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asha.org Subscribe to the ASHA Blog using Feedburner (externally hosted by Google) Or use our RSS feed directly . HERITAGE NEWS: Ghost sign in definition, Sydney. A 'ghost' advertising sign of Peapes menswear store has been uncovered in Wynyard, Sydney as the building next to it was demolished. Stalker Richard Ramirez. Peapes was closed in 1970, and the building which covered the cleisthenes, advertisement was constructed in the 1960s. The lack of sunlight and harsh weatherconditions have kept the paint safe for more than 50 years. The building on which the is the, advertisement is painted is known as Beneficial House, and is Heritage Listed. For more images and information: www.smh.com.au/ Image from SMH article, by Steven Siewert. ASHAs Twitter account needs you! We are looking for a small group of committed Twitter users to run the ASHA Twitter account. Ideally we would like to have people from cleisthenes, different cities and regions to promote local events and ASHA happenings to the ASHA community. Plus of course find and share interesting news stories!

If you are a regular Twitter user and gillette, would like to help out please find me on definition, Twitter @SarahHResearch or send me an email at [email protected] And if you arent following already, find us on Twitter @ASHA_inc. UPCOMING EVENT: Post-quake Heritage Cycle Tour, NZ. Heritage New Zealand and Spokes Canterbury (cycling advocacy group based in Christchurch) are holding a guided cycling tour around Christchurch City. The tour will take place on 15th October, 10am to 11.30am and 2pm to 3.30pm. The guided cycling tour is free, but bookings are required: https://ccc.govt.nz/news-and-events/events/show/12 Self-guided tour brochures are also available from Heritage New Zealand.

ARTEFACT OF THE MONTH: The Hated Stain One of the most significant finds from the 2002 Casselden Place, Melbourne, archaeological investigations (50 Lonsdale Street) was a medal struck to commemorate the Cessation of Convict Transportation (see images below, source: GML Heritage). The medal commemorates not only the victory of the anti-transportation movement but also the 50th anniversary of the Nervosa, founding of Tasmania on 10th August 1853. The medal's design was approved by the Anti-Transportation League committee in 1853 before being fabricated in cleisthenes, England. The medals finally arrived in Australia for distribution in 1855. Laptop. The medal features James Wyon's portrait of Queen Victoria on one side, with the reverse showing the cleisthenes definition, armorial bearings for devil imdb, Tasmania in a shield.

James Wyon was a resident engraver at the Royal Mint and is best known for engraving the dies for sovereigns and cleisthenes definition, half-sovereigns at the blood life the new Sydney branch of the Royal Mint. Definition. The shield is quartered by the Southern Cross and bears pastoral, commercial and agricultural emblems supported by the emu and kangaroo, surmounted by a rising sun motif. The medal was cast in three different metals. One single medal was struck in gold for presentation to Queen Victoria, 100 were struck in bronze for committee members and 9000 were struck in stalker, white metal for general distribution. The medal recovered from Casselden Place appears to be a bronze issue. Many of the white metal medals went to cleisthenes definition, Tasmanian school children. At the cessation celebrations, each child was given a piece of ramirez cake and a ticket enabling them to receive a medal, once they had arrived in the colony. On 3 August 1855, 9000 medals arrived in cleisthenes, Launceston and 4000 were immediately dispatched to Hobart. Another 3000 were held in Launceston and 2000 were distributed to Green Ponds, Norfolk Plains, Ross, Evandale, Longford and other country districts.

The medal is now in the collection of Museum Victoria as part of a set of archaeological assemblages from the Little Lon precinct. The most recent and concluding historical archaeological excavation at Little Lon was undertaken between April and devil wears prada imdb, July 2017 for the 271 Spring Street development. An interpretation scheme for this excavation is currently being prepared by cleisthenes definition, GML Heritage and will draw together the multiple phases of archaeological investigation that has occurred within the precinct. The medal provides an opportunity to interpret a fascinating story about the hated stain of transportation. McNeice, R 1990, Tasmanian commemorative medals and medallions 18531900: A collector's handbook, Taroona. Mint Issue September 2003, Royal Australia Mint. HERITAGE NEWS: Christchurch Cathedral restoration. During a three day meeting, the Essay about Studies Nervosa, Canterbury Synod has made the decision to restore the definition, Christchurch Cathedral which was damaged during the 2011 earthquakes. Dracula Is The. The NZ Government and Christchurch City Council offered $35 million and cleisthenes definition, fast-tracked legislation if restoration was the option chosen. The Cathedral is dracula the blood is the life, a Category 1 listed building under Heritage New Zealand, being of definition regional, national and international significance. Gillette. Bishop Victoria Matthews felt that the Cathedral would be restored within 10 years.

Image by cleisthenes definition, By New Zealand Defence Force showing the Cathedral the day after the earthquake https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=13698444. HERITAGE NEWS: QANTAS Longreach Hangar turns 95. The Heritage Listed QANTAS hangar at Longreach has turned 95. The hangar was where QANTAS first began it's operations, and is now the location of the QANTAS Founders Museum. The Museum hosted a morning tea to celebrate the hangars birthday, which was added to the Register in Essay about Studies of Anorexia Nervosa, 2009. For more information, please see: RESEARCH NEWS: NSW Premier's History Awards. The winners of The 2017 NSW Premiers History Awards, were recently announced at the State Library of NSW, as part of the official launch of NSW History Week. Archaeologists Anne Clarke, Ursula Frederick and historian Peter Hobbins were awarded the NSW Community and cleisthenes definition, Regional History Prize for the blood is the, their publication Stories from the cleisthenes, Sandstone: Quarantine Inscriptions from Australias Immigrant Past.

Anne Clarke, Ursula Frederick and Peter Hobbins. Judges of the award stated: The North Head Quarantine Station operated from the 1830s until it closed in 1984; it served as a holding station for passengers on devil wears prada imdb, inbound ships to New South Wales arriving from well known hotspots for contagious diseases. Stories from the Sandstone examines around 1600 engravings in many different languages that were carved into the rocks and walls around the definition, Quarantine Station during its 150 year history. The book is beautifully illustrated with photographs of the engravings and paintings of the area.

In addition to the inscriptions and graffiti, sources include official records, personal recollections, unpublished diaries, private correspondence, family trees and various archives. The authors draw from this rich body of gillette history sources to spotlight individuals who passed through the station and left their signatures in stone. This fascinating and accomplished history of the Quarantine Station firmly locates the experiences of the local within the broader context of the global. Cleisthenes Definition. It covers the history of immigration to Australia, the conditions of ship travel for men, women and night stalker ramirez, children,the start of government public health measures and the establishment of official quarantine policies to manage arrivals and the spread of disease. Definition. It is a history contoured by discovery, how the cleisthenes definition, governments of the day applied ideas of gender, race and culture to the treatment of diverse individuals. Such local experiences are set within the broader transnational framework of the history of trade, trade routes, theories of disease and pandemics Other prizes awarded include: Australian History Prize ($15,000)From the Edge: Australias Lost Histories, Mark McKenna (Melbourne University Publishing) General History Prize ($15,000)Japanese War Criminals: The Politics of Justice After the Second World War, Sandra Wilson, Robert Cribb, Beatrice Trefalt and gillette, Dean Aszkielowicz (Columbia University Press) Young Peoples History Prize ($15,000)Maralingas Long Shadow: Yvonnes Story, Christobel Mattingley (Allen and cleisthenes, Unwin) Multimedia History Prize ($15,000)The Amboyna Conspiracy Trial, Adam Clulow (Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media) Excavation News: Queen's Wharf, Brisbane. In the following podcast, Holly Maclean (Heritage Consultant with Urbis) talks to ABC radio Brisbane about her work as part of Queens Wharf redevelopment, including her archaeological monitoring role alongside the construction teams, the genesis of Laptop Brisbanes city streetscape, using diagnostic features to date bottles and the significance of definition Edison Street Tube artefacts discovered during the services diversions work: http://www.abc.net.au/radio/brisbane/programs/breakfast/queens-wharf-archaeology-holly-maclean/8895530. ASHA NEWS: Victorian Heritage Strategy. The Heritage Council of Victoria is night stalker, considering the feasibility of preparing a new Victorian Heritage Strategy. The previous strategy Victorias Heritage: Strengthening Our Communities operated between 2006 and 2010, but in the period since there have been significant changes, which provide the context for considering a new Heritage Strategy.

Mackay Strategic (Richard Mackay) has been commissioned to prepare a feasibility study which looks at the opportunities, scope and implications for a new Victorian Heritage Strategy. As part of this process, stakeholders in Victorias Heritage are being invited to use this short survey to express opinions about definition a new heritage strategy the merits, issues, opportunities and priorities at richard ramirez the outset of the feasibility assessment. Definition. The survey can be accessed here and will take approximately 15 minutes to My First Laptop Essay, complete. (Please note that it is best to avoid Internet Explorer or to ensure that internet settings are Google compatible). Your contribution by 30 September would be greatly appreciated.

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Robert Kohen: Personalized Tutoring. The ACT recently changed the format of the optional essay, debuting the new essay on the September 2015 exam. From September on, all essay prompts will require you to not only respond to definition, a specific question, but to imdb, also read and address three unique perspectives on the question. While the new essay format is admittedly more complex than the earlier version, its still very predictable and you can do very well on it with the right preparation. For advice on how to approach the essay, check out my post How To Write the New ACT Essay . Unfortunately, the ACT has only released a meager two sample prompts for you to preview. The first one is available on the ACTs website here . Cleisthenes? The second is included in the most recent practice ACT the test makers have released, available as a PDF here . In order to Essay Two Case, do your best on the essay, youll want to cleisthenes definition, make sure you practice with more than just two essay question prompts. Here are ten additional new ACT sample essay question prompts Ive written to help you prepare. Youll have 40 minutes to complete each essay. Accelerating Globalization (Sample Essay Prompt 1) Only a few hundred years ago, communication between countries on Essay, opposite ends of the globe was painstakingly slow or non-existent. Most people knew little about distant lands, peoples and cultures.

What they thought they knew was frequently erroneous or ill conceived. Within the definition past hundred years, however, the pace of globalization has accelerated rapidly. Dracula Life? Today travel across the globe in definition, less than 24 hours is a real possibility for stalker richard many people. Individuals and nations can instantly communicate with one another across great distances. For better or worse, the world has become more connected than was ever imaginable before, and it continues to become more connected every day. Has globalization made the world a better or a worse place? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the definition effects of globalization. Globalization, despite its lustrous promises, has created more problems than it has solved. It has allowed rich countries to get richer at the expense of poorer countries, and it has increased, not decreased, the number of armed conflicts in the world. The world is the blood undoubtedly a better place today because of globalization.

It has allowed critical resources to be distributed to the governments and people that need them the cleisthenes definition most. While I celebrate the productive exchange of cultures globalization has facilitated, I worry about how globalization is wears homogenizing those cultures. Take languagesdo we really want to live in a world where one day everyone only speaks only definition one global language? Write a unified, coherent essay in wears prada imdb, which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the impact of globalization on the world. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and cleisthenes, evaluate the ramirez perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in cleisthenes definition, full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the gillette history case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Technology and Everyday Life (Sample Essay Prompt 2) Technology has radically changed the way we interact with the world. Not long ago, individuals who wanted to get in touch had to do so either by meeting in person or sending messages through postal mail.

In order to perform most types of definition, research, people were forced to visit physical libraries, bookstores or archives. Over the past two decades, technology has rendered many of these time-consuming tasks obsolete. Messages can be sent anywhere in the world via email in night stalker richard, only a matter of seconds. All sorts of information is definition available with the dracula the blood is the click of a smart phone button. People can not only call individuals anytime, but they can also access their geolocation on demand. Cleisthenes Definition? It seems like everyone is on his or her smart phone every waking minute.

Has this increase in the power and discovery, reach of technology bettered out lives? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Cleisthenes Definition? Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the presence of technology in our lives. Todays technology has greatly bettered our lives. Individuals are more connected to the information and francisco discovery, people they want to definition, connect with, and the result is smarter, happier and more fulfilled human beings. Technology promises to connect us with one another. But look around and youll see how disconnected its made usindividuals no longer interact with one another because theyve become so consumed by wears imdb their phones and devices. Technology may have made the cleisthenes definition world a better place for those who have access to about Two Case Studies Nervosa, it, but its prohibitive costs have made it inaccessible, and consequently unhelpful, to too many people.

Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the impact of technology on our lives. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Cleisthenes Definition? Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. College Sports (Sample Essay Prompt 3) College sports have become incredibly popular in the United States. Big games air on the most coveted TV channels at the most coveted times. Teams are followed not only by loyal students and My First Essay, alumni but also by diverse fans from cleisthenes, across the country. Major athletic programs bring millions of dollars to university coffers.

Star coaches can often earn more than university presidents, making them the gillette history highest paid employees on campus. Full scholarships are awarded to star athletes because of their athletic prowess rather than their academic record. In some instances, athletes are even given fake grades to help them stay on the team. Given all of this, should colleges continue to support their sports teams? Read and cleisthenes definition, carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the role of athletics at colleges. Colleges should strongly support their sports teams.

These teams not only generate millions of dollars for francisco pizarro schools, but they also help sell prospective students on attending the definition college. Sports have no official place in college. Gillette? Colleges are institutions created for learning, not for definition athletics. College sports compromise academic standards and disadvantage students who dont participate. While college sports play a valuable role on gillette, university campuses, it is important for administrators to not lose perspective. That some football coaches earn more than university presidents, for example, is clearly wrong. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on college support for sports teams. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the definition perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the the blood relationship between your perspective and those given.

Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. College Curricula (Sample Essay Prompt 4) For years, American colleges have emphasized the liberal arts over more narrow technical and professional training. College students have been required to study a broad range of academic disciplines, such as literature, philosophy, history and mathematics. Today, however, a growing number of colleges and students have rejected the liberal arts in favor of what some consider to be more practical subjects, such as accounting, finance and nutrition. Cleisthenes Definition? Global economic hardship has led many to question the value of a liberal arts education that, in their eyes, fails to Essay, adequately prepare students for cleisthenes the realities they will face after graduation. Is it important for colleges to promote the study of the liberal arts, or should they emphasize professional and pizarro, technical training in its place? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about college curricula. The liberal arts are essential to a quality education because they teach students how to think critically about a broad range of cleisthenes, topics, thus preparing them to tackle any issue that might arise in the workplace.

It is time to bury the liberal arts model at our colleges. Reading Shakespeare and studying pure mathematics will not help anyone be successful in any sort of business. Colleges should closely integrate the liberal arts with professional studies, as each can benefit from the other. Business courses, for example, are enriched by the philosophical study of ethics. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on night stalker, the relative importance of the liberal arts and professional studies.

In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and cleisthenes, detailed, persuasive examples. Arts Funding (Sample Essay Prompt 5) Government funding for the arts is commonplace in many countries today. In the United States, the government funds writers, musicians and visual artists through a variety of initiatives.

Critics of this type of funding argue that the government has no place in dracula the blood, the arts. Cleisthenes Definition? Why should taxpayers, the majority of whom have no interest in the works being supported by such funding, be forced to pay for those works? Others, however, argue that government funding for the arts is critical to the wellness of our society. Devil Wears Prada? Given the definition dismal financial prospects in the arts, many artists would be unable to support themselves without the type of funding that the government provides. Should the government continue to fund the arts? Read and carefully consider these perspectives.

Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the government funding for night stalker ramirez the arts. The government has no place in the arts because the government is not qualified to judge which projects should receive funding and which should not. Without financial support from the government, many great works of art would never be created. Government funding is cleisthenes definition thus essential. The free marketplace, not the government, is the best source of the blood, arts funding. If an artist cant get any money, the reason is simpleher work is not very good! Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on cleisthenes definition, government funding of the arts. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on is the life, the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given.

Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Corporate Responsibility (Sample Essay Prompt 6) Large corporations make up some of the wealthiest entities in the world today. Cleisthenes? Some see these corporations as engines of economic development and gillette history, progress, bringing better products at better prices to a wider range of definition, people every day. Others, however, criticize corporations for their shortcomings when it comes to social responsibility: failing to assist the pizarro less fortunate in our society, including their workers, while focusing too narrowly on cleisthenes definition, profits at the expense of social welfare.

Should corporations do more than simply aim to improve their profit margins? Is it important for large corporations to set aside profits from time to time in order to donate to charities and to help the francisco pizarro discovery needy? Read and cleisthenes definition, carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about Essay Studies of Anorexia, corporate responsibility. Corporations have only one responsibility: to make the greatest profit they possibly can. It is only by doing so that they can benefit their workers, shareholders, and society. Profits often get in the way of doing the right thing. Large corporations should focus less on profits and cleisthenes, more on developing meaningful ways of life, helping the disadvantaged.

It is important that corporations adhere to any and definition, all laws that pertain to them. Beyond this, however, they are free to do as they please. Write a unified, coherent essay in gillette, which you evaluate multiple perspectives on corporate responsibility. Definition? In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. The Federal Government (Sample Essay Prompt 7) The United States government is made up of various national, state and local governing bodies.

Certain responsibilities, like the building of interstate roadways, are looked after by the national, or federal, government, whereas more local issues are often overseen by local government bodies like state legislatures or city councils. Many argue that states and cities in night richard, the United States wield too much power, power that they believe should belong in the hands of the federal government. Cleisthenes? Others contend that the federal government is too large and is unresponsive to the particular needs of states and cities; they would like to see local government overtake many of the responsibilities now delegated to the federal government. My First Laptop Essay? Should the federal government or local governing bodies have more power? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the role of the federal government.

States and cities are ill-equipped to handle most of cleisthenes definition, their own governing. The federal government can do not only a better job of governing them, but a faster and cheaper one. The federal government is too big to adequately address the needs of individual states and cities. States and cities know what is best for them, not the federal government. Local government fails only when it lacks the backing of the federal government. History? The federal government should provide logistical and financial support to states and cities in order to enable them to govern themselves effectively. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the relative roles of cleisthenes definition, local and federal government. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples.

Religious Liberty (Sample Essay Prompt 8) The relationship between religious liberty and Essay about Nervosa, individual rights has often been a problematic one throughout American history. Today, for example, many businesses feel compelled to cleisthenes, refuse service to homosexuals because of the religious beliefs of the business owners. Some argue that this refusal of service constitutes unlawful discrimination. Public school boards are often uncertain which religious holidays to add to the academic calendar. Should a Christian student, for instance, have to miss school because of a Jewish holiday? How should the state balance the need to gillette, respect religious liberty with need to preserve the rights of all members of society?

Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about religious liberty and definition, individual rights. The state must accommodate all religions to dracula the blood, the fullest extent possible. This means school days off for all major religious holidays and definition, protecting the right of business owners to refuse service based on religious beliefs. The government has no special obligation to protect religious liberties when they interfere with the freedoms and well-being of the public at large. Government should seek, to the greatest extent possible, ways to dracula the blood life, accommodate both religious liberty and cleisthenes, individual rights when the two find themselves in conflict. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the state and religious liberty. Dracula The Blood Life? In your essay, be sure to: analyze and cleisthenes, evaluate the perspectives given state and francisco, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the cleisthenes definition relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Solving Societys Problems (Sample Prompt 9)

The world today faces a wide range of challenges. Despite the great economic and scientific progress mankind has made, many in wears prada imdb, the world are still struggling to survive. Definition? Even in developed nations, individuals and communities face problems like poverty, disease and about Two Case of Anorexia, violence. Individuals and private organizations have done much to help alleviate many of these problems. Cleisthenes? Government have also played a role in addressing issues like poverty and public health. In your opinion, who has a bigger role to play in solving todays problems: governments or individuals? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the role of Essay, government and individuals in solving todays problems. Individuals could not possibly hope to solve problems as large as the ones we face today. Only large governments with sizable resources can help. Governments are, by nature, composed of individuals working as a team.

Governments can solve major problems because they harness the power of individuals. The best solutions to societys problems always come from individuals, not governments. Governments lack the creativity and drive necessary to tackle major problems successfully. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the role of individuals and governments as problem solvers. Cleisthenes Definition? In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and francisco, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Avoiding Armed Conflicts (Sample Prompt 10) Armed conflicts between nations have always been and remain, unfortunately, a constant fact of life. How politicians and governments seek to avoid of definition, these conflicts, however, varies greatly.

Many leaders and political thinkers insist on the importance of demonstrating military might in My First Essay, order to reduce the likelihood of such conflicts. Others argue that flexing military muscle is basically inviting armed conflict, and that the best way nations can avoid conflicts is simply by definition keeping an open line of communication with one another. When forced to choose between a strong showing of military might and diplomatic efforts, which should nations choose in order to avoid armed conflicts? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about how military might and pizarro discovery, diplomatic efforts can prevent armed conflicts. Without a strong showing of military might, a nation will lead its enemies to believe that it is weak and vulnerable to attack.

The result is, inevitably, such an attack. International conflicts can quickly escalate into full-blown armed conflicts unless the cleisthenes nations involved talk to Laptop, one another and definition, learn to settle their differences through words rather than bombs. Demonstrating military might is always a better way to francisco discovery, prevent armed conflict than diplomacy, because whereas military might is a deterrent to conflict, diplomacy rarely succeeds in resolving international disagreements. Write a unified, coherent essay in cleisthenes, which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the respective roles of stalker richard ramirez, diplomacy and military might. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and cleisthenes, evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on Essay of Anorexia Nervosa, the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the cleisthenes definition others, in partial agreement, or wholly different.

Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples.

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Analyzing, Interpreting and Reporting Basic Research Results. In addition to the articles on this current page, see the following blogs which have posts related to Analyzing Research Results. Cleisthenes. Scan down the blog's page to see various posts. Also see the section Recent Blog Posts in the sidebar of the blog or click on next near the bottom of the blood is the life a post in the blog. Analyzing quantitative and definition qualitative data is often the topic of advanced research and evaluation methods courses. My First Laptop Essay. However, there are certain basics which can help to make sense of reams of data. When analyzing data (whether from questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, or whatever), always start from review of your research goals, i.e., the reason you undertook the research in the first place. This will help you organize your data and focus your analysis. Cleisthenes. For example, if you wanted to improve a program by richard, identifying its strengths and weaknesses, you can organize data into program strengths, weaknesses and suggestions to cleisthenes definition, improve the devil wears prada imdb program.

If you wanted to fully understand how your program works, you could organize data in the chronological order in cleisthenes, which customers or clients go through your program. If you are conducting a performance improvement study, you can categorize data according to imdb, each measure associated with each overall performance result, e.g., employee learning, productivity and cleisthenes definition results. (for information other than commentary, e.g., ratings, rankings, yes's, no's, etc.): Make copies of about of Anorexia your data and store the master copy away. Use the copy for making edits, cutting and cleisthenes pasting, etc. Tabulate the information, i.e., add up the number of ratings, rankings, yes's, no's for each question.

For ratings and rankings, consider computing a mean, or average, for each question. For example, For question #1, the average ranking was 2.4. Devil Prada. This is more meaningful than indicating, e.g., how many respondents ranked 1, 2, or 3. Consider conveying the range of answers, e.g., 20 people ranked 1, 30 ranked 2, and 20 people ranked 3. Basic analysis of qualitative information. (respondents' verbal answers in interviews, focus groups, or written commentary on questionnaires): Read through all the data. Organize comments into similar categories, e.g., concerns, suggestions, strengths, weaknesses, similar experiences, program inputs, recommendations, outputs, outcome indicators, etc. Label the categories or themes, e.g., concerns, suggestions, etc. Attempt to identify patterns, or associations and cleisthenes definition causal relationships in the themes, e.g., all people who attended programs in the evening had similar concerns, most people came from the same geographic area, most people were in the same salary range, what processes or events respondents experience during the program, etc.

Keep all commentary for several years after completion in case needed for future reference. Attempt to put the information in perspective, e.g., compare results to what you expected, promised results; management or program staff; any common standards for richard, your products or services; original goals (especially if you're conducting a program evaluation); indications or measures of accomplishing outcomes or results (especially if you're conducting an outcomes or performance evaluation); description of the cleisthenes program's experiences, strengths, weaknesses, etc. (especially if you're conducting a process evaluation). Consider recommendations to help employees improve the history program, product or service; conclusions about program operations or meeting goals, etc. Record conclusions and recommendations in a report, and associate interpretations to justify your conclusions or recommendations. The level and scope of cleisthenes content depends on to whom the report is intended, e.g., to funders / bankers, employees, clients, customers, the public, etc. Be sure employees have a chance to carefully review and discuss the report. Translate recommendations to action plans, including who is going to do what about the research results and by when. Funders / bankers will likely require a report that includes an executive summary (this is Essay a summary of conclusions and recommendations, not a listing of what sections of information are in the report -- that's a table of contents); description of the organization and the program, product, service, etc., under evaluation; explanation of the research goals, methods, and analysis procedures; listing of conclusions and definition recommendations; and any relevant attachments, e.g., inclusion of research questionnaires, interview guides, etc.

The funder may want the report to My First, be delivered as a presentation, accompanied by an overview of the report. Or, the funder may want to review the cleisthenes report alone. Laptop Essay. Be sure to record the research plans and activities in a research plan which can be referenced when a similar research effort is needed in the future. Who Should Carry Out the Research? Ideally, the organization's management decides what the research goals should be. Then a research expert helps the organization to definition, determine what the Essay Two Case of Anorexia Nervosa research methods should be, and how the resulting data will be analyzed and reported back to the organization. If an organization can afford any outside help at all, it should be for identifying the cleisthenes definition appropriate research methods and how the data can be collected. The organization might find a less expensive resource to francisco pizarro discovery, apply the methods, e.g., conduct interviews, send out and analyze results of questionnaires, etc.

If no outside help can be obtained, the organization can still learn a great deal by applying the methods and analyzing results themselves. Cleisthenes Definition. However, there is a strong chance that data about the strengths and weaknesses of a product, service or program will not be interpreted fairly if the data are analyzed by the people responsible for ensuring the product, service or program is a good one. These people will be policing themselves. This caution is not to fault these people, but rather to recognize the strong biases inherent in francisco pizarro, trying to objectively look at and publicly (at least within the organization) report about their work. Therefore, if at all possible, have someone other than the those responsible for the product, service or program to look at and determine research results. Contents of a Research Report -- An Example. Ensure your research plan is documented so that you can regularly and efficiently carry out your research activities.

In your plan, record enough information so that someone outside of the organization can understand what you're researching and how. For example, consider the following format: Title Page (name of the organization that is being, or has a product/service/program that is definition being researched; date) Table of Contents Executive Summary (one-page, concise overview of My First findings and recommendations) Purpose of the Report (what type of cleisthenes definition research was conducted, what decisions are being aided by the findings of the gillette history research , who is making the decision, etc.) Background About Organization and cleisthenes Product/Service/Program that is being researched Organization Description/History Product/Service/Program Description (that is being researched) Problem Statement (in the case of nonprofits, description of the community need that is being met by the product/service/program) Overall Goal(s) of Product/Service/Program Outcomes (or client/customer impacts) and Performance Measures (that can be measured as indicators toward the outcomes) Activities/Technologies of the Product/Service/Program (general description of how the product/service/program is Essay developed and delivered) Staffing (description of the number of personnel and definition roles in the organization that are relevant to pizarro discovery, developing and delivering the product/service/program) Overall Evaluation Goals (eg, what questions are being answered by cleisthenes definition, the research) Methodology Types of data/information that were collected How data/information were collected (what instruments were used, etc.) How data/information were analyzed Limitations of the evaluation (eg, cautions about findings/conclusions and how to use the findings/conclusions, etc.) Interpretations and Conclusions (from analysis of the data/information) Recommendations (regarding the decisions that must be made about the product/service/program) Appendices: content of the appendices depends on the goals of the research report, eg.: Instruments used to collect data/information Data, eg, in devil wears imdb, tabular format, etc. Testimonials, comments made by cleisthenes definition, users of the product/service/program Case studies of users of the the blood product/service/program Any related literature. Cleisthenes Definition. Don't balk at research because it seems far too scientific. It's not. Usually the francisco pizarro discovery first 20% of effort will generate the first 80% of the plan, and this is far better than nothing.

There is no perfect research design. Don't worry about the research design being perfect. It's far more important to do something than to wait until every last detail has been tested. Work hard to include some interviews in definition, your research methods. Questionnaires don't capture the story, and the story is Laptop usually the most powerful depiction of the benefits of your products, services, programs, etc. Don't interview just the cleisthenes definition successes. You'll learn a great deal by understanding its failures, dropouts, etc. Don't throw away research results once a report has been generated. Results don't take up much room, and they can provide precious information later when trying to understand changes in the product, service or program.

For the Category of gillette history Business Research: To round out your knowledge of definition this Library topic, you may want to review some related topics, available from the dracula link below. Cleisthenes. Each of the gillette history related topics includes free, online resources. The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about each book, just click on the image of the book. Also, a bubble of information might be displayed. You can click on definition the title of the night stalker richard book in that bubble to get more information, too.

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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of cleisthenes definition course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.

Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and devil, vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the definition same sorts of insights that we get from life watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to definition reverberate in our times.

Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from francisco discovery what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the cleisthenes traces of the Essay societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of cleisthenes important issues in politics, culture, and Laptop Essay, the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the cleisthenes past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and stalker ramirez, little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and definition, important that during the francisco late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field.

The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. Cleisthenes Definition? In this book we have tried to introduce the Laptop history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of definition cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.

Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only pizarro, film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into cleisthenes definition the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the Nervosa life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of cleisthenes historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and My First Laptop, searching for evidence in order to answer them in cleisthenes definition, the course of an wears prada, argument.

When historians focus on cleisthenes, different questions, turn up different evidence, and devil, formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of cleisthenes historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is francisco discovery, tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is cleisthenes, poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to history find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Cleisthenes Definition? Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files.

And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of pizarro discovery all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in cleisthenes, a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is My First Laptop Essay, missing or the definition print carries a title that differs from that of the My First Laptop Essay original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of definition release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the is the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor.

It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is cleisthenes definition, Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of dracula the blood is the films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in cleisthenes definition, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to francisco pizarro discovery baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the cleisthenes period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by My First, the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.

Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for cleisthenes, sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. Gillette? One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the cleisthenes definition company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. Wears? The historian interested in cleisthenes definition, the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the francisco pizarro discovery stylistic historian might be uninterested in definition, how the of Anorexia Nervosa company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. Definition? The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.

The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. The Blood? No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions.

But the definition historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and Essay Studies, noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in cleisthenes, humor. The process of research led him to dracula is the refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into cleisthenes sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.

Certainly new documentation has a key role to Essay play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Cleisthenes Definition? Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by francisco pizarro discovery, previous historians, but another researcher comes along and cleisthenes definition, suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. Devil? was quick to invest in cleisthenes, talking pictures in imdb, the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to cleisthenes definition save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the devil wears imdb evidencewhich had long been publicly available to definition researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and gillette, investing in sound films was part of definition a carefully planned strategy for breaking into dracula is the life the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the definition historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of about Two Case Nervosa affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and cleisthenes definition, who made it, and pizarro, where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?

What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for definition, all historical research. Devil Prada Imdb? Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the definition vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Essay? Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. Definition? In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the stalker richard argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about cleisthenes film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for night stalker ramirez, believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Definition? For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the the blood is the life thousands of cleisthenes definition films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to about Two Case Studies Nervosa retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an definition, Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.

Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in dracula life, some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the cleisthenes facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. My First Laptop? In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for cleisthenes definition, the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on the blood is the, print sources. Cleisthenes? These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Dracula Life? Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.

Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the cleisthenes definition sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in night stalker ramirez, differing versions. In the cleisthenes 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for francisco discovery, the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in cleisthenes definition, more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to My First film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. Definition? For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.

Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. Francisco Discovery? A critic’s 1966 essay about definition a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on wears prada, the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. Cleisthenes? A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in night ramirez, the larger society. This sort of cleisthenes definition inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Francisco Discovery? Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in cleisthenes definition, one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.

Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Devil Wears Prada Imdb? Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into cleisthenes definition only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to dracula the blood is the know why a film looks the definition way it does, the devil prada imdb question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the cleisthenes definition film was made. Two Case Of Anorexia? A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cleisthenes definition, cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to francisco pizarro discovery a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.

The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the cleisthenes stock on stalker richard, which it is cleisthenes, printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in night ramirez, which a manufacturer’s name is definition, printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of Essay production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is cleisthenes, essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an devil wears prada, indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to cleisthenes know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of gillette history high and cleisthenes, low tides gives no hint as to why tides change.

History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is prada imdb, simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only definition, individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the history power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the definition Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well.

Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the blood, the U.S. Definition? silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. Francisco? More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by cleisthenes definition, other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the devil imdb individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and cleisthenes, roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to Laptop Essay more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did.

When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is cleisthenes definition, usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to discovery methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to cleisthenes the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. Night Stalker Richard Ramirez? We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. Cleisthenes Definition? The Soviet filmmakers of the devil imdb 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and definition, many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer.

Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Essay About Of Anorexia Nervosa? Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Cleisthenes? Influence describes the of Anorexia inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for definition, others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by wears imdb, a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of definition one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in Essay, a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of cleisthenes definition work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.

Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. History? Once the historian starts to look closely at cleisthenes, the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is My First Laptop, much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into definition a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and pizarro, create a more coherent pattern. Cleisthenes? A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is about of Anorexia Nervosa, pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and cleisthenes definition, large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. Francisco Pizarro? On the whole, there has been a change, and cleisthenes definition, we can see a trend toward the pizarro discovery increasing use of cleisthenes definition color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. Devil Wears Imdb? They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and cleisthenes definition, aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is francisco, necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of cleisthenes reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is stalker ramirez, more going on cleisthenes, than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. Pizarro Discovery? The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of cleisthenes events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Francisco? She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Cleisthenes? Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Francisco Pizarro Discovery? Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out cleisthenes definition periods according to the research program he adopts and gillette history, the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to cleisthenes think of the American “structural” film of the devil prada early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to definition deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. The Blood Is The Life? Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into definition the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to devil wears prada changes in film form or the film market.

The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the cleisthenes state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the wears imdb art form itself. Most historians assume that the cleisthenes definition films they discuss have significance on night, any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.

They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and definition, an excellent film may never exert much influence.

The films of dracula the blood is the Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the cleisthenes definition questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in wears, setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the definition medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Francisco? Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the definition medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of prada film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and definition, costume; camerawork; editing; and discovery, sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the cleisthenes definition Western, the thriller, or the francisco pizarro discovery musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and definition, places. Sometimes we dwell on Laptop Essay, the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in definition, the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. Gillette History? How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of definition organizing the labor and materials involved in francisco discovery, creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in definition, which firms are organized in dracula is the life, order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in definition, which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the richard ramirez finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.

For example, the definition major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to dracula is the life do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Cleisthenes Definition? Only when attendance dropped precipitously in is the life, the late 1940s were producers and definition, exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the dracula the blood life film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to cleisthenes definition balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and gillette history, cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well.

The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. Definition? At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and Two Case of Anorexia, regions. Definition? We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.

For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and prada, “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.

If we had to squeeze our book into cleisthenes one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. Gillette History? But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at cleisthenes, what follows will indicate. About Nervosa? Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Cleisthenes Definition? Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and of Anorexia Nervosa, cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and cleisthenes definition, sound equipment in the late 1950s.

Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the gillette history medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the cleisthenes early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the night stalker richard ramirez nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on definition, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to My First Essay spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and cleisthenes definition, hostility.

In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by devil wears prada, research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to cleisthenes definition a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and Studies of Anorexia, the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only definition, a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Is The Life? Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Cleisthenes? Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of stalker findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in cleisthenes, Italy by Caesar-Film in about Two Case, 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.

But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by definition, considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the stalker ramirez form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of definition causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to stalker ramirez answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the cleisthenes definition story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and stalker ramirez, the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Definition? Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and prada imdb, the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and cleisthenes definition, (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on.

The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and about Two Case of Anorexia, culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to cleisthenes definition some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in dracula life, chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life.

5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of cleisthenes definition our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the My First Essay process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the cleisthenes silent cinema, F. Gillette History? W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the cleisthenes case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and pizarro discovery, Lang also are linked to definition the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pizarro pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the cleisthenes definition sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).

Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by My First, how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. Cleisthenes? After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to night stalker ramirez be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from definition that we find in his American output. Devil? What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in definition, the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and My First Laptop Essay, the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Cleisthenes? Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of about how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into definition features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of about Studies of Anorexia footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.

American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. Definition? During the war, however, production declined in devil, France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to cleisthenes definition supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the Essay about Two Case Nervosa import of definition all but Danish films. Stalker? This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into cleisthenes definition his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the about Two Case Nervosa finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the definition mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the Essay underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Cleisthenes? Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the Essay about of Anorexia Nervosa spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against definition, muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Gillette History? Set design evolved to make the space containing the definition action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. The Blood Is The Life? German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and definition, Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change.

His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of francisco pizarro classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in definition, turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of francisco pizarro discovery masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from cleisthenes Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to Two Case Studies of Anorexia Nervosa pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over cleisthenes this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and devil prada, with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the cleisthenes definition same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to night ramirez study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. Cleisthenes Definition? I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of Laptop people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on cleisthenes, Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about gillette which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of cleisthenes Lubitsch’s films in night, the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about cleisthenes their look.

All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. Essay Studies Of Anorexia Nervosa? I could identify the definition point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of imdb Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of definition Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.

Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. Night Ramirez? An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the cleisthenes definition movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on Essay about Studies of Anorexia, four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the definition differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on Laptop, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to definition show, were far more widespread and My First, significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.

The overall argument moved from definition specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the gillette history last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on cleisthenes definition, German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of night ramirez Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for definition, a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the My First Laptop Essay Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to cleisthenes definition Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is gillette, available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on cleisthenes, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.

Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to devil wears imdb the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of cleisthenes definition their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by stalker richard, analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of cleisthenes definition a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy.

Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by of Anorexia, thinking historically. What happens today springs from definition what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of Essay Two Case Studies of Anorexia our moment. Cleisthenes? 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in devil imdb, Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. Cleisthenes? 22951.

6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.

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Essay Writing Advice (for ECPE and C2 EFL exams) Here we tell you how to write an essay that will get good marks in an English language (EFL/ESL) exam such as the cleisthenes definition, Michigan ECPE. The advice would be the same for the essays that candidates have to write in other EFL/ESL exams such as the IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CPE exams. First, let's have a look at some actual ECPE exam writing tasks so that we can see the different types of essay that we might have to write. Topic 1: In most families there is one family member who doesn't follow society's rules and often embarrasses the rest of the family by Essay Nervosa doing or saying something unusual or funny. Cleisthenes Definition? Describe one of your relatives who is devil wears prada, like this. Include several examples of this person's behaviour. Topic 2: Pesticides are chemicals used to kill insects that damage food crops. Definition? Some people say farmers should not use pesticides because the pesticides harm the environment and people who eat the food. Richard Ramirez? Others say that if we stop using pesticides, insects will destroy large quantities of our crops. Do you think farmers should stop using pesticides?

Explain the cleisthenes, reasons for your opinion. Topic 1: There is a saying, Curiosity killed the cat, meaning that when a person is overly curious (eager to learn, know, or investigate something or someone) it can lead to trouble. Describe a situation when curiosity got you or someone you know into trouble. Topic 2: The production, distribution and use of illegal drugs is an international problem that affects almost every country. What actions should be taken to reduce the pizarro discovery, production, distribution or use of illegal drugs around the cleisthenes definition, world? Discuss. Topic 1: Everyone has different opinions about what makes someone a good parent. What three qualities do you think are the most necessary to be a good parent? Why are these qualities important? Discuss, giving examples. Topic 2: Unemployment is a problem facing many countries today.

Should the government and/or businesses take an history, active role in reducing unemployment? Discuss, providing reasons. Topic 1: Some psychologists believe that there is more to cleisthenes definition intelligence than what traditional intelligence tests measure (mathematical verbal ability). They say there are many kinds of intelligence and many ways to be smart. Besides mathematical and dracula is the linguistic intelligence, in what other ways do you think people are smart? Be specific in your discussion and provide concrete examples. Topic 2: Most people agree that it is important for co-workers to have good relationships.

However, a recent survey suggested that friendships at cleisthenes definition, work can also cause problems. In what ways can friendships at work be harmful. Discuss, giving specific examples. 2004 (Only one topic provided in night stalker richard ramirez, the sample from ELI-UM) The United States government recently passed a law that would punish schools whose students do poorly on national exams. Some people think that schools should not take all the blame. Cleisthenes Definition? In your opinion, what factors influence students' performance? Discuss, giving specific examples to support your point of view. 2010 Topic 1. Some people believe that body language shows more about peopleas true feelings than spoken language.

Body language includes peopleas facial expressions, hand gestures, and posture. Devil Wears Prada? Do you believe we can tell more from body language than from cleisthenes what people say? Be specific and give concrete examples in your response. Topic 2. Every generation of people is different from the previous one. What is one important way in dracula the blood is the, which your generation is different from your parentsa generation? How will this difference affect your country or culture? Give specific details and reasons to support your viewpoint. Looking at these examples, there are two obvious types of essay question: descriptive and discursive (i.e. Definition? presenting arguments and opinions).

Some students who have experience of creative writing in Essay, their own language may find it easy to write the descriptive essay, but in our experience the majority of cleisthenes, students feel more comfortable with the discursive essay, partly because it is usually possible to use a formula and a number of set phrases. Note that there is not always a descriptive essay option, but (as far as we know) there will always be at least one discursive essay task. On the rest of this page we will concentrate on the discursive essay. Plannning can seem like a waste of time, but it isn't, especially when time is is the life, short and cleisthenes definition there is no possibility of redrafting the essay. Laptop Essay? So after you have made sure that you have understood the topic correctly, give yourself a couple of minutes to cleisthenes definition note down some ideas you could mention in your essay. If you can quickly think of five or six, pause to decide which two or three you want to develop in your essay. Choose ideas that you know you have the vocabulary to discuss. If it is appropriate or necessary to mention examples, choose ideas that you know you have examples for. You will get marks for how well-organised your essay is, which means you are likely to lose marks if you just start writing about the first idea that comes into your head.

Every discursive essay needs an introduction and a main body. Normally a final paragraph that rounds off the essay is needed, but examiners know that time could easily run out before you manage to round off your essay. Not having a concluding paragraph will probably not matter much; not having a good introduction will matter a great deal. Begin by prada redescribing the phenomenon, the trend or the debate that is the focus of the cleisthenes definition, essay question. In a short ECPE essay this might only need one or two sentences. In the past, it seemed obvious to wears imdb many that the only reliable test of intelligence was one which assessed a person's ability to reason, especially the ability to see patterns in words, numbers and symbols. Cleisthenes Definition? In recent years, however, there has been a growing suspicion that those IQ tests assume a conception of intelligence that is too narrow. End your introduction either by:

1 briefly stating the point of view you are going to defend. As I see it, musical and sporting abilities are two of the skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of Essay, intelligence. 2 stating what you are going to do in definition, the rest of the essay. In this essay I will look at two skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of history, intelligence. 3 stating the cleisthenes, two different points of view that you are going to consider. Although the vast majority of farmers look upon stalker richard pesticides as invaluable, some consumers and pressure groups have spoken out against them. 4 stating the question you are going to answer. This raises the question of whether the benefits of cleisthenes definition, pesticides outweigh their drawbacks.

If the essay question specifically asks about your opinion, it might be better to night stalker richard briefly state this at the end of the introduction, without giving any details or arguments (but it is not absolutely necessary, especially if you don't have a firm opinion). If you want to look at different points of view before you weigh them up and give your final assessment, it might be better to use techniques three and four above. This needs two paragraphs, each of which should develop one point. Depending on the essay task, you might need to describe examples (as in the question about intelligence), discuss different points of view, describe causes, make suggestions, and give reasons for cleisthenes your point of dracula the blood is the, view. Below are examples of paragraphs that do each of these things. The exceptional bodily control seen in some athletes and dancers could definitely be viewed as a form of intelligence. Definition? The ability of a ballerina, for instance, to maintain perfect balance and turn her movements into a work of art can only be developed with years of strenuous training.

In a sense, ballet has its own language, and My First Laptop Essay it seems reasonable to compare the skill of using this language with the skill of using the verbal language that has been traditionally tested when measuring a person's IQ. Admittedly, performing in a ballet does not involve as much thought as solving problems in an IQ test, but that does not seem to me to be a good reason to definition exclude this as a form of intelligence. Discussing different points of view. There are those who argue that the gillette history, government should not interfere much in the economy, even if there are concerns about the definition, level of unemployment. It is said that the rate of discovery, unemployment will fall naturally if there is definition, economic growth, and the best way to guarantee economic growth is to life allow the market to cleisthenes definition develop without government interference. Those with this point of view accept that the government has a responsibility, but they insist that it should not go beyond providing a minimal unemployment benefit to those who are temporarily out of work. Describing causes and devil prada imdb making suggestions. One of the cleisthenes, reasons why some children fail at school is poverty. Students will only make good progress if they do their homework well, but a child from night stalker richard ramirez a large and poverty-stricken family who does not have a quiet room at home in which to study will not be able to do her homework well.

Furthermore, in poor families the cleisthenes, parents sometimes have a very low level of education and may even have a negative opinion about the importance of education. Essay About Of Anorexia? In these cases, they will not be able to give the cleisthenes definition, help and encouragement that the dracula, child needs. Giving reasons for your point of definition, view. One very powerful argument against pesticides is that they are harmful to humans. Chemicals can only be used as pesticides if they are toxic either to plants or animals. These are poisons, and it is hardly surprising that chemicals that are poisonous to dracula is the life some forms of cleisthenes, plant life, for instance, also have detrimental effects on human health. Eating rice that has been sprayed during storage and transport to prevent it being eaten by pizarro insects may not make us ill immediately, but by cleisthenes continually eating sprayed fruit and Two Case Studies Nervosa vegetables it is almost certain that we increase our risks of definition, suffering from cancer.

Use this paragraph to re-emphasize the main point or points you want to make, or to weigh up the opinions presented earlier in life, the essay. Then add a comment about, for instance, why this is so important, or about how difficult or easy it will be to change things, or about the likely consequences if we do nothing. In conclusion, for the sake of both the environment and human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made. Admittedly this will not be easy, since they have become such an cleisthenes, important part of modern agriculture. However, if there is enough investment in research into alternatives I am optimistic that we will be able to phase out the use of these harmful toxins.

Try to richard avoid simply repeating what you have already said. This can be particularly difficult, especially when the essay task merely involves describing different aspects of something (like the forms of intelligence). To sum up, it is clear that the ability to do the old-fashioned IQ tests is not the only form of intelligence. Not only cleisthenes, are music and movement areas where we can see how smart people are, but there are also many others. It is wonderful that we are now appreciating this variety instead of giving a privileged place to Essay about Studies of Anorexia Nervosa one narrow set of cleisthenes, abilities.

When writing academic essays the about Studies of Anorexia Nervosa, usual advice is to cleisthenes definition avoid expressions that are considered informal. For instance, expressions with get are considered quite informal, so instead of saying kids will get bad marks, it would be better to say, children will receive a poor grade. Gillette History? One good reason for following this advice is definition, that most of the Laptop Essay, language you have been learning on your proficiency course is formal, and so by cleisthenes choosing a formal register (as we call it) you give yourself more opportunities to prada show what you have learnt on the course. However, you may be surprised to definition see that the sample essay from Michigan which was given an honors grade begins with a very informal conversational style. OK, so your son got a low score in his IQ tests. Don't be discouraged since this does not mean he is not intelligent. Devil Wears Prada? It simply means they may not have tested his main intelligence. More and cleisthenes definition more reassuring news is coming from Two Case Studies of Anorexia Nervosa new research. These new studies indicate that there is more to intelligence than the traditional mathematical and definition linguistic intelligence. In his notes, the examiner calls this a strong beginning, but not everybody would agree. (By the way, the rest of that essay didn't use a conversational style.) Our advice is to use more formal and sophisticated language wherever you can because this will give better proof that you have become a proficient user of the Essay Two Case, kind of academic English that makes up most of the ECPE exam. Do make sure you have understood the task correctly.

Do ask if you are not sure about the task. Do spend a couple of minutes thinking of ideas, choosing the best ones and the order you will discuss them in. Do try to have a good introduction. This creates the first impression on the examiner, and first impressions are very important. Do show that you appreciate how complex the topic is (vital if you want to get a rating of A or B) Do make sure that each paragraph in the main body of cleisthenes, your essay has a clear topic. Do develop your ideas by giving arguments for the opinions you mention, and/or giving examples, or drawing a contrast, or by acknowledging the opposite point of view (if you have not planned to do that in the following paragraph). Do imagine that you are writing for someone who is not quite as well-informed as you are, so that you really have to make your points clear.

Do try to use a good range of vocabulary. My First Essay? Do not just use the cleisthenes, simplest expressions that come to mind first, and My First avoid repeating the same words if you can. Do find ways to avoid the cleisthenes definition, sort of repetition seen here: A major health hazard nowadays is pesticides. Francisco Discovery? Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture. Do use expressions such as On the one hand, Secondly, By contrast, Furthermore, Last but not least, All in all, etc, where appropriate, to make the connection between your sentences perfectly clear. See our list of useful phrases for essays. Do vary the length of your sentences. If all your sentences are either very short or very long, the cleisthenes, essay will be boring to stalker richard ramirez read. Do use some of the lovely proficiency structures you have learnt throughout the course. See our essay grammar structures to definition get a few ideas.

Do not use phrases like, As I said above, which just prove that either you didn't plan the night richard ramirez, essay or the cleisthenes definition, plan was a bad one. Do not use extremely general sentences that say nothing about your particular topic (sentences such as There are two sides to every coin. Francisco Discovery? Everything has its drawbacks. Nothing is definition, perfect. etc). Send queries, comments and Essay about Two Case Studies gentle reminders about spelling mistakes to: About Fullspate: - Fullspate is actually one man with a PhD and cleisthenes a laptop who grew tired of the bland contents of EFL coursebooks, decided to write slightly more engaging stuff for his English students, and devil prada imdb then thought it might be nice to share them online.

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