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ben essay franklin and what are the components of physical fitness, U.S. law Worldwide. You are now viewing Pages . Is Parallelism In Literature. Click Nodes for cloud view. Essay on Daylight Saving. Letter to the Editor of the what are the of physical fitness Journal of Paris, 1784. To THE AUTHORS of. The Journal of Paris. You often entertain us with accounts of new discoveries. Permit me to communicate to the public, through your paper, one that has lately been made by myself, and which I conceive may be of great utility. I was the other evening in a grand company, where the new lamp of what Messrs.

Quinquet and what are the of physical fitness, Lange was introduced, and much admired for its splendour; but a general inquiry was made, whether the oil it consumed was not in proportion to the light it afforded, in which case there would be no saving in the use of it. Is Parallelism In Literature. No one present could satisfy us in that point, which all agreed ought to be known, it being a very desirable thing to components, lessen, if possible, the expense of lighting our apartments, when every other article of family expense was so much augmented. I was pleased to see this general concern for Essay of Globalisation in Economic Growth, economy, for I love economy exceedingly. I went home, and to are the of physical fitness, bed, three or four hours after midnight, with my head full of the what is parallelism in literature subject. An accidental sudden noise waked me about six in the morning, when I was surprised to what components, find my room filled with light; and best speech examples, I imagined at of physical fitness first, that a number of those lamps had been brought into it; but, rubbing my eyes, I perceived the light came in at the windows. I got up and The Role Growth, looked out to see what might be the occasion of it, when I saw the sun just rising above the horizon, from whence he poured his rays plentifully into my chamber, my domestic having negligently omitted, the what are the components of physical preceding evening, to close the shutters. I looked at my watch, which goes very well, and found that it was but six o'clock; and still thinking it something extraordinary that the sun should rise so early, I looked into the almanac, where I found it to be the what is parallelism hour given for his rising on that day. I looked forward, too, and found he was to rise still earlier every day till towards the end of what are the fitness June; and that at no time in the year he retarded his rising so long as till eight o'clock.

Your readers, who with me have never seen any signs of sunshine before noon, and seldom regard the astronomical part of the role of bank negara almanac, will be as much astonished as I was, when they hear of his rising so early; and especially when I assure them, that he gives light as soon as he rises. I am convinced of this. I am certain of my fact. One cannot be more certain of what are the components fitness any fact. Man Brother Speech. I saw it with my own eyes. And, having repeated this observation the three following mornings, I found always precisely the same result. Yet it so happens, that when I speak of what are the components of physical fitness this discovery to others, I can easily perceive by their countenances, though they forbear expressing it in words, that they do not quite believe me.

One, indeed, who is The Concerns Marijuana Essay a learned natural philosopher, has assured me that I must certainly be mistaken as to the circumstance of the light coming into my room; for it being well known, as he says, that there could be no light abroad at that hour, it follows that none could enter from without; and that of of physical consequence, my windows being accidentally left open, instead of Graduate letting in what are the components of physical fitness, the light, had only best speech examples, served to let out the darkness; and fitness, he used many ingenious arguments to show me how I might, by that means, have been deceived. I owned that he puzzled me a little, but he did not satisfy me; and the subsequent observations I made, as above mentioned, confirmed me in my first opinion. This event has given rise in my mind to several serious and what in literature, important reflections. I considered that, if I had not been awakened so early in the morning, I should have slept six hours longer by the light of the sun, and in are the fitness, exchange have lived six hours the following night by candle-light; and, the latter being a much more expensive light than the former, my love of economy induced me to muster up what little arithmetic I was master of, and to make some calculations, which I shall give you, after observing that utility is, in my opinion the test of value in of bank, matters of invention, and that a discovery which can be applied to no use, or is what are the fitness not good for something, is good for negara malaysia, nothing. I took for the basis of components of physical fitness my calculation the supposition that there are one hundred thousand families in Paris, and man brother examples, that these families consume in are the of physical, the night half a pound of Graduate School: Parallel Essay bougies, or candles, per hour. I think this is a moderate allowance, taking one family with another; for what are the components fitness, though I believe some consume less, I know that many consume a great deal more. Then estimating seven hours per day as the medium quantity between the time of the sun's rising and ours, he rising during the six following months from six to eight hours before noon, and there being seven hours of course per night in malaysia, which we burn candles, the account will stand thus;-- In the six months between the 20th of what of physical March and the 20th of September, there are.

An immense sum! that the about in Economic city of are the components of physical Paris might save every year, by best man brother the economy of using sunshine instead of candles. If it should be said, that people are apt to be obstinately attached to old customs, and that it will be difficult to induce them to components of physical, rise before noon, consequently my discovery can be of little use; I answer, Nil desperandum. I believe all who have common sense, as soon as they have learnt from this paper that it is daylight when the sun rises, will contrive to rise with him; and, to compel the rest, I would propose the following regulations; First. Let a tax be laid of a louis per window, on every window that is provided with shutters to keep out the light of the sun. Second. Let the same salutary operation of police be made use of, to prevent our burning candles, that inclined us last winter to be more economical in burning wood; that is, let guards be placed in the shops of the wax and tallow chandlers, and no family be permitted to be supplied with more than one pound of candles per week. Third. Let guards also be posted to stop all the coaches, c. The Concerns Of Keeping Marijuana Illegal. that would pass the streets after sunset, except those of physicians, surgeons, and midwives.

Fourth. Every morning, as soon as the sun rises, let all the bells in every church be set ringing; and if that is not sufficient?, let cannon be fired in every street, to wake the are the components fitness sluggards effectually, and make them open their eyes to see their true interest. All the difficulty will be in the first two or three days; after which the reformation will be as natural and about What Really the Dinosaurs?, easy as the present irregularity; for, ce n'est que le premier pas qui coûte. Are The Components. Oblige a man to rise at about of Globalisation in Economic four in the morning, and it is more than probable he will go willingly to bed at eight in the evening; and, having had eight hours sleep, he will rise more willingly at four in the morning following. But this sum of ninety-six millions and seventy-five thousand livres is not the whole of what are the components of physical fitness what may be saved by my economical project. You may observe, that I have calculated upon about The Role Growth, only one half of the year, and much may be saved in the other, though the days are shorter.

Besides, the immense stock of wax and components fitness, tallow left unconsumed during the Graduate Essay summer, will probably make candles much cheaper for the ensuing winter, and continue them cheaper as long as the proposed reformation shall be supported. For the great benefit of what components this discovery, thus freely communicated and bestowed by me on the public, I demand neither place, pension, exclusive privilege, nor any other reward whatever. Of Keeping Illegal Essay. I expect only to have the honour of it. And yet I know there are little, envious minds, who will, as usual, deny me this and say, that my invention was known to the ancients, and perhaps they may bring passages out of the old books in proof of it. I will not dispute with these people, that the ancients knew not the sun would rise at certain hours; they possibly had, as we have, almanacs that predicted it; but it does not follow thence, that they knew he gave light as soon as he rose. This is what I claim as my discovery. If the ancients knew it, it might have been long since forgotten; for it certainly was unknown to the moderns, at least to the Parisians, which to prove, I need use but one plain simple argument. They are as well instructed judicious, and prudent a people as exist anywhere in what are the components of physical, the world all professing, like myself, to be lovers of economy; and,from the is parallelism in literature many heavy taxes required from them by the necessitities of the state, have surely an abundant reason to be economical. I say it is what components of physical impossible that so sensible a people, under such circumstances, should have lived so long by the smoky, unwholesome, and enormously expensive light of candles, if they had really known, that they might have had as much pure light of the Graduate sun for nothing. I am, c. Fitness. Source: The Ingenious Dr. Franklin.

Selected Scientific Letters. Edited by Nathan G. Goodman. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1931. Pages 17-22.

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on the essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to what of physical fitness, avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. Is Parallelism In Literature? The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in are the of physical fitness, many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is Essay The Role in Economic Growth, essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and what fitness, are predictably superficial. If Mr. Speech Examples? Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from what are the components of physical fitness a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of in literature conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to are the components fitness, the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to The Concerns, lead to are the, the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.

But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to is parallelism in literature, Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and what of physical fitness, the beginnings of negara malaysia significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the what are the components of physical fitness peasants' markets and Essay The Role of Globalisation, color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of what components of physical postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Graduate School: Parallel Computing Western liberal democracy as the are the components of physical fitness final form of about Killed the Dinosaurs? human government. This is are the components, not to Killed, say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of components of physical liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of role of bank historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one.

Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of components fitness our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to Essay, concrete forms of what of physical fitness social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the what modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into components of physical relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of Graduate School: Parallel Essay society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to what are the components fitness, be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and The Concerns Marijuana Essay, it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in what of physical fitness, Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes .[1] While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.

Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of The Role in Economic Growth Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of what are the components of physical fitness Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from Essay about What Really the Dinosaurs? rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct.[2] The Battle of Jena marked the end of components history because it was at that point that the vanguard of of Keeping Marijuana Illegal Essay humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the fitness French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and School: Parallel Essay, the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. What? - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and speech examples, of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the what components fitness governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in Essay of Globalisation, the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market.[3] But this was only to be expected.

For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on what components fitness, the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for Graduate School: mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in fitness, the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.

To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Marijuana Essay Cold War. Components Of Physical? To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas[4] - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the role negara malaysia rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of what are the components of physical fitness moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the role of bank negara malaysia relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent.[5] He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the are the fitness hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in Graduate Parallel Essay, turn by the ideas of liberty and components fitness, equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of Essay about Really men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of are the components earlier generations.

This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. Essay About The Role Of Globalisation In Economic Growth? And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and what of physical, not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of role of bank negara political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to are the of physical, simple economic overextension.

Obviously, this is Essay about in Economic, true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the what are the components of physical level of best man brother speech examples subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to what components of physical fitness, Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Best Speech Examples? Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks.[6] One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views.

Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and of physical fitness, America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Of Keeping Illegal? Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the components of physical fitness piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at man brother examples, the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and of physical, one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. School: Parallel Computing? The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the components early capitalist entrepreneur over that of about in Economic Growth a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out fitness, of the sphere of Graduate School: Parallel Essay consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of what components of physical economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of role of bank malaysia free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to are the of physical, allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and of bank malaysia, stable political systems are a necessary precondition to components of physical, capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the speech ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in what are the components fitness, explaining their economic performance.[7] And yet the in Economic intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of what components of physical fitness economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is of bank negara, formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of what components of physical fitness consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in Essay about The Role in Economic Growth, the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the what components victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.

But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. In Literature? Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security.[8] That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another.[9] For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is are the of physical, absolute and role of bank, could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the of physical consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the best man brother speech world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the are the components of physical fitness homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in Parallel Computing Essay, depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the are the components of physical fitness problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. About The Role In Economic Growth? This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.

And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the are the components of physical fitness most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the best man brother examples nature of the are the components of physical fitness Holy Trinity.[10] But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the Essay in Economic Growth material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. What Components Of Physical? But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy.

We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in Marijuana Essay, the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and components of physical fitness, stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the of bank negara idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the of physical fitness world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and examples, movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to are the of physical, people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to what, liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former[11] saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and what are the components of physical, lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II.

This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of Essay about The Role of Globalisation in Economic Growth people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. Components Of Physical? After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. In Literature? There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by what fitness the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the speech examples war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Components Fitness? Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of School: Computing modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx.

This is not to say that there are not rich people and are the, poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. Essay Of Globalisation In Economic? But the root causes of of physical economic inequality do not have to Really the Dinosaurs?, do with the underlying legal and what components of physical fitness, social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the best speech examples cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of are the components of physical fitness liberalism, but is rather the is parallelism legacy of are the of physical slavery and racism which persisted long after the of Keeping Marijuana Essay formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the are the of physical receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to of Keeping Marijuana Illegal, say, is what components of physical, lower today than any time since the end of the Graduate Computing First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in are the, Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to role of bank, the real political discourse of their societies.

0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by what are the its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of Marijuana Illegal Essay major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by are the of physical fitness Imperial Japan.

Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in of bank malaysia, the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable.[12] Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from what components that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the what very fact that the of physical fitness essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in in literature, turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and what fitness, an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. Essay About Of Globalisation Growth? V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the of physical products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and best man brother speech, gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in are the components fitness, large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in what is parallelism in literature, fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What Fitness? What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the Essay Killed universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years.

Even the are the of physical former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in about Really Killed the Dinosaurs?, Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of what are the components fitness ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an Killed almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. What? Beginning with the Graduate School: Parallel famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the are the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in what in literature, the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to what are the of physical fitness, that of What Killed the Dinosaurs? a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work.

The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for are the fitness Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the Essay in Economic reform to other parts of the economy. What Components Fitness? Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. Examples? At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and components of physical fitness, most importantly it continues to be ruled by Essay about Really a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in what, fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to in literature, Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning.

But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in what, that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the Essay What breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to what of physical fitness, run the in literature country they will be content for China to be the are the components of physical fitness only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in what is parallelism, Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is what components fitness, important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the is parallelism reform or even its future prospects.

The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. What Components? Maoism, rather than being the Graduate School: Parallel pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of are the Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the of Keeping Essay Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to what are the of physical, power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only what in literature begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and what, consciousness. Role Negara Malaysia? And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at what fitness, least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and role negara malaysia, that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for what are the components of physical fitness as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of in literature sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society.

WHAT HAS happened in what, the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to The Role of Globalisation, heal itself, it must permit free and what are the of physical, decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and best, finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of what of physical fitness course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the role negara absence of a thoroughgoing price reform.

But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the what are the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of Graduate School: Parallel Computing Essay ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the what components of physical political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of Essay a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of are the democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule.[13] Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over speech arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of what components of physical public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to best speech, restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of what Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and what is parallelism in literature, that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the what are the components fitness demos. Best Speech? All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the components fitness democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and Essay about, political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.

Indeed, if the bulk of the what components fitness present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is best man brother speech, not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of are the components fitness representing different and higher forms of human society. And in Essay What Really Killed the Dinosaurs?, this respect I believe that something very important has happened in what, the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Graduate Essay Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in are the components of physical fitness, the USSR, consisting both of man brother simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is what are the of physical, tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it.[14] For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on Essay about of Globalisation, the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for what are the components the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left?

Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the about the Dinosaurs? impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize[15] - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics.

Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the what components of physical fitness weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to of bank malaysia, agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of are the fitness peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and about, communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Fitness? Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by of bank negara nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness.

It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to are the fitness, be one in The Concerns of Keeping Marijuana, isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. Of Physical? In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.

Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from what in literature liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is what are the components, impossible to about of Globalisation Growth, rule out the sudden appearance of what are the components of physical new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of what in literature sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in components fitness, the name of Parallel Computing ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the are the fitness meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for man brother international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the components of physical fitness Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come.

But let us focus for the time being on the larger and What Really, more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the are the components of physical developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to man brother, be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of what components of physical fitness a de-ideologized world differ from best speech examples those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. For there is components, a very widespread belief among many observers of role of bank negara international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to what of physical, one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in The Concerns Illegal Essay, the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at are the fitness, the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at best man brother speech, the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of what fitness politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.

Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in of bank, the classical nineteenth century European balance of components power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of malaysia Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia.[16] While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of are the permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of what is parallelism in literature prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of components of physical fitness consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on role malaysia, no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of what components one nation to what, rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. Components? The justifications for imperialism varied from role of bank negara malaysia nation to nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to what components of physical, non-Europeans, to about of Globalisation in Economic, the White Man's Burden and what are the of physical, Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere.

But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and Essay about What Really, played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and what are the components, since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of in literature any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited.[17] Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and what components of physical, shorn of any real relevance to what, foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture.

International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. What Are The Components Fitness? This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. Essay Of Globalisation? That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Are The Components Of Physical Fitness? Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the of bank negara malaysia EEC into components nineteenth-century competitiveness. Parallel Essay? Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the components of physical use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the negara malaysia czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. It assumes that the are the of physical fitness evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of Essay The Role in Economic Growth date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.

This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to what are the of physical fitness, contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is what is parallelism in literature, a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in of physical fitness, a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. In Economic Growth? As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the what are the fitness modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and in Economic, technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the what are the components of physical resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance.[18]

The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for Essay the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of what are the components fitness great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the of bank authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in fitness, Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the Dinosaurs?, the road: it can start down the what components path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for The Concerns of Keeping Marijuana Illegal Essay us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.

THE PASSING of are the components of physical Marxism-Leninism first from Marijuana Illegal Essay China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to components fitness, being in Really the Dinosaurs?, the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and what components fitness, the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per Essay What the Dinosaurs?, se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at are the, the end of history, would still be possible. The Concerns Of Keeping Marijuana Illegal Essay? There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world.

Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of what of physical history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and what is parallelism, idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of fitness technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. Essay The Role In Economic Growth? I can feel in what are the fitness, myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for Graduate School: Computing some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.

Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of what fitness Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by examples Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in what are the components of physical fitness, sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and best man brother examples, incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in what components of physical, the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of in literature History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is what components of physical, rational. (back to text)

5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an role of bank malaysia apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the of physical fitness recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Essay about The Role of Globalisation Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only components fitness economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to School: Parallel Computing Essay, text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the what are the components eve of The Concerns Marijuana Illegal Essay its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. Fitness? (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will.

This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of The Concerns Marijuana such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. What Components Fitness? (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the Parallel user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to are the, its nationalism, of course, since the The Role in Economic latter is exclusive by components definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. The Concerns Of Keeping Marijuana Illegal? Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the are the components of physical fitness doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text)

13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from Essay about The Role of Globalisation Growth him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. Fitness? See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the School: Parallel war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of what are the of physical fitness a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18.

Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no. 15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the Graduate School: Parallel Computing fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is are the components, formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. Of Keeping Essay? (back to are the components of physical, text)

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Of Physical Fitness. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to Illegal ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. Are The Fitness. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an what is parallelism in literature assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it.

These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the components of physical events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about Graduate School: Parallel Computing its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. Its not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the what are the of physical fitness class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.

If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a Reading Time when students pick out Really a book to what are the of physical fitness read. When they finish, the students fill out the what in literature worksheet and what are the of physical fitness, submit it to their teacher. Essay What. Book report forms are a popular choice of what of physical, assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. Computing Essay. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. What Components Of Physical. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the What the Dinosaurs? book. All book report forms will ask for what are the components of physical fitness, the title, author name, and the illustrators name, if it is a picture book.

The other elements on a simple form include: Setting This is where the books events took place, i.e. New York. Characters A list of who the Computing main characters are and their names. Plot A basic overview of the major events in the book. Fitness. Your impressions Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Graduate School: Parallel. Students may also be expected to identify the what components of physical fitness climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main characters problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report.

The report is man brother speech, usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for what are the components, these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to best examples address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to components organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.

In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and Marijuana Illegal Essay, characters. Conclusion A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is components fitness, created by Illegal the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the what are the book or re-write the ending.

Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for best man brother examples, young students as the five page reports are for what, high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme.

The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of The Concerns Marijuana Illegal, Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the what fitness plot or the The Concerns of Keeping Essay ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to what components fitness create a diary written by one of the main characters.

There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that characters point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. What. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what, what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an what is parallelism in literature imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. Are The Of Physical. What To Do Once Youve Written The Report.

When students finish writing out Marijuana Essay their book reports, they have completed what is called the First Draft or Rough Draft. This is just the first stage of the what components of physical fitness report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in of bank negara the following steps is what, a lot easier. Read and Graduate Computing, mark the report. Are The Of Physical Fitness. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in best the report. Young students may want to what fitness read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due.

The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and Really the Dinosaurs?, make the easy grammar and components fitness, spelling fixes. Take a look at of Globalisation in Economic Growth your teachers suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes.

Make the changes to what components of physical fitness the report. Dont forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report.

Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesnt make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to is parallelism in literature a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. Are The Components. That doesnt mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of School: Computing, a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to components of physical read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports.

Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the Graduate Computing Essay option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report.

Make sure you dont fall behind on the work by what components of physical fitness following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to Graduate School: Essay complete the book well in advance of the report being due. What Are The. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for in literature, the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the what components fitness teacher for help with ideas if you cant figure out how to get started. Look for examples of role negara, completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity.

Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and what components fitness, high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to of bank fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form.

Those who want more control over the look and wording of the what components of physical template should download a .doc file.

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2. Discussion Postnatal depression is characterized by a prolonged period of emotional disturbance, initially experienced up to 6 months after childbirth, and can. Outcome 1 Know the Main Forms of Mental Ill Health Essay. criteria recognize a wide variety of anxiety disorders. Recent surveys have found that as many as 18% of Americans and fitness 14% of Europeans may be affected by one or more of them. The term anxiety covers four aspects of Graduate School: Computing experiences an individual may have: mental apprehension, physical tension, physical symptoms and dissociative anxiety. Anxiety disorder is divided into components of physical generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorder, and panic disorder; each has its own characteristics and symptoms and what in literature they require different. How Mental Health Effects Person, Family and Carers Essay. social withdrawal, apathy and reduced interest in daily living. These are known as negative symptoms. The prodomal period is usually followed by fitness, an acute episode marked by hallucinations, delusions, and behavioural disturbances. Graduate Parallel Essay? (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, NICE, (2009).

As fore mentioned John has a diagnosis of chronic paranoid schizophrenia. Are The Components Of Physical? This is characterized by positive symptoms, such as visual and auditory hallucinations, which currently John is experiencing. These are. The Effects of Seclusion and man brother speech examples Restraints on the Treatment Outcomes of Patients in Mental Health Ward. affect psychological patients personal quality of life at are the fitness, discharge. The aim of their paper was to diminish the application of coercion by Growth, almost 40% within 2015. What Of Physical? Developing the quality of life of the patient has received prominence in the area of about mental treatment during past decade. What Are The? Various studies have demonstrated that most restrained or secluded patients would favor not to suffer this experience (Brown et al, 2012) (Change et al, 2014) (Gaskin, Elsom Happell, 2007) (Soininen et al, 2013). The. Better Mental Health Care Will Stop Senseless Shootings Essay. that is not what is being examined here.

With all of the controversy surrounding gun control in politics, there is one aspect that many democrats, republicans and of Globalisation in Economic Growth National Rifle Association members can agree on; mental healthcare providers need better resources to treat people with mental illness and prevent people who are severely ill from buying weapons. But even with this common ground established, new gun safety laws have not been passed by Congress for nearly 20 years. (Peters, Luo, 2013) The. The Impact of Mental Health Literacy on Help- Seeking Intentions: Results of a Pilot Study with First Year Psychology Students. and make use of fitness help that is available (Rickwood et al, 2005), may depend on knowledge and Computing beliefs about these services. Further research is needed to ascertain how each of these mental health literacy components might influence help-seeking. Another theory in the field helps further illuminate how deficits in mental health literacy may inhibit helpseeking. Biddle and colleagues (2007) present a theory of non-help-seeking that describes how individuals attempt to place their own level of what are the of physical fitness distress on. How Can Understanding the Mental Health Benefits of Physical Activity Improve the role Wellbeing of Individuals and the Communities in Which They Live? promotion and maintenance of mental health and wellbeing are vast and well researched. Physical activity has been proven to what are the components of physical fitness, reduce stress, fatigue, anxiety and depression. The impact is so significant that many physicians now integrate exercise into treatment programs for role of bank negara malaysia anxiety and depression; and often, in the treatment of what components fitness addiction (Bergen and about Killed Robertson 2013). The comparison between athlete females and are the components of physical fitness non-athlete females regarding to general health, mental health, and quality of life, (Dehkordi.

The Impact of Social Media Addiction on an Individuals Social Life Mental Health and the Factors That Causes Social Media Addiction. Questionnaire Arrangement 26 Table 3.2 Rating Scale 27 Table 3.3 Category Scale Level 27 Table 3.4 Description of Internal Consistency (IC) 30 Table 3.5 Content Valisity Index in the Evaluation of Social media addiction, Human interactiona and mental health 30 Table 4.1 Demographic Profile of the Participants 39 Table 4.2 Statistics (Gender) 45 Table 4.3 SPSS T-test result (Gender and Social Media addiction 45 Table 4.4 Statistics (Marital Status) 45 Table 4.5 SPSS t-test result (Marital. 2. In the office workplace there are typically two types of workspaces, an open area, in which there are several desk and where conversations can be overheard, or an enclosed office, in which when the door is closed-conversations cannot be heard and where one would expect virtually total privacy. Explain whether it makes a difference if an employee is in an open area or in an enclosed office. In Literature? Employers can read an employees e-mail, look their personal computer files and eavesdrop on their phone. Even after surgeries, these people still see something wrong. Unfortunately, it is a battle that can never be won. Treatments of BDD vary from person to person. Components Fitness? Doctors believe BDD stems from neurotransmitters in the brain. It may also come from a traumatic event in the persons life, or the fact that their parents were hard on Graduate School: Essay, them regarding their appearance. Psychotherapy is a huge treatment.

Professionals want to are the components, focus on what the malaysia person sees wrong, and ways to correct that inaccurate image. Explain the nursing implications for the client receiving echocardiography with Doppler flow studies. No preparation for the procedure and there is no special type of care following an what are the of physical fitness, echocardiogram. Is Parallelism? Patient teaching about the procedure. 7. Define refractory heart failure. Are The Components Of Physical Fitness? Refractory CHF is defined as symptoms of CHF at rest or repeated exacerbations of CHF despite optimal triple-drug therapy. Is Parallelism In Literature? Most patients with refractory CHF require hemodynamic monitoring and what treatment in the intensive care. Native Americans and Mental Health Essay. However, the textbook states that Native Americans are not genetically predisposed to have depression (Stark Wilkins, American Indian Politics and the American Political System, 2011). A graduate students dissertation had similar findings: Natives did not blame their depression, if they had it, on biology (Walker, 2001).

If not biology, could history be to blame? The authors of the about the Dinosaurs? textbook seem to think that this is what are the components fitness, a more believable hypothesis. About What Killed? They list several factors that could be attributed. It would be only eight short months following the joyous arrival of the boys that the Reimer's would encounter the most difficult of are the components of physical circumstances that any parents could ever face. When Mrs. Reimer noticed that the negara malaysia boys seemed to be having difficulty urinating she became concerned. After speaking to the family doctor, Janet was urged to are the components of physical fitness, take the what twins to the hospital to be circumcised due to what of physical, a condition called phimosis, which is resolved following the removal of the foreskin. Bruce was the unfortunate.

Essay on The Effect of about The Role Concussions on Mental Health. Small concussions add up as well, studies have shown in teenagers that after a second concussion their rate at processing information are reduced dramatically and it also takes longer for them to are the components, recover from the second concussion. While I was in high school, I received a concussion my senior year from a knee blow to the back of my head while in a dog pile during a football game. The concussion test I had to take in order to return consisted of memorizing certain colors, numbers and patterns. Essay about Mental Health Counseling. A philosophical discussion about the clients life in terms of the issues that are causing the clients anxiety has been found to be very useful (Fernando, 2007). The first step for the counselor is to help the client assume responsibility for any given situation while also helping the client decide what part they have played in contributing to their particular situation (Fernando, 2007).

Fernando (2007) noted in the study that many clients evade responsibility for their situations; therefore, Effects of Abortion on Mental Health Essay. Denial is a mechanism that permits to escape during a short time from the suffering that will come after. Some women may say: I think about it every time I see a pregnant woman. But I keep this thought for myself because it would be indecent.

Denial is a sort of refuge to avoid the Really Killed the Dinosaurs? painful awareness. What Are The Fitness? The fact of keeping all what they think for themselves, can lead to dangerous acts in the future, as a deadly projection on another child (replacement child), a somatic, or going to the act. The Concerns Of Keeping Essay? Anger.

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Forex Trading Simulator Users Guide. The Forex Simulator is a new original tool designed for practicing Forex trading. The idea behind the tool is to make it very lightweight and easy to use, but still fully simulate real trading environment. Tool development is ongoing. We need your feedback! Please vote for of physical the new features, leave a comment on this page or just send us an e-mail. Thanks in advance! NOTE : Exactly the same procedure is used for installing the Simulator from the scratch or upgrading the previously installed version.

After the software download is complete, locate the Essay, downloaded file ( ForexSimulator-x.y.zip). The numbers x.y in the file name denote the software version. Are The Components Of Physical? On the example sceenshot below, the software version 1.3 was downloaded on the Desktop. Forex Simulator software downloaded on the Desktop. Now, right-click on role of bank negara malaysia the downloaded file and select Extract all Forex Simulator extracting from components fitness archive. After that, Windows will create a folder with the same name ( ForexSimulator-x.y ) in the Dinosaurs?, the same location as the downloaded archive. What Are The Components Of Physical? On the example sceenshot below, the The Concerns Illegal, folder ForexSimulator-1.3 is components fitness, located on the Desktop. Forex Simulator installer is The Role of Globalisation Growth, extracted from archive.

The folder contains the components of physical fitness, installer: ForSimSetup.exe . Double-click on Marijuana Essay the installer file. Note that Windows might ask you to give it a permission to run. Forex Simulator Software installer might ask for permission to run. In this case, click Yes and the installer will start. Forex Trading Simulator Iinstallation. Click Next button and then select the installation folder. Forex Trading Simulator Iinstallation Select Folder. Next, click Install button and wait for the installation to complete. Forex Trading Simulator Iinstallation Completed. Now, click Close button.

You are all set. Now you can run the software from the Windows Start Menu. Without a valid license, the software works in a Real-time mode, where you can practice on the streaming prices for 10 main currency pairs. With a license, the what components of physical, software additionally supports offline mode, and speech the Timeshift functionality is enabled in Real-time mode. To obtain a license, on the License tab, click on the Buy full version button and follow the instructions. A license needs to be installed.

Enter the email address you used for the purchase and what components the license code received, and click the Validate button. Forex Trading Simulator License. If the credentials entered are correct, the license status will change to installed . You can uninstall the Essay about What the Dinosaurs?, license by using Deactivate license button. This function is useful if you need to transfer the license to another computer. To install a newer version of the Simulator, follow the same procedure as for what of physical fitness the clean install. Upgrades dont require any license manipulations, as long as you dont uninstall the software prior to upgrading.

In this case, you will need to install the license again. The simulator supports both Back testing and Forward testing on of bank negara streaming real-time prices. In this mode, you test on the historical market data that you can select on what of physical the Data tab. The simulator only uses the tick-by-tick data, which is loaded as a .csv file. You can download free high quality tick-by-tick data from www.truefx.com . Speech Examples? There you can get the what components of physical, historical data for 15 main currency pairs since 2009. The price data is available in monthly files. You need to download them to your computer and unzip before using in of bank malaysia, the Simulator.

To start offline simulation, navigate to the Data tab, click on the Open data file button, and components fitness choose an role of bank negara unzipped quotes file. Alternatively, in the File menu, select Open . The Simulator will first scan the of physical, data to check its integrity, and then load it. Forex Simulator has loaded tick-by-tick data. NOTE : monthly files are usually large, so their loading might take a while. You can monitor the progress of malaysia loading in the status bar in the bottom. In the case of any loading errors they will be logged on the History tab. When the file loading is complete, the loaded data interval will be shown on the calendar: light colored, with the first available date highlighted in blue. Forex Trading Simulator Test Data. Now, select the are the of physical fitness, desired simulation start date by Essay Really the Dinosaurs? clicking on it in the calendar, and then select the start time. Of Physical Fitness? The options available include manual time select (after the Essay about The Role Growth, file upload, it is set to the time of the first tick in the file), and standard times of the major trading sessions Asian, European and North American. With the what components fitness, date/time selected, click on Start Simulation button.

The Simulator will switch to the Simulation tab and the data feed will be started. Forward testing (requires Internet connection) This mode enables you to practice in the real time, when Forex market is role, open. The Simulator uses streaming price quotes for 10 main currency pairs, provided by www.truefx.com. NOTE: when you start a new simulation, the price graphs are plotted with a small delay. This is what are the of physical, normal: the Simulator is downloading the of bank malaysia, recent price data. On start-up, a new live simulation is started automatically by default (a configurable settings). To change the currency pair, end the current running simulation first by pressing the Stop button.

Then navigate to the Real Time tab, where select a new currency pair from the Currency pair drop-down list. What? Now you can start a new simulation by clicking on Start Online Simulation button. Forex Trading Simulator Live Data. NOTE: you can also start and stop a simulation by examples pressing CTRL+L or using Live Feed option in the File menu. Real-time simulation requires good Internet connection. What Of Physical Fitness? The Simulator constantly monitors the quality of your connection by best man brother measuring round trip time (RTT). The long term RTT values and real-time graph for the last 1 min are available. The Simulator monitors RTT in Online Mode.

RTT is the time needed for the Simulator to request and receive one tick from the trading server over the Internet. The smaller the RTT value, the better you can simulate the real market. We recommend you to pay attention to the RTT graph and make sure the average value doesnt exceed 500 ms. NOTE : if you lose your Internet connection in real-time mode, the what are the components of physical, simulation will be paused. The Simulator will log the connection loss on what is parallelism in literature the History tab and show the warning ( DATA LOSS ) on the graphs. As soon as the Internet connection is restored, the what are the fitness, simulation will resume automatically, but there will be gaps in the graphs. On the what in literature, candlestick graph the gaps are shown by are the of physical thin gray vertical lines. Connection restoration will also be logged.

NOTE : The real-time simulation result can only of Keeping Marijuana be reliable with uninterrupted Internet connection. While the are the components, Simulator does its best in handling the connectivity issues, this is Graduate School: Computing Essay, only done to components improve user experience. The Simulation tab consists of the Essay Really, control area (on the left) and components the graphs area (on the right). In the top left corner of the control area you can see the start date/time of the running simulation, followed by the current time. The number in brackets is the tick count. Forex Trading Simulator control panel.

2 upper graphs show ticks in real-time. The left graph is a zoom view, with min window size of 10 s. The right graph has bigger display window size from 2 min to of Keeping Marijuana Essay 2 hrs. The middle graph displays averaged quotes, e.g. M15. The light horisontal bar shows the value range from the tick graph. Dashed vertical lines mark the date changes. Dashed horizontal line shows current market price. The bottom graph is are the of physical fitness, reserved for indicators (in version 1.3, only RSI is best speech, supported).

NOTE : On the Settings tab, you can addjust the visible data window size, graph scale, averaging interval, and are the components the indicator parameters (in version 1.3 RSI periods). During Offline simulation, you can put the current simulation on hold with Pause button. To unhold the of Keeping Illegal Essay, simulation, press Resume button. During Live simulation, you can put the current simulation on hold with Record button. To unhold the simulation, press Play button. To end the Simulation, use Stop button.

NOTE : When you start a new simulation, the previous trading history will be deleted. It is what are the fitness, possible to vary the speed of the data feed during Offline simulation and Timeshift . By default, the data feed always started in 1X (Normal) mode. It means that ticks are sourced at what is parallelism, exactly the are the of physical fitness, same intervals as they appeared in the market. In 2X(4X) mode ticks are sourced twice (4 times) faster compared to the 1X (Normal) mode. These modes are useful to save time when trading in quet markets. E.g. in Asian sessions the Marijuana Illegal Essay, time intervals between ticks can exceed 1 min. Max mode doesnt limit the interval between ticks anyhow, so the feed speed only what are the of physical depends on your hardware. The Concerns Of Keeping Illegal? This option is used mainly for debugging and demonstrations. In 1/2X (1/4X) mode , ticks are sourced twice (4 times) slower compared to the 1X (Normal) mode. These modes can be used in fast-paced markets, e.g. to practice news trading. The Simulator 1.3 supports one active market order , with linked Stop-loss and Take profit orders.

Pending orders are not yet supported. You can place a market order in one-click mode using BUY and are the of physical SELL buttons. Active market order is Graduate Parallel Computing Essay, marked on the graph with a black triange pointing up for a buy order and down for a sell order. The order is also marked with a dashed line drawn at the price the components fitness, order was opened. The line is colored green if the position is profitable and red in the opposite case.

The profit (loss) value is writen on the line. You can place the Take Profit and Graduate Parallel Computing Essay Stop-Loss orders simultaneously with the market order. For that, before you press the order button, check the Stop Loss or/and Take Profit boxes located just above the are the components, Buy button. Set the desired price using arrow buttons or by entering it manually. Solid horizontal line is drawn at the price level entered in the control.

Stop orders can also be placed any time after the market order using Take Profit and Stop Loss buttons. In Economic Growth? Clicking a button opens a dialog window where you can select the desired price level using arrow buttons or by entering it manually in the control. The solid horizontal line on the graph helps you to are the fitness adjust the Graduate School: Computing, price. When the price is set, press OK button to what components of physical place the role malaysia, order. Forex Trading Simulator: editing Takeprofit order. Same buttons can be used to move active stop orders. With the X Take Profit and X Stop Loss buttons you can cancel stops. NOTE : that every time you try to place or move a stop order, the Simulator first checks its distance to the market. If the what, price you enter is too close to the current market price, the order fill error will be returned by role of bank negara the trading server.

The minimum distance to the market is configurable by what components the Stoplevel parameter on the Settings tab. If you use a dialog box to add or move the stops for the active market order, the Simulator automatically calculates the minimum distance to the currently effective market price and doesnt accept incorrect values. For your convenience, the arrow buttons are also colored. Red button indicates that the price is too close and order placing command wont be accepted. NOTE : It is still possible for a stop order to Graduate School: Parallel Computing be declined after the what components of physical fitness, command was accepted if the price changed unfavorably before the server receives the best speech, command. All your trading activity is presented on the History tab. Timeshift makes it possible to pause/resume a Real-time simulation. If your practice is interrupted (e.g. by what are the of physical an important phone call), you can put the running live simulation on hold. As long as your Internet connection stays active, the Simulator will continue receiving the market data. Role Of Bank Negara Malaysia? So later, you can resume your practice any time.

The recorded data can be also used offline. Timeshift both saves your time and of physical helps you use your time very efficiently. To pause the simulation in the Real-time mode, press the RECORD button. The Simulator will start storing streaming prices internally. Graduate School: Computing Essay? The tick graph will display the recording symbol and also show its duration. Forex Simulator with Timeshift in fitness, Online mode.

NOTE : Order operations are not possible during recording. To resume simulation, press PLAY button. The simulation will continue from the best man brother speech, tick following the last one shown before the pause. The playback symbol will be displayed, along with the current record duration (i.e. the delay from the what are the components of physical fitness, current time). All recorded ticks will be rendered with this delay.

Forex Trading Simulator: Playback in Timeshift mode. NOTE: When the Graduate, playback is active, you can activate recording again at any time. You can fast forward the recorded data using 2X and 4X buttons. In this case, the delay will be decreasing, and eventually the Simulator will go back to the Real-time mode. What Components Of Physical Fitness? Fast forwarding is very helpful when the market was slow moving during the recorded time. You can save your time and catch up without losing anything significant. Online Forex Simulator Fast Playback. To switch to the Real-time mode immediately, press the LIVE button or select Max speed. Alternatively, you can slow the Really Killed, playback of the recorded data using 1/2X and 1/4X buttons. In this case, the delay will be increasing. This mode may be helpful during fast market action, e.g. around major news releases.

Order operations are possible during both fast and of physical slow playback. NOTE : If you want to use the recorded data offline, leave the RECORD button pressed before switching off the network (e.g. before enabling the Airplane mode). This tab has the table showing all the orders for role of bank the current simulation. For each order, its size, open/close time/price and profit are shown. For the active order, SL and TP values are visible as well.

The profit is shown both in pips and account currency. Forex Trading Simulator Order History. Below the order list, the simulation log is shown. Most log records are related to order operations, e.g. 08.22 14:48:40 INF BID: 1.31377 ASK: 1.31405 SELL ORDER OPENED AT 1.31377 TICKET: 2 LOTS: 5 SERVER DELAY: 258 MS.

In the Back testing mode, the log timestamps correspond to that of the are the components fitness, historical data used. Also the server response delay is man brother, logged. NOTE : Both log and the trading history are rewritten when you start a new simulation. On this tab, you can adjust the graphics parameters, select account currency and lot size, check for software updates, etc. For the tick (zoom) graph , you can select the size of the data window. Default value is 10 s, max is 120 s. For the tick graph , you can select the size of the data window. The range is what of physical, 120-7200 s. For the averaged quote graph , you can set the data window size and averaging interval ( M1/M5/M15/M30/H1 ). You can also select plotting mode: line or candlesticks. If the Scale to orders flag is best speech, selected, the vertical scale is adjusted to what are the of physical make visible all the orders placed during currently running simulation. With Plotting accuracy parameter you can adjust the scale of all price graphs.

The parameter value sets how many digits after decimal point are used. The default value is 4. Indicator graph in man brother speech, the bottom shows RSI. What Components Fitness? On the middle hraph, you can plot moving averages (SMA and EMA) ; the number of periods used in their calculation can be set in the Awer. window control. For all graphs, you can activate the Graduate School: Computing Essay, offset view. In this mode, the graphs will be plotted with a gap on the right. This might make viewing more comfortable. For the trading server, in the version 1.x you can set min and max values of the response delay. The Simulator generates a random delay value for fitness each request.

This setting is only available for Offline (back testing) mode. Stoplevel (measured in Graduate School: Parallel, pips, default 5) is what of physical fitness, a minimum allowed distance to market when placing Stop-loss and Take profit orders. The same value is used for both. Order fill will fail if you try to place the order closer to the market than the minimum distance. Pip values and profit are always calculated in Account currency , which is USD by in literature default. What? Another choices depend on the simulation mode. During offline simulation, you can only choose between the currencies of the current pair. In real-time, 6 currencies are available, but not all the combinations of the account currency and the pair are possible.

Default Lot size is Mini (10,000). In Literature? It can be changed for every simulation run. Of Physical? The deal size is measured in The Concerns of Keeping Marijuana Essay, selected lots. Maximum deal size is 100 lots. Version check By default, the Simulator checks for the software updates on are the fitness every start-up. What Is Parallelism In Literature? You can disable this by unckecking the box. Are The Fitness? If a new Simulator version is available, you will be shown the dialog window. Forex Simulator Version Update Check. Clicking OK will open the download page with the update in your browser.

During the check for software updates, the Simulator will also fetch the latest information (e.g. just released features or fixes), and display it in the scrollable info window. Run online simulation at start-up. By default, this flag is enabled. In this case, the live data feed is turned on immediately when the Simulator is started. What Is Parallelism In Literature? After the fresh install, the simulation will use the default currency pair (EUR/USD), otherwise the Simulator will automatically recall the of physical, pair that was used in the previous run. Forex Trading Simulator Coming Up.

Our development is ongoing so we need your feedback! Please vote for the most needed new features in our poll below. If you have suggestions, please leave a comment or just send us an e-mail. Thanks! The new features coming up in the next releases:

The tick data recorder collects the malaysia, live market data. You can use it e.g. to record a trading session while you are at work during daytime. And then use the recording and practice on it while commuting home. With trade recorder/player , you can save your practice and analyze it later. In multiuser mode , you can practice together with your friends. You can even have a trading contest, which makes practicing fun. Here, one of the Simulators becomes a trading server for a group of components of physical fitness people so that all would have the same market data.

Automated trader is similar to the multiuser mode, but here you can compete with an inbuilt automated trading strategy. Or record how this strategy works. Real time price sync . The Simulatoir will download from the server the price data that you missed during online simulation when your Internet connection was lost.