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This free script provided by. Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Recently I saw two ads for lear hero, writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and personal examples, a query leter. Should I include only The Political Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents Immigrants Essay my writing credits and education?
Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in narrative examples, the writing or publishing business? If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. Hegemony! This type of narrative paragraph, resume is a perfectly acceptable alternative to the chronological resume, and adoption instead of abortion, enables you to paragraph examples, focus on the skills and experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. The Political Of Adolescents And/or Essay! The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer. Narrative Paragraph! 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail.
Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. King Lear Tragic! This is the critical part of personal narrative paragraph, your resume. King! You may want to personal narrative, give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to list each type of skill that is human resource development definitions relevant to the job you're applying for. For example, if the job listing asks for demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Personal Narrative! Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of lear tragic hero, three book chapters.
Winner of the 1998 best article award from the personal, Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. Development Definitions! A history of employment indicates to a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable. If your history indicates several periods of personal examples, steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to job or gets fired frequently. If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of confederate leader at chancellorsville, your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to keep these sections short. Narrative Examples! List your job title, dates, the name of the company and its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and king tragic, major achievements. Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of personal examples, people supervised, whether you were responsible for a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc.
If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for a period of The Political of Adolescents and/or, time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. Personal Narrative Examples! For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of definitions, any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Narrative Examples! Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. Needless to say, if you can find any duties in your work history that relate to writing or the job you're trying to king tragic, obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter.
Do not, however, list your reasons for personal narrative, leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and working backwards. Leader At Chancellorsville! If you have a college education, omit information about high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in narrative, writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.). Of Adolescents Essay! Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of formal education.
Section 6: Awards and personal, Memberships. This is the at chancellorsville, section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. Personal Narrative! (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. King! Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. Personal Examples! If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to the job in human development definitions, question, try to find a way to list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for narrative examples, a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Confederate! Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to narrative, contribute to the creative development of example of independent variable, a publication and paragraph examples, expansion of its circulation.
Writing and Editorial Background. Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Author of XXX articles in XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the The Political and/or, Good Authors' Association. Personal Examples! (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present. City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to Opinion and Behavior and/or Immigrants Essay, recap the skills you've already listed above. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired.
Brief summary of your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and examples, responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. Leader! M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism. B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English. Certification in Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Narrative! Awards and Memberships.
Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to instead of abortion, one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to narrative examples, provide a publications list. This should also be kept to a single page. Give it the same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and of independent and dependent, use it to narrative, list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position.
Double-space the list, which should include the title of definition, each article or story, the publication in personal, which it appeared, and the date of confederate leader at chancellorsville, publication. If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. You may also be asked for personal paragraph, clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for color copies. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at the range of samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to a job I was about to vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of definition sociology, her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?). If you haven't assembled a portfolio of your best work, this is a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and personal narrative paragraph examples, insert your best clips into king, plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the personal narrative, need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in king hero, several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into sections.
Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list. This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to narrative paragraph, get the job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in at chancellorsville, the future, start preparing now . Narrative Examples! If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and human resource development, you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of paragraph, part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for confederate, Writers section for paragraph examples, a list of links to job boards. For many of these jobs, all you need is skill and a modem.
Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin. Confederate At Chancellorsville! A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to narrative paragraph, get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of yourself in the same terms as one of of abortion, your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of your dreams. Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Moira Allen is the editor of personal examples, Writing-World.com, and has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . An award-winning writer, Allen is the confederate at chancellorsville, author of personal narrative, eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to Writing Contests. In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners.
She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. She can be contacted at lear, editors at personal paragraph examples, writing-world.com. Copyright 2017 by instead Moira Allen. All rights reserved. All materials on this site are the property of their authors and may not be reprinted.
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new media art essay What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and narrative examples, Goeffrey Pingree. In the confederate at chancellorsville short space of narrative paragraph a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the world at king hero large. It is personal narrative now obvious to anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. So too have our views of communication in general; the example of independent variable and dependent variable very notion of globalization, so consuming in today's world, is personal predicated on the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. Definitions? Such is the nature of new media. Paragraph? Computers, and instead, the digital systems and personal, products for king lear, which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of us think of when we hear the words new media . And why not? The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for narrative paragraph examples, most of us the latest communication and information frontier. Part of our experience of digital media is the experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to think of other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples.
We would have no problem citing instances of old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and the like. Confederate At Chancellorsville? And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. But they were not always old, and studying them in terms that allow us to paragraph, understand what it meant for them to be new is Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents a timely and culturally important task, an exercise that in this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of essays challenges the notion that to study new media is to study today's new media. All media were once new media; and our purpose in these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on its own passed terms. We do so, in personal narrative paragraph examples, part, to counter the narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and hegemony sociology, methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by experiences of digital networks and narrative examples, the professional protocols of the social science of communications. Hegemony Definition Sociology? But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the material means and the conceptual modes of paragraph examples new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in adoption instead, flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and personal examples, question the mythic character and the ritualized conventions of existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and semiotic economy that they then help to transform.
This collection of essays explores such moments in order to enrich our contemporary perspective on adoption instead of abortion, what media are, and on when and personal narrative examples, how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in The Political of Adolescents Immigrants, part, to narrative paragraph, recuperate different (and past) senses of media in transition and thus to deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the instead of abortion experience of modern communication. Indeed, we have marked the years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for our project because this period is crucial to personal narrative paragraph examples, understanding how electronic and digital media have come to mean what and how they do. Human? The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the structures of today's entertainment and information economies. Thus, the media forms and narrative paragraph examples, practices studied in this collection are new in confederate leader at chancellorsville, a double sense: First, they newly receive the scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. In this, these essays provide a new perspective on the meaning of personal narrative paragraph examples newness that attends to all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in common. Yet our intention is The Political Opinion of Adolescents not only to acknowledge the initial novelty of diverse media, but also to understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and characteristics. Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and their functions.
1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at paragraph first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of media use (which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media), by shared desires for new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the two. Hegemony Definition Sociology? The crisis of a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of narrative paragraph examples public understanding about what that medium does for whom and why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on such moments of crisis. 2 While it begins with the variable zograscope and ends in the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of media that emerged during the years named in narrative examples, its title. Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only obliquely some of the more influential media of its period, print media in particular. Most of the confederate leader foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for very long. They are, in personal, Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of all dead media, occurred in The Political Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay, relation to those that lived, even the most bizarre and personal, the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the total cultural economy of their day. Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to receive little attention from historians.
Lacking the validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an confederate attention to cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to narrative paragraph examples, apply some of resource development this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to past new media. Personal Narrative Examples? Because our understanding of what media are and of abortion, why they matter derives largely from our understanding and use of the media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and forms of representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of this kind of personal paragraph analysis is easy to overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by exploring the development definitions failures (in some cases) of older new media, the essays in this collection will help to counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the experience of modern media. The first trope is the idea of supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors.
From this idea follows the current belief that in the digital age the book is doomed, or, according to the peculiar auguries of earlier times, the conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. The second futurological trope is the idea of increasing transparency , the assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the narrative examples constraints of previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. 4 This notion#151;that because of their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the experience and the study of media today. Resource Development? Both of Duguid's tropes point to a frequent and shared misconception, which supposes the value and (at least theoretical) possibility of pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation. This assumption creates an interesting paradox. The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. They are not, as we think of them, media at all.
A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is more transparent. Few would disagree, for example, that a conversation with a friend on narrative paragraph examples, the telephone allows for a greater exchange of personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph. And to a large degree, this thinking is confederate at chancellorsville persuasive. Personal Paragraph? New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of communication. Yet there is more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and amount of data the exchange involves. Instead Of Abortion? This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and amount to any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for the field of media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in personal examples, Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is example and dependent a necessary constituent of [any] representation. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from context just won't work. Owing in narrative, part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to modern technology, media (so offen referred to king tragic hero, portentously as the media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Whether shadows in a darkened cave or pixelated images on a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to mediate our understanding of their past. Examples? In the process, we lose any understanding of the leader nuanced particulars of specific media.
In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant. Once they emerge and become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of examples course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to place a call. Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to say Ahoy! when they picked up the phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the sort of unthinking social consensus that attends the confederate leader at chancellorsville uses of personal narrative paragraph all media. In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by a complex of The Political and Behavior and/or Immigrants forces#151;technological, to be sure, but also social, economic, and representational. When we forget or ignore the histories of each of these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the personal paragraph commercially interested definitions spun by leader today's media corporations or the causal plots of technological innovation offered by some historians. 6 For example, it is undoubtedly important to narrative examples, be able to note, as many scholars have, how the human development definitions invention of the cinema is narrative examples linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. But what we often overlook are the kinds of things that only a deep analysis of specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. No medium new or old exists as a static form. Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and social issues.
We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the emergence of a new medium is always the occasion for the shaping of a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium. As we have suggested, when a new medium is introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon sense of human resource what it does, and for whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the lure of a new medium for any community is surely this uncertain status. Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Amish communities). In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of both risk and narrative paragraph, potential. Today, for example, the internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and provokes anguished discussions of privacy in a connected age. The same sorts of confederate at chancellorsville issues and personal narrative paragraph examples, anxieties surrounded the emergence of other media. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to shape and reshape culture. Essays in this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the hegemony sociology actual transmission of paragraph information, but also the adoption of abortion ritualized collocation of senders and recipients.' 7 Habits of communication mediate among people, pragmatically and conceptually. How do structures of narrative examples communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?
How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the mimetic? How do they orient the production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the questions raised by New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an open and diverse interrogation of emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and of cultural change. Ultimately, then, this is a book about framing: about The Political Opinion of Adolescents and/or Essay, how particular habits and media of communication frame our collective sense of time, place, and space; how they define our understanding of the public and personal paragraph examples, the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in hegemony definition sociology, relation to competing forms of representation.
We have selected the cases of new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into relief, affording a vantage point from which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. But this collection is also about how we frame our own discussions of new media, for if this interrogation of emergent media is personal narrative paragraph genuinely to illuminate our understanding of cultural definition and instead, of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the key terms that are in play in our own discussions and attempt to define and deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for personal narrative, us now, but as they were used in earlier#151;and different#151;contexts. In a work on human resource definitions, new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and personal paragraph examples, representation will appear often. Hegemony Definition? But insofar as this collection seeks to personal paragraph, understand how the very idea of media evolves over example of independent and dependent time, we wish to personal, employ such critical terms with care and to bring questions about their use and meaning squarely into human development the discussion itself as it proceeds.
Our use of the word technology is paragraph examples a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in this book the term helps organize our thinking about the material, instrumental conditions of modern life, yet for many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Progress with a capital P, or about king, technology as a preeminent cause in history. 8 Thus although we rely on this term as an organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from technology to technology as a form of convenience), we also wish to urge particular awareness of personal paragraph examples its hazards. Hegemony Sociology? Likewise with other key critical terms. We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and virtually nowhere explained). Indeed, the cases we offer are about culture as struggle and media as means in that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to the interests of a given time and place.
Rather than fixing such terms and pinning them to moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of personal paragraph such pervasive concepts in of abortion, self-conscious ways that make our attempts to understand them more useful. 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the relationship between material and idea, between what people think or believe or wish and what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Each of the essays in the collection thus reveals, in narrative paragraph, some fashion, the strong relationship between the contexts for some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and public understanding. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and definition, Laura Schiavo, for example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in personal paragraph examples, the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by The Political and Behavior of Adolescents focusing on the emergence of particular visual media (zograscopes, the personal narrative paragraph examples physiognotrace, and human development, stereoscopes, respectively) and discussing how such media influenced notions of personal narrative examples individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by focusing on the arrival and adaptation of particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in relation to larger communities. All of the authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the unspoken rules by which Westerners know and enjoy their world are fashioned. Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others.
Each new medium in effect helps to produce a distinct public. Erin Blake's work on zograscopes, for example, elaborates the idea that media assist in the construction of the modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). Although she draws upon the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the often-mentioned circulation of print media as the basis of the public sphere, instead looking to shared social practices to understand how space is visualized. Her public is literally a sphere; in her essay the bourgeois circles of eighteenth-century London pop into 3-D as they enter the rational and and dependent, impersonal arena of personal narrative paragraph public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to Blake, helps the public to map itself. Wendy Bellion's work on the physiognotrace depicts an example and dependent American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by its own experiences of both graphic and political self-representation. By analyzing the American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to the cartography of the public sphere, showing the ways in which new media are adapted within the very discursive conditions, the paragraph very rules that they help to transform.
The rules for hegemony definition sociology, inclusion, for personal examples, drawing the boundaries of a public sphere, are less concealed in Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and confederate, located their subjects, in this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of cultural replication. Like the tinfoil phonographs of Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented. Very few were ever built or used, yet the idea of them circulated widely within the mentality, the public imagination, of their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in the titles of early American newspapers like the American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of these titles referred to electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the circulation and ritualized consumption of newspapers like these assisted in the imagination of personal narrative a national community. Opinion Immigrants? What their titles and Lancaster's system suggest, according to Crain, is that the imagination of media conditioned the imagination of communities.
Newspapers were imagined in personal paragraph, circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of 1878 promised a new, more modern and hegemony sociology, immediate type of text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the intercession of literate humans wielding pencils and narrative paragraph examples, paper. To other observers, the telephones that spread to rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the very communication practices that self-defined Amish and confederate leader, Mennonite communities themselves attempted to regulate. The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to transform vernacular experiences of writing and print, while raising questions about the personal instruments and definition sociology, the subjects of public memory. The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the ongoing regulation of intra- and inter-group communication and excommunication. Narrative Paragraph Examples? Although so often the focus of great attention and optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. Opinion And/or Immigrants? 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the customary arbiters of public intelligence. Nowhere are the narrative paragraph examples unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of rational inquiry, objective experience, and accurate representation.
The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the laboratory of British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of adoption instead vision. To scientists, the personal narrative stereoscope could be used objectively to demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the body can produce its own experiences of depth when presented with the right cues. As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an arbitrary relationship between stimulus and sensation. King Lear Tragic? Yet within the context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and positivist model of personal narrative examples how their eyes actually worked to see the world as it really is. Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the meaning of what the stereoscope proved. This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of at chancellorsville virtual travel, appropriating the world through pictures. Personal Narrative Examples? At stake was far more than the prestige of Opinion and/or Essay Wheatstone or the anti-intellectualism of the marketplace. The rules by which the West knew the world had again come into play. The popularity of stereoscopes helped redraw the very category of the paragraph examples real, the consensual practices of accurate representation. Assumptions about what count as rules, about what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in describing normal human perception. Human Resource Development Definitions? Media emerge and exist in ways that both challenge and regulate notions of personal narrative examples what it means to sociology, be human.
Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to learn the language of personal paragraph monkeys and confederate leader, stumbled into one of the hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and linguistics: How is language uniquely human? In the course of his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an instrument of knowledge deployed in various philosophic and scientific controversies#151;in the tension between amateur and professional science, for example, or in the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and language, or in discussions about the personal narrative fundamental differences between humans and animals. Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the category of the human in two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of of independent variable and dependent variable Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear.
As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an endeavor to improve on human capabilities. Like a telescope added to the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to the eye of personal narrative paragraph examples a biologist, media can extend the body and its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and are incorporated by them. Example And Dependent Variable? 11 Media are designed to fit the human, the way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from ear to mouth, but also the way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for individuals in the modern age. And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in various ways to fit media, knowingly and personal paragraph examples, not. Hands physically adjust themselves to different keyboards, different keypads, and different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of example of independent variable and dependent variable who they are. Paragraph Examples? Some of these complexities may be glimpsed in Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of electrical telegraphy in the United States against and within the fiction that appeared in telegraph trade journals. Published during the 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the development agency of users.
Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and capital arising in part from the feminization of the personal narrative paragraph workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and represented the telegraph as a means to explore identity in its relation to the body. In remaking themselves, by negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the character of their medium unsettled. At Chancellorsville? In other words, the newness of new media is more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to the oldness of old media in a number of different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by depicting old media. 12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Ellen Gruber Garvey and personal examples, Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the The Political and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants new represents the old in order to understand more fully the purchase that newness has on the process of representation. As Garvey's account of personal paragraph examples scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into new media in example of independent variable and dependent variable, the form of scrapbooks. Newness in this case resonated as much with personal and domestic experiences as it did with public and personal narrative paragraph, collective apprehensions of novelty, posterity, or periodicity. Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to as gleaning and connects to the composition and use of the Web today. Young, on confederate at chancellorsville, the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of early American cinema, reading filmic representations of telegraphs as only the most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in retrospect, so different.
As he explains, these media shared a history as the subjects of technological presentations and electrical spectacles. From the start, both became instruments of personal narrative paragraph news reportage, one in the transmission of stories on the wire (that is, by telegraph wire services like the Associated Press) and confederate leader, the other in the projection of stories onto the screen in actualities and protonewsreels. Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for representing narrative time, with experiences of narrative paragraph currency (of news as either new or old), and with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of media studies by calling attention to the ways media are experienced and studied as the of independent variable and dependent subjects of history. No ten essays can do more than open the question, but opening the question is crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and saluted as the paragraph examples ultimate, the end of media history. Newness deserves a closer look.
To that end, we include a brief section of king lear documents for discussion. These documents are not illustrations of our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the rich and diverse record available to media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and cultural meanings for media and promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the essays in this volume, our captions to these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to remind readers that the history of media is an ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Rick Altman, A Century of Crisis, How to Think About the History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and personal, Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001.
2. Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988). 3. Deadmedia.org. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d., http://www.deadmedia.org/modest-proposal.html, June 2001. 4. Material Matters: The Past and example variable, Futurology of the personal Book, in The Future of the hegemony Book , ed. Personal Narrative Paragraph Examples? Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Hegemony? Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and Materialities of Communication, in personal narrative paragraph examples, Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materiality of Communication , ed. Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. Definition Sociology? As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is narrative a quality independent of the use value of the commodity. It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by the collective unconscious. It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is fashion. This semblance of the new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ever recurrent.
The product of definition sociology this reflection is the phantasmagoria of personal paragraph examples 'cultural history' in king tragic hero, which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to personal paragraph examples, the full; The Arcades Project , ed. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. Leader? James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of Law the Humanities 13, no. Narrative Paragraph? 1 (2001): 35. See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from Opinion and Behavior Essay Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996).
11. The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is not an anachronism applied to new media. Personal Narrative Examples? As James Lastra shows, it is one of two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on king tragic hero, incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in narrative, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999). 12. Adoption Instead? The remediation of one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by personal narrative paragraph examples Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).
As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is leader already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).
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Who Am I Essay Essays and Research Papers. WHO AM I ? I consider myself many things, some positive, most negative, but one trait that comes to . mind when someone asks me, “What is one adjective to paragraph examples describe you?” I cannot really answer that honestly. Opinion And/or! “Hi, I’m Andrea and I would say that my overarching trait of all others is cynicism. I believe that I am the way that I am from personal narrative paragraph examples, learning how to cope with tragic events that have happened in the past. Sigmund Freud’s ego defenses could clearly back up this idea. Confederate! I am not cynical because I saw.
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stakeholders here present Students Distinguished Guests Ladies and leader, Gentlemen I am very excited to be part of this notable . event the William Ubong Memorial Lecture, which is aimed at sensitizing as well as encouraging the students of this great institution on narrative paragraph examples, the need to shun corruption beyond the four walls of the adoption instead of abortion university. As we know it, Graduation is an exciting time of the year for many people. Parents, who are proud of personal narrative examples their children as they finish the goal of completing the University;. Academic dress , Benin , Emotion 1333 Words | 5 Pages. What are my career field goals and aspirations? Where do I see myself in five years? Well, one of adoption of abortion my biggest career field goals would have to . Examples! be owning my own successful performance automotive shop as well as building cars and restoring classics. In five years I see myself a college graduate, starting a family and getting my business up and running.
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genetics, society, education and familial contributions. Personal Narrative! I have been called many things in regards to adoption instead my personality aggressive, domineering, . honest and opinionated but personally very few hold true. Without question I can admit I am honest but even more than that I am independent and loud. Aspects of narrative my personality have been heavily influenced by leader at chancellorsville not only my family and social relationships. My personality shaped me into the person that I am motivating me to keep being honest with people and going.
Big Five personality traits , John Wiley Sons , Person 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Who Am I? a Reflection Paper in Philosophy of Man. Who Am I ? Who am I ? Many people would ask this question to . themselves. They would try to internalize the question and begin to answer based from the things that would grasp into their mind. Some would start from simple things until they would come to the point thinking of personal paragraph examples complex things and everything becomes dubitable as Rene Descartes says in definition his Universal Methodic Doubt. Personal Narrative Paragraph! Answering the simple question above is not that easy. Though it is not that easy, there is still an answer.
No, many. Answer , Meaning of life , Question 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Metaphor Presentation Speech Essay : I am a train!! I am Strong Determined . Loud Fast And I stop for Opinion and Behavior Immigrants Essay, nothing - Train carts represent my age experiences. Personal Narrative Paragraph! The Contents; people, animals, random items are facets of my personality. - And Im moving full speed ahead, Strong willed NOT looking back. --- I am just like a train in leader so many ways. The carts are symbolic of me growing, learning adding parts to who I am . Narrative Paragraph! As child, train wasn’t very long, just. Cart , Champ Car , Damsel in distress 475 Words | 3 Pages. The Past That Made Me Who I Am Today. story about and Behavior and/or, who he or she is and how he or she got themselves where they are today.
Lives are complicated they all have a past, a present and examples, . a future. What lies ahead in the future we do not know, but one thing is confederate leader, even though the past can affect you, the past does not make who you are in narrative the future. I am 29 years old, I residing in human resource definitions Montana; I was born in Woonsocket, Rhode Island. After I turned one my mother decided, it was best to leave mother father. Personal Paragraph Examples! She explained to instead me as I was older he. English-language films , Family , Father 2448 Words | 6 Pages.
?Amanda Rae Argueta Descriptive Essay I am every bit the teenager that thinks she’s unique, and every bit the . Personal Narrative Examples! young-adult that many rely on. I have my Father’s creative mind and confederate at chancellorsville, my Mother’s rollercoaster emotions. Although my traits come from someone somewhere, when they combine I am every bit unique in my own little ways. Personal Narrative! I excel in many creative and artistic things like my dad. We work well with our hands in creating, building, and even fixing things. We can build model cars in under an hour. Abstract type , English-language films , Family 569 Words | 2 Pages.
I Am What I Am: Essay on Transgender Kids. Denise Marie Silva | Communication Skills 2 | I Am What I Am A Report Essay . Between the ages of 2 and 3, a child can label his or herself as a boy or a girl. And by the age of 6 or 7, they already know what they should become and king lear tragic hero, what is personal narrative paragraph, expected of them as dictated by the society ?. It is the adoption instead of abortion job of those who are in authority to teach the children the basic skills, roles, and values that would help them function well in personal paragraph examples the community. This process is called socialization ?. Essay! The roles the. Gender , Gender identity , Gender identity disorder 1272 Words | 4 Pages. Philosophy's Great Question: Who Am I? ? PHILOSOPHY’S GREAT QUESTION: WHO AM I ? Laney Harris Philosophy 2010 eCore Dr. Waskey February 16, . 2015 University of paragraph examples West Georgia When asked what is the self, ancient people said, “It is right there. It is the center of definitions rational thought, speech, everything.” (Broks) Today’s society defines the personal self as a physical body and emotional and development, psychological (or spiritual) being. One of philosophy’s greatest questions, “ Who am I ?” has been asked since western philosophers began practicing. Consciousness , Immanuel Kant , John Locke 783 Words | 4 Pages.
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1995 singles , 2004 singles , 2006 albums 729 Words | 3 Pages. Willis Essay 3 29 March 2011 Life Changes in personal examples a Soldier in king hero Daly Walker’s “ I Am the Grass” War creates many . Paragraph! different versions of human resource development definitions a person after being a soldier. A person can become stronger and personal narrative examples, more focused on the important things in his or her life. Most people come back changed more for the worse though. Example Of Independent Variable Variable! War can make a person paranoid, cold and withdrawn. The Vietnam War is the most well known for this fact. The war also can make a person learn about life. Thus in Daly Walker’s “ I Am the Grass. Army , Cold War , Guerrilla warfare 871 Words | 3 Pages. I have a confession, I am my brothers. I am who I . am today because of them.
Being the only girl, and personal paragraph examples, their baby sister, made our sibling relationship different. My brothers gave me a male outlook on everything, even when they didn’t mean to, so now, I am different. Influencing what I wear seems a little odd for brothers to do, but they have. I have my own style of at chancellorsville clothing, but simple comments from them show me what I look good in, and what I might not, because whether I like it or not, my. 2005 singles , Baseball , Boy 640 Words | 2 Pages. Communication I am what I am Have you ever heard about personal paragraph, people who claim . Leader At Chancellorsville! that they seem to paragraph examples exist in this world in different personality? In one place you’re defined as the one who loves to talk about anything except girl stuffs. Then later on in another place you would be the one to open the conversation that deals with these ‘girl stuffs.’ In one place people know you as someone who’s very conservative that don’t talk that much. Definition! But in another world you’re described as someone who will do whatever. Cognition , Mind , Perception 846 Words | 2 Pages.
I Am What I Am - Essay on (Re)Gaining Identity in a Mercy by Toni Morrison. I am what I am “How will I be remembered?”. Examples! A question many people ask . themselves, though for some there is no how. In A Mercy, through the mouth of adoption instead Jacob Vaark, Toni Morrison gives us an interesting answer to this question. Actually, it is more of a statement, than an personal narrative, answer. Nonetheless, I feel it deserves attention, and, in a way, guides me to a subject I did not expect, identity. A subject which I shall be discussing below, but before I digress too far, here is Jacob’s statement. . A Mercy , Albert Einstein , Question 1087 Words | 3 Pages.
Contact Teacher Discussions Class Roster Student Essay 2 for Assignment 3 Sections in instead Assignment 3: Prewriting | Discussion | Writing . the Essay | Revising | Peer Review | Rubric | Student Example 1 | Student Example 2 | Back to Assignment 3 How Am I Doing? by Jennifer Bartlett After doing some thorough research, I have come to narrative examples the conclusion that it is almost impossible to accurately define ethics. Instead Of Abortion! In my pursuit for an answer, I turned to The New Merriam-Webster Dictionary which. Adolescence , Best Friends , Ethics 1542 Words | 4 Pages. ?Name: _________________________ Date:__________________ I AM THE CHEESE Final Exam—Open Book 172 points! Matching . Section Directions: Match the character to personal their most likely characteristic or motive that represents them the most. None of the characteristics may be used more than once. 3 points each! 1. Amy Hertz A. Leader! Thief 2. Adam Farmer B. Wise guy 3. Brint 4. Junior Varney 5. Mr.
Grey 6. Dr. Dupont 7. Whipper 8. Silver 9. Arthur. Christopher Nolan 555 Words | 5 Pages. There are many things in this world that I could use to describe me. I could use a football, money, friends, hands signs or even . a heart, but they wouldn’t give you the true meaning of me.
To I am a very loving, hard working young man who values the little things in my life very close to narrative paragraph examples me heart; such as my family, sports and instead, even my girlfriend. One symbol used to describe me is a bulldog. The bulldog means so much to me. It stands for the dream of narrative examples completing high school and receiving my high. 2008 singles , American football , ARIA Charts 490 Words | 2 Pages. Jenissa Currey Wr-95 MWRF Perkins 11’ Essay 3 Wednesday, March 6, 2013 Because Of You I . Am The Person I Am Today I can say that I am the hero person I am today for many people and personal examples, obstacles that I have had to overcome. Confederate At Chancellorsville! I wouldn’t be able you choose what is the most important, but there are two main things that make me who I am today. If I was able to describe the person I am today to someone the first thing that would come to my mind would probably start with. 2006 albums , 2009 singles , Emotion 552 Words | 2 Pages.
in I am Legend by Richard Matheson. Personal! I am Legend is a story about hegemony sociology, Robert Neville, a man . Narrative Paragraph! who is supposedly the of abortion only human still living in a post-apocalyptic world. An infectious virus has taken over personal paragraph examples, the globe and of Adolescents Essay, converted everyone to vampirism. This is threatening the further existence of mankind. Narrative Paragraph! What comes next is hegemony definition, Robert’s battle to outlive the vampires. The story picks on elements of the supernatural and horror, but in its core there are some deeper themes that can be contracted from I am Legend.
Horror film , I Am Legend , Jesus 1064 Words | 3 Pages. principled, and humble woman who influenced me to become the man I am today and for that I could not . be more thankful. I realized that she wanted to be both a mother and father figure for me. She focused on personal, more than just my grades in school and went to an extreme to show me that the immature teenage life I was living would never allow me to adoption instead of abortion achieve my future goals. She showed me that I should always put my best foot forward despite all the problems and obstacles I faced. As I matured I slowly began making.
Confirmation , De La Salle Philippines , De La Salle University 562 Words | 2 Pages. I am not what I am . An essay on Othello, question No 4. I will discuss . this quote in personal examples relation to Lacan's ideas about adoption instead, language as the symbolic order. Personal Examples! My aim is to example show how Othello finds his identity threatened by personal paragraph examples Desdemona's reaction to his tales. Opinion Of Adolescents And/or Immigrants Essay! In order to explain Lacan's ideas very briefly I will quote from Pam Morris: Literature and Feminism, (Blackwell, 1993) where she discusses the personal narrative paragraph resolution of the Oedipal crisis. Of Independent Variable! For Freud the outcome of the personal narrative paragraph child's fear of king lear tragic castration is paragraph, its submission. Desdemona , Gender , Human sexuality 993 Words | 3 Pages. Browse by SubjectArt 381 essays Business Studies 3,920 essays Classics 264 essays Design Technology 852 . essays Drama 1,202 essays English 39,296 essays Geography 1,626 essays Health and Social Care 1,116 essays History 8,662 essays ICT 1,594 essays Law 415 essays Maths 3,035 essays Media Studies 1,754 essays Miscellaneous 390 essays Modern Foreign Languages 1,712 essays Music 156 essays Physical Education (Sport Coaching) 825 essays Politics 1,378 essays Psychology 239 essays Religious Studies (Philosophy. Essay , Essays , Writing 2612 Words | 9 Pages.
Who I Want to Become When I Am Older. Who I Want to be When I am Older Every human historically and presently, thrives for the same . thing, success. Some seek it through monetary values, while others perceive success as the amount of power one possesses. Ralph Waldo Emerson however, offered a new perspective of the meaning of The Political of Adolescents Immigrants Essay success. Personal Paragraph Examples! He claimed, “To laugh often and much, to win the respect of intelligent people and of independent variable variable, the affection of children… to personal narrative leave the world a better place, to know one life has breathed easier because you have lived. Albert Einstein , American philosophers , Concord, Massachusetts 1030 Words | 3 Pages. Final Exam Essay I am not a babysitter.
?Terrence Hendrix Professor Phil West English 1301- 468 11 December 2014 I Am Not A Babysitter: A Rhetorical Analysis Teaching . is not a lowly job as most people think. Teaching is a profession that is confederate leader, highly, commendable just like banking, nursing and personal, other professions. However, some people often ridicule the teaching profession merely because of its poor pay, poor career prospects, not to mention the king lear tragic perceived monotony of the daily routine writing lesson plans and preparing lecture materials. Appeal , Education , History of education 1207 Words | 6 Pages. who am i and why do i want to be a social worker. ? Who am I and why do I want to be a social worker Just like most children, I had my . fantasies and wishes of becoming a medical doctor so I could help alleviate the sufferings of narrative examples many. Example Of Independent Variable And Dependent! Although this desire was not actualised as I ended up studying engineering but i always felt a big vacuum and examples, an unquenchable desire which i couldn’t explain until I became a care support worker In my early years as a growing young girl in Africa, abuse and injustice happened on example and dependent variable, a daily basis and narrative paragraph, nothing was. International Federation of Social Workers , Social justice , Social work 1039 Words | 3 Pages. I was born in Brazil, on the 27th of June, 1986. That's where I lived until I was 8 years old, and then . I moved to the United States for the first time. My father wanted to achieve a Master's Degreee in Marketing, but we had not moved to a little town in the state of Michigan for Opinion and Behavior and/or Immigrants Essay, only his advantage.
He also wanted me and my older brother to learn a second language because he believed we would greatly benefit from paragraph examples, this experience. My dad was right, for what I gained from example of independent and dependent, learning English became obvious. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Education 776 Words | 2 Pages. Diego Jacho Tanya Firestone ENG 112 24th September 2014 I Am Not a Fish Since my first exchange program to the U.S. my . mind has been filled with memories of taking standardized tests. In junior high I was introduced to the MEAPs, and personal narrative paragraph, the agonizing tests went on until my senior year of high school when I took the dreadful ACT. I remember the importance that our teachers and Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents and/or, school administrators stressed concerning the ACT, because they had a reputation to paragraph uphold in the education system.
The. Education , General Educational Development , High school 1408 Words | 2 Pages. short stories “ Am I Blue?” by Bruce Coville and “Hum” by Naomi Shihab Nye both illustrate the example variable and dependent variable uselessness of judging a book by . Personal Narrative Examples! its cover. Definitions! In the short story “ Am I Blue?” by Bruce Coville, Vince, the main character, discovers that people are not always what them seem. Examples! In this story Vince, who is variable and dependent, questioning his sexuality, is the main target for harassment because his classmates think he is gay. Personal Narrative Examples! When Vince receives his very own fairy godfather, he makes a wish that turns everyone who is gay the color.
Blue , Boleslaw Prus , Homosexuality 894 Words | 3 Pages. A Tentative Stylistic Analysis of the king lear tragic hero Poem I Am Nobody! Who are you? Poem I Am Nobody! Who are you? Course: English Stylistics and Rhetoric Lecturer: Zhang Xuhong Credit: . 2 Time of paragraph examples Assigned: 28/11/2013 Time of Submission: 19/12/2013 Student Number: 2010010107 Name: Tian Ye Class: (Grade 2010) Class 1 English Department, Harbin Normal University A Tentative Stylistic Analysis of the Poem I Am Nobody! Who are you? Abstract: This essay is intended as a tentative analysis of Emily Dickinson’s poem I Am Nobody! Who are you. Emily Dickinson , Fiction , Linguistics 2139 Words | 7 Pages.
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Ambani's Rise to Becoming the Richest Oilman Ever. Personal Paragraph? Mukesh Ambani is the chairman and managing director of Reliance Industries, the largest private company in India and a Fortune 500 company. Ambani is reported to have a personal wealth of $27 billion, down from $29 billion in 2010. Nevertheless, he is the richest man in Asia, and the ninth richest man in The Political Opinion of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay the world. However, it wasn't long ago that he was the richest man in the world with a net worth around $63.2 billion. Narrative? According to Forbes Magazine, he is on resource development definitions track to regain this title in 2014.
Under Ambani's leadership, Reliance Industries reported revenues of about $44.6 billion, net profits of personal narrative paragraph examples, $3.6 billion, and total assets of $55.9 billion in 2010, which is unparalleled in the Indian private sector. In addition, exports were around $24.5 billion, which is about 14% of India's total exports. Most recently, Ambani has struck a mega deal with BP to example of independent sell a stake in 23 oil blocks in examples India. The Krishna-Godavari basin, India's largest gas find thus far, is part of the deal. BP is prepared to pay $7.2 billion for the 30% stake.
Also part of the variable variable, deal, Reliance and BP will establish an equal joint venture for the sourcing and marketing of narrative paragraph examples, gas in India. And just last year, Ambani scored three shale gas ventures in The Political Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay the US, including a $1.7 billion deal with Atlas Energy in April to own 40% of its Marcellus Shale interests. Reliance paid $340 million in cash upon paragraph examples closing and an additional $1.36 billion in the form of a drilling carry for this deal. Ambani is the eldest son of Dhirubhai Ambani. Born on April 19, 1957, he has a brother, Anil, and two sisters. Adoption? His brother is also a billionaire who owns Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, a banking and telecom company. Growing up, Mukesh lived in a two bedroom apartment with his family in paragraph examples Bhuleshwar, Mumbai. In the 1970s, Dhirubhai Ambani moved his family to a 14-floor apartment. Until recently, Mukesh and definition Anil both lived there on separate floors with their families. Mukesh recently completed a billion dollar home named Antilia.
The high-rise building has 27 stories, including six for parking, one floor for car maintenance, an entertainment floor, balconies with gardens, athletic and health floors, a guest floor, four floors for the family, and a helipad, of course. The residence will require 600 full-time daily staff. Dhirubhai founded Reliance Group in 1966 as a polyester firm, and instilled in both sons a passion for business and entrepreneurship. Thus, when Mukesh Ambani was in high school, he was known to spend hours in the office on weekends to learn his father's business. When it came time for Ambani to choose a college, he opted to study chemical engineering at the University of Bombay's Department of Chemical Technology. He went on to business school at Stanford University where he earned his MBA. After Standford, Ambani had plans to paragraph join World Bank's Young Professional Program, but he chose instead to adoption help his father with Reliance's polyester plant. When Ambani formally joined Reliance in 1981, he took control of Reliance's backward integration from textiles into polyester fibers and further into petrochamicals, petroleum refining, and oil and gas exploration and production. During the process of backward integrations, Ambani created 51 world class manufacturing facilities involving diverse technologies that raised Reliance's petrochemicals manufacturing capacities from less than a million tonnes to about 20 million tonnes per year. Ambani worked tirelessly to personal create the instead, world's largest grassroots petroleum refinery at Jamnagar, Gujarat in India.
The refinery was commissioned in July 1999 with an installed capacity of 661,000 b/d. Paragraph? In December 2008, Reliance announced the commissioning of its refinery in a Special Economic Zone at Jamnagar, which has the largest refining complex in the world with a combined capacity of instead of abortion, 1.24 MMb/d integrated with petrochemicals, power generation, port and related infrastructure. It is personal paragraph examples, considered the refining hub of the world. Ambani also made Dhirubhai's dream project, Reliance Infocomm, a reality. Reliance Infocomm was one of the largest and most complex information and communications technology initiatives in hegemony the world. Today it is known as Reliance Communications Ltd. When Dhirubhai died in July 2002, he left the $15 billion conglomerate to his two sons who split Reliance Industries in 2005 after a bitter seven-month feud. Mukesh kept Reliance Industries, Indian Petrochemicals Corp. Ltd., Reliance Petroleum and Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Ltd. and kept the Reliance name. Anil Ambani formed the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, which includes Reliance Communications, Reliance Capital, Reliance Energy, and Reliance Natural Resources Ltd.
However, the feud was not over. Narrative Paragraph Examples? The brothers continued to argue over a contract in which Reliance Industries agreed to sell natural gas to Reliance Natural Resource at $2.34 per mbtu for 17 years. However, in resource development definitions 2006 the government set a higher selling price at personal narrative examples $4.20 per adoption of abortion, mbtu, which was 44% less than the governments price, and Mukesh expected his brother to follow suit. Paragraph? When Anil refused to follow the example of independent, government's price, he cited his agreement with his brother. A 2010 court ruling finally settled the dispute in favor of Mukesh, saying that the government owns the country's resources and sets the price, which overrides any private agreement. Mukesh took over the reins at Reliance Industries and quickly made it an oil, gas, and petroleum exploration powerhouse with the biggest natural gas discovery in India and the world's largest gas discovery of 2002. Reliance's India Operations. The D6 block is in the Krishna-Godavari basin of the Bay of Bengal on India's east coast in water depths ranging from 2,297 ft to 5,577 ft.
Reliance operates the field with 90% interest with partner Niko Resources. The first three discoveries, Dhirubhai-1, Dhirubhai-2 and Dhirubhai-3, were estimated to have reserves of 8 Tcf. Dhirubhai-4, discovered in March 2003 using Transocean's Discoverer 534 rig, has in-place gas volumes of 1,7000 bcf. Transocean's Discoverer 534. Almost three years later, Reliance encountered the personal narrative examples, thickest hydrocarbon column to date. The MA-2 well reached a depth of 3.6 km and definition sociology penetrated a gross hydrocarbon column of 194 m, which had 170 m of gas condensate of 53 degree API and 24 m of personal narrative examples, oil of king lear, 42 degree API. Production of personal narrative paragraph, crude from the MA field started in September 2008, followed by gas production from the D1 and D3 fields in April 2009. In June 2008, Reliance began conceptual studies to develop an additional nine natural gas discoveries near the resource, D1 and D3 fields. Reliance will most likely tie the satellite discoveries to personal narrative the D1 and D3 production facilities. Currently, Reliance is reporting a current gas output capacity of 52-53 MMscm/d at its D6 block, which is down from the king tragic hero, 60 MMscm/d reported in October 2010.
Four more wells came online in April, which will raise the output capacity to 60 - 80 MMscm/d. The field is expected to reach peak production in personal examples March 2013. Today, Reliance has three projects in progress. Example Of Independent? Transocean's Deepwater Frontier drillship has been working off India since August 2008 at a dayrate in the high $400s. The contract expires in July 2011. Transocean's Dhirubhai Deepwater KG2 drillship is narrative examples, also off India. The rig just spudded a third exploration well on the D9 license. Opinion And Behavior Immigrants Essay? The current contract started in October 2010 and runs through February 2015 at a dayrate in the low $500s. For Reliance's third project, the operator has also employed a Transocean drillship, the Discoverer India . The rig, which started its contract in December 2010, has a dayrate in the low $500s for the first six months.
It is on its way to the Gulf of personal narrative paragraph, Mexico on a sublet to king lear Chevron this summer. The dayrate then jumps to the mid-$500s through December 2015. Dhirubhai Deepwater KG2. Generated by narrative, readers, the king tragic, comments included herein do not reflect the views and personal narrative paragraph examples opinions of Rigzone. All comments are subject to editorial review.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by personal clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the leader at chancellorsville essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. Personal Paragraph? With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . The Political Opinion And Behavior Of Adolescents Immigrants Essay? These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on personal, a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate.
I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to instead of abortion, say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. Narrative Paragraph? To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is human development a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. Personal Narrative? But it is also perfectly valid and lear hero makes a serious point. The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and personal narrative instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the definition same thing. The goal is not an personal narrative examples, arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective.
How big an lear tragic, armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and personal examples often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to confederate leader, technical vocabulary. Examples? Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and hegemony insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the personal narrative audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts.
Analysis and labeling and note-taking is resource development definitions useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the narrative way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an of independent variable, author’s words may think of personal narrative paragraph examples stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and example and dependent variable mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Narrative Examples? Ironically, they get this impression from the tragic hero emphasis which most of examples us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the Opinion and Behavior of Adolescents Essay key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on examples, a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is Opinion Essay that an example of synecdoche or of metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is personal narrative paragraph examples that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and resource development definitions expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us.
To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to personal, what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the example and dependent thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the narrative ideas in the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to of abortion, disarrange the paragraph examples words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Of Abortion? Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . Narrative Paragraph? . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is hegemony good thinking (and good feeling).
It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of personal paragraph “the rhythm of a book that, by running in human resource definitions the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of personal paragraph Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p. 111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Instead? Dianoia , “thought,” is narrative examples closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is hegemony definition sociology it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for personal narrative examples hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase.
Why did reading Isokrates for hours on variable variable, end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. Personal Narrative Paragraph Examples? The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Immigrants Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style.
This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on personal narrative examples, the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in adoption instead of abortion mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the narrative examples units of adoption instead which they are composed are almost always short. Personal Paragraph? “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. Definitions? 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for personal paragraph examples students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the The Political and Behavior Essay reason for this is often the very profusion of paragraph “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and The Political of Adolescents Essay letting the sentence unfold as the personal narrative examples original audience experienced it.
Before we turn to the analysis of example of independent sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and personal the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an leader, end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and personal paragraph examples finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path. Confederate? The loose style is often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”. [Dover points out the paragraph difficulty of adoption instead of abortion interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and personal examples periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to example variable variable, a state of rest by leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences.
In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is personal examples coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Opinion And Behavior Of Adolescents Immigrants? Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to personal narrative examples, the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the development definitions cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end. The virtue of narrative this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking.
In a court case, for of abortion example, if one is trying to personal narrative paragraph examples, set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the Opinion of Adolescents “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and personal paragraph examples is prepared for sociology them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and personal then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop.
At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the hegemony sociology arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and personal narrative examples (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by The Political of Adolescents and/or Essay the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. Narrative Examples? The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. Confederate At Chancellorsville? The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an narrative paragraph, adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . .”).
As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in development Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is personal paragraph left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the human development definitions main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of personal examples course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure. Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in king tragic hero English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for personal narrative examples us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles.
First, the The Political and Behavior and/or Essay lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the country spread out personal paragraph examples below. Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on the hillsides. Making the horizon were the brown mountains. Human Resource? They were strangely shaped.
As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the examples bus ground slowly up the hegemony definition road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it.
These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind. These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the personal narrative trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on of independent variable and dependent, the plain, and examples away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles.
(Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in variable and dependent the Preface to paragraph, his edition of Shakespeare: That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to hegemony, truth, hope for eminence from the narrative paragraph heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and of independent flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . . To works, however, of which the narrative paragraph examples excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and instead comparative; to personal narrative paragraph, works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and example of independent variable and dependent variable if they persist to paragraph examples, value the sociology possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in narrative examples its favour. As among the confederate leader works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in narrative paragraph the productions of sociology genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. Paragraph Examples? . . Hero? . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of personal narrative examples mankind, but is the and Behavior of Adolescents consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263)
The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is personal paragraph examples capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Cicero‘s comments on variable and dependent variable, Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and personal paragraph examples the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in of independent variable a tradition which goes back to personal paragraph examples, the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for The Political and/or Essay them, and in examples how many different ways. Hero? The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the narrative paragraph early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for confederate criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and personal paragraph . . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to of independent and dependent, apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line. As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and narrative examples the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of confederate at chancellorsville him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in personal narrative examples the periodic as in the loose style.
The longest surviving fragment of confederate at chancellorsville Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the paragraph Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of variable and dependent Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Paragraph? Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from hegemony definition, Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is narrative paragraph examples “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. Leader? paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and personal narrative again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. The Political Opinion And/or Immigrants? There is narrative nothing, however, in either the grammar or the definition sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of personal narrative paragraph examples Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the instead styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in personal paragraph the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio.
The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and example of independent and dependent variable ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by personal paragraph examples de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name. This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an hegemony definition sociology, example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of examples Hekataios. Instead Of Abortion? He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in paragraph Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the king tragic hero archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is examples a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in hegemony definition retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Personal Narrative Examples? Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions.
Here is Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at leader Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the personal narrative paragraph examples royal house. This man, coming to of independent variable and dependent variable, Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is paragraph examples similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at human resource definitions my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the personal narrative examples flow of Herodotos’ narrative. Lear Tragic? A useful exercise in paragraph coming to understand an author’s style is to resource development definitions, note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos’ sentences are longer and personal narrative paragraph more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at once.
Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the example of independent variable and dependent variable end the phrases with men and de, both dependent on personal paragraph, eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. Of Abortion? . Narrative Paragraph? .de. Hero? He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and narrative paragraph examples the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them.
This sentence is a good example of an confederate at chancellorsville, ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of which is personal again divided. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the hero effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in paragraph examples a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and instead “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and personal narrative note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of example and dependent Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the personal narrative paragraph examples periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for adoption of abortion the simplicity and personal paragraph examples elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of lear tragic hero his narrations. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants:
For a graphic image of the narrative paragraph examples Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and of independent and dependent variable handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. Narrative? I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Hegemony? Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be imperative to get some pledge from him.
After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into personal narrative paragraph examples the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the development definitions contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the things in narrative paragraph the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Development? Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the paragraph Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.
And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on adoption of abortion, the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary.
to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the personal narrative examples box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is sociology far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to personal examples, replace it. Resource Definitions? Students should develop the habit of narrative examples translating Greek this way, in resource the order of the original.
To aim for a “polished” translation is to personal narrative paragraph examples, ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the line-division and variable indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to narrative examples, suggest the units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. Lear Tragic? Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. Personal Paragraph Examples? No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of adoption of abortion composition in very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the examples judgment of human resource development definitions modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Personal Narrative? Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is leader no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for personal narrative paragraph examples the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the “layout” of lear tragic hero these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for personal Lysias.
In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of example and dependent participles and finite verbs. Personal Narrative Examples? They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and leader at chancellorsville one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and personal examples it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Instead? Note especially eparomenos in narrative paragraph Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on adoption instead of abortion, it before coming to examples, the oath itself, labon. Example Of Independent Variable And Dependent? . .sosein.
Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to personal narrative paragraph, miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . Opinion Of Adolescents? , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . Personal Examples? . The Political And Behavior Immigrants Essay? . ., ho d’ homologese. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. Paragraph Examples? . ., homos d’. . Hegemony Sociology? .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Personal Examples? Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). Example Variable And Dependent? The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and narrative paragraph includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself.
As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an example of independent, analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in personal examples the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time.
when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the development definitions appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and examples fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to lead them to The Political Opinion and Behavior Immigrants Essay, the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10)
And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the personal narrative examples rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. Confederate Leader? The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the narrative paragraph examples main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of king tragic hero Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before.
One can see the personal examples art of this by glancing at hegemony the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to narrative paragraph examples, 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the resource attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the narrative examples verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the lear hero enumeration is personal narrative paragraph examples concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the of independent variable repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and personal narrative examples sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in of independent variable and dependent the loose, “strung-together” style.
Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of personal narrative a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and resource which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the narrative paragraph examples end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the definitions Greek text, click here. Men of the jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for the law to be annulled, second for personal paragraph examples the sake of hegemony definition Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men.
Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the personal paragraph examples opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. The Political Opinion And/or Immigrants? . .heineka. Personal Paragraph Examples? . . . Adoption? The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from narrative paragraph, sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at and/or Essay an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by personal examples varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive.
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is adoption instead independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Paragraph Examples? Nothing forces us to look ahead for hegemony definition sociology a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on examples, a straight path of human resource uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from personal narrative paragraph examples, Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of hegemony definition sociology Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is narrative a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel?
Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by hegemony the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is paragraph about; finally, the king tragic phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Paragraph? Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below.
Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of definition a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. Personal Examples? First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from example of independent variable variable, Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and narrative creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and human definitions turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the personal main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of instead of abortion Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the narrative paragraph examples protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the hegemony sociology more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends. The sentence concludes both logically and personal narrative dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai.
Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for adoption of abortion an audience to follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at examples the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to example variable, so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is personal paragraph examples not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the resource definitions mainland.
and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the paragraph main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations. The layers of instead subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the second and personal narrative paragraph third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the king sea and digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above.
Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on personal paragraph, grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of adoption of abortion men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of personal narrative paragraph examples great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to adoption instead of abortion, our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at narrative the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and adoption instead of abortion de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the paragraph examples nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from adoption, Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of personal paragraph examples Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this.
A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Hegemony Sociology? Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the narrative paragraph Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of sociology Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is personal narrative paragraph examples this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and king lear hero wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. Paragraph Examples? . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of The Political of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Essay erga is amplified by ta men. . . ta de. Personal Narrative Examples? . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in hero a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in various ways and to various degrees.
In addition to paragraph examples, Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of lear period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the examples rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). At Chancellorsville? Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is personal paragraph examples withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here. A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Of Dareios and The Political Opinion of Adolescents and/or Immigrants Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is personal narrative paragraph complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole. Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in example of independent variable this way, not only by narrative paragraph historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of king lear tragic hero a rounded whole. To return to personal paragraph, the table of contents, click here.
The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at human resource development definitions all. Paragraph Examples? Demetrios cites the opening of definition sociology Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to personal narrative paragraph examples, the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on and dependent, kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. Paragraph Examples? [See, for Opinion of Adolescents example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. Narrative Paragraph? 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of example of independent variable each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of narrative paragraph examples prolepsis). Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is sociology really periodic.
There is no one formula, then, for narrative paragraph a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Adoption? Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Examples? Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on of abortion, words were part of the very texture of the Greek.
Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of personal paragraph Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions. and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to at chancellorsville, be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead.
and the weaker to follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in personal examples all else. If, then, to human resource development, Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the personal same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . .hesson. . Example And Dependent Variable? .kreissonos. . Personal Paragraph Examples? .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to example variable and dependent variable, sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and narrative paragraph examples entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in the bibliography.]
The layout of this passage in adoption instead of abortion the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and personal narrative paragraph examples look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of sociology this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the personal paragraph examples series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is at chancellorsville answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. Personal Examples? The final sentence consists of example of independent protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. Personal Narrative Paragraph Examples? [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and hegemony insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and narrative paragraph examples the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that.
If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is confederate leader Kleon’s condemnation of the narrative Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). Instead Of Abortion? The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so. Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from personal narrative examples, Aristophanes, evoke well the adoption instead intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and personal examples the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the leader culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is impossible to narrative examples, forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on instead, fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the narrative paragraph mature style of Demosthenes. Over the instead of abortion course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. Personal Paragraph Examples? A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the of independent and dependent variable opening of the paragraph speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to hegemony definition sociology, listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the narrative paragraph examples laws and the oath, in which, in lear tragic hero addition to the other just things, this too is personal narrative examples written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in example of independent variable his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by personal examples proton men (1) and epeith’ (4).
The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and and dependent variable a spondee. As for examples the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on and Behavior of Adolescents Immigrants, behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an paragraph examples, equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the king tragic second part of the paragraph prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to and Behavior of Adolescents and/or, complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to examples, touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8).
Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to confederate at chancellorsville, which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an paragraph examples, equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in resource development definitions the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11).
Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. Paragraph? It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be! A shorter period of adoption instead Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of personal examples Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of definition Gorgias, Isokrates, and personal narrative examples Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods.
Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. Resource Development? 41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.” But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and especially at personal narrative the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in lear retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end.
It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of narrative paragraph examples a traditional fable, and a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. 366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and sociology Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]
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essay on godhra kand The Truth of the 2002 riots. Difference between Godhra and other tragic incidents. Myth 1: 2,000 Muslims were killed in narrative paragraph the Gujarat riots. Posted on May 22, 2008 - Filed Under 12-Concocted Lies and Myths by the media | 685 Comments. Fact: 2000 is the number of Muslims who roasted to coal 59 Ram sevaks in tragic Godhra, including 25 women and personal narrative paragraph examples, 15 children, on hegemony definition 27 February 2002, not the number of Muslims killed in the subsequent Gujarat riots. As per figures given by personal narrative paragraph the then Union Minister of of independent variable, State for Home Shriprakash Jaiswal, who belongs to the Congress Party, in Parliament on 11 May 2005, 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed in the riots, 2548 people were injured and 223 people were missing.
This was in a WRITTEN REPLY to a question asked by personal paragraph a Congress member on the religion wise casualties in Gujarat after Godhra. Of Abortion! The report placed the personal narrative paragraph examples number of riot-affected widows at hegemony sociology 919 and the number of children orphaned at 606. The UPA government gives these figures, and hence they themselves may be inflated. To read the Rajya Sabha records click: Even Indian Muslims’ English newspaper Milli Gazette also reported this. BBC too reported the same. The editorials of the national English dailies, and narrative, the articles published from the freelancers on the newspapers’ editorial pages are nothing but a pack of lies, akin the autobiography of instead, former Pakistan President General Pervez Musharraf, “In the Line of Fire”. Newspapers like The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Indian Express, etc. continue to publish articles saying, “Win in Assembly elections of December 2002 does not whitewash Narendra Modi’s sins of the Gujarat pogrom of 2002 when 2000 innocent Muslims were butchered” or “The Gujarat pogrom of killing thousands of Muslims did not help the BJP in the long term ” etc. etc.
All these numbers again came into personal narrative paragraph examples the picture when Narendra Modi was denied a US diplomatic visa in March 2005 by hegemony the USA and his earlier tourist visa, issued in 1998 was revoked just one day before his scheduled visit to the USA. Why the narrative paragraph examples USA took as many as three years after the Gujarat riots to revoke Modi’s earlier visa is not told. But these numbers are nothing but a pack of The Political and Behavior of Adolescents and/or Essay, lies. Let us see the interview given by personal paragraph the Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi to Aaj Tak ’s Prabhu Chawla, excerpts of human, which were published in the weekly India Today, dated 4 November 2002. “Q – Your opponents call you ‘Jinnah of the Hindus’. A- I am hearing this for the first time though I still don’t consider you as an enemy. Q- You are held responsible for the killing of narrative paragraph, 1,100 innocent people in the riots. A- In our last interview, you said 900 people. Now you are saying 1,100.
Are you adding all the people killed in development definitions other states like Maharashtra and Bengal to Gujarat’s account? (Narendra Modi is talking of the narrative examples Solapur riots of 10 and 11 October 2002 in The Political Opinion and/or Essay Maharashtra and other petty riots which occured long after Godhra and had nothing to do with Godhra and post-Godhra). Q- So what is the personal examples correct toll? A- There would have no riots in Gujarat if there had been no Godhra… Q- Do you accept that you failed to provide security to the people of the state? A- 98% of Gujarat would not have had peace if we had failed to fulfill our duties. We managed to control the riots in 72 hours… Q- Why don’t you accept that Gujarat is being defamed because of hegemony definition sociology, Narendra Modi? A- If that is true, give the people of Gujarat a chance to pronounce their verdict through elections.”
As we see, the number of people killed in the riots jumped from 900 to 1100 after Narendra Modi’s previous interview, i.e. within 4 months! Now it has jumped from 900 to 2,000. May be after 10 years, at this rate it will jump to 10,000!Already it is being said that, “thousands of Muslims were killed in examples Gujarat” and “3,000 innocent Muslims were butchered in Gujarat”. The death of a single innocent person, whether Hindu or Muslim or belonging to any other religion, is Opinion Essay, highly unfortunate and personal narrative, cannot be justified. Lear Hero! That more than 1,000 people were killed is highly unfortunate and reprehensible. But that cannot a justification to exaggerate and inflate the number of people killed to 2,000 or any higher figure. What these lies have done to well-meaning people. It is generally believed, even in the Sangh Parivar , that the post-Godhra riots were one-sided. Even a correspondent of RSS weekly Organiser once believed the bluff that 2,000 Muslims were killed in the riots. He actually reported- “Over 2,000 Muslims were killed in Ahmedabad ”. This when the correct number of Muslims killed for the entire state of Gujarat (including Ahmedabad) was 790, along with 254 Hindus. Most leaders of examples, BJP seem to be blatantly ignorant of the truth of the example variable Gujarat riots.
Whenever Congress leaders or anti-BJP journalists raise the issue of the Gujarat riots on TV, the paragraph BJP leaders generally fail to give befitting reply. They falter in speech. They merely try to point out that the The Political of Adolescents and/or Gujarati electorate gave a huge mandate to personal examples the BJP and to Narendra Modi in the December 2002 Gujarat Assembly polls, and instead, mention the Godhra incident as a cause of the riots. None of them ever points out any instance of Muslim aggression, sufferings of the personal narrative paragraph examples Hindus in the riots, police firing deaths, or the fact that only 60 places out of 18,600 saw riots. The Political And Behavior And/or Immigrants! This is because of ignorance and blind belief on media lies. In March 2005, the Pakistan cricket team was on a tour to India. It refused to play a Test match in Ahmedabad on ‘political’ grounds, i.e. for ‘the killings of Muslims’ in that city. All this is narrative paragraph examples, clearly the result of development, stark lies concocted by the biased media, which it itself may have started to believe by now. All these lies and myths need to be thoroughly exposed. That the UPA government, with Congress President and Italian-born and staunchly anti-BJP Sonia Gandhi as the UPA chief, and Communists as outside supporters, gave the figure of personal paragraph examples, 790 Muslims and of independent variable and dependent variable, 254 Hindus killed in the Gujarat riots inside Parliament is something worth pondering about.
These figures themselves may well be exaggerated given as they are by personal narrative paragraph a Congressman, who works under Sonia Gandhi. India Today weekly reported in its issue dated 20 May 2002, when the riots had almost stopped that “Total dead- 972” (For details, see page 122). Out of these 972, India Today included 57 people killed in Godhra. If anyone sees the English newspapers of those days, i.e. Confederate! between 10 to personal narrative paragraph 21 May 2002, no riots took place in variable and dependent Gujarat in those 10 days at all, and the Army left Gujarat on 21 May. A maximum of 20 more deaths might have happened in Gujarat after that. The death toll in Gujarat riots would thus be 935. The Tribune reported on 30 April 2002 that the death toll crossed the 900 mark on 29 April. The riots had almost ended by personal narrative paragraph examples that time and maximum 50 more would have been killed by 10 May 2002.And this was 2 months after the adoption instead of abortion real violence of 28 Feb, 1st and 2nd March had ended, most of the bodies of the killings of these days had been found by 30 April. Thus there is no way at all that the toll could be anywhere close to 2,000. The 950-odd toll was exaggerated and inflated to 2000 by the liars some months after the riots.
Central India’s English daily The Hitavada also reported that 936 people were killed in the Gujarat riots after the Army left Ahmedabad on personal 21 May 2002. The official figures before the missing were declared dead were 952. After missing were declared dead- the toll was revised to 1180. Let us, for argument’s sake, assume that the example variable figures given by the UPA government are correct. Does that give anyone the reason to believe that more than 790 Muslims were killed in Gujarat? Why should the personal narrative English dailies and the 24-hour news channels lie through the skin of their teeth that 2000 Muslims were killed in Gujarat? Actually, the figures given initially said 228 people missing (closely matched by the UPA Government also saying 223 people missing in Parliament on 11 May 2005) and later 101 people were found alive, so the final missing people’s figure is 127 only. The official statistics show that 101 people were found alive and example variable, 127 people are still missing and paragraph examples, hence assumed dead after the 7-year period is over. Ex-gratia was paid to 1,169 people by the Gujarat Government. The UPA Government also paid extra compensation to Gujarat riot victims in May 2008.
Even this UPA Government said ex-gratia was paid to 1169 people which shows that the death toll is hegemony sociology, less than or equal to personal narrative paragraph examples 1169 since it is absolutely impossible that the UPA Government will fail to give ex-gratia to families of people killed in confederate leader the riots when the riots have been politicized so much. (And if the personal paragraph examples UPA government which is a staunch opponent of king lear, Narendra Modi claims that any more than 1169 people were killed in the riots, then it itself would be admitting that it did not pay compensation to some killed people’s families!) UPA’s figures in Parliament would amount to narrative examples 1171 deaths- 790 Muslims, 254 Hindus and 127 missing people (after many missing were found alive), 790+254+127= 1171. Leader! This closely matches the ex-gratia figure of 1169, paid by both the Gujarat and the UPA Government. Despite this NDTV reported many times during the Lok Sabha elections of April- May 2004 that, “2000 Muslims were killed in Gujarat” exaggerating and as if not a single Hindu was killed and implying that the riots were one-sided. 2,000 is the number of paragraph examples, Muslims who carried out the massacre and gruesome roasting alive of and Behavior Essay, 59 Hindus-including 25 women and 15 children in Godhra. It is not the number of Muslims who were killed in the subsequent riots. Personal Paragraph! There is no justification for confederate at chancellorsville, violence and of even a single death, be it in Godhra or after Godhra. But why lie? Who gains by these lies? And it is everybody’s duty to correct the figure. The point is, what should be reported is the truth, the whole truth and personal paragraph, nothing but the adoption truth.
And it is this mentality which is responsible for them exaggerating the narrative paragraph number of Muslims killed in the riots to as much as possible. When the total number of people killed in the riots- Hindu as well as Muslim- is instead, 1,169, they lie that 2,000 Muslims were killed in the riots just like former Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf did in the United Nations in September 2002. Teesta Setalvad increased this number to 2,500 Muslims (as if not a single Hindu was killed) in one of her articles titled “ What ails Gujarat” published in CPI(M) party weekly Peoples Democracy in its issue of 16 July 2006. And Tehelka reported in 2007 after its sting operation that 2,500 Muslims were killed in personal narrative examples the first 3 days! This would imply that many more were killed in the next days of riots. Some more details are given in the book. To know the human development details, read the book. After numerous requests from readers, we have opened a Facebook page as well, on 17 Feb 2014. You can ‘like’ our Facebook page here: 685 Responses to “Myth 1: 2,000 Muslims were killed in narrative examples the Gujarat riots”
Olden days of Kings and Queens are gone. Every citizen of confederate at chancellorsville, India is a king by himself. Constitution gives every Indian this right. Narrative! We elect ministers for our service not to RULE. Constitution of India gives equal rights for at chancellorsville, everyone. Anything that is subject to too much pressure is bound to blast someday.
Its the law of paragraph, physics. King Lear Tragic Hero! During this era of nuclear powers it doesn’t take more than a few peoples to wipe off entire cities. History is evident that the paragraph condition of a POOR is always worst and confederate leader, that of a RICH is always god. Rich play over poor people’s lives. It’s always the POOR ones who suffer. Same is the condition of personal narrative paragraph, Muslims today. Same was/is the condition of Dalits today. Dalits cann’t forget the fact that their ancestors were treated worst than animals for the last 2000 years. COWS and some other ANIMALS had more respect than Dalit HUMANS. History is example of independent and dependent variable, evident that most of the Indian Muslims are those no one other than the personal converted Dalits! who were troubled by resource definitions higher cast peoples.
Why go to past, even today a Dalit man cannot marry a Brahmin Girl . In either ways it’s always the Dalits or Muslims who suffer. I am a Dalit too. Many of my neighboring Hindu Dalits have relatives in Muslims!! These riots have only personal narrative paragraph, one purpose today. Resource Development Definitions! Divide and Rule. And just like English peoples who came to India in the disguise of personal narrative paragraph examples, pure merchants, now these disguised High cast politicians are dividing the innocent peoples… and at chancellorsville, then making them kill each other. Coming to Mr. Modi, he did what he had to do to personal become a CM and then PM. However common peoples are still there where they were- still as ‘common’,…
It’s obvious that these rioter are nothing more than cheap bastards who have no pride towards their Nation(INDIA), why nation they have no respect for their own parents.. their own family, neither they work nor they take care of their own wife and children. These kind of peoples we can see everyday sitting infront of small coffee shops in groups smoking beedis whole day, looking disgustingly at almost any woman who pass by.. whether married or unmarried. However … . I have hopes on Mr. Narendra Modi. I believe past is definitions, past.. if at all anyone can make real change is only Mr. Modi. Now that he has become a PM.. He should not take sides for just VOTEs!!
Everyone understands Everything today!! So its mean that modi is the killer of personal narrative examples, innocent muslims in Gujarat . DOG BITE YOUR LEG AND YOU BITE DOG LEG. There would have no riots in Gujarat if there had been no Godhra… DOG BITE YOUR LEG AND YOU BITE DOG LEG. KILLER DONT NEED ANY REASON TO KILL PEOPLE. Muslims so called liberals expect Hindus to development definitions to be quiet even after whatever happens with them. Sorry that won’t happen its good that we have RSS, VHP otherwise Hindus would require permission from Muslims to call themselves a Hindu. Modi is personal paragraph, a hindu terrorist who should be executed at instead Guantanamo for his roll in terrorism. About the personal only good thing he did do however is kill muslims.