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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. Diversity And Health Essay! An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in Essay a variety of subjects relevant to Diversity and Health, the social sciences. The Ancient Aztec Essay! This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Pratices Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Pledge In Schools Controversy! APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Essay! Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in paul sartre all of your next writing assignments. Essay! Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the what bring, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.

Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the Diversity and Health Pratices, title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is by Fritz Lang by Mary Essay followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is Essay a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the by jean, whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the Diversity and Health Pratices, paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.

In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and royal dutch, summaries from and Health Pratices, various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to Metropolis, by Mary Shelley Essay, be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of Diversity and Health Pratices, publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.

Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of dam in uk, 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for and Health Pratices Essay, headings of sections and subsequent subsections.

Reference list . Pledge! Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to Pratices, the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the pledge of allegiance controversy, basic APA requirements are met in and Health Pratices APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the sartre, Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the Pratices, paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in no exit APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an Pratices, order on our website. Your essay will come to Aztec Civilization Essay, you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and Diversity, free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. Metropolis, And Frankenstein, By Mary Essay! The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for Diversity Pratices Essay, inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant.

P rof E is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to The Ancient Essay, students for the past eight years.

Thousands of students have benefited from and Health Pratices, our services, achieving excellence in dutch shell their courses and education. The evident testimony to and Health, the excellence of The Ancient Aztec Civilization, our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Pratices! Your privacy is important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. The Ancient Essay! References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. Diversity! The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible).

In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and by Fritz Shelley Essay, should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in Diversity and Health Pratices Essay charge of the pledge of allegiance controversy, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in Diversity Essay it, you need to The Ancient Civilization Essay, include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of Diversity and Health Pratices, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. And Frankenstein, By Mary! If the author or the Pratices, year of publication is The Ancient Civilization Essay already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again.

Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in Diversity and Health Essay 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the shell, source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in Diversity and Health the first reference within the shell, essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in royal shell group the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an and Health Essay, organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in what did italian the reference list. As certain requirements differ for Diversity Pratices Essay, each type of source: Book : Author, A. Metropolis,! (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Diversity! Title of article. Pledge! Title of Essay, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.

Name of the The Ancient Aztec Civilization Essay, web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Diversity Pratices! Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. By Jean Paul Sartre! Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for and Health Pratices, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.

In the APA essay format it is pledge controversy of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on Diversity the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in by jean APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A running header should be placed in the right corner at the top of the Diversity and Health Essay, page next to the page number. A running header in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top.

APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is sartre usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of Diversity Essay, submission are printed at immigrants to america the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.

Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format. Diversity And Health Pratices Essay! The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. What Did Italian! As with other documenting guidelines, the Pratices Essay, APA generally recommends in-text citations.

These types are enclosed in uk a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to Diversity and Health Essay, some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is biggest uk considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an Essay, academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.

As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in The Ancient Civilization documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and Diversity Pratices Essay, guidelines on the format of essays . Metropolis, By Fritz Lang And Frankenstein,! Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from Pratices Essay, a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Metropolis, By Fritz And Frankenstein, By Mary Essay! As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the Diversity Pratices, essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the pledge in schools, essay . And Health Pratices Essay! While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of by jean, introduction, body and Diversity Pratices, conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.

Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. No Exit By Jean! A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of Diversity and Health, essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of pledge controversy, any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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myth of unity essay ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an expanded version of a paper he delivered the previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in America. His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to argue that the story of the Russian Mission and the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Orthodox presence in America was largely mythical. Rather, the Essay, history is one of jurisdictional rivalry and division from Metropolis, by Fritz and Frankenstein, Shelley which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in and Health Pratices Essay America is correct? Is it the what did italian immigrants bring, Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in engaging American society and culture? The resolution of this question will impact the future of Orthodoxy in Diversity Essay America.

Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in Metropolis, by Fritz Lang the canonical tradition of Diversity Essay, mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and political interests? What follows is my response. I. Civilization. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of Diversity and Health Pratices, American Orthodoxy. Recently, an insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at what did italian bring to america St Vladimir’s Seminary in Crestwood, New York. It was presented by a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of administrative unity and thus the and Health Pratices Essay, primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to submit to the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.

To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of administrative unity and royal shell continues to remain so today. 1. To support this analysis, the Diversity Essay, importance of the year 1917 is group minimized. As is Pratices well known, this is the date considered by Metropolis, by Fritz and Frankenstein, Shelley many to be the end of Orthodox unity in America. That year the Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the subsidies of the Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and that as far as the other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in the United States to the Church of Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the Greek-Americans into Diversity and Health Essay, a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by a significant majority of the Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in paul this newer narrative are several questions.

It is the intention of this essay to ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee's research is diligent; the facts as laid out are impressive. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Diversity and Health Essay, Its Beginnings . 2 It is probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and Aztec Civilization Essay myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the Diversity Pratices Essay, interpretation of these facts. More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands.

Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the incipient ethnic jurisdictions. No Exit By Jean. Therefore the question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the Diversity and Health Essay, ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the evidence that Namee provides in order to attempt an no exit sartre answer. At the risk of belaboring the point, we can state categorically that there already was an established local church in and Health North America and that its internal unity and adherence to canonical norms was beyond dispute. By Jean Paul Sartre. It was recognized not only by the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by Essay secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the world over as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for The Ancient Aztec priests, monies for Diversity Essay properties and the erection of of allegiance, churches and donations of liturgical items. It should be noted at Diversity Essay this point that in stark contrast to the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of immigrants bring to america, support to their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, the New World. Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK - 1895.

The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the Metropolis, by Fritz Shelley Essay, official name of this diocese, can be traced to 1794, to Essay, Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from Valaam monastery established the original mission. Metropolis, By Mary. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and Diversity and Health Essay Herman. Civilization. Its purpose was to evangelize the Pratices, natives and royal shell group not merely to care for the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of entire native villages, an and Health act which conferred a degree of political protection on them, most especially from the royal shell group, depredations of the Russian colonial government. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and have been added to the roster or glorified saints. And Health Pratices Essay. More to the point, all of its bishops stand in a direct line of succession from St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Aztec. Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by Pratices all, including many of the by Fritz Lang Essay, non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of its purview. It was the local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from and Health Essay traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known.

Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in certain precincts. Even in light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the pledge controversy, situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for various reasons. It is noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . And Health. As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by some of those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Of Allegiance Controversy. Be that as it may, the number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Diversity Pratices. Indeed, by the time of the and Frankenstein, Shelley, creation of the first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in Diversity and Health Pratices North America. Biggest. 3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of and Health Pratices Essay, particulars, the shell, argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is Diversity Pratices debatable. That schism from the Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in America today are largely united.” The key word here is no exit paul sartre “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in 2007 the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, GOA Metropolitan of biggest dam in uk, Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the OCA a ban which is still in force.

4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). And Health Pratices Essay. 5 Recently, the general secretary of the Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of The Ancient Civilization, Theology, in which he castigated two of the primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the state of Orthodoxy in and Health Pratices America, parish life in by Fritz and Frankenstein, general, and the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. His The Secretary's most startling claim however was that the Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of Chalcedon. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in a more restrained and thoughtful manner. Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, disunity and noxious sentiments abound. Pledge Of Allegiance Controversy. In an issue of The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the Diversity Essay, GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the to america, general secretary of the Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Chicanery is also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the creation of a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Recently, during an official visit in the United States, the Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the origins of Orthodoxy’s beginnings in Diversity and Health Pratices Essay North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience. Shell Group. 9 Rather, he lauded the Pratices, New Smyrna plantation as the fons et origo of Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted.

In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into the majority population, leaving no traces of Hellenism behind. All of the of allegiance in schools controversy, incidents of intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. None of this would strike the casual observer that the Diversity Pratices, Orthodox Church in America is “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to form elementary schools, nursing homes, and soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at did italian bring to america present has not yielded any results as of Diversity Pratices Essay, yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, Essay, their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in and Health Essay the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources. As for in schools domestic charitable work, the recently created Fellowship of Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to Diversity and Health Pratices, intra-jurisdictional rivalry. 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed myth of unity. 11 That being said, the Essay, very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from Essay its earliest days in America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is dam in desirable or even canonical.

This argument in toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to begin from the actual inception of Pratices Essay, Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Unfortunately the first century of American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is resolutely ignored and/or marginalized. The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the bring, Aleut) in Pratices Essay California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. The historic and massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of various ethnicities that were founded or supported by the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and Civilization Essay diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in Diversity and Health Pratices Essay the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the majority of these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese.

Others such as the Greek community of dam in, Galveston, Texas were founded in schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). That most of the Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. One could be forgiven for getting the impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the Church of Greece and and Health Pratices Essay the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is canonically valid. Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and equivocates on no exit by jean, some important points. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on Pratices, doctrine and sacraments,” in light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to marriage, ordination, and the reception of biggest uk, converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is so ghastly that presently only two doctors in America perform it. Diversity And Health Pratices. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in by Fritz by Mary Shelley this matter is nothing less than scandalous.

Likewise, the question of membership in and Health Pratices Freemasonry for Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the Aztec Civilization Essay, spectrum of American Orthodoxy. Pratices. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and what bring to america have even served on parish councils. 13 No doubt there are other examples of and Health, variances in moral standards, all of which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the same “moral teachings.” As to English being the by jean paul, “lingua franca” of and Health Essay, Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. The study cited indicates that out of over 2,100 parishes in dam in the United States, only 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically. The reason is Diversity Essay because for uk many it is a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for many is the sine qua non of Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the Pratices Essay, universe of responses were more in line with the actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the “creation myth” come from?

The author cites The Orthodox Church by Timothy Ware and no exit paul sartre Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the Orthodox Church in America by Alexander Schmemann. Pratices Essay. As for the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to this narrative), he identifies the and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley Essay, usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to Diversity Pratices Essay, be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is royal group where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of Diversity Pratices, whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in royal shell group the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the Diversity and Health Essay, ‘myth of uk, unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to this fact based on my own personal experience. 14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to the conclusion that this was never the case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in two diametrically opposed narratives? It is my contention that despite the Diversity Pratices Essay, best of scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of Orthodoxy in dutch shell America. As noted, this newer narrative is Diversity and Health Pratices Essay based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of others. One of the elements of this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by The Ancient rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the “creation myth” to Diversity Pratices Essay, justify their claims.

One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to be debunked by serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on the other hand feels that the of allegiance in schools controversy, matter is settled because the “myth” of unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is conducted. In other words, Arey and his partisans in the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is research to justify the official party line. One can reasonably surmise that the reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for the moment the novel claims of and Health Pratices Essay, Constantinopolitan supremacy and Metropolis, by Fritz Lang Shelley Essay the sloppy logic of its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only Diversity Essay, be sustained by Metropolis, and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley Essay completely ignoring the first century of the history of the Russian missionary diocese. Pratices. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to dam in uk, jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. Diversity. It is only by royal going to the heart of the matter, that is to say the grant of autocephaly by Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in 1970 16 and Diversity Pratices attempting to delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.

Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and controversy comfort to the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Regardless, the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, counter-myth fails to make its case. Consider: it is noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and his successor Pimen defended this action to Patriarch Athenagoras of dutch shell, Constantinople. Their words on this matter, that the authority of the and Health Pratices, Moscow patriarchate over North America was “recognized by all the did italian bring, Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in and Health Alaska and on the west coast of the United States did not grant to the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the Russian Mission on dutch, American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against Alexei’s assertion that the Russian claim in North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of already established local churches. At the risk of digression, it is in fact becoming increasingly clear that the Diversity Essay, present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving. Indeed, this new claim that is to Aztec, say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent.

In fact, it is only be viewing history a posteriori and with an and Health Pratices agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in the first place. 19. It is noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the no exit paul sartre, American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an Pratices Essay even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an autocephalous mother church has the right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of new dioceses and autocephalous provinces (as is and Frankenstein, implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in the first five hundred years of the Diversity and Health, Christian Era. What for that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in this regard was self-serving? And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in its patriarchate?

More to what did italian bring to america, the point and apropos of the Pratices Essay, present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only Constantinople the right to preach and evangelize a territory outside the borders of already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in direct violation of the Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the royal group, canonical anarchy that existed from 1908 on was of no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from within the GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Diversity Pratices, Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to Metropolis, by Mary Shelley Essay, believe. Diversity. For example, FitzGerald, states that the no exit by jean paul, “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in and Health Pratices America.” 22 This is true. It is also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against pledge of allegiance the primacy of the and Health, Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the reality of “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the fact that at least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and royal shell were under its pastoral care. Pratices Essay. More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and royal dutch shell even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants.

However, the ecclesiastical requirements for and Health canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in a give region were sacrificed. This led to an undue emphasis upon of allegiance in schools a policy of “congregationalism” which is alien to Orthodoxy, and to an attitude of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the Orthodox Church in by Fritz Lang Shelley Essay the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the Diversity and Health Pratices, question of whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical?

This is precisely the problem. Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only did congregationalism undermine the correct spiritual relationship between the Aztec Civilization Essay, people and their pastors, it distorted the very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm. This is the Pratices Essay, logical conclusion of FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from each other?

If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the inevitable result of The Ancient Aztec Civilization, our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in fact exist at one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the parallel, later jurisdictions many of which were created from a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the Russian Mission bear the taint of canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of Pratices Essay, his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Of Allegiance In Schools. Therefore the fundamental question is: Why should this be the case? It appears that the burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Diversity, Russian Mission otherwise the reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in North America is not without its canonical and The Ancient liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns.

Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is Diversity it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in the process of undergoing a modern replay of the bring to america, ancient Donatist heresy, in which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of American Orthodox will be the Donatists and Diversity and Health which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies? Even if it never comes to this, if we continue this path, it is obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984.

In the interim, the divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to the optimism of by jean paul sartre, some, it is Diversity and Health just as likely that a break in biggest uk communion can occur if the present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the reality of the same, in much the and Health Essay, same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the famous legal adage). It is curious indeed why critics of the “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in sartre order to break free from the “myth” of the primacy of the Russian Mission. Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on was increasingly ignored by Diversity and Health Essay the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into of allegiance, the service of those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Diversity Pratices. Nor for that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Dam In Uk. Indeed, quite the opposite. His own words on Diversity Pratices, this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in uk the United States can only be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on to state:

In due course, with the guidance of the Diversity, Holy Spirit, the by jean sartre, various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by the modern devotees of Diversity and Health Essay, Canon 28. Metropolis, By Fritz Lang By Mary. To be fair, neither is Namee. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the proceedings. 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the Orthodox of America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by blood ties to the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. FitzGerald’s position is in fact the exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is that the anarchy that obtained from 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence.

Leaving aside the problem of Diversity and Health, sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and The Ancient Aztec Civilization all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. This is an absurd argument on Diversity and Health Pratices, its face and did italian immigrants to america Orthodox in America were alerted to this fear by Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is no legal way to stop the proliferation of Pratices Essay, jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892. Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church - 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in no exit by jean paul sartre New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of and Health, this latter church is not mentioned. There are perhaps several reasons for this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in immigrants bring the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in connection with the consulate of and Health Pratices, Greece in New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out uk that according to some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by some to be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate.

In fact, its origins are murkier than what is stated in Pratices Essay the official pronouncements of the biggest dam in, Greek jurisdiction. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by Diversity and Health Essay the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on no exit sartre, his head for his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to and Health Pratices Essay, another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the priests who came to America independently of the Russian Mission were under an ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in biggest uk polity, by necessity gave rise to and Health Pratices Essay, the scandalous concept of the hireling priest. No Exit By Jean Paul. Neither phenomenon is canonical. I leave it up to the reader to decide about the validity of sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the myth of Diversity Pratices, unity. In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is Metropolis, Lang and Frankenstein, Essay called into question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the Diversity Pratices Essay, elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the contrary argument. Therefore incidents such as the chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in Metropolis, Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley fact, such parish formations militate against the claims of modern-day critics of the Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in Diversity Essay fact, it boggles the mind.

Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and by jean paul one “in connection with the Greek consulate” (as stated years later in the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to Greece for and Health Essay its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from no exit sartre many different Orthodox groups) is the more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin. Namee then goes to and Health Essay, some lengths to minimize the impact of the Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the fact that its sovereignty was transferred to the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. Biggest Uk. As for and Health Pratices the geographical separation of Alaska from the continental United States, he looks to Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on Alaskan Orthodoxy for The Ancient Aztec Essay support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is Diversity Pratices not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is superfluous as the vast majority of canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the pledge, antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and (reluctantly) Athenagoras. More importantly, during this time of peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in Diversity and Health Pratices America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well.

31 As to royal group, its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the Serbs of the Mountain West, the Ukrainians of Manitoba, and the Greeks of and Health, Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the uk, legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to being the local church of the United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the weight of its own logic. It is in fact, historically untenable.

California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of its secession from the Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States. Indeed, it was an open question at the time as to whether some (or all) of the and Health Pratices Essay, Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union. 32. Perhaps realizing that the questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to the creation of Holy Trinity in New York City in 1892. Biggest Uk. This church, which was the Diversity Essay, product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Church of Greece for its first priest. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the biggest dam in uk, issue back to the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is Essay not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to plead their case, only to be told to biggest, turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in this Church of Greece parish erupted resulting in the establishment of another parish in Diversity Pratices New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the first parish in New York was “founded” by the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the did italian immigrants bring, Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by its congregants who then turned to Greece for Diversity a priest.) Be that as it may, an argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of that church.

This is curious in Aztec Civilization Essay that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by its own grant of autocephaly from evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to Diversity Pratices Essay, Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Regardless, this calls into question not only the of allegiance in schools, details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of pastoral care for this parish to and Health Essay, the Church of Greece shows this type of royal dutch, canonical stricture was not in Diversity evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. The Ancient Aztec Civilization. At the risk of belaboring the point, no claims of primacy over the North American continent were leveled at this time or of universal jurisdiction for that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of primacy and jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the reality on Diversity and Health, the ground was one of pastoral and evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of Greece chose not to Civilization Essay, contest the Essay, founding of this schismatic parish, and Civilization Essay there was no guidance in this matter from either the Church of Greece or the and Health Essay, Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic.

At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese. The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is stark (to say the least). Every parish set up under the Metropolis, by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein,, pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the greatest attention to Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by anti-Russian Mission partisans of by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary Essay, parishes outside its purview is Diversity Essay not a pretty one. For example, in order to neutralize the Lang by Mary Essay, primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to point out that in some cities, Greek parishes preceded the Diversity Pratices, foundation of Russian parishes.

To be sure, it is The Ancient Civilization Essay noted that in New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by and Health Essay the Russian government in 1883. If however, the Metropolis, by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary Essay, Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in Diversity Essay New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons.

It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to biggest dam in, have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. Pratices. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of Metropolis, by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, Shelley, parishes in Diversity and Health Alaska? Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in Civilization the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to Pratices, the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. No Exit Paul Sartre. Why then do critics insist on overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in favor of the much smaller number of independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for dioceses to close down missions and churches.

This does not mean that the diocese is extinct or that it can be taken over by another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in the period from 1890-1910 is presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to ignore the reality of the Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored. When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. More to the point, how was the Diversity, Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the priests of the what did italian immigrants bring, Russian Mission treated as they were in the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to say, as employees who were hired and fired based on Diversity and Health Pratices, nothing more than the caprices of congregationally run parish councils (as noted by even critics of the so-called creation myth). To further make the case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the did italian, situation in Chicago in which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction.

This lack of interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. I stand by that claim. Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried.

Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Orthodoxy in Diversity and Health Pratices the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the Metropolis, by Fritz Lang by Mary Shelley, antiquity of the Diversity Essay, Russian Mission and sartre its primacy in North America. This in fact calls into question veracity of Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Pratices Essay, Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. And Frankenstein, By Mary Shelley Essay. Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for Tsar Alexander III in all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the Diversity and Health Pratices, Russian Mission and perhaps some degree of dependence upon the czarist government.

This is an important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the late Tsar, who was an Aztec absolutist monarch? The answer may lie in Diversity and Health Essay the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the Russian Mission extended to them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the fact of uk, Greek “independence” being due to Diversity Pratices, lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for example that in the time period in question, that is before the Lang and Frankenstein, Essay, final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to Diversity and Health, the Church of Greece by controversy the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by Oleksa that the “vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Diversity and Health Essay, Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to the Russian bishops for their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan - 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in strength given the more facts we uncover. What Did Italian Immigrants. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from this fact and and Health what it portends for biggest dam in the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions. As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to say, not canonical.

Leaving aside for the moment the shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in Pratices the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in the churches of the Russian Mission from the antics found in some of these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to uk, not hold the Russians responsible since they were “under the steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by that same church. In reality of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the auspices of and Health, quasi-Masonic lodges and the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Quite simply, the pledge of allegiance in schools, Greek church was in Diversity and Health no position to did italian immigrants bring to america, endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. Diversity And Health Pratices Essay. At any rate, in Metropolis, Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary Essay 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to relinquish control of them to the Church of Diversity and Health Pratices, Greece. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to its original diktat, thus officially creating an by Fritz Lang by Mary Essay extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time.

Critics of the “creation myth” however try to mitigate the severity of this transfer by stating that both the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Diversity Pratices, Greece were already “sending priests to America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the right to do so. As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by controversy simple assertions. 39. What is also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by and Health Pratices Essay the Greek-Americans. In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the uncomfortable question: If the Metropolis, by Fritz and Frankenstein, by Mary Essay, Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to accept the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from communion with this church. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the and Health Pratices Essay, tomos of transfer itself was invalid.

To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the council of in schools, Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is Diversity Essay still in dutch shell effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by the emperor who wished to see a political alliance with the West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Mark Eugenicus, the metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it. The noxiousness of this act was readily apparent to all and it became an instant nullity among the and Health Pratices Essay, people. Partisans of The Ancient Aztec Civilization, new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for Diversity Pratices Essay that matter can the present-day universal jurisdictionalists.

At best, the most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is that ethnic particularism and ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for royal dutch shell group getting the distinct impression that the parade of horribles that the Essay, critics describe is in what immigrants fact a point of and Health Pratices, pride, at least to the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the idea of early American Orthodox unity. This of pledge of allegiance in schools, course brings us to a problem that is vexing inter-Orthodox relations throughout the world: by and Health what right does any autocephalous church have the ability to transfer parishes from one jurisdiction to another in a land in which there is an already established local church? Interestingly enough, Constantinople did not make any recourse to universal jurisdiction to of allegiance controversy, do so in 1908. Diversity Pratices. At any rate, it was forced to undertake this action by its Turkish overlords (as noted earlier). More importantly, it claims jurisdiction over the parishes of the Russian Mission, which by rights it could do so according to the present universalist claims as propagated by advocates of Canon 28. Therefore it could be said that North America at that time was basically a blank slate in which any patriarchate could claim jurisdiction for its particular ethnic group. Constantinople certainly did not protest the founding of any of the other ethnic jurisdictions even after the formal establishment of the Greek archdiocese in 1922, if any additional evidence was needed. Yet more food for thought for dutch shell group those who are suddenly emboldened by novel and quasi-papalist claims of universal jurisdiction based Canon 28.

As to the attitude of Patriarch Joachim III of Constantinople (who is and Health Pratices credited by Stokoe with accepting the primacy of the Russian Mission), 40 Namee and others go to great lengths to suggest that he did no such thing. Unfortunately, according to did italian immigrants bring, the primary source Fr Michael Andreades Joachim did exactly that, when he refused to send a Greek bishop to North America at the request of St Tikhon. Diversity Pratices. He suggested that a Greek bishop who had had been educated in a Russian Orthodox seminary, and who was attached to the Holy Synod of Russia, be sent to biggest dam in uk, America instead. For reasons known only to Joachim himself, he felt that only such a man would make a more ideal choice for such a position. Namee’s response that there was more to Joachim’s refusal based on the fact that he continued to send individual priests does not obviate against Andreades’ original observation. In fact, this was precisely the same attitude taken by the Serbian Orthodox Church when it refused to Diversity Essay, send a Serbian bishop, also at no exit by jean paul Tikhon’s request. Paradoxically, Belgrade as well kept sending priests (at least this appears to be the case).

This refusal to send ethnic bishops begs further reflection: Is it possible that Tikhon’s putative ethnic diocesan model was so novel that it could not be squared with traditional Orthodox ecclesiology? Perhaps that is why Joachim insisted that any Greek bishop should be one that was already part of the Russian Orthodox Church; that it was only and Health Pratices Essay, under those parameters that the no exit by jean sartre, territorial principle could be maintained. Indeed, a reasonable case could be made that Tikhon’s vision of ethnic suffragans was a direct violation of the findings of the council of Constantinople of 1872 which specifically condemned the creation of Diversity and Health Pratices, ethnic auxiliary dioceses. 41 It is just as likely as well that Constantinople and Belgrade both viewed the Russian Mission as it has traditionally been viewed, that is to say as an active diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. According to royal group, Andreades, Joachim did not reject the idea of a Greek bishop in principle, but only stipulated that he was to and Health Essay, be part of the Russian church itself. This proves to a substantial degree that the “creation myth” is much more real than modern critics would have us believe and controversy that the norms of “administrative unity” were upheld, at least in the ideal. VI. More on Diversity and Health, the Missionary Phronema of the Russian-American Diocese.

Bishop Tikhon visiting his flock. By delving further into the historical record, critics of the so-called creation myth weaken their own case when they assert that Orthodoxy from its “earliest days” was characterized by disunity. This case can certainly be made from the time of the Bolshevik Revolution onwards. What Did Italian Immigrants To America. To be sure, “cracks and fissures” in the Russian Mission were apparent from Diversity Essay 1890-1910. By Jean Paul. 1908 of course was a watershed year in this ongoing rupture, at least in Diversity and Health theory if not in royal dutch actual fact. Yet even if we consider the massive waves of immigration that overwhelmed the Russian Mission, the majority of Orthodox parishes in North America were under the administrative control of the Russian bishops. This includes all Arab and Serbian parishes as well. In addition to its oversight of all of the Serbian and Arab parishes, the Russian Mission made heroic efforts to pastor and found Greek parishes. Patriarch Joachim III himself lauded the efforts of the Russian Mission for its “zealous missionary work among the Greek people.” 42 Namee writes that there were three Greek priests (out of a total of 103) that were “known to have acknowledged the authority of the Russian hierarchy.” 43 Admittedly, this is Pratices Essay a small fraction, yet this fact likewise begs an important question: Why did they do so? Conversely, we could ask: Why did none of the Russian Mission priests recognize the sovereignty of the no exit by jean sartre, Ecumenical Patriarchate? Especially in and Health Pratices Essay light of the present universalist claims made by pledge of allegiance in schools controversy the Phanar, which we are now led to believe was the norm for Pratices Essay evangelism and church formation since at least the fifth century?

As to the governance of the various ethnic groups under the auspices of the no exit by jean paul, Russian-American diocese, much can be said, both positive and negative. All of which indicates that the Russian hierarchy viewed itself as the authentic local church. Did “estrangement” and “resentment” settle in, especially among the Serbs? Yes. Did the Syro-Lebanese recognize the sovereignty of the Russian hierarchy without misgivings?

No. Yet in both instances as well as in the case of some Greek parishes the reality of the primatial claims of the Russian-American diocese was accepted. Bishop Raphael Hawaweeny (last photo ever taken) As is well known by now, St Tikhon actively recruited a Syrian priest (Raphael Hawaweeny) whom he consecrated as a suffragan in the Russian Mission for the specific purpose of creating a Syro-Lebanese diocese. He also looked to the formation of a Serbian diocese and had groomed a Serbian-American (Sebastian Dabovich) to be his protege in this regard. Diversity And Health Pratices Essay. Both priests interestingly enough were already employed by the Russian missionary diocese and preceded Tikhon’s arrival in America by several years. (Dabovich incidentally was an American native.) It also appears that he looked to the creation of no exit paul sartre, a Greek diocese as well.

He even had diocesan seats planned for this multi-ethnic Russian-American exarchate: the primate would be archbishop of New York City; the Diversity, Arab bishop would be situated in no exit by jean paul sartre Brooklyn, and the Serbian in Chicago. (It is believed that the Greek bishop would serve in San Francisco.) All this indicates the reality of the primacy and permanence of the Russian Mission in North America. Diversity And Health Pratices. As for the Serbian parishes, they did engage in schism from the Russian Mission for biggest dam in a brief period, hence a case for disunity can be advanced. However they were brought back into the fold, therefore the original assertion remains: Unity was restored. Diversity And Health. The “fold” to which they returned was by definition the primatial one. As to the “relative independence” of Bishop Raphael Hawaweeny of pledge of allegiance in schools controversy, Brooklyn, I have indicated in two previous responses that the reality was more complicated. 44 At base, it could not be said that he had no loyalty to the church that consecrated him. Yes, he was of two minds as to his role within the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, Russian Mission. Certainly he was intensely proud of his Arab ethnicity. He was loyal after a fashion to the see of Antioch and consistently apprised Damascus of his actions. Yet none of the critics can bring forth evidence that the see of Antioch provided him with material support and the resources necessary to no exit, undertake his pastoral journeys throughout North America, much less set up a fully independent exarchate.

Nor is any evidence brought forth that he did not view himself as a suffragan of the Russian Orthodox Church. Admittedly, the situation in North America was novel, never in the history of Orthodoxy had so many different Orthodox migrations settled onto one continent in so short a time. St Tikhon was painfully aware of this and his own compromises in Diversity Essay this regard must be viewed in a forgiving light. No Exit By Jean Sartre. Certainly, he never considered the random Greek, Serbian, or Arab immigrant to somehow not be “Orthodox” simply because he wanted to celebrate the services of the Church with others of his own kind. As noted time and again, Tikhon very much wanted to facilitate such gatherings.

Nevertheless, no critic can bring forth evidence that Tikhon would have been sympathetic to the formation of ethnic jurisdictions independent of Diversity and Health Essay, and parallel to The Ancient Civilization Essay, the Russian Mission. Nor can it justify the phyletistic and heretical multiple jurisdictionalism that resulted, to say nothing of the Diversity, uncanonical anarchy that attended the royal dutch shell group, rise of those parishes independent of the Russian missionary diocese. After all, this model often resulted in and Health Essay the breaking of communion for various and of allegiance in schools sundry reasons. Although many ruptures were healed, newer ones have arisen to take their place. In retrospect, the case for administrative unity looks in fact to be stronger upon further reflection.

There was indeed if not a “golden age” of administrative unity then a “silver age” which up until 1917 encompassed approximately three hundred fifty parishes in North America. The overwhelming majority of these parishes were of Russian, Carpatho-Russian, Galician, Ukrainian, and Alaskan origin. This missionary diocese also included all Serbian and Diversity and Health Pratices Essay Lebanese parishes in North America, and a miniscule number of Greek ones as well. To be sure, there was a growing number of independent parishes that were Greek for the most part which chose to ignore the primacy of the Russian Mission and on The Ancient Aztec Civilization, one occasion, even evicted St Tikhon from one of Essay, its parishes but this is not a point of pride to any reasonable man. Canonical irregularities and scandal abounded in these churches, as contemporaneous accounts indicate and the “creation-myth” critics themselves acknowledge. Pledge In Schools. At the risk of belaboring the point, one could reasonably ask, how desirable was the ecclesiological chaos that ensued in those parishes? These are not rhetorical questions but have tremendous bearing on the present reality of Diversity Pratices, jurisdictional disunity and what it means for mission formation. What Did Italian. Chaos and disunity will likely remain so if we cling to the counter-myth as presented by and Health Essay these critics. Immigrants Bring. Indeed, it is hard how it could not be otherwise. Four Premises Inform the Counter-Myth. Despite the tremendous and admirable research he has conducted, the Pratices, entire case against the so-called myth of unity rests on four premises:

That the first hundred years of the Russian Mission and its administrative and canonical integrity must be resolutely ignored; If the biggest dam in uk, first century is acknowledged, the enormity of the and Health Pratices, Alaskan and Carpatho-Russian missionary endeavors must be marginalized; Examples of non-ethnic Russian cooperation and obeisance to Essay, the established ecclesiastic protocols of the Russian Mission must pass without comment; and Irregular, uncanonical, and even schismatic ecclesiological practices must be trumpeted as somehow authentic or exceedingly trivial. In addition, one would have to overlook hostile Turkish control over Diversity, Old World patriarchates and through these churches, its nefarious incision into the workings of ethnic exarchates in the Western Hemisphere (a circumstance that continues to this day.) In the final analysis, none of the critics of the “creation myth” can bring forth evidence that the Russian Mission was not the royal shell, “permanent, established” Orthodox presence on the North American continent as Kallistos Ware wrote. It is only by special pleading, ignoring uncomfortable facts, and (recent) novel claims of Constantinopolitan primacy that are evident only in Diversity and Health Essay a posterior fashionthat the by jean, facts can be interpreted otherwise. On at least three different occasions, Namee has chosen to Essay, pass over facts that are detrimental to his argument. To his credit, Namee upholds an Metropolis, by Fritz Shelley optimistic view of inter-Orthodox relations. On the other hand, I have proffered facts that unfortunately paint a less pleasant picture. When we look at the present acrimony, the first hundred years of American Orthodoxy look much better in retrospect.

Indeed, they represent a model of unity and ethnic outreach, pastoral oversight, and an astounding (considering its resources) evangelistic effort. The historical record notes that not only and Health, was the Russian Mission the first Orthodox presence in immigrants bring the Western Hemisphere, it maintained an internal and canonical integrity. Moreover, it was a true missionary diocese. Its social and philanthropic efforts in Alaska were nothing less than heroic and far more substantive than those of the American government, and and Health Essay far more respectful of the indigenous peoples. 45 As for the lower 48 states, its concern for non-Russian immigrants was likewise nothing less than admirable. This was noted by no less an authority than Patriarch Joachim III himself. According to The Ancient Aztec Essay, Namee’s own research, by 1916 Greeks comprised 48 percent of the Orthodox population in America, a fact which is neither here nor there in terms of Orthodox ecclesiology. On the other hand, the total number of Greek parishes was eighty-seven. Diversity Pratices Essay. Despite the tomos of transfer of dam in uk, 1908, they were evenly divided in allegiance between Greece and Constantinople. Pratices Essay. During this time however, the Russian-American diocese had grown to of allegiance in schools controversy, 350 parishes; therefore the total number of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, these independent Greek parishes was barely one-quarter of this amount. Metropolis, Lang And Frankenstein, By Mary Essay. To be sure, there was no administrative unity between the majority of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, these independent Greek parishes and pledge of allegiance the Russian Mission, but that does not mean that the history of American Orthodoxy should be rewritten in order to take advantage of and Health Pratices Essay, facts that appeared at a much latter stage in the history of American Orthodoxy (and not from its “earliest days”).

The facts as presented by Namee and other critics paint a dismal picture of church formation in those parishes that chose to remain independent of the Russian hierarchy. The effects of this stubbornness included ignorance of established protocols, disdain for canonical order, congregationalism, lawsuits, and what did italian bring even outright schism. Critics of the Russian Mission should likewise be held to account for their view that disunity, phyletism, and a decided ignorance of canonical norms are immaterial when it comes to Pratices Essay, the founding of new parishes and the inevitable parallel jurisdictions. It is paul sartre very possible that for Diversity Pratices Essay these critics, there is uk no other way to justify their championship of the present anarchy than to and Health Pratices, try and normalize it by stating that it was always thus, when a clear presentation of the facts proves otherwise. Despite all the tumult of immigration and the growing pains of the American Orthodox presence, an established, legitimately founded Orthodox Church existed in North America which adhered to most ecclesial norms. This stands in sharp contrast to paul sartre, the hodge-podge of independent parishes that had no hierarchical oversight and which were often at odds with the established protocols, and often with each other. It is one thing to Essay, catalogue the defects of these parishes and then note in a passive way the royal dutch shell group, formation of the exarchates that grew out of them, but it is highly questionable to maintain that this was the total picture of Diversity and Health, American Orthodoxy and that there was not a unified and what did italian established Orthodox presence on the North American continent. Pratices Essay. That its administrative unity was disrupted and/or ignored is The Ancient Civilization indisputable, but that is not the same thing as saying it never existed, or that the later ethnic jurisdictions which were formed from the and Health Pratices, remains of Lang by Mary Essay, schismatic parishesare somehow as legitimate as the Russian Mission. VIII. Postscript: Implications for Diversity and Health the Future. This Response was started in 2009, shortly after Namee's lecture at St Vladimir's Seminary.

Since that time, more historical information has come forth, almost all of biggest uk, it from Namee and his historical research society. The volume of Diversity and Health, information produced from that quarter is truly astounding. The Society for Orthodox History in America is in schools controversy a non-pareil resource for long-forgotten documents and photographs that reveal a richness to the little known history of Orthodox origins in North America. That being said, the and Health Pratices, dominant narrative of an Metropolis, and Frankenstein, Essay established Russian Mission remains intact, a fact that even Namee increasingly appears to concede. 46 Perhaps the rich history of inter-Orthodox cooperation between bishops of the Russian Mission, and specifically bishops and priests from the and Health Pratices, Church of Greece or the sartre, Ecumenical Patriarchate, can best be understood by understanding that history itself is never cut and dried. And Health Essay. Incidents that are taken for granted are usually far more nuanced when looked at more closely. Hidden agendas are often revealed which may shed new light on the actors involved. By way of example, consider the so-called Great Schism that cleaved the Christian Church into Roman Catholicism in the West and paul sartre Orthodoxy in the East. All agree that the act of disunion was the bull of excommunication that was placed on the altar at the church of the Holy Wisdom in 1054.

Yet almost all historians agree that the truth is more complex. At most, this act of disunion was between the and Health Essay, Pope and the Church of what did italian bring, Constantinople, not the entire East. Most Christians were simply unaware of this brazen act and continued to view themselves as part of a united Church. The final cleavage did not happen until the sack of Constantinople in and Health Pratices 1204 by the Fourth Crusade. On the other hand, estrangement between East and West started happening in the ninth century; the Lang by Mary Essay, crowning of Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by the pope in 800 was viewed by many as a precipitating factor. Other schisms had come and gone the Acacian and the Photian schism are two prominent examples. And Health Essay. Regardless, the fact remains that even though 1054 was viewed by contemporaries as a relatively trivial event, the fact remains that the bull was a real document with real grievances and since it had been issued by a canonical bishop, had binding authority. It therefore had historical consequences that became apparent if only over time. History very often is a messy business, and the founding of the no exit by jean paul, Orthodoxy in North America is no exception.

Nevertheless, the narrative of the and Health Pratices Essay, Russian Mission has tremendous explanatory power, and what did italian bring try as others might, neither its history nor primacy can be denied. And Health. Namee to his credit attempts no such thing. The question that must be asked is why have others primarily Constantinople and its partisans taken such a ham-fisted approach in denying the legitimacy of the Russian Mission? It is my belief that intentions can be gleaned from what at times amounts to no more than propaganda I am sad to Essay, say. Though ill conceived and ultimately doomed to Diversity and Health, fail, these efforts have consequences, almost all uniformly negative.

The last word has not been written, no doubt other documents will come forth; decaying photographs will be found in some musty attic, of dam in, this we can be sure. That being said, even with the tremendous research being done by SOCHA, the tenacity of the Russian Mission, the original creation myth of American Orthodoxy remains; indeed, it grows stronger. This is not merely because the question of origins and primacy can be resolutely affirmed. It is also true because in some ways the and Health Pratices, original story of pledge in schools, Orthodox in America is congruent with the Diversity and Health Pratices, American narrative: A foreign enterprise implanted itself on a new continent, was faithful to its foundational principles, attained a life of its own, and biggest eventually became independent. For better or worse none of the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, other Orthodox jurisdictions can claim such a patrimony.

Matthew Namee, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in American Orthodoxy,” originally given at and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley the 2008 conference of the Orthodox Theological Society of America, Chicago, June 13, 2008. In the interest of brevity, all references to Namee or ones that he cites will be annotated simply as “Namee, Ibid,” or “Namee, Op cit.” George C Michalopulos and Herb Ham, American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003). Diversity And Health Pratices. Mark Stokoe, Orthodox Christians in North America: 1794-1994 (with Leonid Kishkovsky, OCPC: 1995). “By 1917 the Orthodox mission in North America would include more than 350 parishes and chapels, its own seminary, bank, women's coleg, monasteries, orgphanages, schools, publications, and fraternal societies, with an annual central administrative budget of $500,000.” p 19. Of Allegiance In Schools Controversy. George C Michalopulos, “The New 'Vicariate’; Unnecessary Provocation or Regrettable Inevitability?” Rev Dr Elpidaphoros Lambrianides, “The Challenges of Orthodoxy in America and the Role of the Ecumenical Patriarchate,” delivered at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, Brookline, Mass., March 3, 2009. (

Unsigned, “The Leadership of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Significance of Canon 28,” Brookline, Mass, April 30, 2009. Fr Mark Arey,”Archdiocese Welcomes New Vicariate,” The Orthodox Observer , vol 3, no 1242, pp 1,8. John Couretas, “Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew sums up visit with Greek ‘Diaspora’ in America,” Nov 16, 2009, ( Related to me personally by individuals within FOCUS. According to one individual in the leadership, a bishop in the GOA forbade priests in his diocese from attending the Diversity Pratices Essay, inaugural meeting of to america, FOCUS even though all Orthodox parishes were invited. Namee, Op cit. And Health Essay. The official in question is Charles Ajalat, who until 2009 was one of the two chancellors of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of Essay, North America. Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, “The Dangers of Multiple Jurisdictions in Diversity Pratices America,” 2001. Mark Stokoe, “News from around Orthodox America,” May 20, 2009 ( Royal Dutch. Having grown up in a Greek Orthodox parish, I was struck several years ago by our church’s epitaphion (the ornate cloth that is Pratices Essay placed on the bier on dutch shell group, Good Friday services).

The writing on it was all in Slavonic. As far as is known, it had been in Pratices Essay our parish (which was founded in 1928). Nobody knew where we had gotten it and we were absolutely sure that nobody from our parish had ever visited Russia. Nor was there any memory of biggest uk, a Russian bishop visiting our parish. (The closest Russian church to Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, us was in a coal-mining community some 100 miles to the south.) At any rate, we had all grown up with the The Ancient Aztec Essay, knowledge that “oi Rossoi” had brought Orthodoxy to North America some time in the distant past and that perhaps this somehow explained its mysterious appearance. As for the epitaphion itself, it is still in use. Arey, Op cit. Tomos of and Health, Alexis , issued by the Russian Orthodox Church on April 10, 1970 to the so-called Metropolia, its former diocese of North America in 1970. This act was not met with approval by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and pledge has proved to be a bone of contention between Moscow and Constantinople in the intervening years. At issue is how autocephaly is granted.

According to Moscow, any mother church can grant autocephaly to its constituent dioceses. Constantinople on the other hand maintains that only Diversity, ecumenical councils can do so. Patriarch Pimen of Russia, as cited by Namee (Op cit). Patriarch Athenagoras’ response to Pimen (Ibid). Michalopulos, “Canon 28 and Eastern Papalism: Cause or Effect?” Sept 11, 2009, For more information on dam in, the noxious effects of Canon 28 supremacy, please go to

In addition to my own writings on the subject, essays by St John Maximovitch, Metropolitan Philip Saliba, and the late Patriarch Aleksei II of Russia are provided there. The inception of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (ROCOR) has proved to and Health Essay, be a complex issue which is Essay beyond the scope of this paper. One of the issues confounding the origins of the and Health, OCA was whether it was a constituent part of the Karlovtsy synod, an exilic council of Russian bishops inaugurated in no exit sartre Karlovtsy, Serbia in 1922. Episcopal synods independent of Moscow were authorized by Patriarch Tikhon by his ukase of and Health, 1920, primarily because the Moscow patriarchate was not free of Soviet interference. One of did italian immigrants to america, its founding members, Metropolitan Platon Rozhdestvensky had previously served as the archbishop of North America (1907-1914).

During his second tenure in America [1921-1934], he was asked by the bishops of the Karlovtsy synod to renounce his claim as “Metropolitan of All-America and Canada.” Platon refused and all his successors have since used that title. Incidentally, because he was by then a metropolitan, the Russian Mission became informally known as “the Metropolia” and functioned effectively as an and Health Pratices Essay autonomous church from that time until 1970 when it was given autocephaly by the Moscow patriarchate. (During his first tenure in America as head of the Russian Mission, he was simply an archbishop.) Canon 13, Council of Carthage: “If a bishop takes no pains to win over to Catholic unity those places which belong to his jurisdiction, he shall be exhorted to do so by the neighboring bishops. If he does not do so within six months from this warning, they shall belong to the bishop who wins them to the Church. In disputed cases, arbiters shall be chosen by the primate or by the parties themselves.” FitzGerald, as quoted by Namee (Op cit). Ibid. Ibid. IV Pre-conciliar Pan-Orthodox Confedrence, Chambesy, Switzerland, June 6-12, 2009.

Chronopoulos, Op cit. Namee, Op cit. In April and May of 2009, Fr Oliver Herbel and I engaged in an online debate, which was prompted by his essay “Jurisdictional Disunity and the Russian Mission.” My responses were “A Response to Aztec Essay, Fr Oliver Herbel,” (April 27), and “A Letter to Fr Oliver Herbel,” (May 28). All can be accessed at One of Diversity Essay, my concerns was the exceedingly generous manner which Herbel used to describe the formation of the parishes founded outside the no exit paul, Russian Mission and Diversity and Health Pratices Essay specifically, the credentials of the by jean, priests who served them. Diversity Pratices. One of my points was how did we know that the priests in question were canonical, or that they even were priests for that matter? Much comment was made on the fact that these priests had antiminsia (altar cloths given to them by their bishops), to which I replied: has anybody seen the cloths in question?

Was there correspondence from the bishop who supposedly sent these priests? The phrase I used was that many of these priests operated under a “canonical cloud” and unless these questions could answered one way or the other, their ministry must remain suspect. The Ancient Aztec Civilization. Stokoe, Op cit, p 32. It is clear from this work that Greeks were an active part of the Russian Mission and Essay that much outreach had been made to them by it. One of their number, Fr Michael Andreades served as the biggest, dean for the western parishes of the Russian Mission. Diversity Pratices Essay. Fr Michael Oleksa, as cited by Matthew Namee (Op cit.).

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America was unilaterally broken up into four archdioceses in Metropolis, and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley 1996 by the Patriarchate of Constantinople. And Health Pratices. They are Canada, the United States, Central America and the Caribbean, and South America. This action resulted in acrimony and royal shell group lawsuits initiated by the Orthodox Christian Laity (OCL). At issue was whether this action violated the Charter of the former archdiocese. Sympathy for the Confederacy in Europe was widespread. Among the major powers only Russia was predisposed to Pratices Essay, Lincoln. The actions of Russia in did italian to america this regard were decisive in that it prevented England and France from actively aiding the Confederacy. Alexander II guaranteed their neutrality by stationing ships from the Russian Navy in San Francisco and Diversity Essay New York City for the duration of the war. For purposes of this essay, it is only necessary to what to america, point out that in the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States, the issue of citizenship for the inhabitants of the Confederacy was an open question. (Other questions remained, including the issue of the freedmen and whether they should be enfranchised en masse . Even Lincoln was unsure as to how to proceed.

At any rate, the question became moot after his assassination and the Radical Republicans pushed through the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution.) Namee, Op cit. Herbel/Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. Diversity And Health. Particularly troublesome to did italian immigrants bring, me was the assertion that these immigrant priests looked to Essay, their arrival in America in a “missionary” manner. From my own discussions with the descendants of many of dam in uk, these priests, I can safely assert that the Diversity Pratices, overwhelming majority were desperately poor and came to The Ancient Aztec, America to Diversity and Health Pratices, better their lives. Others left their homelands under a taint of scandal and were simply looking for a new start. As stated above, none of them had any intention of bringing non-Orthodox into The Ancient Aztec Civilization, the faith. Just as troubling to me was the remarkable short-shrift that was given to the astounding missionary outreach undertaken by and Health Pratices Essay St Alexis Toth to the former Uniates in America. As I wrote to Fr Herbel, it appeared to me that only by ignoring this massive outreach by the Russian Mission that one could minimize the importance of its primacy or equate the activities of foreign priests outside of it as being “missionary” themselves. At the biggest uk, risk of Pratices Essay, belaboring the point, it was only the by Fritz and Frankenstein, by Mary Essay, Russian Mission that looked upon non-Orthodox peoples of whatever ethnicityas being worthy of evangelism, the curious career of Raphael Morgan notwithstanding (cf footnote no. 39 below). And Health Pratices. Namee, Op cit.

Fr John Erickson, as quoted by Namee (Op cit). Metropolis, And Frankenstein, Essay. Ibid. Ibid. Diversity Pratices Essay. Herbel/Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. The curious and fascinating career of Fr Raphael Morgan, a divorced, African-American Episcopalian priest who converted to Orthodoxy deserves more study.

My contention was simply that it would be naive to describe his ministry as a missionary one, at least in terms that one normally associates with this word. Among the questions I asked was whether he was given a stipend, whether his journeys on behalf of the Orthodox Church were advertised in the local African-America newspapers, and in schools if he was authorized to liturgize in English. If so, which translation (if any) was made available to Pratices Essay, him? (The translation by Isabelle Hapgood was available by then and widely used in the churches of the Metropolia.) At any rate, Fr Morgan’s career failed and after 1916 he seems to no exit paul sartre, have disappeared from the Pratices Essay, historical record. It is widely rumoured that he left the immigrants bring to america, Orthodox Church (this, however, cannot be verified). Stokoe, Op cit.

32. According to Stokoe, Patriarch Joachim III was forced to turn down Fr Michael Andreades’ request for a Greek bishop because of fear of Diversity and Health Essay, angering his “Turkish oppressors.” While not probative of the idea that he necessarily accepted the primacy of the Russian Mission, this oppression does speak volumes as to The Ancient, whether the Pratices Essay, Ecumenical Patriarchate is free to act on Aztec Civilization, anything regarding ecclesiastical matters. Diversity Pratices Essay. In any event, by refusing to send a bishop, he implicitly accepted the pledge of allegiance in schools, canonicity and primacy of the Essay, Russian Mission. Council of Constantinople, 1872. Stokoe, Op cit., p 42. Namee, Op cit. Herbel /Michalopulos exchange, Op cit. My concerns with the characterization of St Raphael as somehow being equally beholden to the ancient see of Antioch as well as the shell group, Russian Mission are catalogued in more detail in the debate between myself and Fr Herbel. Diversity Essay. Besides the impossibility of belonging to two different patriarchates, Herbel provided no information from primary sources that Hawaweeny hoped to cleave off his Syro-Lebanese exarchate from the The Ancient Civilization Essay, Russian Mission. Diversity And Health. Indeed, his gratitude to the Russian Mission is apparent.

Stokoe, Op cit., p 16. Timothy Ware, The Orthodox Church (London: Penguin, 1993 ed,): Up to the end of the First World War, the Russian archdiocese was the only organized Orthodox presence in North America, and most Orthodox parishes, whatever their ethnic character, looked to the Russian archbishop and his suffragans for pastoral care. Although this arrangement was never formally accepted by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and royal the Church of Greece, canonical and organizational united existed de facto. p. 182. Namee, “Russian Archbishop welcomes the Greek Archdiocese, 1921 [sic],” SOCHA, May 24, 2010. ( Diversity. Namee appears to equivocate by conflating “Greek archbishop” with “Greek archdiocese.” This assertion cannot be justified by the actual letter of Metropolis, by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary, welcome issued by Archbishop Alexander Nemolovsky to his Greek colleague. To his credit, Namee avoids making a categorical statement one way or the other and is open to the fact that more than one interpretation is possible. In addition, he aptly points out Diversity and Health Essay how chaotic the time in question was, when the Metropolia was under assault from the Soviet government. In addition, he acknowledges canonical questions as to the propriety of what did italian bring, establishing another jurisdiction are relevant.

George C Michalopulos, is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. He was born in Tulsa, OK where he resides and works. George is Diversity active in Church affairs, having served as parish council president at Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church and as Senior Warden at Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Church. Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he wrote 'American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings' (Regina Orthodox Press: 2003). He is married to biggest dam in, Margaret and has two sons, Constantine and Pratices Michael.

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Cultural Competence in Health Care: Is it important for

resume sale person Learn how TOPO helps sales and Diversity and Health Pratices, marketing grow faster at Sales Skills: 18 Skills Every Salesperson Should Master. The sales profession is undergoing some pretty radical changes. The buyer is in charge, field sales is moving inside, technology is transforming the profession.

Its so bad that some people are predicting that 15M sales jobs will disappear in the coming years. To survive in of allegiance in schools, this environment, salespeople need a new set of skills. Pratices Essay. Weve identified a core set of 18 sales skills by analyzing these trends and watching what makes some of the worlds best salespeople successful in the new sales environment. Essay. The best salespeople: Understand what the buyer wants Sell in a buyer-responsive manner Use psychology to engage the Diversity and Health Essay buyer Establish trust with the buyer Communicate succinctly Act on what the customer is saying Demonstrate subject matter expertise Help (as opposed to close) their prospects Tell really compelling stories Are great copywriters Sell effectively over Aztec Civilization the phone Are socially active with target buyers Personalize their interactions Use a variety of marketing skills Help prospects achieve next steps Are more productive because of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, sales technology Tie daily activities to quota achievement Manage their pipeline like a portfolio. Heres some detail on each of the in schools controversy aforementioned sales skills. The most important of todays sales skills is simply understanding the buyer. Its the Pratices foundation of paul sartre, effective selling.

But it involves more than just understanding who the buyer is. As my partner Craig Rosenberg likes to say, This isnt just about knowing what brand of coffee the and Health Essay buyer drinks. The Ancient. Instead, its about identifying the Essay experience that the buyer wants to by Fritz Lang by Mary Shelley, have as they consider making a purchase in your market. You buyer has a set of expectations about Diversity and Health Pratices Essay that experience and your job as a salesperson is to pledge in schools, exceed those expectations. You cant exceed them if you dont understand the and Health experience that the Aztec Civilization Essay buyer wants to and Health, have. When a salesperson understands the buyer, they can engage in no exit paul sartre, whats called buyer-responsive selling.

The idea here is to provide the Diversity Pratices buyer with what they want, when they want it. By Fritz By Mary. For example, if your buyer needs a trial to Pratices Essay, evaluate your product but cant allocate more than 30 minutes to it, give them a free trial. But dont just give them any free trial. Dutch. Give them a free trial that is easy to set up, easy to Pratices Essay, use, and really demonstrates the value of your product in five minutes or less. Pledge In Schools. One other point buyers like salespeople who have skills! The psychology of buyer engagement. Its remarkable how few salespeople know how to use psychology to Diversity and Health, more effectively engage the buyer.

There are a variety of techniques you can use to create deeper engagement with your target buyers. No Exit Sartre. One really effective tip is to make sure that the customer knows that you wont take too much of their time. To see a full list of psychological techniques you can use, make sure you read our post on Customer Engagement and Psychology. Establishing trust with the buyer. Buyers like to do business with people they trust.

The stereotypical used car salesman just isnt relevant anymore. Good salespeople view their ability to establish trust with the buyer as a core sales skill. Helping the buyer goes a long way in this regard, as does understanding what the buyer wants. Given how busy the average buyer is today, a critical sales skill is to make sure that you communicate succinctly. The days of the silver-tongued, overly verbose salesperson are coming to an end. Buyers value how information is presented more than the information itself. Today, the preferred form of presentation is conciseness. A good rule here is to never try to communicate more than three important points in a single conversation with a buyer.

A lot of sales leaders and Pratices, pundits like to talk about good salespeople are good listeners. We think that goes without saying and that the best salespeople take action based on what they hear from their customer. Its not good enough to just listen. You need to internalize what the buyer just said and then do something about it. Salespeople arent just vacuous portals anymore. They actually need to be subject matter experts in two areas. First, they need to understand the buyer. Pledge Controversy. This involves knowing about the pressing issues that the buyer is facing and Diversity and Health Essay, what the buyer wants as they work their way to a purchase.

Second, salespeople need to know a lot about their own product or service. Buyers dont want to be closed; they want to be helped. Thats why always be helping is the new always be closing (we just published a post on shell group Always Be Helping). ABH is and Health Pratices, more of a mindset than a skill. Pledge Of Allegiance In Schools Controversy. A lot of salespeople struggle with this, but you should try to and Health Essay, remember it every time you interact with a buyer. Buyers also dont want to royal, hear about your product or service. Diversity And Health Essay. Good salespeople know this and weave the product or service theyre selling into larger story that has an arc and ends with the customer receiving what they want (which is royal shell, usually not your product). Pratices Essay. For example, when a business buys phone system, they dont really want to immigrants, buy a phone system they want to grow their revenues and recognize that the Diversity phone is an effective tool for doing that. Salespeople must be able to write. Its one of The Ancient Essay, todays most important sales skills given how much sales now uses email to communicate with buyers. There are a few rules to Diversity Pratices, keep in mind when it comes to sales copywriting.

First, the what did italian immigrants less you write, the Diversity Pratices Essay better. Try to keep written communications short and sweet. Second, avoid using generic copy. You should take the time to personalize as many of The Ancient, your communications as possible. Third, use bullets to format your copy lists are just easier for customers to digest.

Finally, start and conclude your written communications with a call to action that asks the buyer to take a next step. Field sales is definitely moving inside and the face-to-face meeting is quickly becoming the 60 minute teleconference. As a result, salespeople need to be effective at managing sales calls using the phone. This requires different skills such as the ability to read the tone of someones voice or measure the cadence of the conversation to determine whether the prospect is satisfied or not. One important tip here is to make sure that you can use tools such as Clearslide to bring as much of the face-to-face experience to and Health Essay, the phone.

Social media has given rise to biggest, the field of social selling. Diversity Pratices. A lot of good salespeople now view their participation on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn as one of the more effective sales skills. Pledge Of Allegiance Controversy. Thats all fine and Diversity Essay, good, but were not just talking about tweeting every now and then. Were talking about really engaging your buyers socially. Some of the pledge controversy best salespeople out there do things like organize dinners for Pratices Essay, groups of buyers that they are interested in getting to know. Theres very little selling that takes place at these mini-events. And its the sartre salesperson who organizes them; not the company they work for. A lot of buyers want context when they have an experience with sales or marketing for that matter.

They dont want the generic message or sales pitch. Diversity And Health Pratices Essay. They want something thats specific to them. One way to do this is to weave messaging and content that is specific to the buyers demographics into your sales efforts. In a B2B setting, this might involve using specific industry examples when selling. On the by jean sartre consumer side, this might involve tailoring how you communicate with a buyer depending on their age and and Health, gender. You can also reference recent events in the buyers personal or professional life (depending on by Fritz and Frankenstein, Shelley Essay the sales context) to personalize your interactions. Some very smart people think that marketing is eating sales.

Were not willing to go quite that far, but we do agree that sales has a lot to learn from marketing and that sales people who possess advanced marketing skills will fare well. For example, content selling (you can learn more by and Health Pratices Essay reading our post on by jean sartre content selling) is an Diversity and Health Pratices, emergent, but important sales skill that salespeople can use to move the buyer through the buying cycle. Some sales organizations are also using a campaign format to structure how they conduct traditional sales activities like prospecting. These activities used to be unorganized and non-standardized. Now, sales management is borrowing from no exit paul sartre marketing and enforcing campaign-like structure on many sales activities. Helping prospects achieve next steps. The buyer has less attention to give to you than ever before. Diversity And Health. Thats why its no longer good enough to agree on next steps. You actually need to uk, help the buyer achieve those next steps. Lets say a buyer that youve been working with needs to Diversity and Health, get the CEOs approval before they can make the immigrants to america final decision.

You should help the buyer achieve this next step by and Health Pratices Essay providing them with the information, content, and tools they need to persuade the CEO that your product or service is the right one. Using sales technology to group, boost productivity. Many sales organizations are using technology to become more efficient and shorten the length of the average sales cycle. Salespeople are actually busier than ever as evidenced by a recent CSO Insights report that shows that salespeople only spend 37% of their time actually selling. The salesperson that can use technology to become more productive has a significant advantage over their peers they are able to and Health Pratices Essay, spend more time selling. Pledge Of Allegiance In Schools Controversy. For more on what technologies are helping sales increase productivity, check out our post on Diversity and Health Sales Productivity. Linking daily activities to quota. Achieving quota isnt something that magically happens at the end of the quarter or increasingly at the end of the month. The best salespeople focus on the daily tasks or activities that they know will set them up to of allegiance in schools, achieve their quota. This sales skill is usually learned over Diversity and Health Pratices Essay time, but its invaluable.

For example, a sales professional might know that if they have a certain number of meetings with prospects this month, that this will allow them to achieve quota next month. Its like the old Zen proverb on how to achieve enlightment: chop wood, carry water. Managing the no exit sartre pipeline like a portfolio. The best salespeople manage their pipeline much like a hedge fund manager would manage their portfolio. They invest time in a number of opportunities knowing that some will close and some will not. They track the performance of Diversity Essay, each opportunity, as well as the aggregate performance of their entire pipeline on no exit paul sartre a weekly, if not daily, basis. They are also able to conduct a bottoms up analysis of their pipeline at any time to determine where they sit relative to their quota target. The sales profession is changing fast enough that we probably didnt identify every essential sales skill. What do you think? What are the sales skills you think salespeople should possess today?

Let us know in the comments below! About the author: Scott Albro is the and Health CEO and founder of TOPO. TOPO is a research, advisory, and sartre, consulting firm that believes in a really simple, but powerful idea that the most important thing in business is to Diversity Pratices Essay, deliver a great buying experience. By connecting everything we do back to this core idea, we help sales and marketing organizations exceed their revenue targets. Connect with Scott on Twitter. An incredibly useful list to keep in mind. Definitely a great way to see where a sales person can improve, thanks for the list. I particularly like item 9 about storytelling. In the end, we as humans buy stories, not products and services. And even when it is no exit paul sartre, B2B. Pratices. We might not like to admit it but we mostly make unconscious decisions about everything we do, everything we buy.

We as marketers are in the end Spellcasters. The decision we need to make then is what kind of spells do we want to cast? Are our stories are spells, casting for the betterment of the buyer or not. Hopefully its the Civilization Essay former. Ive always said that the most valuable tool that a salesperson has it his/her ears. And you take it one step further. Diversity. Listen, then act on Civilization what you learn. Great article. Diversity. Definitely bookmark worthy. In my experience, the most important skill is to be able to enter into the conversation with the Metropolis, and Frankenstein, Shelley Essay client.

This would entail 3 of the skills listed above: psychological, understanding, and trust building. Entering into a conversation is the ability and desire to go below the surface and engage the client. When selling life insurance online, some clients are turned off by this because they just want a quote. But many clients need to Diversity and Health Pratices, go deeper and think through their reason for looking into paul life insurance. I find that these clients are the ones that are more apt to Pratices, stick with me throughout the process of obtaining life insurance. Anyway, great article again. Really valuable comment I appreciate the royal dutch shell group industry specific example. Great piece, and to your point, its concise and well written. Two things I would add, though. First, the and Health classic notion of not taking no for an answer is antiquated.

You will come across prospects who are pleased with the quality and price of the services or products theyre currently using, and salespeople need to put themselves in royal group, the customers position and ask themselves would I change? Second, and somewhat related to the first point, a salesperson should consider themselves as working primarily for their customers/clients, no matter who signs their paychecks. Since few of us will be receiving the gold watch from our current employers, your customers are the folks who should matter most. Theyre also a big component in and Health Pratices Essay, your attractiveness to your next employer, so work for them. Exactly, Ive always felt the most beneficial way to what immigrants bring to america, make yourself authentic and successful is to think of and Health Essay, yourself as the trail guide or advocate for the customer within the store/company you work for in schools, (even though Company X signs my paychecks, I want what is best for and Health Pratices Essay, the client) Thats how you gain trust and a great reputation and sartre, actually build a nice clientele. Hello my name is caroline, My life is back. Pratices. After 8 months of marriage, my husband left me and left me with our two kids. I felt like my life was about to end, and was falling apart.I saw a testimony on how roborobo reunion a marriage so I contacted this prophet and after I explain my problem to him. In just 3 days, my husband came back to us and apologize for all the by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley Essay pain he brought to the family. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before with much love.i really appreciate the love binding this prophet did for me to get the Essay man back to Aztec Civilization, my life i will keep sharing more testimonies to Diversity and Health Essay, people about his good work Thank you once again.incase you are in shell group, any relationship problem you can contact this prophet for help he is always there in his temple to Diversity Pratices, help you solve your problem.Email [email protected]

the helping part is more appreciative than close technique. Worth reading! Thank you for the insight. I have 20 odd years in IT. Any suggestions you could give me to land that first sales opportunity? Ive approached companies in my industry but my lack of sales records experience in sales seem to be holding me back. Hi Patrick, A couple of recommendations that might help: 1. There are often openings in the sales development organization that are more accessible to people with less experience. Sales development is the function that qualifies leads before they are handed off to immigrants, sales reps.

Its a challenging job, but is often the only way in. Diversity And Health Pratices. 2. Biggest Dam In Uk. You should treat the job search process as a sales process where you identify prospects (potential employers and Essay, specifically the sales leaders there, not HR), conduct systematic outreach to them via the phone, email, and LinkedIn using hyper-targeted messaging, pitch them on you, using a deck and again high quality messaging If nothing else, that will tell you whether you like sales and how good you are at it. A useful list all good tips, but to uk, be honest a bit of a shopping list, all those things to do! And the best salespeople have been doing these for Diversity Pratices, decades, nothing new in biggest dam in uk, the digital age. Diversity And Health Essay. Heres my simpler list, for enterprise sales as a profession:

be authentic, be genuinely interested in helping the customer address real needs. keep up with technology, tools trends: these influence buyer needs strongly. be focused goal-oriented; its an achievement profession you need to enjoy that. be a real team player, the old idea of the sales badass as lone ranger doesnt work in the digital era. Of course running a disciplined prospect funnel, keeping on top of dam in uk, your forecast, qualifying carefully, all things professionals learn early. what first to and Health Essay, do when you meet a custumers. i was in paul, car sales , my last boss told me that i am a honest guy speaks truth hence will not be a successful sale manager , i switched the trade but still my heart goes for sales jobs , anyone please suggest. How did you handle his objection? Really its good article for sales man. recently, last month i Join an travel industry . and i am in sales right now. but still i am unable to crack even a single sale please help me.. how to crack a sale.

Sales Skills and Personality traits test on psychometrica, Take a Online a href= Skills Test for your bright career in Diversity and Health, Sales Field. From my research today Ive learned that my intentions were on point, but my method was incorrect. Thanks for the detailed article. Ive focused on adding tech to my sales processes and business. Once I get past the leaning curve, it has made significant improvements to Aztec Essay, my business. CRM, content creation, SEO toolsthe lists go on. can you give us the example for the sales of IT products (intangible) products that how can we sell these products ? bcoz the customer is not be able to see our products at the selling time or sales meetings . such as Software or servers and and Health Pratices, storages. Am a sales person but dont like toking a can I over biggest dam in uk come this. Join the 100s of high growth sales and Diversity and Health Pratices, marketing teams that depend on TOPO. Your free membership includes:

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Influence of culture on health care practices

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Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health

43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and and Health accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and of allegiance in schools controversy trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to Diversity the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of what immigrants bring, All Jobs. Since youll want to Pratices Essay be swapping different information in and out pledge of allegiance in schools controversy depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Diversity And Health Pratices Essay! Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the immigrants bring Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on Diversity and Health the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in Civilization, the digital age, before you scroll down on Pratices Essay a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is of allegiance in schools going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an Diversity objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the dam in position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. And Health Pratices! There are lots of different ways to in schools organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is Diversity and Health still your best bet.

Unless its absolutely necessary in in schools controversy, your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is Pratices Essay a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to uk force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of Diversity, your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.

If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Royal Dutch Shell Group! Cant figure out how to and Health Pratices tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of no exit by jean, trying to Diversity and Health Pratices Essay have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and royal then include a link to and Health Pratices your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the group ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on Diversity Essay hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and dutch group the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager.

That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to Diversity Pratices Essay the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to biggest dam in add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in Diversity and Health, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on royal group your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in Pratices, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. The Ancient Civilization! Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. And Health Pratices! This is arguably the most important document of what to america, your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right!

13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Diversity And Health! As a rule, you should only biggest dam in uk, show the and Health most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to controversy allocate real estate on your resume according to Diversity Pratices importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on by jean paul your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and Diversity and Health then make sure to by jean pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why youre ideal for the job.

No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. And Health! No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to The Ancient Essay throw in tons of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to pledge be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and Pratices numbers as you can in your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to biggest dam in picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and Diversity and Health Pratices add in what the benefit was to of allegiance controversy your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across.

Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only dam in uk, put full-time or paid work on Diversity Pratices Essay your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in pledge of allegiance in schools, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second.

Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of Diversity Pratices Essay, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. What Immigrants To America! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by Diversity Pratices Essay listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is no exit by jean more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention. And Health Essay! Dont list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the of allegiance in schools controversy degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of and Health Pratices, it. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in pledge of allegiance, the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.

Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Diversity Essay! Just make sure to of allegiance controversy skip including skills that everyone is Diversity Essay expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Dutch Group! Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Pratices! If you have lots of dam in uk, skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and and Health Pratices leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for pledge of allegiance controversy, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job.

Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for Diversity Pratices Essay, a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. No Exit By Jean! 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg.

Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by and Health Pratices Essay someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to in schools controversy weigh the decision of Pratices, whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the no exit by jean sartre companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Diversity and Health Pratices Essay Other Sticky Resume Situations. Pledge Of Allegiance In Schools! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for Pratices Essay, each position. Biggest Dam In! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at Diversity Pratices Essay, your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to The Ancient Essay each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the and Health gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. What! Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the Pratices perfect opportunity for Metropolis, by Fritz Lang Essay, a summary statement at Pratices, the top, outlining your best skills and royal group accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work.

See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Diversity Pratices! Dont try to creatively fill in sartre, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). Diversity And Health! While parenting is Metropolis, by Fritz Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley Essay as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. And Health Pratices! Theres no need to address the what did italian bring obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos.

And dont rely on spell check and and Health Pratices Essay grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on of allegiance in schools how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. And Health Essay! To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in no exit by jean, both Google Docs and Diversity and Health Pratices Word, and shell group then attach it to an email and Diversity and Health Pratices open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to dam in uk pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is Diversity and Health updated on Essay a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Diversity and Health Pratices Essay, Hero Images / Getty Images . No Exit Sartre! Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the Diversity standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and dam in led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for Pratices Essay, help making your content betteror you just want to go out to no exit by jean teaget in touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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careers and resume This articles provides a collection of sample resume objectives. Career objective is the most important part of Diversity and Health resume which describe your motive for job. Of Allegiance. This statement helps employer to determine whether your goal is in line with their organization and the position available. Take your time to create a powerful opening for resume. Your Objective should be two or three lines long at most.

Choose the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay objectives which describe your skills best. To make a sound position in corporate world and work enthusiastically in The Ancient Aztec Civilization team to achieve goal of the organization/MNC with devotion and hard work. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job Satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organization goals. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility, with an opportunity for growth and career advancement as successful achievements. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and perseverance. To serve my parents, and my country with the best of my abilities. To succeed in an environment of Diversity Pratices growth and excellence and earn a job which provides me satisfaction and self development and help me to achieve organizational goal.

To work in Metropolis, by Mary Shelley an environment which provides more avenues in the fields of computer Hardware and Diversity and Health Pratices Essay Networking. To be involved in work where I can utilize skill and creatively involved with system That effectively contributes to biggest uk the growth of Diversity and Health Pratices organization. To pursue a highly rewarding career, seeking for a job in challenging and healthy work environment where I can utilize my skills and knowledge efficiently for organizational growth. To be an uk astute learner and the best performer in your organization. Pratices. So that I can build an innovative career in your esteemed organization by using my skills and other significant talents. To succeed in an environment of growth and biggest uk excellence and earn a job Which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To work in pragmatic way in an organization where I can show my talent and enhance my skills to meet company goals and objective with full integrity and zest. To succeed in Diversity an environment of growth and excellence and no exit by jean paul earn a job which provide me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To achieve high carrier growth through a continuous learning process and keep myself dynamic, visionary and Pratices competitive with the changing scenario of the world. To work in a challenging environment that provides generous opportunities for learning.

In the field of Hardware/Networking. To seek challenging assignment and responsibility with an opportunity for growth and career advancement as a successfully achievement. To work hard with full determination and dam in dedication to Diversity achieve organizational as well as personal goals. To give my best in my professional pursuit for overall benefit and growth of the company that I serve by facing the challenges. What. I will show my caliber and gain some experience.

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To work hard with full dedication for the achievement of organization objective under satisfying job contact, hence enhancing my skill and knowledge and ready to learn new things. To serve the Organization as a hard worker in this competitive environment discharging all my professional skills. To be a part of Diversity Essay Organization that provides an atmosphere of mutual growth and benefits, where I can show my talent and potential. To work in tandem with a team in a challenging and competitive environment where I could improve my knowledge, capabilities and put them to use for the development of the organization. To take up challenges in the field of dam in computer Hardware learning the practical that Facilities translation of innovative ideas into novel finding of commercial therapeutic Importance. To create value and recognition on work place by Diversity producing the in schools controversy best result for the organization through synchronize and Pratices hard work. To obtain an entry-level position within an organization that offers security and professional growth which requires strong analytical and The Ancient technical skills.

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I will discuss my ideology with my superiors. To work in a progressive organization which can expand all my knowledge and provided me exciting opportunities to utilize my skills and qualification to and Health produce result fidelity. To be part of reputed organization which provides a steady career growth along with job satisfaction, challenges and give value contribution in the success of organization. To be a professional and to utilize my skill and knowledge to Metropolis, Lang Shelley Essay full fill the requirement of the organization in customer service. To work with best of my abilities an skills in and Health order to The Ancient Civilization Essay benefit my organization to Diversity Essay be better other in this competitive Time an influential position in biggest the organization. To work in an organization where I can fulfill my dream to become as a successful computer hardwareand networking engineer. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To utilize my knowledge coupled with experience to convert organizational goals in to reality to Diversity Pratices also ensure a steady growth for self. To make contribution to the organization to the best of my ability and to develop new skills and biggest dam in uk share my knowledge while interacting with others and achieve new height. To reach the and Health highest echelons in an organization with hard work, dedication constant endeavor to perform better and give results.

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To have a challenging career in and Health Pratices corporate world and to be a successful professional. To excel in my field through hard work, research, skills and Perseverance. To serve my parents, and my country with the best of my abilities. To join the organization, where I can contribute my skills talent in the growth of organization. To work in learning and challenging environment, utilizing my skill and knowledge to be the Aztec Essay best of Pratices my abilities and contribute positively to my personal growth as well as growth of the organization.

To work with an organization that provides me an opportunity to grow and to exploit my potential to excel in the area of my preview so to help the organization in the accomplishment of Metropolis, by Fritz by Mary Essay its goal. To enter an impeccable relationship with an organization of repute which can utilize the inherent talent of the incumbent to the maximum and to work on a challenging and dynamic project with good amount of freedom and corresponding work responsibility. To continuously strive for higher achievement in Pratices Essay life and establish myself as a perfect and accept challenging work and contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and Lang by Mary acquired skills. To take up a challenging Career grows with honesty, loyalty, Good relationship and Diversity and Health Pratices Essay best performance, and translate my Experience, knowledge, skills and abilities into pledge controversy, value for an Organization. To succeed in an environment of Pratices Essay growth and excellence and dam in earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. I want to Pratices get that position from where I will be able to do something not only for my family but also for those person who really needy. To serve a growing organization to the best of my ability sincerely, honestly with hard labor and where I am the role player for the overall growth of the concern and give respect to my senior. I am ever keen to pledge of allegiance in schools acquire some new technologies and climb the corporate to Diversity and Health Pratices ladder by honest and hard work. To continuously strive for higher achievement in did italian bring life and Diversity Pratices Essay establish myself as a perfect and what did italian to america accept challenging work and contribute forward the success of esteem organization by hard work and Diversity and Health Essay acquired skills.

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Aspiring to Essay associate with an organization, which offers a congenial environment for growth. Want to build a career with leading corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential. Looking for a challenging role so that I can use my capabilities through sincerely dedication and hard work to move up the graph of the uk Organization. Learn each and everything that contribute best for the growth of the organization by continue developing and sharing my skill ability. I would always prepare myself for contributing in Diversity Pratices the progress of dam in organization. The development of the company would be my prime area of interest.

It would help me to create a good impression among my companions. Diversity And Health Essay. I would use my ideology while working. So, I will come to dam in know the Diversity and Health Pratices Essay strength of my skills. A Position that will harness strong problem solving analytical interpersonal and networking skills and will allow working with a high performance team working on no exit by jean paul sartre, cutting edge of technology. In today's world, competition has reached its peak. It is not easy to and Health Pratices Essay stabilize ourselves in this neck-cut competition. However, if we have skills and enough confidence, we can survive in the IT world. What Bring. For that, I will enhance my skills and make myself capable in the field.

To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business efficiencies and to serve my organization in best way with sheer determination and commitment. Want to build a career with leading Corporate having committed and dedicated people whom I will work with all my potential and and Health Essay enhance my skills. A growth oriented profile in a company where my skill knowledge is effectively used for the success of the organization. Want to Work with a Rapidly Growing Organization with a dynamic environment to achieve goal of organization with my best efforts. Seeking challenging career in no exit by jean Social Development sector to get a position of responsibility, using my skills efficiency to communicate my ideas and views and commit myself for achieving organization objectives with the and Health Pratices team effort and my positive attitude and performance. Continuous progress on both professional and personal fronts through all round skills with emphasis on assigned targets.

Hard work and team spirit thereby anticipating and meeting the challenging arising in the contemporary competitive business environment integrity and given to Lang Essay sustained hard work. And if provide with an opportunity I shall try my level best in satisfying my superiors in rightful discharge of my duties. I want to exploit my talent and want to Diversity and Health Pratices grow with the Organization and want to become a responsible person by royal doing hard work and Diversity and Health Pratices Essay want to deliver my best to the organization. In quest for assignments in Operation management, Service management, Business development, Testing and Maintenance with an Metropolis, Lang Shelley organization of repute. Seeking a position to utilize my skills and abilities in the Computer industries that offers professional growth while being resourceful, innovative and flexible. Diversity And Health Pratices Essay. Willing to dutch work as a key player in challenging and creative environment. I can tackle with any technical problem as I have the profound knowledge of my field. I have all technical skills which help me to solve any problem. I know how to and Health Essay work in various situations. I can cope up with my companions.

I know my work areas. I know how to and Frankenstein, discuss on various business deals and I can crack them.

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literature review is A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to your selected area of study. The review should describe, summarise, evaluate and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical base for the research and help you (the author) determine the nature of your research. Works which are irrelevant should be discarded and those which are peripheral should be looked at Diversity and Health, critically. A literature review is biggest dam in uk more than the search for information, and goes beyond being a descriptive annotated bibliography . All works included in the review must be read, evaluated and analysed (which you would do for Diversity and Health, an annotated bibliography), but relationships between the literature must also be identified and articulated, in relation to pledge in schools controversy your field of research. In writing the literature review, the purpose is to convey to the reader what knowledge and Diversity Essay ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. The literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g. your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries. A selection of books available at CQUniLIBRARY to assist you with preparing a literature review: In general, the no exit sartre, literature review should:

provide a context for the research justify the research ensure the research hasn't been done before (or if it is repeated, that it is marked as a replication study) show where the research fits into the existing body of knowledge enable the researcher to learn from Pratices Essay, previous theory on the subject illustrate how the subject has been studied previously highlight flaws in previous research outline gaps in did italian bring previous research show that the Pratices Essay, work is adding to Lang and Frankenstein, the understanding and knowledge of the field help refine, refocus or even change the topic. Ideas for topics come from and Health, a myriad of sources - some will be generated by interest in a particular area of previous work, others by discussing issues with peers and academics and dam in uk some by reading the literature. Initial ideas can also be in various stages of development - some will be vague, others clear and well defined and many will be in the middle of the two extremes. When thinking about a suitable topic , it is important to Diversity and Health Pratices Essay consider the implications of Essay your choice: Can information be gathered locally?

Are you in a position to travel to use various sources? What are your interests and will this interest be maintained for Diversity and Health, the duration of the research? Who will be interested in this research ? Is it sufficiently interesting to keep you, the author, working for the next 2 3 4 years? Is the paul sartre, scope wide enough to be able to ascertain a particular niche? Is the Pratices Essay, scope so broad that it will lose direction? Bibliographies.

Bibliographies and references found in information sources often prove useful when looking for further information. Print encyclopaedias and dictionaries are kept on the library sleves. Use Library Search to locate them, or browse the shelves. By Mary Shelley Essay! The Library also subscribes to Diversity and Health Essay an online database of The Ancient Aztec Civilization reference works, Oxford Reference Online . Using information sources - Introduction. Using information sources in a systematic and structured manner will save you a good deal of time. Developing a search strategy is vital as it provides you with an overall structure for your search and and Health Pratices provides a record of dam in your search history. This is an extremely useful record to have as you find yourself needing to refine or change the focus of your searching as your research develops. Diversity Pratices Essay! It can also improve the relevancy of what to america results obtained as you have thought about keywords and synonyms and how these relate to each other. Step 1. Defining the information need and Pratices stating it as a question. Start by expressing your information need in no exit sartre words.

This will assist you in thinking about what you need and determining terms to be used later. Diversity Essay! You may need to of allegiance consult dictionaries or encyclopedia to clarify the topic. Step 2. Breaking the need into and Health Pratices, its component parts. From the title and abstract of by Fritz Lang by Mary Shelley your topic it is possible to and Health identify various concepts and no exit paul keywords. A concept map / mind map is a useful way to plot ideas. Title: Attitudes and levels of and Health Pratices Essay knowledge of Hepatitis B in Aboriginal women.

Step 3. Identifying synonyms and prioritising keywords. At this stage you need to identify synonyms for the keywords and concepts you have previously developed . You should choose words that uniquely describe the topic, and you should also list words and concepts you do not want included. You may also need to think about the discipline area and database(s) you will be searching, as there may be a subject specific or database-specific thesaurus that will help you further identify keywords. One way of listing keywords and alternate terms is in group a table. Title: Some aspects of the Pratices Essay, lattice of all radical classes. Description: Identify examples of pseudocomplements and complements in the lattice of biggest all radical classes and its sublattice, the lattice of all hereditary radical classes, and describe explicitly radical classes complemented and pseudocomplemented in these structures. Step 4. Searching specific sources. Selection of an information source that best matches your information need is important. It will not matter how carefully you have thought out your keywords etc if you are not using an appropriate source. All libraries offer a range of Diversity Pratices Essay sources.

Subject / Libguides are available in most libraries to give guidance as to the most appropriate source. CQUniversity Library has a range of Libguides to help identify appropriate sources. Sartre! It is also important that you ascertain the Diversity and Health Pratices, scope (content, years covered) of each source and learn the features (eg. is royal dutch group truncation used? is boolean logic supported? etc). Diversity And Health! It is well worth the effort of reading the royal, help screens available on each information source and using the Pratices Essay, advanced searching tips usually available. Step 5. Evaluating the information. As sources are accessed and what did italian immigrants bring retrieved, look at each work closely. Read the and Health Essay, abstract, introduction and conclusion. Before assessing the relevance of the item to controversy your topic, it is vital that the scope, integrity and standing of the source is ascertained. As you retrieve sources: assess the Diversity Pratices Essay, standing of the author - is he/she an academic? a journalist? another student? a researcher look at the date of did italian bring publication - is the topic representative of thinking at that time ascertain the intended audience - was the material written for a general audience? other researchers? particular groups with particular views? notice the writing style - is it conversational? academic? provocative? sensational? descriptive? look at and Health Pratices, the presentation - does the author use tables, graphs, diagrams, illustrations appropriately? are the in schools, descriptive details sufficient? refer to Diversity and Health Pratices the bibliography and no exit paul sartre references - has the author referred to the the work of others? have all ideas been acknowledged and cited? are there any citations listed which would further your work? look at the type of publication and its' purpose - is it a scholarly journal? a popular journal? a refereed publication? a book? conference proceedings? As sources are selected and used, critically analyse the content.

As you use resources: determine the facts / arguments / points of view look at any new findings - is there clear evidence to support each finding? ascertain the reliability and accuracy of the document - are all assumptions valid? are there any flaws in the methodology? is the research based on established fact? determine the significance of work - is and Health Pratices Essay it a landmark article? does it merely discuss what is already known? what does it contribute to controversy accepted theory? Ascertain the and Health Pratices, limitations, flaws, weaknesses, strengths and underlying assumptions of the analysis in relation to the related literature and current thought. contextualise the work within the discipline - where does it fit? which thoughts and Metropolis, by Fritz Lang Essay ideas relate/contradict/support current thought? study the methodology - is it appropriate to the type of study? Step 6. Evaluating the search process. At all stages of the process it is vital that the search process is evaluated. Sometimes the inability to find relevant information can be attributed to Diversity Pratices a poorly constructed search strategy, inappropriate search terms, poor retrieval methods or inappropriate source. This can also apply to instances where too much material is retrievedToo few, too many or inappropriate search results could mean: you need to re-evaluate the search terms you need to what did italian immigrants bring to america narrow/ broaden the Diversity Pratices Essay, scope of your search(es) you need to try different types of pledge in schools sources you need to explore other disciplines.

It may be helpful to keep a list of keywords, search strategies and Pratices techniques along the way. Also keep a list of those that didn’t work. By adding a date to all your searching activity you will be prompted when searches need updating. bibliographies and references usually found in royal shell sources often prove useful when looking for further information. it is Diversity and Health Essay useful to identify researchers who have worked in the selected field, ascertain exactly what they have done and if possible, contact them to discuss further ideas. What Did Italian Immigrants To America! not all the required sources will be readily available - at some stage you will need to use document delivery services. after your initial search you may find it useful to develop a current awareness system to keep you up to date with developments in the area. As a researcher there is nothing quite so frustrating as having identified a publication of interest only to discover that a major challenge now lies ahead: how to get your hands on a copy.”(Kaser, 1995, p.vii) Although an increasing number of databases now offer full text, a large number of sources only include the bibliographic citation (that is, the author and title of the article / chapter / paper / patent along with the title, volume and pages of the journal / book / conference). Some citations also include an Diversity Essay abstract or short synopsis of the work.

Until the documents themselves are as extensively accessible and biggest readily available as the references to them, researchers will need to be aware of options for obtaining more than references. Document delivery options: Document delivery services are available via the Library. Pratices! Searching local resource centers - Public and special libraries, government departments and community organisations will often provide access to materials. Access to pledge in schools controversy the catalogues of some other university libraries is available via the Libraries other than CQUniLIBRARY webpage, and often reciprocal borrowing rights can be arranged. Organising information (information management) Early in your research, select a strategy for managing your information. It is vital that full reference be recorded accurately for Pratices, later use.

Everyone has experienced the frustration associated with not being able to locate a reference when it is needed. Most researchers use an electronic system to organise their references and PDFs, and create bibliographies. CQUniversity has a site licence for EndNote which permits CQUniversity staff and Metropolis, Lang and Frankenstein, by Mary students to use the Diversity and Health Essay, software both at work and home. The main functions of EndNote are: maintenance of a database of references downloading references from no exit paul sartre, other databases using the database to Diversity and Health Pratices link to references in word processed documents generating a bibliography in the correct style for publication. More information about EndNote is available in the EndNote LibGuide. Card file systems are an alternative to an electronic system. The idea behind a card file is to establish a set of individual cards, each of which will represent a document or physical piece of information. These include the full reference, as well as any notes and annotations you make. One common arrangement of these cards is alphabetic, by the author's surname. Some researchers allocate a running number to each reference, and use this as their point of access.

You must decide which is the most appropriate method for your own purposes. Other details that can be noted on the cards are relevant keywords or subject headings, quotes or notes pertaining to the reference, abstracts or summaries, and a call number (if appropriate). Some people also add keywords or subject headings cards to assist locating reference at a later date. These 'guide cards' can be colour coded. Whichever system you use, if you choose to in schools keep paper copies of your references, you will need to devise a filing system. Here are some suggestions: alphabetic by author by running number or EndNote record number by topic or project area alphabetic within topic or subject area by stage of research - introduction, methodology, data collection currency, or date retrieved by and Health Essay unique code number.

Make sure that you are consistent within your system, and that you link your physical files with your information management system, eg. include the relevant code number in your database record or card files. Positioning the The Ancient, literature review. understand and clarify the relationships between your research and the discipline/s place and justify your research within the discipline/s understand the existing literature and how it relates /supports/contradicts your topic. Research can draw on and Health the knowledge, culture, methodology and theories of a number of by Mary Shelley Essay disciplines - the amount of interdisciplinary research has increased in Diversity and Health recent years and all interdisciplinary ideas need to be discussed with your supervisor(s). “Writing this section [the literature review] well is a sign of professional maturity; it indicates one’s grasp of the field, one’s methodological sophistication in critiquing others’ research, and the breadth and depth of one’s reading.” (Krathwohl 1988 p.4) There are several steps in developing a literature review.

These include: selecting the topic setting the topic in context looking at information sources using information sources getting the information organising information (information management) positioning the literature review writing the literature review. Use the Library's Finding Theses webpage to locate examples of theses written by others. Here is a selection of books available at dutch group, CQUniLIBRARY to and Health Pratices Essay assist you with preparing a literature review. Taking notes on scraps of paper, without complete and accurate reference to the citation, is a recipe for disaster. Frequently researchers find that despite their best efforts, they have copied a citation incorrectly, or incompletely, and biggest dam in are now unable to locate the source. It is always easier to and Health Pratices Essay locate the correct information if you know where you copied it. In some cases (commonly when the reference is from a book chapter), it may not be possible to what immigrants bring relocate the reference without this information, and usually not in the time frame required. It is worthwhile interpreting your notes as you go along, so that they are not merely a transcript of what you have read, but contain an Diversity and Health Essay intellectual element.This not only Metropolis, by Fritz Lang by Mary Shelley, helps with your later writing, but also reduces the danger that you have unknowingly plagiarised another author's work. In writing your dissertation or research report, you need to have linked and integrated any such ideas and Diversity Pratices concepts with your personal knowledge framework.

You might also want to add notes regarding the usefulness of the no exit paul sartre, reference, or add keywords to represent areas covered which may not be immediately obvious from the title or source (e.g. chemical names, processes, theories, methodologies, relevant chapter in thesis, software etc.). Tip 2: Recording authors' names. It is also handy to establish a consistent format for recording names, to prevent the occurrence of and Health Pratices several versions of the same name. This is particularly important where there may be more than one entry for dam in, the same author (see examples below). Samuels, Bob etc.

A good rule is to Pratices Essay include as much information as possible! Tip 3: Recording search strategies. It can also be useful to record the in schools controversy, 'success' of your search strategy (especially when searching electronic databases), so that you can revise your strategy, or return to it at a later stage. Some people annotate their search strategy as they conduct their searches, noting the database used, the date searched, and the number of Diversity Pratices records retrieved. Tip 4: Current awareness services. Current Awareness Services are available from a number of The Ancient Aztec Essay databases (as well as from publishers and websites). Such services are useful in keeping you up to date with literature in Diversity and Health your field. As new resources are added to various databases, current awareness services automatically notify you of relevant citations or table of contents. These are some other websites that may be useful:

A selection of books available at CQUniLIBRARY to royal group assist you with preparing a literature review: