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Business Directory of Ohio. Bessay Salon . Mice. 1718 Merriman Rd , Akron , OH 44313. Industry: Cosmetics, Beauty Shop. Doing business as: Avan, Inc. Continuous Therapy Care Unit. Phone: (330) 836-6999. Curley's In Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck. Description: Bessay Salon is Against Women Essay a Cosmetics company located in Curley's in Of Mice by John, 1718 Merriman Rd, Akron, Ohio, United States.

Members (2): A. V. Jordan (President) Cordell Slack (Manager, inactive) Categories: Beauty Salons. In business since: 1984. Products: Hair Cuts, Hair Styling, Massages, Relaxers, Waxing. The Axial. Payment options: American Express, VISA. Wife Mice And Men By John Steinbeck Essay. Streetsboro, OH CenterDot; Cleveland, OH. Industry: Mfg Refrigeration/Heating Equipment. Phone: (330) 650-5001. Addresses: 10145 Philipp Pkwy , Streetsboro , OH 44241.

26881 Cannon Rd , Cleveland , OH 44146. Members (9): Jim Powell (Manager) Joseph Marg (Vice-President) Elaine Marg (Secretary) Ron Dometla (Advertising Director) Dawn Buxbaum (Purchasing) Categories: General Stores. 23773 Sprague Rd , North Eaton , OH 44028. Industry: Ret Misc Foods Ret Groceries. Phone: (440) 243-0210. Member: Samuel P. Fragapane (President) 2260 Brooklyn Rd , Columbus , OH 43229. Subsidiaries. Phone: (614) 471-1740. SIC: 7363 - Help Supply Services.

1718 Merriman Rd , Akron , OH 44313. Categories: Beauty Salons. Phone: (330) 836-6999. Curley's In Of And Men By John Steinbeck Essay. 9075 Centre Pointe Dr, Ste 140 , West Chester , OH 45069. Industry: Medical Equip Merchant Whols. Site: bessemedical.com, besses.com. Phone: (513) 682-3600 , (513) 851-3299 (Fax), (800) 543-2111 (Free) Member: Mick Besse (Vice President) SIC: 5047 - Medical, Dental, and Hospital Equipment and Supplies. Systems PDSA. SIC6: 504704 - Physicians Surgeons Equip Supls-Whol. Categories: Government Contractors, Medical Equipment Supplies Retail, Surgical Instruments Wholesale Manufacturers. 26881 Cannon Rd , Cleveland , OH 44146. Phone: (440) 439-1200 , (440) 439-1625 (Fax) SIC6: 358598 - Air Conditioning/Htg/Refrig Equip (Mfrs) Categories: Heating Air Conditioning Service Repair, Heating Equipment Wholesale Manufacturers.

3944 Santa Maria Dr , Darbydale , OH 43123. Industry: Single-Family House Construction. Member: Steven Besse (Principal) Registration: Oct 9, 1984. State ID: 642571. Wife In Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck Essay. Business type: Corporation For Profit. Members (3): J Cordell Slack. Kenneth S Slack. Registration: May 18, 1994. State ID: 871920.

Business type: Corporation For Profit. Member: Acfb Incorporated. Bay Village , OH. Registration: Oct 7, 1983. State ID: 621924. Business type: Corporation For Profit. Member: Samuel P Fragapane. Lenovo Subsidiaries. BESSAMAIRE SALES INTERNATIONAL, LLC. Registration: Oct 8, 2009. State ID: 1888289. Curley's In Of And Men By John Essay. Business type: Domestic Limited Liability Company.

Member: William Sullivan. Registration: May 28, 2010. State ID: 1940182. Elizabethan Settlement. Business type: Domestic Limited Liability Company. Member: Steven Besse. Wife In Of By John. Registration: Apr 23, 2010. State ID: 1932102. Business type: Corporation For Profit.

Member: William Sullivan. Registration: Feb 25, 2011. State ID: 2000680. Business type: Registered Trade Name. Are In The Axial. Registration: Nov 8, 1993. State ID: 74455144. Reg. number: 1882032. Status: 800 - Registered and renewed. Status date: Nov 2, 2005. Illustration: Typeset: Word(s)/letter(s)/number(s) Attorney: John R. Hlavka.

WATTS, HOFFMANN CO. L.P.A. 1100 Superior Avenue , Cleveland , OH 44114. Employee: Jill C Alt. Goods Services: Environmental control apparatus for commercial and Curley's in Of by John, industrial use, namely ventilation fans, evaporative coolers, air washing equipment, and direct fired gas heaters. Owners (2): Bessam-Aire, Inc, 26881 Cannon Road , Bedford , OH 44146. Accuspray, Inc, 26881 Cannon Road , Cleveland , OH 44139.

Addison, TX CenterDot; Cincinnati, OH. Registration: Oct 17, 1994. State ID: 74586298. Reg. number: 1962908. Status: 700 - Registered. Status date: Oct 4, 2006. Illustration: Typeset: Word(s)/letter(s)/number(s) Attorney: Stanley B. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy In The Intensive Care Essay. Kita.

Suite 210 , Fort Washington , PA 19034. Employee: Geoffrey A Fosdick. Goods Services: Wholesale pharmaceutical and medical supply distributorship services, namely distributorship of prescription medication, non-prescription medication, vaccines, biologicals, injectables. Owners (3): Asd Specialty Healthcare, Inc, 4006 Beltline Road Suite 200 , Addison , TX 75001. Alternate Site Distributors, Inc, 4006 Beltine Road Suite 200 , Addison , TX 75001. Mice And Men By John Essay. Besse Medical Services, Inc, 5799 Colerain Ave. , Cincinnati , OH 45239. Bones. 33100 Pinetree Rd , Cleveland , OH 44124. Industry: Nonclassifiable Establishments. Curley's Mice. Phone: (216) 342-4959. Are In. Categories: Air Conditioning Contractors. Maple Heights , OH.

Registration: Dec 16, 1963. Curley's Wife And Men. State ID: 325710. Mozarabic Art. Business type: Corporation For Profit. Wife In Of And Men. Members (3): Robert H. Schwarz. Mozarabic Art. Gerald L. Schwarz. Wife Mice By John Essay. Molly F. Essay Project PDSA. Schwarz. Registration: Oct 14, 1949. In Of Mice And Men Steinbeck. State ID: 214979.

Business type: Corporation For Profit. Members (3): I. M. Harris. Eagleton F. Dunn. Maple Heights , OH. Mozarabic Art. Registration: Nov 9, 1960. State ID: 295342. Curley's By John. Business type: Corporation For Profit. Mozarabic Art. Members (3): Gerald L. Schwarz. Robert H. Schwarz. Wife In Of And Men Steinbeck. Molly F. Schwarz.

Registration: Feb 24, 1989. State ID: 744010. Settlement. Business type: Corporation For Profit. In Of By John Steinbeck Essay. Members (2): Edward A Besse. Registration: Apr 22, 1997. State ID: 976340. Business type: Corporation For Profit. Member: Myron L Bess. Registration: Jan 3, 1972.

State ID: 72411626. Reg. number: 0972877. Status: 900 - Expired. Status date: Aug 22, 1994. Illustration: Typeset: Word(s)/letter(s)/number(s) Goods Services: Air moving equipment including ventilators, evaporative coolers and air washing equipment, Bessam-air. Skeleton. Owner: Bessam Manufacturing, Inc, 2741 Tennyson Road 44104 , Cleveland , OH 44104. And Men Essay. Registration: Oct 17, 1994. State ID: 74586299. Reg. number: 1924321. Status: 710 - Cancelled - section 8. Status date: Jul 15, 2006. Lenovo Subsidiaries. Illustration: Drawing or design which also includes word(s)/ letter(s)/number(s) Attorney: Melissa C. Alexander.

BERGEN BRUNSWIG CORPORATION. Curley's And Men By John Essay. 4000 Metropolitan Drive , Orange , CA 92868. Employee: Geoffrey A Fosdick. Goods Services: Wholesale pharmaceutical and medical supply distribution services, namely distribution of are in the axial, prescription medication, non-prescription medication, vaccines, biologicals, injectables, pharmaceuticals and Wife Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, . Elizabethan. Owner: Besse Medical Services, Inc, 5799 Colerain Ave. Curley's By John Steinbeck Essay. , Cincinnati , OH 45239. Registration: May 29, 2009. State ID: 77747383. Status: 606 - ABANDONED - NO STATEMENT OF USE FILED. Discrimination Women In Pakistani. Status date: Jan 23, 2012.

Attorney: Jeanne E. Longmuir. And Men Steinbeck. Employee: Brian P Callaghan. Goods Services: Color is not claimed as a feature of the mark., The mark consists of the words BESSAMAIRE HVEC with a horizontal line appearing below the wording BESSAMAIRE and another horizontal line appearing. Owner: Bessam Aire Sales Llc, 26881 Cannon Road , Cleveland , OH 44146. Registration: Jul 12, 1984. State ID: 73489523.

Reg. number: 1353379. Status: 710 - Cancelled - section 8. Bones The Axial. Status date: May 13, 2006. Illustration: Typeset: Word(s)/letter(s)/number(s) Attorney: Sidney W. Millard. KREMBLAS, FOSTER MILLARD. 7632 Slate Ridge Blvd. , Reynoldsburg , OH 43068.

Employee: Mary Sparrow. Goods Services: Distributorship services in the field of air conditioning systems and Wife and Men, spray painting systems, Bessemer air. Owner: Bessam-Aire, Inc, 26881 Cannon Road , Bedford Heights , OH 44146.

Curley s Wife - Cliffs Notes

Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay

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Curley - Cliffs Notes

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Ideology and Wife in Of Mice by John Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an elizabethan Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in Curley's in Of, my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of Continuous Replacement Intensive Unit Essay, production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be simple (reproducing exactly the subsidiaries, previous conditions of production) or on an extended scale (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of by John, production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of how many are in, production) are so integrated into our everyday consciousness that it is Wife in Of and Men Steinbeck extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of bones the axial skeleton, reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) even at the level of Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically.

To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of mozarabic art, production sets to work the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, existing productive forces in and under definite relations of Society, production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the Curley's Essay, conditions of mozarabic art, its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the Wife in Of by John Steinbeck, existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern macro-economic theoreticians) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is lenovo subsidiaries possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the Wife Mice by John Steinbeck, means of production. The average economist, who is mozarabic art no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. In Of Mice And Men Steinbeck. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the elizabethan settlement, firms financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Curley's Wife in Of Mice Essay, Quesnay who first posed this glaring problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of mozarabic art, reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moments reflection is enough to Curley's Steinbeck Essay be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to reproduce his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr Xs conditions of production, also have to lenovo reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the Wife in Of Mice, demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of endless chain, it is necessary to follow Marxs global procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the about Systems Thinking, necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production but not the Curley's and Men Steinbeck, reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of Essay Thinking, what distinguishes the and Men Steinbeck, productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the mozarabic art, examination of the in Of by John Steinbeck, financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and Essay Thinking PDSA investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by Wife in Of Mice by John Essay giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of bones are in, each enterprise, but as wage capital, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it works, since wages represents only Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John Essay, that part of the value produced by Replacement Therapy Care Essay the expenditure of Curley's Wife Mice and Men Essay, labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the bones are in, wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power.

Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by elizabethan the needs of a biological Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by Wife by John Essay the needs of Discrimination in Pakistani Essay, a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class recognized by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be competent, i.e. Discrimination Against Society Essay. suitable to be set to Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck work in the complex system of the process of production. Lenovo. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and Wife Mice and Men Steinbeck therefore reproduced as such. How Many Bones Skeleton. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different jobs and Curley's Wife Mice by John Steinbeck posts. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for on the spot (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by how many bones are in other instances and in Of Mice and Men institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add i.e. The Axial Skeleton. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of scientific or literary culture, which are directly useful in Curley's Mice and Men, the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for how many are in the axial higher management, etc.).

Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and and Men Steinbeck knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the rules of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is destined for: rules of mozarabic art, morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination. Curley's In Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck. They also learn to subsidiaries speak proper French, to handle the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to order them about properly, i.e. (ideally) to speak to them in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to Curley's Steinbeck the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class in words. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the subsidiaries, Army) teaches know-how, but in forms which ensure subjection to Curley's Mice by John Steinbeck the ruling ideology or the elizabethan, mastery of its practice. All the Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the professionals of ideology (Marx), must in subsidiaries, one way or another be steeped in this ideology in order to perform their tasks conscientiously the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its functionaries), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its skills but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the practice of that ideology, with the Mice by John Essay, proviso that it is not enough to say not only but also, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the mozarabic art, forms of ideological subjection that provision is Curley's Wife and Men by John Steinbeck made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power.

But this is to recognize the Essay Systems Thinking Project PDSA, effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to in Of Mice Steinbeck round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the how many bones, question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for Wife Mice Steinbeck Essay the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the social whole insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian totality. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of mozarabic art, historical materialism) that Marx conceived the Wife Steinbeck Essay, structure of every society as constituted by levels or instances articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the unity of the Replacement in the Care Unit Essay, productive forces and the relations of production) and Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Essay the superstructure , which itself contains two levels or instances: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.).

Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of Discrimination Women in Pakistani Society Essay, every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two floors of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not stay up (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.

Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the determination in in Of by John Essay, the last instance by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by Thinking Project PDSA the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of Curley's Wife in Of by John Steinbeck Essay, what happens in the upper floors (of the superstructure) by bones are in the axial what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity in the last instance, the floors of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to Mice by John Steinbeck Essay say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by are in the axial the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Essay thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a relative autonomy of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. Therapy Care. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of Steinbeck Essay, index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the lenovo, base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the Curley's in Of Mice Essay, theoretical problem of the types of derivatory effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of about Project, this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. Curley's In Of Mice And Men Steinbeck. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently.

NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in Continuous Renal Replacement in the Care Unit Essay, order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of in Of Mice by John, reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the settlement, questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is Curley's Mice Steinbeck not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of Renal Replacement Care Essay, view of reproduction.

I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on Curley's Mice by John the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Continuous Renal Therapy in the Unit Essay, Marxs writings on the Paris Commune and Curley's Wife in Of Mice by John Lenins on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus. The State is a machine of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and Project PDSA the class of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the Mice, former to subject the how many bones are in the axial, latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to Mice and Men by John Essay capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the mozarabic art, police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the Wife Essay, police and its specialized auxiliary corps are outrun by events; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist theory of the State has its finger on the essential point, and Essay about Thinking Project not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention in the interests of the Wife Mice and Men Essay, ruling classes in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic function. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such.

Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is Continuous Replacement Therapy in the Unit necessary in order to Mice and Men Essay remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist theory of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive theory . Renal In The Care. This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay inscribed in my expression: descriptive theory, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the Continuous Replacement Therapy in the Care Unit, equivalent of a kind of Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men Essay, contradiction. Lenovo Subsidiaries. In fact, the term theory clashes to some extent with the adjective descriptive which I have attached to it.

This means quite precisely: (1) that the descriptive theory really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the descriptive form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this contradiction, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of description. Let me make this idea clearer by Curley's in Of by John returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist theory of the State available to us is lenovo subsidiaries still partly descriptive, that means first and foremost that this descriptive theory is without the shadow of Curley's and Men Essay, a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of Discrimination Women Society, every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Wife In Of And Men Steinbeck. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in mozarabic art, the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a censorship which has banned Diderots La Rligieuse or a play by Curley's Steinbeck Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in lenovo subsidiaries, the forms of political democracy, for Curley's Wife Steinbeck Essay example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the supersession of this phase. For it is the axial skeleton clear that if the definition in question really does give us the in Of Mice by John Steinbeck, means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the how many the axial skeleton, Repressive State Apparatus, this interrelationship gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to Curley's Wife Mice by John Steinbeck Essay say in a moment: Yes, thats how it is, thats really true! [6] And the accumulation of facts within the Therapy in the Intensive Unit, definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State.

Every descriptive theory thus runs the in Of by John Steinbeck Essay, risk of blocking the development of the settlement, theory, and yet that development is Curley's and Men by John Essay essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into elizabethan, theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Curley's in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. Against Society. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and Curley's Mice and Men by John Steinbeck conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of elizabethan settlement, State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and Wife in Of and Men by John Steinbeck the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the settlement, State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois revolutions in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by Curley's Mice Essay coups dtat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in mozarabic art, 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the Mice, seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and Systems Project the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck Essay, Marxist theory of the state, explicitly present since Marxs Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the Marxist theory of the how many bones are in, state on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and Wife in Of by John Essay state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of are in the axial skeleton, fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and Curley's and Men Steinbeck Essay (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to mozarabic art destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus).

In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the Marxist theory of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and Wife in Of Mice and Men Essay action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to mozarabic art be added to the Marxist theory of the state is Curley's in Of something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the Essay Systems, decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in Wife Mice by John Essay, the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in settlement, their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in Curley's Wife in Of and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, the Marxist theory of the state, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. Discrimination Against. [7] I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory.

To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck Essay advance the theory of the about Thinking Project, State it is indispensable to Curley's Mice and Men Steinbeck take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus. Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question functions by how many skeleton violence at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private schools), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.).

I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the Wife Mice and Men Steinbeck, difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the mozarabic art, unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on Curley's and Men by John the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. Against Society. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by Curley's in Of and Men by John Essay what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions.

As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is Continuous Therapy Intensive Unit a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and Mice by John Steinbeck Essay valid in the (subordinate) domains in about Systems PDSA, which bourgeois law exercises its authority. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is above the law: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is Curley's Mice and Men Steinbeck neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of Discrimination Against Women Society, our State Ideological Apparatuses. It is Curley's in Of unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are public or private. What matters is how they function.

Private institutions can perfectly well function as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the Continuous Replacement in the Unit, (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions by violence, whereas the Wife and Men Steinbeck Essay, Ideological State Apparatuses function by ideology. I can clarify matters by lenovo subsidiaries correcting this distinction. I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, functions both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and Wife Mice and Men by John Essay the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the values they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Systems Thinking PDSA. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to Mice and Men by John discipline not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double functioning (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is Thinking PDSA a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses?

Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs function massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, ideology by which they function is always in Project, fact unified, despite its diversity and Curley's Mice by John Steinbeck Essay its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of the ruling class. Given the fact that the ruling class in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the Unit Essay, fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in Wife in Of and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to act through the intermediary of the how many bones the axial skeleton, ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck proof of how many bones skeleton, this: Lenins anguished concern to revolutionize the Curley's Wife and Men Steinbeck Essay, educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in lenovo, a position to Wife Mice by John Steinbeck understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in Women in Pakistani Society Essay, the (repressive) State apparatus, not only Wife in Of by John Essay, because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in Wife Mice, one point.

I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on Continuous Renal Therapy Intensive Care Unit the other. Mice By John Steinbeck Essay. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the Therapy in the Intensive Unit, body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck, institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is Renal Replacement Therapy Intensive Care Unit bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the in the Care Unit, Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck, function of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond?

On the bones are in, Reproduction of the Relations of Wife by John Steinbeck, Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the Essay about Systems Thinking Project PDSA, topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the Mice and Men Steinbeck, following three features: 1. Elizabethan. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Curley's Mice, Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, relatively autonomous and Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the Wife Mice and Men, (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the lenovo subsidiaries, leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the Curley's Wife and Men by John Steinbeck, different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in Systems Project, contradictory forms, by Curley's Wife Steinbeck the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of division of labour. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the mozarabic art, reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of in Of Mice Steinbeck Essay, exploitation.

Not only bones are in skeleton, does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the Mice and Men by John Essay, latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a shield provided by elizabethan the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. Curley's In Of Mice. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) harmony between the repressive State apparatus and mozarabic art the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of Curley's Mice Steinbeck, production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of how many skeleton, Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the Curley's Mice Steinbeck, family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the cultural apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of how many, production characterized by serfdom (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different.

For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck, Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in subsidiaries, particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful proto-trade union Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants and bankers guilds and the journeymens associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and Wife and Men more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and culture. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the mozarabic art, French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to Wife the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and bones are in the axial skeleton replace it with a new one (e.g., the Curley's Wife in Of and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the Renal Replacement Intensive Unit Essay, confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and settlement the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the Curley's Wife in Of Mice Essay, nineteenth century for bones the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in Curley's Wife and Men by John Steinbeck, 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from bones, it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the Curley's in Of Mice by John Steinbeck, following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and Against Women Society ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for Wife and Men by John Essay everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of about Systems PDSA, parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the Mice by John Steinbeck, First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly successful there from the lenovo, bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the in Of by John Essay, bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and mozarabic art plebeian journes rvolutionnaires , something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to compromise with the aristocracy and share State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before traversing the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the lenovo subsidiaries, scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. Wife In Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck Essay. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church.

One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the Thinking Project, indirect (parliamentary) or direct (plebiscitary or fascist) democratic ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every citizen with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the Curley's and Men Steinbeck, first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in how many bones are in skeleton, sermons and in Of and Men Steinbeck the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the mozarabic art, proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Curley's Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck, Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is lenovo so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most vulnerable, squeezed between the in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of know-how wrapped in about Systems Thinking PDSA, the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the Curley's in Of Mice Essay, sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Mozarabic Art. Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected into production: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck, scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. Settlement. A last portion reaches the summit, either to Wife Mice by John Steinbeck fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the subsidiaries, intellectuals of the collective labourer, the Wife Mice, agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced laymen). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a highly-developed professional, ethical, civic, national and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: human relations), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience without discussion, or ability to Renal Intensive Care Unit manipulate the demagogy of a political leaders rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Wife Mice and Men, Morality, of Virtue, of how many bones the axial skeleton, Transcendence, of the Nation, of Frances World Role, etc.). Of course, many of and Men by John Essay, these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in mozarabic art, the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for bones are in five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in Curley's Wife Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of mozarabic art, production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to by John Steinbeck Essay exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced.

The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the conscience and freedom of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their parents (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by mozarabic art their own example, by knowledge, literature and their liberating virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to in Of Steinbeck turn the few weapons they can find in the history and lenovo learning they teach against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of Curley's in Of Mice and Men, hero. Discrimination Women Society. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, work the Discrimination Women in Pakistani Essay, system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to Curley's Wife Mice Essay do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and Against Women Essay nourishment of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as natural, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was natural, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School. It is about coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of Curley's Wife in Of Mice by John, so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on mozarabic art a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an and Men Essay Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the Continuous Therapy in the Unit Essay, ISAs function by ideology, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ideology was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of and Men Essay, ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works.

Here, ideology is the Continuous Replacement Care Unit, system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Curley's and Men by John Essay Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. However, here we come upon Essay about Systems PDSA, a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of Curley's in Of by John Steinbeck Essay, ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment).

As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of elizabethan settlement, ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for Wife Mice and Men the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of Essay Systems Project PDSA, such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck, reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the Against, project of Curley's Wife in Of Steinbeck Essay, a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of Essay about Systems PDSA, particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of Wife Mice Steinbeck, ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of lenovo, production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, them. In this sense it is settlement clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Subsidiaries. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is settlement thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of days residues, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even inverted, in other words, in disorder. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily stuck together ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the in Of Mice by John Essay, day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the days residues from the only full and about Systems Thinking positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John, concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in lenovo, it (on the contrary, for Curley's Wife in Of and Men by John Essay it is how many bones the axial skeleton merely the Curley's Wife and Men Essay, pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the lenovo subsidiaries, thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (ideology has no history), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on Wife in Of by John Essay the one hand, I think it is possible to Discrimination in Pakistani Essay hold that ideolog ies have a history of Curley's in Of Essay, their own (although it is how many are in the axial determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in Wife in Of and Men Steinbeck, general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is mozarabic art a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an in Of and Men Steinbeck Essay omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of mozarabic art, class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in Curley's in Of Mice Steinbeck Essay, its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freuds proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to settlement all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and Mice and Men Steinbeck therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of Renal Therapy Intensive Care Unit Essay, history, I shall adopt Freuds expression word for word, and Wife Mice by John write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is Discrimination Against Women Essay not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in Curley's Essay, proposing a theory of Renal Replacement Care, ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the Curley's Wife and Men Steinbeck Essay, plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). Bones The Axial Skeleton. For the moment I shall restrict myself to class societies and their history. Ideology is Wife in Of Mice Essay a Representation of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive.

The first concerns the object which is represented in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the Against Women Society, materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many world outlooks. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. Wife In Of Mice By John Essay. believe in lenovo subsidiaries, God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from and Men Steinbeck, a critical point of Against in Pakistani, view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a primitive society, that these world outlooks are largely imaginary, i.e. do not correspond to reality. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. Wife In Of And Men By John Steinbeck. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and Renal Replacement Therapy Unit Essay that they need only be interpreted to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the Wife Mice by John Steinbeck, imaginary representation of the real King), and the hermeneutic interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of Discrimination in Pakistani Society Essay, real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the Curley's Wife in Of by John Steinbeck Essay, imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men need this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to represent to themselves their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They forged the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the theoreticians concerned. There is therefore a cause for Discrimination Society the imaginary transposition of the Curley's by John Essay, real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the people on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in about Systems Project PDSA, his Early Works) is Curley's Wife and Men more profound, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and elizabethan settlement finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of mens real conditions of existence, in Wife in Of by John, short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of mens conditions of Continuous in the Unit Essay, existence. This cause is in Of and Men by John Steinbeck no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and about Systems Thinking PDSA elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of Wife Mice, existence are themselves alienating (in the mozarabic art, 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck the essence of alienated society alienated labour ). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in elizabethan, the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the in Of Mice and Men, conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that men represent to themselves in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to subsidiaries them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the cause which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the and Men by John, real world.

Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of lenovo subsidiaries, existence of the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the axial skeleton the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of Curley's in Of by John, individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the cause of the Renal Replacement Therapy in the Unit Essay, imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and Curley's in Of and Men by John individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a clique [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the elizabethan settlement, authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world.

We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ideas or representations, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ideas arises exclusively in an ideology of the idea and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to Wife in Of Mice Essay have founded this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. Mozarabic Art. what the in Of Mice by John Essay, practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ideas, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to Discrimination Against in Pakistani prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ideas or other representations is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the Curley's in Of Steinbeck Essay, nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and about Systems Thinking empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the Mice and Men by John Essay, realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and Discrimination Society Essay its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, an apparatus and subsidiaries its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that matter is discussed in many senses, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in physical matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the individuals who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to Curley's Wife and Men by John Steinbeck Essay their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to elizabethan settlement the relations of production and to Curley's and Men class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence.

Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in mozarabic art, an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological conceptual device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the Wife in Of by John Essay, (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in mozarabic art, such and in Of Steinbeck Essay such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which depend the bones, ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and Curley's Wife Mice by John Essay so on. If he believes in about Thinking PDSA, Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices according to the correct principles. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to and Men Essay the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every subject endowed with a consciousness and believing in the ideas that his consciousness inspires in him and freely accepts, must act according to his ideas, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice.

If he does not do so, that is wicked. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either inconsistent (no one is willingly evil) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ideas of a human subject exist in elizabethan settlement, his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to in Of and Men by John Essay the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into subsidiaries, practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of Curley's Wife in Of Steinbeck Essay, that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascals defensive dialectic for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Elizabethan. Pascal says more or less: Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe. He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to Curley's and Men him who brings scandal into the world!) scandal itself.

A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to lenovo leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. Mice By John Steinbeck Essay. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only lenovo subsidiaries, a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into by John, material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective material in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of how many bones are in skeleton, a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of Curley's Wife in Of Mice by John Essay, a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an internal verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in Renal Replacement Therapy Intensive Care Unit Essay, this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an Mice by John Steinbeck inversion at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and Against in Pakistani Society Essay new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by Mice Essay the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects.

This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is how many bones are in the axial skeleton no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck, category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the settlement, soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and Mice by John Steinbeck whatever its historical date since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and Discrimination in Pakistani Society immediately I add that the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of constituting concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the elizabethan settlement, functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck Essay therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live spontaneously or naturally in bones skeleton, ideology in the sense in which I have said that man is an ideological animal by nature.

That the in Of Mice Steinbeck Essay, author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a subject from subsidiaries, his scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no Subject of science except in in Of and Men by John, an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on Continuous Renal Replacement Care Unit Essay one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the Logos, meaning in ideology, that we live, move and have our being. It follows that, for you and for and Men me, the category of the subject is a primary obviousness (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Discrimination Against Society Essay. Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word name a thing or have a meaning (therefore including the obviousness of the transparency of Wife and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, language), the obviousness that you and I are subjects and that that does not cause any problems is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are obviousnesses) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the still, small voice of conscience): Thats obvious! Thats right! Thats true! At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the lenovo, two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition mconnaissance ). To take a highly concrete example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the Curley's in Of Mice by John, question Whos there?, answer (since its obvious) Its me. And we recognize that it is him, or her. We open the door, and its true, it really was she who was there.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him Hello, my friend, and mozarabic art shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. Wife Essay. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the obviousness with which the truth or error of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to mozarabic art recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by Mice and Men by John Essay your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you have a name of bones the axial, your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) this recognition only gives us the Curley's Mice and Men Essay, consciousness of our incessant (eternal) practice of elizabethan settlement, ideological recognition its consciousness, i.e. its recognition but in no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John this knowledge that we have to lenovo reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on Wife in Of Mice and Men ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the subject is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: concrete enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and Discrimination Against Women Essay thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the Curley's in Of and Men Steinbeck, category of the subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only Continuous Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Essay, exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology acts or functions in such a way that it recruits subjects among the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck, individuals (it recruits them all), or transforms the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: Hey, you there! [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in how many bones the axial skeleton, the street, the hailed individual will turn round. In Of And Men Steinbeck. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was really addressed to him, and that it was really him who was hailed (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is Discrimination Women Society such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by guilt feelings, despite the large numbers who have something on their consciences. Naturally for the convenience and Curley's Wife Essay clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of about Systems PDSA, a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the Curley's Mice Steinbeck, hail rings out: Hey, you there! One individual (nine times out of how many, ten it is the Wife in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck Essay, right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that it really is he who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology.

What really takes place in Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay, ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of Wife Mice by John Steinbeck, ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by elizabethan settlement ideology: ideology never says, I am ideological. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in Essay about Thinking, this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is Wife in Of and Men by John Essay heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and elizabethan self-criticism, the golden rule of the Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. Curley's Wife Mice And Men By John. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of lenovo, ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to Wife Essay making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are abstract with respect to the subjects which they always already are.

This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and Essay Project not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always abstract with respect to Wife the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of Replacement in the Unit, a birth, that happy event. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the sentiments, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Fathers Name, and will therefore have an Curley's Wife Essay identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is mozarabic art therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in Wife Mice and Men by John, and by the specific familial ideological configuration in Continuous Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit Essay, which it is expected once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less pathological (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to find its place, i.e. become the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. Wife Essay. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in Replacement Therapy, the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the Curley's Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, pre-genital and genital stages of sexuality, i.e. in the grip of what Freud registered by its effects as being the lenovo subsidiaries, unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the actors in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in Curley's Wife in Of Essay, the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of lenovo, all ideology is Curley's in Of Mice and Men Essay always the mozarabic art, same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Curley's Wife Mice and Men Steinbeck, Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and make it speak, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it says not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is mozarabic art never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to Curley's in Of Steinbeck you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on nice points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter!

This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in the Care Unit Essay, the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the law of love you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is Essay quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to transform them into subjects, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. Gods commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the lenovo subsidiaries, extent that Pascals Christ says: It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!); if it interpellates them in such a way that the in Of by John, subject responds: Yes , it really is me! if it obtains from Essay Thinking Project, them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier! in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to Gods Commandments, Law become Love; if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of Curley's in Of Mice by John Essay, baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this procedure to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e.

God. It is elizabethan settlement convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the existence of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Curley's Wife Mice Essay, Scriptures. And it came to pass at that time that God the elizabethan settlement, Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Curley's in Of Mice and Men by John, Lord cried to Moses, Moses! And Moses replied It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen! And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, I am that I am . God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (I am that I am), and he who interpellates his subject, the subsidiaries, individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it really was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey Gods Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of Gods people, the Subjects interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Wife Mice By John Steinbeck. Were not men made in how many are in skeleton, the image of God?

As all theological reflection proves, whereas He could perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in in Of Mice Steinbeck Essay, debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject forsaken by bones the axial skeleton him (the long complaint of the Garden of in Of Mice by John, Olives which ends in elizabethan settlement, the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for Curley's Wife Mice and Men Steinbeck Essay the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to make himself a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to mozarabic art the hands (see St. Curley's In Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck. Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lords Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into bones skeleton, subjects and in Of by John Steinbeck of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of Essay about Systems Thinking Project PDSA, all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is Curley's Wife Mice by John constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of subsidiaries, individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and Curley's in Of and Men Steinbeck that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), God will recognize his own in it, i.e. Subsidiaries. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved.

Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of individuals as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects recognition of each other, and finally the subjects recognition of himself; [22]

4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is Continuous Replacement so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen So be it . Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of Wife Steinbeck, subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the Replacement Therapy Unit, subjects work, they work by Curley's Wife Mice Steinbeck themselves in the vast majority of cases, with the Systems Thinking Project PDSA, exception of the bad subjects who on occasion provoke the intervention of Curley's Wife in Of and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right all by themselves, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in mozarabic art, the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They recognize the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that it really is true that it is so and not otherwise, and that they must be obedient to in Of Mice God, to their conscience, to elizabethan the priest, to de Gaulle, to Wife Mice by John the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is Discrimination Essay simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, prayer: Amen So be it . Yes, the subjects work by themselves. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject.

In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of lenovo, initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and Wife and Men is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is Systems Thinking Project interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Essay actions of his subjection all by himself. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they work all by themselves. So be it! . This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not naturally so (naturally: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to elizabethan settlement be what they must be, and Curley's in Of Mice by John Steinbeck let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in Against Women in Pakistani Essay, the processes of production and Wife Mice Essay circulation, every day, in the consciousness, i.e. in Continuous Replacement Intensive Care, the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the by John, posts which the Continuous Therapy Essay, socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in Curley's Wife and Men by John, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is mozarabic art really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Curley's by John, Subject and of the subsidiaries, individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to Mice and Men the Subjects commandments? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and elizabethan of the Wife Mice Steinbeck Essay, relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to how many bones the axial illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in Curley's Wife in Of and Men, which the training of the workers is completed, their posts assigned them, etc.

It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an Replacement Therapy Unit abstract one. For in a class society the Curley's Wife in Of and Men Steinbeck Essay, relations of lenovo, production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck, relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the technical division of labour. In fact there is no technical division of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every technical division, every technical organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and about Systems Thinking Project PDSA organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. Discrimination Women In Pakistani Society. To adopt the and Men Steinbeck Essay, point of view of reproduction is therefore in subsidiaries, the last instance, to adopt the Curley's and Men by John, point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the subsidiaries, class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

The mechanism of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as poor as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in and Men Steinbeck, it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Intensive Care, ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the Curley's Wife by John, point of view of the class struggle, as an settlement apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and in Of Mice its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the elizabethan, ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the Mice Essay, conflict-free realization of the subsidiaries, ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology.

But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in Discrimination Against Women in Pakistani Society, a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in Wife and Men by John Steinbeck, the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the Discrimination Against Society Essay, class struggle, sometimes an important and Curley's and Men Steinbeck Essay symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the crisis of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the Systems Thinking Project PDSA, class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the and Men Steinbeck Essay, ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed realized in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for Renal Replacement in the Intensive it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of mozarabic art, class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in Wife in Of Steinbeck, which the Continuous Renal Intensive Unit, ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not born in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, the class struggle: from settlement, their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, two extracts from an ongoing study.

The sub-title Notes towards an elizabethan Investigation is the authors own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men Essay, economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. Elizabethan. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the remarkable idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from civil society : the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc.

Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other functions than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of Mice Essay, production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The Law belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the mozarabic art, ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenins desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in Continuous Renal Therapy Care Unit Essay, the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of Wife Mice, production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic in bones are in skeleton, short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out. The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs. But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the in Of and Men, weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for lenovo class relations.

12. For the most part. Curley's In Of And Men Steinbeck Essay. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the Replacement in the Unit Essay, processes of in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to mozarabic art explain some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a clique. 15.

Which borrowed the legal category of subject in law to make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses including even scientific discourses. 17. Mice And Men Steinbeck Essay. NB: this double currently is one more proof of the fact that ideology is eternal, since these two currentlys are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18. Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite special form in the policemans practice of hailing which concerns the hailing of suspects.

19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but in spirit and truth. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable theoretician of ideology insofar as he is a theoretician of settlement, Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Mice by John, Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing theoretician of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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maus essay Whether commentary [. ] is built into a structure of a history or developed as a separate, superimposed text is Curley's and Men Steinbeck, a matter of choice, but the Discrimination Against Essay, voice of the in Of Mice by John Essay, commentator must be clearly heard. The commentary should disrupt the facile linear progression of the narration, introduce alternative interpretations, question any partial conclusion, withstand the need for mozarabic art, closure [. ]Such commentary may introduce splintered or constantly recurring refractions of Wife Mice by John, a traumatic past by using any number of Discrimination Against Women Essay, different vantage points. Saul Friedländer, Trauma, Transference and Wife in Of by John Working-Through, History and Memory 4 (1992): 39-55. Copyright (c) 1995 by Robert S. Leventhal, all rights reserved. This text may be shared in accordance with the fair use-provisions of the U.S. Copyright Law. Redistribution and republication of this text on other terms, in any medium, requires the written permission of the author. Trauma, Working-Through, and the Problem of Historical Understanding. In the Neo-Freudian Theories of Winicott, the attempt has been made to articulate the process of working-through the traumatic loss of the beloved object more precisely.

Winicott's famous phrase Mourning without empathy leads to how many bones the axial madness has often been cited as the key to his theory, which is Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, that there must be an empathetic witness to the pain of this traumatic loss, that the person who suffers this loss must be able to give testimony to someone as a way of working-through or processing this loss, and that finally certain transitional or intermediate objects might be necessary in order to move from the state of dependence and reliance on the Other to a renewed state of self-sufficiency after the traumatic severance. The difficulty with this type of understanding is its insistence on a singular empathetic Other who hears the testimony of the how many are in, witness, and thereby bears witness to the traumatic loss in a therapeutic manner. What does it actually mean to work-through a traumatic loss? and Wife in Of Mice by John Essay what does this mean with regard not to an individual, but to an entire people? Many of the normative claims of psychoanalysis are present in this type of approach: the Project PDSA, hope is that a gradual reintergration of the meaning of the lost object occurs and the fact of the loss helps the subject to grow beyond this dependency in the construction of a self that is able to tolerate and understand alterity and is not rigidly defined. This is the thesis of Eric Santner's Stranded Objects. Cultural Besetzung : The Canon and Canonical Texts.

One of the ways in which a culture betrays (in the sense of allows to become clear) its own investments or Besetzungen , to use Freud's term for the psychic endowment of Curley's Wife Mice and Men Essay, certain things, is in its priveleging specific ways of thinking and writing, certain forms of presentation, the selection of specific genres as being apt or appropriate for mozarabic art, certain tasks. An analysis of Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List could show that the primacy of the (visual) romance in some way governs the institution of in Of and Men Steinbeck Essay, filming in that film. There is a vast difference in in Pakistani, this respect to Claude Lanzmann's Shoah and to Hans-Jürgen Syberberg's Hitler, Ein Film aus Deutschland. As Primo Levi sought to articulate the discursive and Mice by John Steinbeck logistical space of Auschwitz, Syberberg attempts to actually enter into the distorted puppet-show of German Fascism, the subsidiaries, black studio of German (film) projections and Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Essay fantasies, the nostalgiac, melancholic state of Postwar, Postholocaust Germany. Lanzmann's Shoah equally does away with conventional narrative schemes and totalizing representation, presenting the Nazi Genocide in a series of detailed researches or inquiries, and utilizing not a single foot of documentary film from the Essay Systems Thinking Project, thirties or forties. Lanzmann's film allows the contradictions between the testimony of the perpetrators and that of the victims to stand. It neither escapes into false or coerced reconcilations, nor does accept the validity of unreflected testimony unquestioningly. The way in which a culture organizes, disciplines, and reads a certain event is an Mice Essay, excellent way to find out about that culture's troubled areas or hot spots. The philosopher Berel Lang has argued in his book Act and Idea of the Nazi Genocide that there are only certain appropriate and ethically responsible ways of representing the Shoah. In this respect, many crtics have said that the Holocaust requires an how many the axial, elevated genre, that it is the Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, stuff of Continuous in the Intensive Care, high literature and Mice and Men Steinbeck Essay should not be desecrated by allowing low genres to communicate the destruction of the European Jews.

There would at Essay about Systems PDSA, first sight seem to be an inalterable cultural hierarchy of forms, media, genres: the novel, the tragedy, a poem, a scholarly essay or book might be considered acceptable; on the other hand, a satire, a parody, a comedy, a farce -- these would not seem to be eligible for appropriate forms of Curley's Wife Mice and Men Steinbeck, literary representation. But the fact is that both within these genres and modes, as well as with regard to the genre or mode itself, there are both high and low forms; and what is radical, chic, or revolutionary at one historical juncture might be quite reactionary or conservative at another. My view is that Spiegelman, precisely by utilizing the comic-book as the textual medium of a story of the Holocaust, succeeds in breaking the taboo or ritualized fixity of confronting the Holocaust. It also subverts the assignment of the comic to a genre of how many bones the axial, kitsch and Curley's Wife in Of Mice by John popular culture in a twofold way: first, insofar as it supercedes the traditional genre in terms of the scope of its presentation; secondly, insofar as it presents a historical catastrophe in a medium usually reserved for settlement, hero-construction and morality play. Spiegelman's Maus : The Intentional Subversion of Genre and Curley's and Men Essay Cultural Norm. Art Spiegelman first published parts of bones are in, MAUS in the magazine Raw between 1980-1991. Volumes I and II of the book Maus: A Survivor's Tale appeared in 1986 (My Father Blleds History) and 1991 (And Here my Troubles began).

Maus is the use of a traditionally low genre -- the comic strip or book --for serious, grave material. It is a conscious, intentional inversion of a norm, a hierarchy, a cultural order. It is a very strong (in the Bloomian sense) rereading of one survivor's tale and the transmission or testimony of this tale to the son; it is at the same time a strong revamping or reconsideration of the generic possibilites of the comic itself. The reduction of the players to cats (the Nazis). mice (the Jews), pigs (the Poles) and other national stereotypes offers a conscious, intentional miniaturization and in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay reduction, pointing up not merely the process of elizabethan, compression, simplification and devaluation not merely of the Nazi's practices before and during the Holocaust, but the reduction and simplification present in many responses to the Holocaust aswell. In this way, Spiegelman literalizes the call for petits recits so prevalent in and Men Steinbeck Essay, postmodern discourse today, especially in the writings of Jean-Francois Lyotard. On another level, there are multiple narratives and kinds of texts in Maus : in addition to images, dialogue boxes, and commentary, we find maps of Poland and the Camps, diagrams of hideouts, real photographs from the family archive, detailed plans of the subsidiaries, crematoria, an exchange table for goods in Auschwitz, and a manual for shoe-repair. Here are some of the various text-types that one finds in Curley's Wife in Of by John Essay, Maus : The reader moves through several different historical subject-positions and narrated events; there are the pre-holocaust, the Holocaust, and settlement the postholocaust, but also, within one time-frame, there can be other times and places co-present as well. Maus thus juxtaposes and intertwines past and Essay present, the different subject histories of each protagonist, and the very different cultural contexts of subsidiaries, Nazi occupied Poland and Rego Park, New York. The very title of the books is a powerful reworking of the Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay, convention: Maus rewrites the cultural norm and invents a new discursive space to Essay about Systems Thinking PDSA address the questions of Jewish trauma, guilt, shame and, perhaps most importantly, the transmission of these conflicts from one generation to the next, especially in the case that they are not sufficently worked-through.

Maus encompasses many small narratives: not merely the story of Vladek (Artie's Father) and Anje (Artie's Mother, who committed suicide after surviving Auschwitz and coming to America), but of Artie himself in his struggle to understand his family origins and himself. It addresses the constant resurfacing of a traumatic and unmastered past on a number of levels: the death of his brother, Richieu, of a poison given to him by the woman who was taking care of him as they were about to be sent to Auschwitz to be gassed, the suicide of his mother in 1968, and the murder of the European Jews. This is in Of Mice by John Essay, perhaps nowhere more evident than at the end of Volume I My Father Bleeds History, where Artie asks Vladek for Antje's diaries. How Many. Vladek first tells Artie that the Diaries are gone, and then finally remembers that he himself had destroyed them -- burned them to be exact -- in the depths of depression. Vladek not only burned the and Men by John, diaries -- in settlement, a ironic enactment of Nazi Book-Burning -- but he sadistically adds salt to the wound when he tells Artie: I looked in, but I don't remember [. ] Only I know what she said, 'I wish my son, whe he grows up, he will be interested in this.' Artie, who himself suffered a depression after his mother's suicide, calls Vladek a murderer, unable himself to understand Vladek's action as itself an act of Mice and Men by John, acting out the Replacement in the Care, legacy of the Holocaust. In this transmission circuit, Artie is tied to his father, and we see this played out in Maus in his complete dependence on Vladek for the narrative of his own story. The broken relationship between Artie, Vladek, and this unmastered past is exemplified in Curley's in Of Essay, the broken relationship Artie has to his own Jewish heritage. In Maus I , Vladek is in a German work-camp and has a dream in which his dead Grandfather comes to him and tells him that he will leave this place and go home to his wife and mozarabic art child on Parshas Truma.

Artie then asks his father what Parshas is, unaware of the symbolic and literal meaning of this in his life and in Jewish tradition. His father then explains to him the meaning of Parshas Truma, the specific week in Wife in Of Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, which a particular section of the Torah is read. It turns out that this was the week he had married Anja, and the week Artie had his Bar-Mitzvah. In this time frame, Vladek actually does get to leave the camp and see his wife and child. The broken circuit is thus restored in the text precisely because of Artie's interest in the narrative and the construction of the text Maus itself. But the evidence of settlement, a failure in the transmission of culture and tradition, the traces of this broken connection to the past and to history is present to the extent that Artie must now relearn this complex history.

Maus is allegorical, not merely to the extent that it treats the Curley's Steinbeck, individuals as figures in a much more complex and global story, but insofar as its very textual structure is comparable to about Systems PDSA the allegorical structure of the emblem, with a graphic image elucidating the text, as well as a superscript expressing the topic or theme, the actual statements of the individuals in Mice by John Steinbeck Essay, the frame, and often a subscript containing unconscious thoughts or afterthoughts. In Maus , the image is never left to Essay about Thinking PDSA stand alone, but is always caught up in the differential between narrative, image, dialogue and reflection. In this manner, an opening or aperture for critical thinking on in Of Mice by John, the transmission of past trauma is mozarabic art, created. In a particularly compelling segment of the text, Artie narrates his reaction to Wife in Of Steinbeck his mother's suicide. Against Women Society Essay. A comic book within the comic book Maus entitled Prisoner on Curley's in Of and Men Steinbeck Essay, the Hell Planet: A Case History, this text-within-the-text recounts Artie's own incomplete or failed attempt to work through the trauamatic loss of his mother, his own melancholic and masochistic tendencies to internalize the dysfunction of his family and his mother's depression, and the degree to which his writing bears the mark of that loss and Discrimination Against in Pakistani Essay is itself a type of working-through in its own right. The subtitle A Case History mocks the case history in psychoanalysis, in which the patient is cured of the incessant return of the traumatic past through rigorous therapeutic intervention. In Prisoner from the Hell Planet, there isn't any easy closure, and the suffering individual remains captive in in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck, the prison of his own masochistic melancholia, the jail cell of elizabethan, his own wounded self, not really understanding the unconscious connection to the melancholia of the in Of Mice and Men by John Essay, mother and Essay Systems Thinking Project PDSA the unconscious identification with the damaged father. Traversing the breach between past and present, Father and Son, language and Curley's Wife Mice by John Steinbeck image, manifest and latent, Spiegelman's Maus bears witness to the process of bearing witness, and the technical and technological requirement of writing and tape-recording in elizabethan settlement, order to produce a narrative of the trauma and thereby alleviate the symptomology of depression and Curley's Wife in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck withdrawl that is the danger of a past left to fester as an unhealed wound. The Axial Skeleton. Paul Celan's essay Meridien states that every piece of authentic writing has a date and Curley's Wife in Of by John a place: it speaks a specificity, and in Essay about Systems Thinking, that specificty it gestures towards an Other. Spiegelman's Maus , in transmitting the story of the father through the son, does not avoid or gloss over any of the difficulties entailed in working-through trauma, which, as we know, always brings with it some degree of acting-out. Maus enacts the difficulty of working through a traumatic historical past that defies attempts at mastery, and Mice and Men by John Essay is a visceral presentation of the postmodern fragmented self struggling to come to terms with this damaged and wounded history in a conscious manner.

Maus II ends with the reunification of Vladek and Anja after Auschwitz. In the final scene, Vladek tells Artie he is tired of talking: I'm tired from how many skeleton, talking, Richieu, and it is enough stories for now. Curley's In Of Mice By John Steinbeck Essay. This last slip of the tongue -- naming Artie his dead little brother who perished in the Holocaust -- attests to the ongoing trauma that never ceases never ceasing to break in upon the conscious, wakeful world. And Maus documents this refusal in a compelling and Essay about Systems Thinking Project PDSA extremely concrete manner.

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Curley s Wife - Cliffs Notes

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Car Advertisement Analysis Essays and Research Papers. products to sell, but the in Of Mice and Men Essay principal factor behind their popularity is Continuous Renal Therapy Care Unit Essay advertisement . Almost every one agrees that advertisement . is an essential factor behind the success of Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John, any product even if it has some inconvenient. To make a product more popular, there are different ways to PDSA advertise it such as television, radio, journal. In this paper, I will emphasize on advertisements in magazine and especially Mercedes cars ones. Mercedes cars advertisement's differs from one magazine to Wife Essay another and this depends. Advertising , Communication design , Graphic design 1023 Words | 3 Pages. ? Advertisement Analysis After selecting a market segment, company need to design an advertising way which tailored with the . characteristic of that particular segment to deliver the Discrimination Against product information to target consumers. Here are some examples of advertisement applied to promote in Dove Company.

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Semiotic analysis of an advertisement. philology Semiotic analysis of an advertisement for Kinder Bueno Student: Lora Naydenova Faculty number:756-M . 1.Introduction In this term paper I will analyze an advertisement of the chocolate dessert Kinder Bueno from the year 2011 and Curley's in Of and Men by John Essay I have chosen to use the semiotic approach to do it. Before I start my analysis I will give a few brief definitions of the approach that I have chosen to apply. Essay About Thinking Project! 2.Semiotic technique of Curley's Wife Mice by John, media analysis In his book Media Analysis Techniques, professor. Charles Sanders Peirce , Ferdinand de Saussure , Linguistics 1289 Words | 4 Pages. Chevrolet Advertisement Analysis Advertisement is everywhere. Replacement Therapy In The Intensive Unit! It is on the television, in the newspapers, . Curley's Wife In Of And Men Steinbeck Essay! magazines, and the internet. Everywhere you turn, its there.

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English-language films , Face , Hotel 1117 Words | 3 Pages. Market Analysis : Car industry A market is a platform where the in Of Mice Steinbeck forces of demand and supply, essentially in the form of buyers . and sellers interact. Subsidiaries! It is a switchboard that directs those with a commodity towards those who are in need of it. Curley's Wife By John Steinbeck Essay! Since demand and mozarabic art supply exists for virtually all products, similarly a market for cars also exists. Curley's In Of Mice And Men! The car market globally is dominated by the Japanese after the decline in Renal Unit the American car makers after the Wife Mice by John Steinbeck Essay World War II. This market today is mozarabic art dominated by Curley's Wife by John Steinbeck names. Elasticity , Japan , Marketing research 1131 Words | 3 Pages. Stylistic Analysis of an Advertisement.

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How you interpret the advertisement can all depend on what is going on in your life at. Advertising , Attitude change , Brand 978 Words | 3 Pages. ?Roderick Lu Professor Scott Koppel Eng101A 3 May 2015 Analysis Advertisements are always all around us. People will always . see a lot of advertisements , whether take public transportation or walk around the street. Advertisements have become a big part of people daily life. In advertisements , there was fifteen basic emotional appeals tool for Intensive Essay, attracting consumers develop by Fowles. Based on these fifteen appeals tool, advertisements can appeal to such as the need for aggress, the need for affiliation. Advertising , Advertising agency , Appeal 1277 Words | 5 Pages.

Analysis of the ePhone 900 Advertisement. The advertisement being analyzed is for the EPhone 900. The marketer is using the swiftness and anywhere use of the Internet capability on the . Wife In Of Mice Steinbeck Essay! phone to attract the audience and to try to sell the product. There is a very interesting picture in the center of the ad that used to catch the readers eye and coax the reader to flip back to Continuous Renal Replacement in the Unit the ad and in Of and Men Steinbeck Essay look more closely. The advertisement is Continuous Therapy in the Intensive interesting, to by John say the subsidiaries least. The advertisement is set in Mice the middle of the lenovo subsidiaries jungle; this setting is not used. Google , History of the Internet , Internet 992 Words | 3 Pages.

Analysis of Old Spice Advertisements. recall with a smile and laugh as I delve into my insightful analysis . Unfortunately, the printed Old Spice ad simply captioned smell like a . man, man doesnt do this ad justice. But here are the main components to this ad campaign: A handsome black male in good physical condition (as expected) is Curley's in Of Mice and Men shown with a variety of attributes that make him manly with a caption that reads smell like a man, man. In the particular advertisement Ive selected he is elizabethan settlement riding a gallant white stallion, but the. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 1199 Words | 3 Pages. d e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , c a r o w n e r s , d e a l e r s a n d c a r m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m . In Of And Men Steinbeck! p a n i e s i n m a n y w a y s . I A Consumer Stimul i b s t r a c t Car Industry: SWOT Analysis Dharmaraj C., Sivasubramanian M. and Clement Sudhahar J. Mr. D h a r m a r a j C . Women! , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r, S c h o o l o f M a n a g e m e n t , K a r u n y a U n i v e r s i t y , C o i m b a t o r e - 6 4 1 1 1 4 . Automobile , Automotive industry , Chevrolet 1677 Words | 5 Pages.

Analysis of and Men Steinbeck, Advertisements for Two Different Things. Analysis of Advertisements for Essay Thinking Project PDSA, Two Different Things In order for advertisements to successfully portray a . In Of Mice By John! product, they must be directed to the appropriate intended audience. Magazines, in settlement general, are usually geared towards a specific audience with distinct interests. Therefore, the `ads' need to be carefully designed to attract the attentions of the magazine reader. This very concept is Mice by John well displayed in the two selected, yet very different, magazine ads from the software magnate Microsoft. Computer software , Gamer , Microsoft 1233 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetorical Advertisement Analysis. The Crib Advertisement Teen pregnancy is one of the Essay about Thinking PDSA most serious issues in the American society.

Three in ten teen young women get pregnant . before their twenties. We have heard about the bad consequences of and Men, teen pregnancy in movies, talk shows, news, and many other social media. The Candies Foundation Organization is a non-profit organization that tries change the way youth in America thinks about teen pregnancy and how many bones are in skeleton parenthood. This organization decided to use advertisements to persuade teenagers. Adolescence , Appeal to emotion , Infant 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Semiotic Analysis of 3 Magazine Advertisements. In this modern world that allows consumers access to dozens of instances of media advertisements per day (consciously, or sub-consciously), it . is important to be able to recognize and interpret advertisements on a deeper level. These advertisements are comprised of Wife in Of and Men Essay, several codes and lenovo subsidiaries conventions that are designed to attract attention to certain attributes of a product in Curley's in Of by John Steinbeck Essay order to sell it to lenovo the chosen target market. One effective method of targeting and selling a product to Wife Mice and Men Essay a specific demographic. Advertising , Magazine , Mass media 2389 Words | 6 Pages. English 1102 Basye Oreo Advertisement This Oreo advertisement depicts an infant being breastfed by elizabethan his mother while . holding an Oreo in his hand.

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What does it imply about mozarabic art, gender and/or sexuality? You should refer . concept such as sexualisation, postfeminism and/or stereo type and both consider femininities and Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John Essay masculinities. Introduction Axe is a grooming product, one of the most well known brands among men worldwide. Its advertising campaigns always catch peoples attentions by using sexuality concept as well as it is claimed that the Axe brand is how many are in the axial skeleton built on epic and in Of Mice Essay disruptive advertising. Advertising , Gender , Gender identity 2097 Words | 6 Pages.

Airtel Advertisement Analysis 1. Presentation by Group-2Abhinav Shikhar Ashwin GoyalJoshuva Alexander Motiur . RahamanMudit Desai Maneesh GargVignesh P.B Kanupriya Sethi [email protected] 2. Competitive Environment Communication: any thing that allows one person to communicate to another person 1) Telecom sector 2) Skype 3) Mail servers 4) Social network sitesTodays youth share a relationship with theirfamilies but they share their life with theirfriends. Settlement! Thus, the communication. Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises , Delhi 692 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of 3 Advertisements by a large Financial Products. ?Assignment On Analysis of Three Advertisements by Curley's Wife in Of by John a large Financial Products/ Services Marketer Date: 28 February, 2014 . Prepared For: Shahriar Kabir Assistant Professor, IBA-JU Course Instructor Prepared By: Golam Tarek Hasan Id: 2012-01-045 Jahangir Nagar University Institute of Business Administration WMBA Programme, Spring 2014 FIN 513/MKT 512: Financial Products Marketing Analysis of the elizabethan Advertisement of Curley's Wife Steinbeck, Eastern Bank Ltd NRB TVC 2009 At first a past television.

Bangladesh , Bank , Banking 879 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis: A Community of Renal Replacement Therapy Unit, Cars Second Edition by John Mauk and John Metz. Recommended Text: A Writers Resource 2009 edition. Course Description: This course will provide instruction . in critical reading and writing of expository and Curley's Wife in Of Mice Steinbeck argumentative prose, including summaries, analysis , and research. Focus will be on critical reading, research methods, gathering, evaluating analyzing, and synthesizing ideas and evidence and documentation. The course is lenovo designed to Curley's in Of Mice by John Essay help you understand and acquire the mozarabic art habits of mind central to. Critical thinking , E-mail , Logic 1401 Words | 6 Pages. The Onion's MagnaSoles: Advertisement Analysis.

With products such as Shamwow, Oxyclean, and the Bowflex, flooding our modern-day market, it seems as though todays advertisement challenges . the intelligence of the American populace with a single daunting task, to force people to stop thinking rationally. Wife Mice And Men Steinbeck Essay! Intelligence is measured upon a variety of Essay, elements all stemming from rational thought; The Onion satirizes the Curley's Wife in Of and Men Steinbeck seemingly infinite quantity of irrational thought in the world today, in an ad for a new and subsidiaries improved, $19.95 (plus shipping and handling). Advertising , Critical thinking , Intelligence 774 Words | 3 Pages. 34 | MILK JUICE MARCH 11 JUICE MARCH 11 RETAIL The importance of Wife in Of Mice and Men Steinbeck, advertising by Fidelis Zvomuya It seems as if advertising is . everywhere these days: on billboards, trucks, cars , trees, in the media and on almost every electronic device we may own. As companies increasingly compete for the attention of Therapy Intensive Unit Essay, their market, the advertising industry is Curley's Wife in Of growing rapidly, despite many companies efforts to curb costs in this regard, and sales messages in the form of advertising . Advertising , Brand , Creativity 812 Words | 5 Pages. Advertisement Analysis: American Beauty. by following these cultural trends. Whether it is mozarabic art through periodicals, radio, or the all powerful television these companies use effective methods to Wife by John Essay . psychologically convince their intended audience to buy either a product or service. Essay About Project PDSA! These advertisements perfectly reflect how Americans perceive sex, social status, and gender roles.

A prime example of this concept is a television commercial by Old Spice soliciting scented body wash to women with boyfriends or husbands. The sales pitch begins. Human sexuality , Hygiene , Marketing 1211 Words | 4 Pages. television ads heighten people's interest in Curley's Wife Mice and Men by John Steinbeck products. Taking this into consideration, television advertising today has overwhelming influence on consumer . purchases and attraction to services. The consumer mind frame is largely weighted by what advertisements encourage and coerce people to buy, do and even believe.

A television ad concept is lenovo subsidiaries not difficult to actualise, but creating an affective one that will excite audiences is. Television is firstly a visual medium and secondly auditory, allowing.

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En revanche, il a pu intervenir sur le dessin de la Thema . Curley's Wife In Of And Men Essay! La preuve ? Les feux arri#xE8;re en pointe et le pli de t#xF4;le en U qui structure le bouclier sont une #xE9;vocation directe du traitement de l'arri#xE8;re de la Lancia Flaminia de 1957-1970 . Elizabethan! Sur ce point, le clin d'#x153;il est patent, en effet. Wife Steinbeck Essay! Mais Lancia oublie de dire que la Chrysler 300 de 2011 arbore les m#xEA;mes feux et le m#xEA;me bouclier, pr#xE9;sent#xE9;s comme une #xE9;volution naturelle du style de la pr#xE9;c#xE9;dente mouture#x2026; Heureuse co#xEF;ncidence s'il en est ! Lorenzo Ramaciotti qui supervise le design de Fiat-Chrysler (auteur entre autres des lignes des Ferrari 550 Maranello et 612 Scaglietti, ainsi que de la Maserati Quattroporte) a rendu hommage #xE0; la Chrysler 300 de 2003 comme #xE9;tant celle qui, avec sa ceinture de caisse haute et son vitrage caract#xE9;ristique a cr#xE9;#xE9; le style hautement identifiable de la voiture am#xE9;ricaine moderne . Elizabethan! Il affirme par ailleurs que la nouvelle Thema est celle qui permet #xE0; Lancia de renouer avec l'#xE9;l#xE9;gance et le chic qui puisent aux racines de la voiture de luxe italienne . Curley's! Contradiction ? Chacun jugera. The Axial Skeleton! D'autant qu'en mati#xE8;re de style, tout est affaire de perception. Mice By John Steinbeck Essay! Quant #xE0; savoir pourquoi le patronyme de Thema s'est impos#xE9; face #xE0; celui de Thesis ou de Kappa, la marque italienne aime #xE0; rappeler que la premi#xE8;re Thema #xE9;tait le fruit d'un d#xE9;veloppement commun entre Fiat et Saab. Elizabethan! Le sang m#xEA;l#xE9;, d#xE9;j#xE0;. Wife In Of Steinbeck Essay! Mani#xE8;re de dire que l'identit#xE9; italienne a prouv#xE9; sa r#xE9;silience en dig#xE9;rant de nombreuses influences #xE9;trang#xE8;res. Mozarabic Art! Or, ne dit-on pas que ce qui ne tue pas rend plus fort ? Ceux qui se montrent insensibles #xE0; cette po#xE9;sie gourmande pr#xE9;f#xE9;reront voir dans la silhouette baroque de la Thema le post-modernisme am#xE9;ricain plut#xF4;t que le classicisme italien . Curley's Mice And Men By John Steinbeck Essay! A leurs yeux, cette grande berline d#xE9;gingand#xE9;e ressemble #xE0; une nageuse am#xE9;ricaine d#xE9;barquant chez un parent qu'elle se serait subitement d#xE9;couvert en Italie. How Many Bones Are In The Axial! Le choc culturel. On comprendra par cons#xE9;quent que les opinions divergent #xE0; l'endroit de la Thema. Mice And Men Steinbeck! Lancia ne s'en offusque pas car elle sait que seule une originalit#xE9; assum#xE9;e offrira #xE0; sa berline une chance de prosp#xE9;rer #xE0; l'ombre des trois grandes marques de luxe allemandes qui occupent 87 % du march#xE9; des grandes routi#xE8;res. How Many Bones Are In The Axial Skeleton! Quitte #xE0; ce que la Thema ne plaise pas #xE0; tout le monde.

La Lancia Thema ignore ostensiblement les envies de conformisme de Monsieur Tout-le-Monde et ravit les individualistes que le triste uniforme d'une BMW, d'une Audi ou d'une Mercedes-Benz ne saurait satisfaire : typiquement, les acheteurs de Volvo S80 et de Jaguar XF. In Of By John Steinbeck Essay! Deux mod#xE8;les qui, bon an Against Women in Pakistani Society Essay mal an, s'#xE9;coulent #xE0; quelque quatre #xE0; cinq cents exemplaires chaque ann#xE9;e en France. In Of Mice By John Essay! Sans oublier une poign#xE9;e d'Infiniti et de Saab. Trop toc et pas assez chic, la Lancia Thema ? Tout d#xE9;pend du degr#xE9; d'authenticit#xE9; que vous attendez d'une automobile dont le prix oscille entre 43.900 euros et 50.900 euros. Against Women Essay! Ceux qui r#xEA;vent d'une limousine assembl#xE9;e et finie #xE0; la main peuvent passer leur chemin : la Thema a beau jurer parmi le flot gris des grandes routi#xE8;res tel un costume en velours orange dans la penderie d'un banquier, elle n'en est pas moins un produit de grande s#xE9;rie. Curley's Wife By John! Maserati peut dormir tranquille. In The Intensive Unit! De m#xEA;me, si vous ne roulez en BMW que pour la satisfaction de savoir qu'elle ne partage sa m#xE9;canique avec aucune de ses concurrentes, vous vous exposez #xE0; une d#xE9;convenue avec la Lancia. A quelques menus d#xE9;tails pr#xE8;s, la Thema du troisi#xE8;me mill#xE9;naire reprend tout de la nouvelle Chrysler 300, revue de fond en comble. Wife Essay! La carrosserie est identique, y compris les projecteurs et les nervures de capot mais pas la calandre ni le bouclier. About Systems Thinking PDSA! La planche de bord et la sellerie sont les m#xEA;mes, mais pas le volant cuir et bois, propre #xE0; l'italienne. Wife In Of Mice By John Steinbeck Essay! La structure modernis#xE9;e comme les transmissions et les suspensions sont communes, mais pas les ressorts et les amortisseurs, raffermis pour l'Europe . Le six-cylindres Diesel de la belle et plantureuse Lancia est une m#xE9;canique italienne sign#xE9;e VM Motori et Fiat . Therapy In The! On la retrouve sous le capot du Grand Cherokee.

Quant #xE0; son six-cylindres essence Pentastar de3,6 litres, tout nouveau, tout beau, il anime une flop#xE9;e de v#xE9;hicules Chrysler, Dodge, Lancia et Fiat sur tous les continents. Curley's Wife In Of By John Steinbeck! Il sera coupl#xE9; #xE0; une bo#xEE;te automatique ZF #xE0; 8 rapports dont b#xE9;n#xE9;ficient d#xE9;j#xE0; BMW, Rolls-Royce, Audi, Jaguar, et Land Rover. Le meilleur de l'Am#xE9;rique et de l'Italie. Heureusement pour elle, la Thema n'avait pas besoin d'#xEA;tre enti#xE8;rement con#xE7;ue en Italie pour se pr#xE9;tendre une authentique Lancia. Settlement! Pas plus qu'une Audi doit taire sa parent#xE9; avec Volkswagen pour justifier son prix. Curley's By John Steinbeck! Ce qui motive l'acheteur de voitures de luxe est autant la satisfaction de s'approprier un blason prestigieux que le plaisir de s'offrir une automobile soign#xE9;e et performante. Soign#xE9;e, la Lancia Thema l'est assur#xE9;ment. Discrimination Against Essay! L'harmonie des couleurs, le clinquant des compteurs ouvrag#xE9;s telles des montres et la veine apparente du bois composent une ambiance chaleureuse, que l'on comparera plus volontiers #xE0; celle d'une Jaguar ou de feue la Thesis qu'#xE0; celle d'une Mercedes-Benz.

Les aficionados regretteront que l'Alcantara n'ait pas droit de cit#xE9; dans cet habitacle fig#xE9; avant que Fiat n'ait eu le temps d'infl#xE9;chir les choix de style. Wife In Of And Men By John Steinbeck! M#xEA;me les si#xE8;ges en cuir partiel nappa sont repris tels quels de la 300 : leur flancs tendus de vinyle feront grincer des dents des propri#xE9;taires de Thesis habitu#xE9;s au cuir Poltrona Frau int#xE9;gral. Performante, la Lancia Thema l'est aussi. Elizabethan! Son V6 Diesel 3.0 Multijet d#xE9;clin#xE9; en deux puissances de 190 ch et de 239 chevaux lui permet de tenir ais#xE9;ment son rang. In Of Mice! Gr#xE2;ce #xE0; un couple de respectivement 440 Nm #xE0; 1.600 tr/min et de 550 Nm #xE0; 1.800 tr/min, la Thema Diesel gomme la perception de sa masse de pr#xE8;s de 2 tonnes (0 #xE0; 100 km/h en 9,7 s et 7,8 s). Lenovo! Sa consommation moyenne s'#xE9;tablit en cycle mixte #xE0; 7,1 l/100 km et #xE0; 7,2 l/100 km selon que la voiture chausse des pneumatiques de 18 ou de 20 pouces (185 et 191 g/km de CO2).

Dot#xE9;e d'une direction plut#xF4;t pr#xE9;cise quoique peu informative, la Lancia Thema accepte de hausser le rythme sur petites routes. Curley's Wife And Men By John Steinbeck! On place ais#xE9;ment cette grosse auto en virage mais on about Systems PDSA, h#xE9;site #xE0; explorer les limites de son adh#xE9;rence. Curley's And Men Steinbeck Essay! Question d'habitude. Au regard de la fluidit#xE9; de fonctionnement de la bo#xEE;te ZF #xE0; 8 rapports (attendue sur la variante essence de 286 ch), la bo#xEE;te 5 de la Thema Diesel passe pour lente et abrupte. Continuous Renal Intensive Care Unit Essay! Dans l'absolu toutefois, elle parvient sans peine #xE0; se faire oublier et n'alt#xE8;re en rien l'insonorisation tr#xE8;s pouss#xE9;e de l'habitacle. Wife Mice And Men By John! Elle va de pair avec un amortissement qui privil#xE9;gie le confort sans g#xE9;n#xE9;rer de roulis d#xE9;sagr#xE9;able pour autant. C'est faire preuve d'humilit#xE9; que de renoncer #xE0; pr#xE9;tendre d#xE9;tr#xF4;ner les S#xE9;rie 5, A6 et Classe E. Bones Are In! Encore fallait-il que la Lancia Thema dispose d'arguments solides pour se faire une place parmi les pr#xE9;tendantes. C'est pr#xE9;cis#xE9;ment le cas gr#xE2;ce #xE0; une pr#xE9;sentation, #xE0; un ch#xE2;ssis et #xE0; un moteur Diesel conformes aux exigences de la cat#xE9;gorie. Wife In Of Mice And Men By John Steinbeck! Sans oublier un rapport entre prix et #xE9;quipement #xE0; rendre malade un comptable de chez Daimler. Le Directeur Marketing Lancia France, Nicolas L#xE9;v#xEA;que nous a d#xE9;montr#xE9; avec force tableaux comparatifs que l'acheteur d'une Thema en a r#xE9;ellement beaucoup pour son argent. Elizabethan Settlement! Au sommet de la gamme, la Lancia Thema 3.6 V6 essence (50.900 euros) s'affiche 3.300 euros de moins qu'une Lancia Thesis #xE0; laquelle il manque pr#xE8;s de dix mille euros d'#xE9;quipement.

En valeur faciale , poursuit N. Wife And Men Steinbeck Essay! L#xE9;v#xEA;que, la Thema s'affiche quelque huit #xE0; dix mille euros de moins qu'une BMW S#xE9;rie 5 ou qu'une Mercedes Classe E. Lenovo! Mais #xE0; #xE9;quipement #xE9;gal, elle s'av#xE8;re en r#xE9;alit#xE9; pr#xE8;s de 25 % moins ch#xE8;re. In Of Mice By John! Une Volvo S80 reste plus ch#xE8;re de 5.000 euros que la finition Executive sans pouvoir tout #xE0; fait #xE9;galer son #xE9;quipement de s#xE9;rie. Elizabethan! Pour finir, on Mice and Men, notera que la Lancia Thema b#xE9;n#xE9;ficie sans surco#xFB;t de 7.540 euros d'#xE9;quipements suppl#xE9;mentaires par rapport #xE0; l'ancienne Chrysler 300 C Diesel. Image #xA9; LQA - E. Systems! Bergerolle. C'est sur la foi de tant d'atouts et de tant de charisme que nous nous permettrons d'exhorter l'amateur d'automobiles de caract#xE8;re #x2014; celui qui s'#xE9;meut du devenir de Saab aussi bien que de la disparition du V6 Alfa Romeo #x2014; d'offrir le b#xE9;n#xE9;fice du doute #xE0; Lancia.

Sergio Marchionne, auteur du rapprochement entre Fiat et Chrysler promet une berline 5-portes et un break compacts en 2013, ainsi qu'une concurrente de la BMW S#xE9;rie 3 et un nouveau Voyager en 2014. Curley's Mice By John Essay! Le prix #xE0; payer en attendant ces nouvelles Lancia ? Souffrir que la Thema ressemble #xE0; une certaine cousine d'Am#xE9;rique et que les Delta et Ypsilon soient commercialis#xE9;es sous blason Chrysler au Royaume-Uni. Tout bien pes#xE9;, voil#xE0; qui n'est pas cher pay#xE9; pour jouir encore longtemps du privil#xE8;ge de rouler diff#xE9;rent. Confort de marche et silence remarquables. Comportement all#xE8;gre vue la masse#xA0; Equipement pl#xE9;thorique pour un prix avantageux.

Filiation am#xE9;ricaine r#xE9;dhibitoire aux yeux de certains. Visibilit#xE9; p#xE9;riph#xE9;rique compromise.