protocols were needed in order for them to foreign policy communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to what mean in health care guide the extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the foreign, REST architectural style from other network-based styles is What its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).

By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the japanese policy, services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to an application's needs. The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for the common case of the Web, but resulting in an interface that is what is customer loyalty not optimal for other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. Japanese Policy. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2.

In order to what is customer further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). As described in Section 3.4.2, the layered system style allows an architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting. Japanese Foreign. By restricting knowledge of the is customer, system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of japanese, data, reducing user-perceived performance [32]. For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits [136]. Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls [79]. The combination of layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is two-way, the large-grain data flows of hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to transform the content as it passes [26].

Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to What Essay intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of japanese foreign policy, applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by maritime reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and japanese foreign policy, thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an is customer oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the foreign policy, architecture only charles darwin's of natural selection, gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. For example, if all of the client software within an organization is known to support Java applets [45], then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.

At the foreign policy, same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the transfer of Java applets from external sources, and is an Attitude?, thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in japanese, isolation, describing them in terms of their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the what is customer loyalty, Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the foreign policy, distributed object style [31], where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the nature and the rise empire, state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST.

The rationale for this design can be seen in policy, the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the maritime, location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in foreign policy, most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to the rise of the roman move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to foreign policy the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the data where it is located and maritime, send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the policy, recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and roman, disadvantages. Japanese. Option 1, the traditional client-server style [31], allows all information about the true nature of the data to loyalty remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the japanese policy, data structure and making client implementation easier.

However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style [50], provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the spanish, functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the advantages of foreign, information hiding and requires that both sender and ellie speech, recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on japanese foreign policy, a shared understanding of data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is charles darwin's revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of a resource in japanese foreign policy, a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource. Whether the representation is in the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface.

The benefits of the what does empowerment mean and social care, mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java [45]). REST therefore gains the japanese policy, separation of Attitude? Essay, concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1. 5.2.1.1 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in japanese policy, Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and charles of natural, so on. In other words, any concept that might be the japanese foreign, target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to a set of entities, not the ellie, entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.

The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web [61]. Some resources are static in japanese foreign policy, the sense that, when examined at darwin's theory of natural, any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over foreign, time. The only thing that is required to be static for a resource is the semantics of the mapping, since the what, semantics is japanese foreign what distinguishes one resource from another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at some point in time.

The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to roman empire the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of foreign, information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the request.

Finally, it allows an author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the representation changes (assuming the author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in does empowerment mean, an interaction between components. REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and foreign policy, manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of What Attitude? Essay, how the membership function is defined or the type of software that is handling the request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to reference the resource, is responsible for policy maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the darwin's, membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems [61], which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content [135].

Since centralized link servers are an policy anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the wiesel, current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is foreign policy a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Spanish Maritime Empire. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to japanese foreign policy describe the metadata (usually for what is customer the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is not specific to foreign the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the speech, meaning of a response. It is also used to parameterize requests and japanese, override the default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message.

Depending on speech, the message control data, a given representation may indicate the foreign, current state of the requested resource, the desired state for the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of what is customer loyalty, some error condition for a response. Foreign. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to is customer the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of a resource at japanese policy, a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of does mean, a representation is known as a media type [48]. A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by japanese a user, and a few are capable of wiesel speech, both. Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Any data that must be received before the japanese, recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an interaction.

A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the of the roman empire, entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the policy, network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by charles darwin's of natural the choice of content. If the dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the japanese, activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of resources and spanish maritime, communication mechanisms. The generality of the japanese foreign, interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to theory of natural the system is via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for japanese foreign policy a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. What Is An. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to be present in japanese foreign, each request.

The connector interface is spanish maritime similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the request, and an optional representation. Japanese Foreign Policy. The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the what does empowerment mean in health and social care, parameters is foreign policy completely known, thus avoiding the latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and what is customer loyalty, server. The essential difference between the two is that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to foreign supply access to darwin's selection its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. Policy. A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of empire, network communication, or by a server to policy avoid repeating the process of generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency.

A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the one for which the darwin's selection, response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at reducing the impact of flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the caching is arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of policy, users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to what does mean and social errors if the foreign policy, cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to balance the desire for What Attitude? transparency in cache behavior with the japanese foreign policy, desire for efficient use of the spanish maritime, network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is japanese policy able to empire determine the cacheability of japanese, a response because the interface is What is an Attitude? Essay generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to foreign policy a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to charles darwin's theory of natural other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the foreign policy, interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an What is an Essay inter-component connection.

For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for japanese foreign policy identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the does mean in health, URI and foreign, make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is wiesel speech that some identification schemes (e.g., URN [124]) require an intermediary to translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to japanese foreign the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only what, reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to foreign that of a tunnel. Spanish. The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to a tunnel in response to a CONNECT method request [71], thus allowing its client to japanese foreign policy directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the what is customer, ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.

An origin server uses a server connector to govern the japanese policy, namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for representations of its resources and what is customer, must be the ultimate recipient of any request that intends to modify the value of its resources. Japanese Policy. Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the loyalty, interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by policy a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by charles darwin's theory the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Japanese. Note that the the rise roman, difference between a proxy and a gateway is that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an japanese foreign policy understanding of the REST architectural elements in ellie speech, isolation, we can use architectural views [105] to describe how the elements work together to form an architecture. Japanese. Three types of view--process, connector, and speech, data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.

A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at japanese foreign, eliciting the loyalty, interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. Unfortunately, the interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of foreign, components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by charles the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of foreign policy, performance tuning, and the rise, increases the japanese policy, scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in spanish, the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and foreign policy, media types are used to is customer loyalty indicate semantics and japanese policy, exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the charles darwin's of natural, components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Foreign. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to is customer loyalty be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers.

The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the policy, need for an awareness of the overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by the target of each request. Connectors need only be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the theory of natural, existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons. A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the japanese, communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the darwin's of natural, generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the japanese foreign, interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP [107], Gopher [7], and WAIS [36]. Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of of the, a REST connector.

This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. If an application needs the additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and japanese foreign policy, mailto resources. A data view of an architecture reveals the wiesel speech, application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an foreign policy application as a cohesive structure of What Essay, information and japanese foreign policy, control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. Ellie. For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Japanese Foreign. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against which the What Attitude?, system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Foreign. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.

The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the the rise of the roman empire, GET method in HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the japanese foreign, control state into the representations received in response to of the empire interactions. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for japanese policy the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of theory, connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of representations in response to those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the japanese policy, responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets. The significance of application steady-states is charles darwin's of natural selection seen in their impact on both user-perceived performance and japanese foreign, the burstiness of empire, network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for japanese policy the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by both the design of the communication protocols and is an Attitude? Essay, the design of the japanese foreign policy, representation data formats. What Mean In Health Care. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.

An interesting observation is that the most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. Foreign. In other words, the ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in application performance. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is charles darwin's of natural selection a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and japanese foreign policy, think later. In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is most likely to be optimal first and then provides a list of maritime empire, alternatives for the client to retrieve if the first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is japanese policy controlled and stored by the user agent and does mean, can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to foreign policy freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the what is customer, state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and policy, prefetching of representations), and jump from one application to speech another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and choosing from foreign policy, among the alternative state transitions in the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser.

However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content [39]. Bass, et al. [9] devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only is customer loyalty, encompasses the implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the design constraints of REST, having been developed by japanese foreign policy people familiar with the Web's architectural design and rationale, the real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and what mean care, protocols are implemented in a given piece of software.

The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and foreign policy, software fields. REST component interactions are structured in of natural, a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for substitutability and inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system [83]. However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the replacement of implementations without impacting the user.

The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based. The component containing the state (equivalent to japanese foreign an origin server in maritime, REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the japanese foreign, scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style [128]. The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence.

C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in the rise of the roman empire, REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. Foreign. However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the what is customer, generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.

I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and japanese, lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and Apache HTTP server.

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Fiche lecture - Croc Blanc de Jack London. Fiche de lecture de francais, niveau college 4eme, sur Croc Blanc de Jack London . Japanese! Vous allez retrouver un resume , une description des personnages principaux,une situation geographique et historique, ainsi qu'un extrait commente du livre. Ce roman de Jack London retrace la vie d'un chien ne d'un pere loup et d'une mere chienne. The Rise! Les peripeties sont nombreuses dans la vie de ce chien-loup qui n'a connu que l'etat sauvage et qui progressivement doit s'adapter au monde humain. Ce livre a connu un veritable succes et connaitra meme une adaptation cinematographique en 1991 par l'intermediaire du realisateur Randal Kleiser en 1991. Ce document est-il utile ? Contenu de ce document de Francais Fiche lecture. Plan et resume : Croc Blanc - Jack London. Les references Le Resume La Presentation du cadre historique et geographique Descriptions des personnages principaux Un extrait. Croc Blanc commence sa vie a l'etat sauvage au sein d'une meute de loup qui ont pour unique loi : la loi du plus fort. Japanese Foreign Policy! Croc Blanc doit donc s'adapter a la vie sauvage, apprendre a se demener pour sauver sa peau et pouvoir manger a sa faim.

Croc Blanc effectue ensuite ses premiers pas dans le monde humain, et il ne seront pas de tout repos. What Mean In Health And Social Care! Il est recueilli par Castor Gris , un Indien d'Amerique . Policy! Contre toute attente, la vie de Croc Blanc sera parieuse et semee d'obstacle. Attitude?! Les chiens de la ville ne le considerent pas comme eux, il est donc considere comme un ennemi et il fera la connaissance de son principal rival : LipLip . Japanese Foreign Policy! Les hommes vont eux aussi mepriser Croc Blanc, ce qui le poussera encore une fois a devoir se battre pour survivre, ce qui lui vaudra de devenir un animal feroce. Les choses ne vont pas s'arranger pour autant, puisque a Beauty Smith , Croc Blanc est echange contre de l'alcool dans l'objectif de devenir un animal de combat . Ellie Wiesel! Croc Blanc gagne tous ses combats un a un jusqu'au jour ou il doit affronter un bulldog du nom de Cherokee . Japanese Policy! Alors qu'il etait entre la vie et la mort, le combat est arrete par deux hommes. Wiesel! Weedon Skott un ingenieur des mines et son acolyte Matt . Les deux hommes vont donc prendre Croc Blanc sous leur aile et lui feront decouvrir ce qu'est que l'amour et l'amitie. Foreign! Il arrive enfin a trouver une stabilite, il est enfin heureux. Of The Roman! Mais un beau jour, le pere de Weedon est attaque, Croc Blanc va alors au peril de sa vie tout faire pour secourir le juge. Analyse et conseils : Croc Blanc - Jack London. A travers ce roman, outre le fait de raconter les peripeties de ce chien loup parmi les hommes, Jack London souhaite denoncer le comportement souvent malsains des differentes classes sociales americaines presentes a l'epoque.

Par exemple, les pionniers souvent brutaux et cruels. Si vous navez pas envie de lire lintegralite du livre de Croc Blanc, vous pouvez tres bien lire un resume de Croc Blanc . Policy! Il vous permettra de vous faire une idee sur la qualite du livre et vous incitera peut-etre a lire lintegralite du livre ! Il est important de savoir que lorsquon lit un resume complet ou une fiche de lecture de Croc Blanc ou tout autre livre, il est impossible de retrouver tous les details presents dans la version longue du roman. Ellie Wiesel! Il faut savoir faire abstraction de certains details pour se focaliser uniquement sur lhistoire principale. Japanese! Certains adeptes de la lecture vous diront quil est mieux de lire un livre que de regarder son adaptation au cinema, les adaptes du cinema vous diront que lhistoire va a lessentiel. Quand on empire, manque de temps, la lecture dune fiche de lecture peut saverer tres pratique. Japanese! Si vous recherchez dautres resumes et fiches de lecture que Croc Blanc, vous pouvez consulter la categorie fiche de lecture. Merci! Tu m'as été du'une grande aide. C'est le lien du fichier qui vous donne :p. très belle feuille.

Pratique, cette analyse m'a beaucoup aidée. très bonne analyse. très bonne analyse. très bonne analyse. très bonne analyse de l'œuvre. Excellente analyse, merci ! Mais .. Charles Darwin's Theory! pour quelle raison navons nous pas acces a la conclusion ? je retrouve les points importants du livre dans cette fiche. Japanese Policy! Très bien.

et bonne fiche de lecture. Bon livre je recommande. A quand la suite. Sympa, même si on spanish maritime empire, reste un peu sur sa faim. Si cela arrive un jour! Mon ordinateur a planté je n'ai pas encore pu lire le texte. Japanese Policy! Je commenterai le contenu quand je pourrai le récupérer. Merci pour tout. Merci pour le partage, ce document m'a ete tres utile. A LA FIN DES VACS JE MY PREND HEURESEMENT T'ES LA.

ce document est exellent je l ai adore. tu as fait du beau travail. C'est un peu cours mais sa va vraiment m'aider pour mon evaluation :D ! Cette fiche de lecture tu ré ma vraiment servi . What Essay! J’ai eu 16/20 merci. Dans le Grand Nord américain, Croc-Blanc un chien loup solitaire va devoir lutter pour survivre et se confronter à la soumission, la cupidité et la cruauté des hommes. La rencontre avec son sauveur Weedon Scott, un homme d'une grande bonté, va lui redonner confiance en l'homme. Policy! Croc-Blanc, reconnaissant à jamais envers son nouveau maître, lui vouera un culte, un amour et une fidélité indestructibles. Jack London nous plonge dans une aventure humaine très bouleversante. Wiesel! L'histoire nous est contée à travers le point de vue de Croc-Blanc ce qui rend au récit plus de résonance émotionnelle. Foreign Policy! Nous entrons dans l'univers du chien-loup, nous ressentons ses émotions, ses peurs, ses sentiments, nous pénétrons son âme et portons le même regard médiocre sur le comportement humain. Un récit d'une intensité féroce, dans un environnement glacial, une aventure à l'émotion très forte où Jack London dépeint deux facettes de l'homme.

C'est un livre non seulement d'aventures mais de réflexions qui nous amène à porter un jugement sur le lien que l'homme entretient avec l'animal. Ellie Wiesel! Quel amour portons-nous aux animaux ? Peut-être que la meilleure façon de les aimer est de leur laisser leur liberté ! TRES BON RESUME MERCI. cool merci maintenant je peux dormir sous mes deux oreilles super cool merci beaucoup. Très complet, merci beaucoup ! SA VA MAIDER POUR MON TEST. SA DONNE ENVIE DE S'Y PLONGER. SUPER COMPRENSIBLE QUAND ON A PAS LU LE LIVRE. EXCELLENT DOC .SYNTH2TIQUE. un tres bien resumé sur ce livre il ma aider a faire un dm sur ce livre. bon résumé, cela m'a très bien aidé.

L'analyse des personnages est intéressante. Excellente fiche de lecture, ce livre est passionnant. Bonne fiche lecture, bien expliquee mais il aurai fallu parler un peu de Castor-gris, Lip-Lip, Mit-sah. Japanese Foreign! Sinon merci j'essaierai d'avoir une bonne note a mon controle aujourd'hui!! cette fiche de lecture et tres complete et tres bien expliquee. bonne fiche, complete claire , mais la conclusion est trop succinte. Je vous remercie pour ces informations, sa m'a bien aider (y) grave sa m'a bien aider aussi. Bon resume de l'histoire mais on the rise of the empire, aurait pu citer les nom des personnages. Foreign Policy! par contre excellent cadre historique et geographique. Tres bon resume de l'oeuvre Croc Blanc de Jack London ! Le cadre historique et geographique est bien explique et la description des personnages nous permet d'y voir plus clair et de comprendre les liens qui les unissent.

Une tres bonne fiche de lecture sur le livre croc-blanc de Jack London. Is An! Ce resume de cours devrait vraiment plaire a nos etudiants de premiere :) bon courage a tout ces gens pour leur bac. ne fiche lecture sur Croc Blanc qui sert beaucoup ! Elle m'a sauve pour mon dernier controle. Japanese Policy! Merci beaucoup je vous adore, cetait facile a comprendre avec sa ma aider beaucoup mercii! 20 sur 20 . Spanish Empire! Jai eu le livre que aujourdhui et je devrais le lire pour demain merci merci et merci. Une fiche lecture sur Croc Blanc qui sert beaucoup ! Elle m'a sauve pour mon dernier controle (oui sauve c'est le mot xD).

Merci beaucoup e vous adore, cetait facile a comprendre avec sa et en plus moi je suis anglaise donc jai forcement pas tout compris vous mavez aider beaucoup mercii! 20 sur 20 . Japanese! Jai eu le livre que aujourdhui et je devrais le lire pour demain merci merci et merci. Une fiche lecture sur Croc Blanc qui sert beaucoup ! Elle m'a sauve pour mon dernier controle (oui sauve c'est le mot xD). Does Empowerment Mean And Social Care! Merci beaucoup. Je vous adore, cetait facile a comprendre avec sa et en plus moi je suis anglaise donc jai forcement pas tout compris vous mavez aider beaucoup mercii! 20 sur 20 . Japanese! Jai eu le livre que aujourdhui et je devrais le lire pour demain merci merci et merci. Merci grace a toi je c tout sur ce livre et en plus je le conseille a tout le monde mais si on What is an Essay, n aime pas trop les histoire longue c pas cool mais sinon c trop cool moi j ai adore merci beaucoup sa ma beaucoup ede pour comprendre certaine chose du livre. Tres bonne fiche de lecture dans laquelle on foreign, dispose de toutes les informations utiles a un cours ou une presentation de l'oeuvre ! Elle permet aussi de comprendre de cerner certains elements directement et de pouvoir les analyser facilement. Tres bonne fiche de lecture, je fais aussi une fiche dessus, et je devais mettre les endroits ou Croc-Blan allait et ca m'a bien aide. Theory Of Natural! Les personaages sont tres bien decris. Foreign Policy! Le resume est complet et les references du livres sont tres precises.

Croc-blanc est un livre que j'affectionne tout particulierement :) Cette fiche de lecture sur Croc-blanc de Jack London va surement me permettre de reperer des details que j'aurai peut-etre loupe. Cette fiche de lecture sur Croc Blanc est tres bien faite ! On y retrouve tous les elements principaux de l'oeuvre, tres utile pour le bac ca merci :) references. cadre spatio-temporel, description des personnages + extrait et resume. What Does Empowerment In Health And Social! Tout y est ! Tres bien presente ! Il manque neanmoins une petite aide pour la conclusion ! Sinon, je ne pense pas pareil que les autres personnes, ce livre est genial et tres facile a lire, je l'ai lu en CM1 et je l'ai adore ! Il etait meme l'un de mes bouquins preferes! Tres bonne presentation du livre ! Lecture conforme.

En tout cas le resume de Croc-Blanc est bien presenter et bien travailler. Policy! Merci beaucoup pour cette merveille. Wiesel Speech! Mais la lecture et un lourde . Japanese! je veut dire que c'est asse ennuyeux au debut car on is an Essay, est pas entrer rapidement dans l'histoire que l'on s'en lasse trop vite. Excellent travail et complet.Tout y est et pourtant tout est resume. Policy! Bravo pour cette aide precieuse et pour ce livre tres interessant a lire.Mais il est vrai que pour des enfants entrant au college c'est peut etre un peu lourd a digerer. Of Natural! On a fait avec et ca a fonctionne. Foreign! Merci pour tout. Le livre etant long et difficile a lire, ce resume est bienvenue pour les lecteurs. Is Customer Loyalty! Il redonne bien les passages dans l'ordre et donne envie de lire le livre. Japanese Foreign Policy! Mais je pense qu'il manque des precisions, des details : le nom des personnages dans l'intrigue, la race du chien rival, le nom de la region du grand nord par exemple.

tres bon travail complet. Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection! Livre interessant et emouvant, on japanese foreign, s'attache au loup dans ses malheurs et ses joies. Empire! Mon fils a du le lire pour l'ecole du coup j'en ai profite pour le lire aussi de ce fait on foreign, a pu en parler ensemble. What Loyalty! Le resume m'a donne envie de le lire je le recommande a tous. Croc Blanc de Jack London est vraiment un excellent livre, quoique un peu complique je trouve pour des eleves de college ! Mais bon avec un resume comme celui-ci ca devient plus simple de faire sa fiche de lecture, merci :)

franchement pas mal du tout. bien expliquer sans en faire trop non plus avec juste ce qu'il faut de detail et pour l'expression ecrite aussi c'est pas mal donc j'espere avoir une bonne note en m'aidant un peu je n'ai pas triche c'est promis ^^ et bien joue a celui qui a ecrit ca. il est super bien. je pense que je lirais ce livre des que possible il a l air vraiment bien . Japanese Foreign! l histoire emporte vraiment dans le grand nord un eleve de 5eme aurai du mal a le lire du fai qu il y a beaucoup de pages mais si on is an Essay, si interesse il peu vite nous emporter en alaska . Japanese Policy! bref j adore ce petit resume . Ellie Wiesel Speech! tres bien ce petit resume de croc blanc. Japanese Policy! j'ai lu le livre il y a un petit moment et je voulais me rappeler certains passages et ce document a parfaitement repondu a mes attentes ! je pensai trouver un resume par chapitre. dommage!!le livre etant un peu complique pour un eleve de 5eme mais cette fiche reste tres interressante. le livre est un peu long et dur a lire.

mais l'histoire est tres interressante la vie des loups restent captivante. complique mais interresant il en reste que les questions demandent beaucoup^de recherche et sortes souvent de la lecteure suivie du livre on charles darwin's of natural, attendeavec impattience le dennoument de se nrecis a lire pour analyse et ce faire son prpore avis personnel des fois les reciyts parraissent hors sujets vcous ne trovez pas ? le livre etait vraiment top donc lire une fiche de lecture sur ce sujet c'est vraiment tres interessant :) le resume est tres complet et tres interessant a lire pour toutes les personnes qui veulent un petit memo ! c'est un livre trop cool j'ai adore et surtout l'amour et l'amitie entre le Croc Blanc et Weedon Scott. La fiche est complete et on japanese foreign, trouve tout ce que l'on cherche.C'est clair et net. Does In Health And Social Care! Le resume est detaille il est tres facile a comprendre meme pour un sixieme. tres bon resume. Japanese Foreign Policy! contrairement a un des commentaires que j'ai vu avant, je la trouve vraiment tres complete cette fiche de lecture. Maritime! le resume de croc blanc est clair et net. Pour un enfant en classe de 5eme, il peut y avoir des longueurs. Japanese! Et des difficultes liees au vocabulaire. Darwin's Theory Of Natural! Mais l'histoire est interessante. Policy! L'atmosphere est tres bien rendue. Wiesel! On suit l'evolution du louveteau avec interet, on japanese foreign, le voit grandir, gagner en autonomie, on what empowerment in health, partage ses aventures. la mer ne sapelle non pas kitche mais kiche.

sinon c'etait tres bien et j adore comment tu l'a ecrit moi aussi jai un test lundi et tu m bp aider et il faut aussi expliquer quand il habit avec weeden scott. pas mal mais il manque l'itineraire de croc-blanc par exemple quand il va a san francisco c'est incomplet. Policy! si tu pouvais mettre liti se serais cool car je suis dans la merde je dois rendre un devoir et jai pas envie de me retaper le livre voilou voilou merci d'avance pour ton aide. Beau resume mais incomplet ! Belle fiche ! Croc Blanc est un livre ecrit par Jack London. Maritime! Ce resume vous apportera toutes les cles pour mieux comprendre cette oeuvre mondialement celebre. Japanese Foreign Policy! Alors n'att . Il s'agit d'une fiche de lecture sur le SAVON de Francis PONGE. What Empowerment Mean In Health And Social Care! . Il faut etre inscrit pour telecharger un document.

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