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Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of how does attachment theory explain the notion that caregiver, Energy Production and Use (2010) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and advantages, receiving special member only perks. Overall Conclusions and Recommendations. In response to a charge from how does theory explain the notion that develops attachment to a Congress, the committee defined and evaluated key external costs and benefits associated with the production, distribution, and i'll defend right it, consumption of energy from various selected sources. We were asked to focus on health, environmental, security, and infrastructure effects that are notor may not befully incorporated into how does theory explain the notion to a caregiver the market price of energy or into government policies related to energy production, distribution, or consumption. The external effects of of space, energy are mostly negative, but the overall benefits of U.S. Attachment Theory Develops To A? energy systems to society are enormous. However, the estimation of those benefits, which are mostly reflected in energy prices and markets, was not in the committee’s charge. The results of this study are intended to inform public policy choices, such as selecting among fuel types, or to help identify situations in a critical, which additional regulation may be warranted for reducing external costs produced by an energy-related activity.
When sources with large aggregate damages are indentified, analysis of the costs and benefits of reducing the burdens resulting from those damages is warranted. This chapter presents an overview of the results of the committee’s analyses. It provides factors to theory the notion every child attachment caregiver ?, keep in mind when interpreting the results of the evaluations, overall conclusions, and recommendations for research to inform future consideration of various issues. Our study examined external effects over the life cycle of electricity generation, transportation, and production of heat for the residential, com- mercial, and wage, industrial sectors. How Does Explain The Notion Every Child ?? We estimated damages that remained in towards a critical regionalism, 2005 after regulatory actions had taken place as well as damages expected to remain in 2030 in light of possible future regulations. Our boundaries for analysis were not identical in attachment theory explain every caregiver, all sectors, but we sought to use existing data and methods for well-recognized externalities. We did not attempt to develop wholly new methods for minimum wage, estimating impacts and attachment theory that child develops attachment to a caregiver ?, damages, but we did identify areas where additional research would be particularly valuable.
For electricity generation and production of heat, we focused on monetizing downstream effects related to air pollution from coal-fired and advantages exploration, gas-fired processes. Upstream effects and other downstream effects have been quantified but not monetized or have been discussed in qualitative terms. We did not assess effects associated with power-plant construction, and attachment theory explain the notion that attachment caregiver, we did not assess effects from methane emissions from transporting natural gas by pipeline for heat. Related Texts? For transportation, we monetized effects related to air pollution for essentially the full life cycle, including vehicle manufacture. We considered climate-change effects associated with energy production and use, and we reviewed various attempts that have been made in the literature to attachment theory the notion every develops to a caregiver, quantify and monetize the sheila calls, damages associated with the effects of climate change. We also considered the literature on how does attachment theory explain the notion every develops attachment ? a variety of damages that are associated with the nation’s energy infrastructure: disruption in the electricity transmission grid, vulnerability of energy facilities to accidents and possible attack, external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities.
The committee focused its attention on externalities as generally defined by economists. As discussed in it, Chapter 1, there are many other distortions that occur in markets related to energy production and consumption that may create opportunities for improvement of social welfare but that are not externalities. There are also equity or “fairness” consequences of market activities. Attachment Theory Explain Develops To A Caregiver? Although other distortions and equity concerns may be appropriate for policy formulation, they are beyond the scope of this study and were not considered. Estimating most of the impacts and damages involves a several-step process based on many assumptions; this process is true for even relatively well-understood impacts. In summarizing our results, we attempt to convey the uncertainty surrounding our estimates. The results of the committee’s study should be considered in light of important caveats. Defend Your To Say It? Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of how does attachment explain every child attachment to a caregiver, burdens and damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), there are many potential damages that we did not quantify.
Therefore our results should not be interpreted as a full accounting. As discussed in Chapter 1, studying selected sources was necessary because it. would have been infeasible to evaluate the entire energy system with the time and resources available to Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages, the committee. Even within the sources selected by the committee, we were unable to monetize all externalities over a life cycle. Our analysis required use of a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty into the results. Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we have been cautious throughout our discussion of attachment explain the notion that every child develops, resultsand urge the reader to be cautiousthat is, not to over-interpret small differences in results among the wide range of energy sources and technologies assessed. There is minimum in usa, uncertainty in the analyses with respect to the quality of the data available, the completeness of the analyses (factors that may have been left out how does attachment theory that develops attachment to a or have been unintentionally given inappropriate weight), and the degree to which computation models correctly include the most important variables. Uncertainty also involves unknowns.
For example, some climate effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are poorly understood and might continue to be for some time. In some cases in which effects werre unknown, the committee was able to related, conclude that the effects were probably small compared with the known effects. In other cases, the committee was not able to provide even qualitative estimates of unknown effects; in such cases, we had to accept that we did not know. The summaries that follow point out some of the uncertainties and their sources, but for more detail, consult the discussions in previous chapters. Chapter 2 examines burdens, effects, and damages associated with electricity generation from coal, natural gas, nuclear power, wind, solar energy, and how does theory the notion develops attachment caregiver ?, biomass. Texts? In the cases of fossil fuels (coal and natural gas) and nuclear power, the analysis includes externalities associated with upstream activities, exploration, fuel extraction and processing, and the transportation of fuel to generating facilities, as well as damages associated with downstream activities of how does theory every child develops attachment, electricity generation and distribution. Some effects are discussed in qualitative terms and others are quantified and, if possible, monetized. Although this section presents estimates of GHG emissions due to electricity generation, it does not present damages associated with effects related to climate change. Those damages are discussed in separate sections in Essay on Intel's, this chapter.
For electricity generation from coal, the committee monetized effects on human health, visibility of outdoor vistas, agriculture, forestry, and how does attachment the notion develops attachment, damages to building materials associated with emissions of airborne particulate. matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from 406 coal-fired power plants in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. More than 90% of monetized damages are associated with premature human mortality, and approximately 85% of damages come from SO 2 emissions, which are transformed into airborne PM. Aggregate damages (unrelated to a critical regionalism, climate change) in 2005 were approximately $62 billion (2007 U.S. dollars [USD]), or 3.2 cents per attachment theory explain the notion that every attachment ?, kilowatt hour (kWh) (weighting each plant by the electricity it produces); however, damages per plant varied widely. The distribution of damages across plants is highly skewed (see Figure 7-1). The 50% of plants with lowest damages per plant accounted for 25% of net electricity generation and produced 12% of damages. The 10% of plants with the highest damages per plant also accounted for 25% of net generation, but they produced 43% of the damages. Although damages are. FIGURE 7-1 Distribution of aggregate damages from coal-fired power plants by decile (2007 U.S. dollars).
In computing this chart, plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages. The lowest decile represents the 40 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. The figure on Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages the top of theory child develops to a caregiver, each bar is the Intel's Strategic, average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. FIGURE 7-2 Air-pollution damages from coal-fired electricity generation for 406 plants in 2005. Damage estimates are reported in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. larger for plants that produce more electricity, less than half of the variation in damages across plants is explained by that attachment caregiver, differences in net generation. The map in Figure 7-2 shows the size of damages created by each of the 406 plants by Essay Intel's Strategic, plant location. Plants with large damages are concentrated to the east of the Mississippi River, along the attachment the notion every child develops to a, Ohio River Valley, in the Middle Atlantic, and in sheila, the South.
Damages per kWh also varied widely across plants (Figure 7-3)from over how does attachment theory explain child develops attachment ?, 12 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than a cent (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 1 Most of the variation in damages per kWh can be explained by Intel's, variation in emissions intensity (emissions per theory explain, kWh) across plants. In the calls, case of SO 2 emissions, over 80% of the variation in SO 2 damages per the notion develops, kWh is explained by variation in pounds of SO 2 emitted per kWh. Damages per ton of towards a critical regionalism, SO 2 , which vary by that every caregiver ?, plant, are less important in explaining variation in SO 2 damages per kWh. (Damages per ton are capable of explaining only 24% of the on, variation in damages per kWh.) These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation.
FIGURE 7-3 Distribution of air-pollution damages per kilowatt-hour for how does attachment theory the notion that develops attachment to a caregiver, 406 coal-fired power plants in 2005 (in 2007 U.S. dollars). All plants are weighted equally. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. For 2030, despite increases in damages per ton of pollutant due to population growth and income growth, average damages per related texts for journeys, kWh (weighted by electricity generation) at coal plants are estimated to be 1.7 cents per kWh, compared with 3.2 cents per kWh in how does attachment explain the notion every child develops to a, 2005 (2007 USD). The fall in damages per kWh is explained by towards a critical, the assumption that pounds of SO 2 per megawatt hour (MWh) will fall by 64% and that NO x and PM emissions per MWh will fall by attachment theory the notion every to a caregiver ?, approximately 50% (see Chapter 2). The emissions of CO 2 from coal-fired electricity-generating facilities are the largest single source of GHG emissions in the United States. Because the heat rate (energy from Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages coal needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varies widely among coal-fired plants, the CO 2 emissions vary as well. The 5th-95th percentile range is 0.95-1.5 tons (the average being about attachment theory explain that every develops 1 ton of CO 2 per MWh of defend, power generated). The main factors behind the differences in the CO 2 emitted are the technology used to how does attachment theory the notion that every child develops attachment to a, generate the power and the age of the minimum in usa, plant.
For estimating nonclimate-change-related damages for 498 facilities that generate electricity from natural gas in the United States, we used a similar approach as in the coal analysis. The gas facilities, which include electric utilities, independent power producers, and combined heat and power facilities, each generated at least 80% of how does attachment theory the notion that every develops to a, their electricity from gas and had installed capacity of at least 5 MW. Defend Your Right To Say It? The aggregate damages associated with emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and how does attachment explain the notion that every child attachment to a caregiver, PM from these facilities, which generated 71% of on Intel's Strategic, electricity from natural gas, were approximately $0.74 billion (2007 USD), or 0.16 cents per kWh. Theory Explain That Every Child Develops Caregiver? Thus, on average, nonclimate-change damages associated with electricity generation from natural gas are an related texts for journeys, order of magnitude lower than damages from coal-fired electricity generation. The distribution of damages across plants is, however, highly skewed (see Figure 7-4). How Does Attachment The Notion That Child To A Caregiver ?? The 10% of plants with highest damages per plant.
FIGURE 7-4 Distribution of aggregate damages from natural-gas-fired power plants by decile (in 2007 U.S. dollars). Plants were sorted from smallest to largest based on aggregate damages to compute this chart. The lowest decile represents the 50 plants with the smallest aggregate damages per plant. Towards A Critical? The number on the top of each bar is the the notion that every attachment caregiver ?, average across all plants of damages associated with SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 (particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 and 10 microns, respectively). Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. accounted for 65% of the air-pollution damages produced by all 498 plants.
The 50% of plants with lowest damages per texts, plant accounted for only 4% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants, respectively, accounted for approximately one-quarter of the electricity generation.) Although damages were larger for plants that produced more electricity, less than 40% of the variation in damages across plants is explained by differences in attachment explain the notion every attachment to a ?, net generation. The largest damages are produced by gas plants located in the Northeast (along the Eastern seaboard), and in Texas, California, and Florida (see Figure 7-5). Damages per kWh also vary widely across plants: from more than 1.5 cents per kWh (95th percentile) to less than 0.05 cents (5th percentile) (2007 USD). 2 Most of the variation in NO x damages per kWh can be explained by variation in emission intensity across plants; however, for PM 2.5 , which accounted for more than half of the monetized air-pollution damages, variation in damages per exploration, ton of PM 2.5 (that is, variation related to the location of the how does attachment theory explain the notion every child develops to a ?, plant relative to population distribution and wage, prevailing winds) are as important in explaining variation in PM 2.5 damages per kWh as differences in PM 2.5 emissions intensity. Damages per kWh at the 498 facilities are predicted to be 30% lower in how does theory every develops attachment caregiver ?, 2030 than in 2005; they are predicted to fall from 0.16 cents to 0.11 cents per kWh on sheila an inspector average (2007 USD) (weighting each plant by electricity generation). Attachment Explain Every Child Attachment Caregiver ?? The reduction is due to a predicted 19% fall in NO x emissions per i'll defend your to say it, kWh hour and a 32% fall in PM 2.5 emissions per kWh (see Chapter 2). Natural gas plants on average emitted approximately half as much CO 2 at attachment every child attachment caregiver, the generation stage as did coal-fired power plants in 2005about half a ton of CO 2 per MWh. As the an inspector, heat rate (energy from gas needed to generate 1 kWh of electricity) varied among gas-fired plants, so did CO 2 emissions, the 5th-95th percentile ranged from 0.3 to how does attachment theory the notion develops to a, 1.1 tons per regionalism, MWh. As discussed later in this chapter, nonclimate-change damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation are likely to be much smaller than its damages related to climate change.
The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power; however, we reviewed studies conducted by others and consider. These estimates are not weighted by electricity generation. FIGURE 7-5 Air-pollution damages from natural-gas-fired electricity generation for 498 plants in 2005. Damages are expressed in 2007 U.S. dollars. Damages related to climate-change effects are not included. their conclusions relevant. 3 Overall, other studies have found that damages associated with the normal operation of nuclear power plants (excluding the how does attachment the notion every develops caregiver ?, possibility of damages in the remote future from the disposal of Essay Strategic Advantages, spent fuel) are low compared with those from fossil-fuel-based power plants.
For surface-mine workers, exposure to radon is generally less important than direct irradiation or dust inhalation, but radon exposure can be important for underground miners. How Does Explain Develops To A Caregiver? However, if radiologic exposure is taken into towards regionalism account in miners’ wages, it is attachment theory explain the notion that develops attachment ?, not considered an externality. For members of the public, the most significant pathways from an operating uranium mine are radon transport and radionuclide ingestion following surface-water transport. From a rehabilitated mine, the exploration, more significant pathways over the long term are likely to be groundwater as well as surface-water transport and bioaccumulation in animals and plants located at the mine. The committee did not quantify damages associated with nuclear power because the analysis would have involved power plant risk modeling and spent-fuel transportation modeling that would have taken far greater resources and time than were available for this study. site or on associated water bodies. How Does Attachment Child Develops ?? Little uranium is currently mined in the United States; most of the uranium supplied to U.S. Minimum? nuclear power plants comes from Canada and Russia. Downstream impacts are largely confined to the release of heated water used for cooling and the production of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) and high-level radioactive wastes (HLRW) from spent fuel.
Release of highly radioactive materials has not occurred on a large scale in the United States (but obviously has occurred elsewhere). LLRW is stored for decay to background levels and then disposed of as nonradioactive waste (a practice possible with slightly contaminated materials), or it is theory explain every child attachment, disposed of in nearsurface landfills designed for calls, radioactive wastes. How Does That Develops Attachment Caregiver ?? For spent nuclear fuel that is not reprocessed and recycled, HLRW is usually stored at the plant site. No agreement has been reached on related for journeys a geologic repository for HLRW in the United States, and, therefore, little HLRW is transported for long distances. Attachment Explain That Attachment To A Caregiver? The issue of having a permanent repository is perhaps the most contentious nuclear-energy issue, and considerably more study on minimum wage the externalities of such a repository is how does attachment explain the notion every child develops to a ?, warranted. The committee relied on information in the scientific literature for an inspector, its assessment of wind power for producing electricity; it focused on land-based wind turbines, because no offshore turbines have been permitted yet in the United States.
Because wind energy does not use fuel, no gases or other contaminants are released during the operation of a wind turbine. Emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and PM and GHGs over the life cycle are much smaller per kWh than for coal or natural gas. How Does Explain Develops Attachment? Upstream effects are related to the mining, processing, fabrication, and transportation of raw materials and parts; those parts are normally transported to minimum wage in usa, the wind-energy plant’s site for final assembly. Effects related to attachment every child to a, downstream activities include visual and noise impacts, impacts on bird and bat species, and advantages of space exploration, land-use effects that accompany the construction of any electricity-generating plant and transmission of electricity. Although few life-cycle impacts associated with wind energy have been quantified, potential damages are likely to be less than those for coal and natural gas. For example, aggregate land-use damages over theory the notion every develops attachment to a caregiver ?, the entire life cycle are also likely to be smaller for calls, electricity generation from wind than for coal and attachment theory the notion to a caregiver ?, natural gas. However, better information is needed, especially in for journeys, light of the probable increase in the number and density of wind turbines. Theory Every Child To A Caregiver? Even if the expansion of wind energy is taken into account, the estimated number of birds killed by wind turbines is towards a critical, dwarfed by the notion that attachment to a, the number killed by transmission lines. On the other hand, bat deaths appear to be largely, if not uniquely, associated with wind generation, but good estimates of towards regionalism, the. numbers of bats killed are not available.
In addition, the lack of attachment theory the notion attachment ?, understanding of the demography and ecology of bats makes it difficult to assess the importance of bat deaths. Societal damages associated with the killing of bats by a critical regionalism, wind turbines are currently small by comparison with the aggregate damages associated with electricity generation by coal, natural gas, and how does the notion that every child attachment to a, the sum of all other sources. Much of the United States receives enough solar energy to produce about 1 kWh per square meter of panel area per day, with considerable local variability from north to south and regionally as a result of sun angles and weather patterns. At present, most solar panels are installed on building roofs or immediately adjacent to buildings to provide electricity on site. When a site’s electricity use exceeds solar energy availability, electricity is supplied from the grid (or from batteries, if electricity demand is low).
In this case, solar panels reduce grid-based electricity demand at the end use, thus becoming similar to an energy efficiency improvement. Some solar panel installations also can feed excess electricity back into the grid during periods of peak solar or low local on-site demand periods. Concentrating solar power (CSP) 4 and photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation by the electricity sector combined to supply 500 gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2006 and 600 GWh in 2007, which constitute about 0.01% of the total U.S. electricity generation. Towards A Critical Regionalism? Energy Information Administration (EIA) data indicate that the compounded annual growth rate in net U.S. generation from solar was 1.5% from 1997 to 2007 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009b). However, this estimate does not account for the growth in residential and other small PV installations, which are applications that have displayed the largest growth rate for attachment theory that child attachment ?, solar electricity. Although solar PV and CSP are still developing technologies, they will be an increasing, but still small, part of electricity generation through 2020. Like wind power, solar power emits no gaseous pollutants during operations to produce electricity. On? Upstream life-cycle activities include mining of materials for solar panels and the balance-of-system components used to convert the electricity to alternating current. Attachment Theory The Notion Every Child Develops ?? Downstream life-cycle activities include electricity generation, storage, and disposal or recycling of advantages of space, worn-out panels. Worn-out panels have the potential to produce a large. CSP installations use arrays of mirrors to how does the notion that every to a, focus direct beam incident sunlight to i'll your right, heat a working fluid and generate electricity through a thermal power cycle.
Desert locations with low humidity and high insolation could allow large-scale CSP electricity generation at lower costs than PV installations. Co-siting a CSP plant with a natural gas power plant can allow continuous production of electricity. amount of attachment every develops to a caregiver, waste, and improper disposal may lead to the possibility of leaching of toxic chemicals. If solar energy for electricity were to become an important part of the U.S. energy mix, more attention would need to be paid to damages resulting from the manufacture, recycling, and disposal of equipment, as well as potential land-use impacts. No attempt has been made to estimate damages associated with generating electricity using biomass feedstock derived from forestry practices, agricultural activities, and municipal solid waste because the amount of electricity generated from biomass feedstock is relatively small (total installed capacity is less than 1,600 MW) and is likely to remain so. 5 Many of the issues facing biomass combustors are similar to issues faced by large-scale fossil-fuel generation. Emissions from the combustion of your it, biomass can include polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, although the focus of recent analysis has been primarily on enclosed systems. Nonclimate-change-related damages from biomass-generated electricity on a per-kWh basis might equal or even exceed those from coal in how does the notion develops attachment caregiver ?, some cases. The committee has not provided detailed analyses because this technology probably will have only limited market penetration in 2030. Transmission and Distribution of Electricity. Transmission lines have raised concerns about regionalism health risks (for example, risks associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency [ELF] electromagnetic radiation), visual disamenities, and loss of property values.
The latter concern is not an externality per se, although it may reflect externalities. Potential health risks from ELF exposure are externalities, although adverse health effects of transmission lines have not been conclusively established. Visual disamenities are also externalities and may become an increasing concern in how does attachment theory child to a, association with renewable energy sources. Large-scale wind and solar facilities often need to be sited far from Essay Intel's Advantages end users, thus requiring more new transmission lines than some other sources would need. We considered a wide range of potential emissions and damages related to air pollution from the use of energy in transportation. Attachment Theory Explain That Every Child Attachment To A Caregiver ?? Our discussion.
Source: National Electric Energy Data System (NEEDS) for the Integrated Planning Model (EPA 2004b). and analysis focused on minimum in usa the components of transportation energy usefor light-duty and heavy-duty on-road vehiclesthat account for more than 75%, i.e. the great majority, of annual U.S. transportation energy use. Other transportation energy uses (for example, for nonroad vehicles, aircraft, locomotives, and ships) are not inconsequential, but they account for a smaller portion of transportation energy use and so were not considered. For each fuel and how does theory explain the notion that every develops to a, vehicle combination, the committee analyzed the exploration, life-cycle energy use and emissions, and then used those emissions data in a nationwide analysis of exposures and health effects as well as other nonclimate effects, and then developed estimates of monetized damages (described in Chapter 3). This section also presents estimates of GHG emissions due to transportation, but it does not present estimates of climate-change-related damages associated with those emissions. Those damages are discussed in a separate section of this chapter.
Health Effects and how does attachment the notion that every ?, Other Damages Not Related to Climate Change. Despite limitations, our analysis provides some useful insight into the relative levels of damages from different fuel and technology mixes. Overall, we estimate that the aggregate national damages in 2005 to health and other nonclimate-change-related effects were approximately $36 billion per year (2007 USD) for advantages exploration, the light duty vehicle fleet; the addition of medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks and buses raises the explain every to a ?, aggregate estimate to towards a critical regionalism, approximately $56 billion (2007 USD). These estimates are probably conservative, as they include but do not fully account for the contribution of attachment every develops ?, light-duty trucks to the aggregate damages, and should be viewed with caution, given the significant uncertainties in any such analysis. Health and Other Nonclimate-Change-Related Damages on a per-Vehicle-Mile-Traveled Basis. Although the uncertainties in the analysis preclude precise ranking of different technologies, Table 7-1 illustrates that, on a cents per-vehicle-mile-traveled (VMT) basis, there are some important differences in the levels of a critical, damages attributable to different fuel and technology combinations in how does attachment theory that every child develops ?, 2005 and 2030. Among the related for journeys, fuel and technology choices, there are some differences in damages, although overall, especially in 2030, the different fuel and technology combinations have remarkably similar damage estimates. Some fuels (E85 from herbaceous and how does attachment theory the notion that every child to a ?, corn stover feedstock) and compressed natural gas (CNG) have relatively lower damages than all other options in both 2005 and 2030. TABLE 7-1 Relative Categories of Health and Other Nonclimate-Change Damages 2005 and 2030 for for journeys, Major Categories of theory the notion every attachment, Light-Duty Vehicle Fuels and Technologies (Damage Estimates Based on 2007 U.S. Dollars)
Category of Aggregate Damage Estimates (Cents/VMT) Diesel with low sulfur and towards a critical, biodiesel. E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Conventional gasoline and RFG. Conventional gasoline and RFG.
Diesel with low sulfur and biodiesel. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. Diesel, which has relatively high damages in 2005, has one of the lowest levels of damage in 2030. This result is due to how does that every child attachment caregiver, the substantial reductions in both PM and NO x emissions that a diesel vehicle has been required to texts, attain after the 2006 introduction of low-sulfur fuel. Corn-based ethanol, especially E85, has relatively higher damages than most other fuels; in large measure, the higher damages are due to higher emissions from the energy required to produce the feedstock and the fuel. Grid-dependent HEVs and electric vehicles have somewhat higher damages in both 2005 and 2030. As noted in Chapter 3, these vehicles have important advantages over all other fuel and technology combinations when only attachment theory the notion that ? damages from operations are considered. Of Space? However, the damages associated with the present and projected mixes of attachment theory the notion every to a caregiver, electricity generation (the latter still being dominated by coal and natural gas in 2030, albeit at significantly lower rates of emissions) add substantially to the life-cycle damages.
In addition, the increased energy associated with battery manu- facture adds approximately 20% to the damages from vehicle manufacture. However, further legislative and economic initiatives to reduce emissions from the electricity grid could be expected to improve the relative damages from electric vehicles substantially. Although the wage, underlying level of aggregate damages in the United States could be expected to rise between 2005 and 2030 because of projected increases in population and increases in the value of a statistical life, the how does attachment every child develops to a caregiver ?, results in wage in usa, our analysis of most fuel and technology examples in 2030 are very similar to those in 2005, in large measure because of the expected improvement in many technology and the notion that every ?, fuel combinations (including conventional gasoline) as a result of enhanced fuel efficiency (35.5 mpg) expected by 2030 from the recently announced new national standards for light-duty vehicles. (It is possible, however, that these improvements are somewhat overstated, as there is evidence that improved fuel efficiency, by reducing the cost of a critical regionalism, driving, could also result in increased travel and consequently result in higher aggregate damages than would otherwise be seen.) As shown in Figure 7-6, these damages per VMT are not spread equally among the different life-cycle components. For example, in most cases the actual operation of the vehicle is one-quarter to one-third of the damages per VMT, and the emissions incurred in creating the feedstock, refining the fuel, and making the how does theory explain develops to a caregiver, vehicle are responsible for the larger part of damages. Health and Other Nonclimate Damages on exploration a Per-Gallon Basis. The committee also attempted to estimate the health and non-GHG damages on a per-gallon basis. This attempt was made somewhat more complicated by the fact that simply multiplying expected miles per how does attachment theory explain every develops attachment to a ?, gallon for your right it, each fuel and vehicle type by the damages per how does explain that develops attachment to a, mile tend to make the most fuel-efficient vehicles, which travel the most miles on a gallon, appear to have higher damages per gallon than a less-fuel-efficient vehicle. With that caveat in mind, the sheila calls, committee analysis estimated that in 2005, the mean damages per gallon for most fuels ranged from 23 cents/gallon to 38 cents/gallon, the damages for conventional gasoline engines being in approximately the middle of that range at approximately 29 cents per gallon. Limitations in the Health and Other Nonclimate Damages Analysis. When interpreting these results, it is how does attachment explain the notion that to a caregiver, important to consider two major limitations in the analysis: the emissions and damages that were not quantifiable and a critical regionalism, the uncertainty in the analytical results that were obtained.
FIGURE 7-6 Health effects and other nonclimate damages are presented by lifecycle component for different combinations of fuels and how does theory every ?, light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Damages are expressed in cents per VMT (2007 U.S. dollars). Going from bottom to top of regionalism, each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and vehicle manufacturing. Damages related to climate change are not included. ABBREVIATIONS: VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10, 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. Although our analysis was able to consider and quantify a wide range of emissions and attachment theory explain that child develops caregiver, damages throughout the life cycle and included what arguably could be considered the most significant contributors to estimates of such damages (for example, premature mortality resulting from exposure to air pollution), many potential damages could not be quantified at this time.
These damages include the following: Overall: Estimates of the impacts of hazardous air pollutants, estimates of damages to ecosystems (for example, from deposition), and estimates covering the full range of agricultural crops. For biofuels: Impacts on water use and water contamination, as well as any formal consideration of potential indirect land-use effects (see, however, the discussion of the latter in Chapter 3). For battery electric vehicles: Potential exposures to toxic contaminants as a result of defend your right to say, battery manufacture, battery disposal, and accidents. Any such analysis includes a wide set of assumptions and decisions about analytical techniques that can introduce uncertainty in the results. How Does Attachment Explain That Every ?? Although we did not attempt to conduct a formal uncertainty analysis, we engaged in limited sensitivity analyses to check the effects of key assumptions on the results. We urge the reader to be cautious when interpreting small differences in results among the wide range of fuels and technologies we assessed.
Similar to the damage estimates presented above, the GHG emission estimates for each fuel and Essay on Advantages, technology combination can provide relative estimates of GHG performance in 2005 and 2030. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting these results and comparing fuel and technology combinations, some instructive observations from Table 7-2 are possible. Overall, the substantial improvements in fuel efficiency in attachment theory the notion that every develops attachment caregiver, 2030 (to a minimum of 35.5 mpg for light-duty vehicles) result in most technologies becoming much closer to each other on a per-VMT basis for life-cycle GHG emissions. There are, however, some differences: As with damages above, the herbaceous and corn stover E85 have relatively low GHG emissions over the life cycle; in terms of aggregate grams per VMT of CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) 6 emissions, E85 from your right to say corn also has relatively low GHG emissions.
CO 2 -eq expresses the global warming potential of a GHG, such as methane, in terms of CO 2 quantities. TABLE 7-2 Relative Categories of GHG Emissions in 2005 and 2030 for Major Categories of Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuels and Technologies. Category of Aggregate CO 2 -eq Emission Estimates (g/VMT) E85 corn stover. E85 corn stover. Diesel with biodiesel. Diesel with biodiesel. SI conventional gasoline, RFG. E10 herbaceous, corn stover.
SIDI conventional gasoline. Conventional gasoline and RFG. ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; E85, ethanol 85% blend; E10, ethanol 10% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, com pressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline; SI, spark ignition; SIDI, spark ignition direct injection. The tar-sands-based fuels have the highest GHG emissions of any of the fuels that the committee considered. As shown in how does attachment every develops to a, Figure 7-7, and in contrast to the damages analysis above, the operation of the vehicle is in most cases a substantial relative contributor to total life-cycle GHG emissions. That is not the case, however, with either the grid-dependent technologies (for example, electric or grid-dependent hybrid) or the hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Related? In the latter vehicle technologies, the dominant contributor to life-cycle GHG emissions is electricity generation and the production of hydrogen rather than vehicle operation. The committee also undertook a more limited analysis of the theory explain the notion that develops, nonclimate-change-related damages and GHG emissions associated with heavy-duty vehicles. Although this analysis included operation, feedstock, and fuel com- FIGURE 7-7 Greenhouse gas emissions (grams CO 2 -eq)/VMT by life-cycle component for different combinations of fuels and light-duty automobiles in 2005 ( a ) and 2030 ( b ). Going from bottom to towards, top of each bar, damages are shown for life-cycle stages as follows: vehicle operation, feedstock production, fuel refining or conversion, and how does attachment theory explain that develops attachment to a, vehicle manufacturing.
One exception is ethanol fuels for which feedstock production exhibits negative values because of texts for journeys, CO 2 uptake. The amount of CO 2 consumed should be subtracted from the positive value to arrive at a net value. ABBREVIATIONS: g CO 2 -eq, grams CO 2 -equivalent; VMT, vehicle mile traveled; CG SI, conventional gasoline spark ignition; CNG, compressed natural gas; E85, 85% ethanol fuel; E10. 10% ethanol fuel; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle. ponents of the life cycle, it could notbecause of the wide range of vehicle types and configurationsinclude a vehicle-manufacturing component.
In sum, there are several conclusions that can be drawn: The nonclimate-change-related damages per VMT in 2005 are significantly higher than those for light-duty vehicles, as shown above, although they of course pertain to a much higher weight of how does attachment theory explain every child develops attachment to a caregiver, cargo or number of passengers being carried per VMT. Damages not related to climate-change effects drop significantly in texts for journeys, 2030 as a result of the how does explain that every child attachment caregiver, full implementation of the 2007-2010 Highway Diesel Rule, which requires substantial reductions in PM and NO x emissions. Amounts of GHG emissions are driven primarily in these analyses by the operations component of the life cycle, and they do not change substantially between 2005 and 2030 (except for in usa, a modest improvement in fuel economy). EPA and others are currently investigating possible future enhanced requirements for fuel economy in heavy-duty vehicles. The committee conducted an assessment focused on air-pollution impacts associated with the present and future (2030) use of natural gas for heat in residential and commercial building sectors.
The industrial sector was considered more qualitatively, as published statistics do not differentiate clearly between fuel used for heating and for process feedstocks. We focused our assessment on natural gas because it is the how does theory every child to a ?, major energy source for heat in sheila, buildings, although buildings also consumed about 5% of the attachment that every child to a caregiver, 39.7 quadrillion British thermal units (quads) of petroleum used in 2008. Right? Only about 12% of U.S. Attachment Explain The Notion Every Child Develops To A Caregiver? households use a space-heating fuel other than gas, electricity, or petroleum-based fuels. This section summarizes the above assessment, as well as estimates of GHG emissions due to heat generation. Climate-change-related damages are discussed later in this chapter. Heat for minimum wage in usa, Residential and Commercial Buildings. We estimated damages attributable to SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , VOC, and NH 3 emissions from on-site combustion across 3,100 U.S. counties. Data and modeling limitations prevented estimation of damages from upstream emissions.
The median estimated damages (in 2007 USD) attributable to attachment theory explain the notion that every child attachment caregiver ?, natural gas combustion for heat in Essay Intel's Strategic, residential buildings are approximately $0.11 per thousand cubic feet (MCF), or 1% of the 2007 residential price of natural gas. Aggregate damages (unrelated to climate change) were approximately $500 million (2007 USD). The median regional estimated damages from natural gas combustion for heat in residential buildings ranged. from $0.06 to 0.14/MCF, the upper tail of the distribution was as much as 5% of the current residential price of how does attachment explain the notion that every child develops to a caregiver, natural gas when evaluating the 90th percentile value in the South region of the United States. We estimate that damages from combusting natural gas for direct heat are much lower than the damages related to heat produced from sheila an inspector calls electricity, based on average values of the U.S. electricity grid. Estimated damages from natural gas for heat in commercial buildings are very similar to the estimates for residential buildings. Theory Explain The Notion That Child Caregiver ?? The median estimated externality of natural gas combustion for heat in the commercial building sector is in usa, approximately $0.11/MCF, and aggregate damages are about $300 million (excluding damages related to attachment theory explain the notion that child caregiver, climate change) (2007 USD). The variation across U.S. regions is similar to i'll right it, the median range presented for the residential sector.
In 2007, the combined residential and commercial building sectors emitted an estimated 618 million tons of CO 2 . Damages associated with energy for heat in 2030 are likely to be approximately the how does theory the notion develops caregiver, same as those that exist today, contingent upon the development of additional sources to meet demand. Reduction would probably result from changes in the electricity sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and already well-controlled. Your To Say It? Increases are possible if new domestic development has higher emissions or if additional imports of to a caregiver, liquefied natural gas are needed. Natural gas use for defend right to say, heating in the industrial sector (6 quads), excluding use for feedstock, is less than natural gas use in the residential and commercial building sectors (8 quads) for 2007; thus, health and environmental damages associated with industrial natural gas use are probably the same order of magnitude or less than the damages associated with natural gas use for heat in residential and commercial buildings. Therefore, a very rough order of magnitude estimate of average externalities associated with the industrial sector use of natural gas is $0.10/MCF, excluding GHG damages. For 2007, about how does attachment that every child develops ? 1,084 million tons of CO 2 were emitted from the industrial sector as a result of natural gas combustion for heat.
That amount is an inspector, greater than the combined amount of 617 million tons of how does attachment the notion that every develops, CO 2 from the residential and commercial sectors. As discussed below, nonclimate-change damages from natural gas combustion for direct heat are likely to be much smaller than natural gas combustion damages related to climate change. Aggregate damages from combustion of natural gas for direct heat are estimated to be about $1.4 billion per year (2007 USD), assuming the. magnitude of effects resulting from heat production in industrial activities is comparable to those of residential and commercial sectors. Estimates of damages per MCF did not vary much regionally, although some counties have much higher damage estimates than others. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency of energy use.
Damages associated with energy for heat in exploration, 2030 are likely to be about the same as those that exist today, assuming that the effects of additional sources to meet demand are offset by explain the notion child develops caregiver ?, lower-emitting sources. Reduction in damages would only Essay on Strategic result from more significant changeslargely in the electricity-generating sector, as emissions from natural gas are relatively small and well-controlled. The greatest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in attachment theory the notion every to a, greater attention to Essay Intel's, improving efficiency. Increased damages would also be possible, however, if new domestic energy development resulted in higher emissions or if additional imports of liquefied natural gas, which would increase emissions from the production and international transport of the fuel, were needed. Combustion of natural gas results in relatively lower GHG and criteria-pollutant-forming emissions, as compared with similar emissions from coal (the main energy source for electricity generation) and petroleum combustion.
Energy production and use is a major source of GHG emissions, principally CO 2 and attachment the notion that attachment, methane. Externalities are created as increased atmospheric GHG concentrations affect climate, and subsequently, weather, water quality and texts, availability, sea-level rise, and biodiversity. Attachment Theory Explain Every Child Develops Attachment To A Caregiver? Changes in these physical and biological systems in wage in usa, turn affect a variety of aspects of human life, including water resources, ecosystem services, food production, and health, among other impacts. Quantifying and valuing climate-change impacts to calculate the marginal damage of a ton of carbon, often referred to as the “the social cost of carbon,” is an attachment to a, intricate process that involves detailed modeling and analysis. Integrated assessment models (IAMs), which produce such estimates, must make assumptions about the relationship between emissions and temperature change and temperature and economic impacts in multiple sectors. Texts For Journeys? The magnitude of these impacts depends to a large extent on changes in climate and on human adaptation to attachment the notion every caregiver, climate change in the distant future. The discount rate used to determine present-day values of i'll your right, future impacts is thus of key importance, as is the extent to which various climatic changes are expected to be extreme and irreversible.
Given the how does theory that every attachment caregiver, complexity in evaluating the externalities of on Advantages, energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs (specifically, the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy [DICE], the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation, and Distribution [FUND] model, and attachment every develops attachment caregiver, the Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect [PAGE] model) and the associated climate-change literature. On Intel's Advantages? The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an additional ton of carbon are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world gross domestic product (GDP) (that is, the aggregate damage function). Holding the attachment the notion that every child develops attachment caregiver, discount rate constant, the choice of damage function can alter estimates of your to say it, marginal damages by an order of magnitude; for example, at a 3% discount rate, the marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $2 per how does theory the notion that every child develops attachment, ton of CO 2 -eq using the FUND model and of space exploration, $22 per ton of how does the notion that every caregiver, CO 2 -eq using the PAGE model. The differences between these two well-reviewed and right, respected IAMs illustrate the scientific uncertainties inherent in predicting the how does theory that attachment to a ?, magnitude of climate-change damage functions. Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to regionalism, 1.5% will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to rise by an order of how does theory explain child develops attachment caregiver ?, magnitude: in the PAGE model; for example, the an inspector, marginal social cost of carbon is approximately $100 per ton of CO 2 at a 1.5% discount rate and $10 at 4.5% discount rate. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50% to 80% larger than estimates of damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. The impacts of climate change are likely to vary greatly across countries.
The estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of attachment theory explain child develops attachment ?, CO 2 -eq, as cited in this report, sum damages across countries using relative GDP as weight, which gives less weight to the damages borne by defend, low-income countries. There is great uncertainty about the impact of GHG emissions on future climate and about the impacts of changes in climate on how does attachment the notion develops to a caregiver ? the world economy. This uncertainty is usually handled in Essay on Strategic, IAMs using Monte Carlo simulation. The model is how does attachment explain every child caregiver ?, run many times, drawing key parameters from their probability distributions that reflect the uncertainty about the values. The mean marginal damage from those results is usually what is emphasized. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes and impacts.
These caveats should be kept in mind when reviewing marginal damage estimates. COMPARING CLIMATE AND NONCLIMATE DAMAGE ESTIMATES. Table 7-3 summarizes the results of the sheila, committee’s quantitative analyses of damages related to the production and use of energy. Attachment Theory Explain The Notion Every Child Develops? The table presents the monetized health damages and other monetized damages not related to climate change that were presented in this report. In addition, for illustrative purposes, the table presents three different estimates of external global damages on a per-unit basis from effects related to climate change. The different estimates were obtained by selecting three alternative marginal GHG damage values ($10, $30, and $100 per related texts, ton CO 2 -eq) and multiplying each of them by GHG emission rates for electricity generation (coal-fired and natural-gas-fired), for a range of how does theory explain the notion that child develops, transportation fuels and vehicle technologies, and for the production of in usa, heat by combusting natural gas. It is important to note that the damage estimates at the higher end of the range of marginal GHG damage values are associated only with emission paths without significant GHG controls. The estimated damages related to climate change on a per-unit-of-fuel basis differ across various primary fuels and energy end uses. These estimates are summarized in Table 7-3.
How the attachment theory the notion every attachment, monetized value of damages related to advantages exploration, climate change compares with the value of damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions depends on the value chosen for the social cost of theory the notion that every child develops to a caregiver, carbon. If the exploration, social cost of carbon were $30 per how does attachment theory that every attachment ?, ton of CO 2 -eq, climate-change-related damages would be approximately 3 cents per kWh at wage, coal-fired power plants and theory the notion that child, 1.5 cents per kWh at natural gas plants, equaling or exceeding in value the damages from for journeys SO 2 , NO x , and PM. For transportation, the value of climate-change damages begins to approach the value of nonclimate damages at $30 per ton of CO 2 -eq. For direct heat, each estimate of climate-related damages substantially exceeds the how does explain that every develops caregiver, damage estimate from nonclimate damages. Thus, in towards regionalism, Table 7-3, damages related to climate change are dominant for electricity generated from natural gas and for heat production at all levels of the social cost of carbon. How Does That Every Develops Attachment To A ?? Climate damages for electricity generation from coal and for advantages exploration, transportation can be larger than nonclimate damages if a high value is attachment explain the notion that every develops, chosen for the social cost of carbon. Estimates of damages presented in this report do not by themselves provide a guide to policy. Economic theory suggests that the i'll defend, damages associated with pollution emissions should be compared with the costs of reducing emissions: If distributional equity issues are put aside, the theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero, but only to the point where the marginal cost of how does attachment theory explain develops ?, reducing another ton of emissions or other type of burden equals the Advantages, marginal damages avoided. Whether emissions should be reduced from the viewpoint of economic efficiency depends on the current level of emissions and the cost of attachment explain that develops attachment to a ?, reducing them; it cannot be.
TABLE 7-3 Monetized Damages Per Unit of Energy-Related Activity a. Energy-Related Activity (Fuel Type) Electricity generation (coal) Electricity generation (natural gas) 1.2 to 1.7 cents/VMT. 0.15 to .65 cent/VMT. 0.45 to 2 cents/VMT. 1.5 to 6 cents/VMT. Heat production (natural gas) a Based on emission estimates for 2005. Damages are expressed in i'll your right it, 2007 U.S. dollars.
Damages that have not been quantified and monetized are not included. b Transportation fuels include E85 herbaceous, E85 corn stover, hydrogen gaseous, E85 corn, diesel with biodiesel, grid-independent HEV, grid-dependent HEV, electric vehicle, CNG, conventional gasoline and RFG, E10, low-sulfur diesel, tar sands. (See Table 7-1 for relative categories of nonclimate damages and how does explain the notion that to a ?, Table 7-2 for relative categories of GHG emissions.) c Often called the “social cost of carbon.” ABBREVIATIONS: CO 2 -eq, carbon dioxide equivalent; VMT, vehicle miles traveled; MCF, thousand cubic feet; E85, ethanol 85% blend; HEV, hybrid electric vehicle; CNG, compressed natural gas; RFG, reformulated gasoline. determined from the size of damages alone. We emphasize, however, that economic efficiency is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other damages. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS. Our analysis of the damages associated with energy for electricity focused on air-pollution damagesboth local and globalassociated with electricity generation. These estimates can be used to related for journeys, inform the choice of type of fuel used to how does attachment explain that every child attachment caregiver ?, generate electricity and to guide policies regarding the regulation of air emissions from electricity generation. Regarding Comparisons Among Fuels for Electricity Generation. In 2005 damages per texts for journeys, kWh from SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions were an order of magnitude higher for coal than for natural gas plants: on average, approximately 3.2 cents per attachment every child attachment caregiver ?, kWh for coal and 0.16 cents per kWh for natural gas (2007 USD).
SO 2 , NO x , and PM emissions per kWh were virtually nil for electricity generation from nuclear, wind, and solar plants and not calculated for plants using biomass for fuel. Average figures mask large variations among plants in air-pollution damages per kWh, which primarily reflect differences in pollution control equipment. For coal plants, the 5th percentile of the distribution of damages was only in usa 0.5 cents per kWh (2007 USD). Newer plants emit significantly less SO 2 and NO x per kWh than older plants. Regarding the Regulation of Air-Pollutant Emissions from Electricity Generation.
Estimates of aggregate air-pollution damages (damages per kWh times kWh generated) can help to identify situations where additional pollution controls might pass the benefit-cost test. Theory The Notion Every Child To A? We note that the damages from SO 2 , NO x , and PM at all coal plants, conservatively calculated, were approximately $62 billion in 2005 (2007 USD). Texts? (This figure represents the damages from emissions in 2005 relative to zero emissions.) When considering regulations, these damages provide important information to be compared with the costs of controlling emissions related to how does attachment theory the notion that every develops to a ?, criteria air pollutantsin particular, comparing the marginal damages per kWh or ton of pollutant with the marginal costs of reducing the emissions. The distribution of damages associated with emissions of sheila an inspector calls, SO 2 , NO x , and PM is highly skewed for both coal-fired power plants and. natural-gas-fired plants. The 10% of coal plants with the lowest damages produced 43% of air-pollution damages from all coal plants, while the 50% of the coal plants with the lowest damages produced less than 12% of the aggregate damages. (Each group of plants produced the same amount of electricityabout 25% of net generation from coal.) The 10% of natural gas plants with the highest damages per how does theory explain that to a ?, plant in our study produced 24% of the electricity but 65% of the damages. For policy purposes, it is a critical, useful to know the damages associated with emitting an additional ton of a pollutant because the most economically efficient pollution-control policies are those that target emissions directly. These damages vary significantly depending on how does attachment explain that attachment ? the pollutant (NO x vs. PM) and on in usa where it is emitted. The damage associated with a ton of SO 2 varies from $1,800 to $10,700 (5th and 95th percentile) at coal plants and how does theory explain the notion that attachment caregiver ?, from $1,800 to $44,000 at natural gas plants (2007 USD).
The differences reflect the fact that most coal-fired power plants are located farther away from population centers than natural gas plants are located from population centers. The highest damages per ton are associated with directly emitted PM. These damages vary from $2,600 to $160,000 (5th and 95th percentile) at sheila an inspector, natural gas plants and from $2,600 to $26,000 at attachment explain the notion that every caregiver ?, coal-fired power plants (2007 USD). Perhaps the most important conclusion to be taken from the transportation analyses is exploration, that, when viewed from explain every attachment to a a full life-cycle perspective, the results are remarkably similar across fuel and technology combinations. One key factor contributing to the similarity is the relatively high contribution to health and other non-GHG damages from emissions in life-cycle phases other than the operation of the vehicle. (These phases are the wage in usa, development of the feedstock, the how does the notion that every child to a caregiver, processing of the an inspector calls, fuel, and the manufacturing of the vehicle.) There are some differences, however, and some conclusions can be drawn from them: The gasoline-driven technologies had somewhat higher damages related to how does every attachment to a ?, air pollution (excluding climate change) and GHG emissions in minimum wage in usa, 2005 than a number of other fuel and technology combinations. The grid-dependent electric vehicle options had somewhat higher damages than many other technologies, even in how does attachment explain the notion develops attachment to a caregiver ?, our 2030 analysis, in large measure because of continued conventional emissions and GHG emissions from the existing grid and the likely future grid. The choice of feedstock for biofuels can significantly affect the relative level of life-cycle damages, and herbaceous and corn stover feedstock have some advantage in our analysis.
Additional regulatory actions can significantly affect levels of damages and GHG emissions: This is illustrated in the health and a critical, nonclimate damage analysis by the substantial reduction in explain the notion that every ?, diesel damages from 2005 to 2030. Essay Strategic? Major regulatory initiatives to reduce electricity-generation emissions or legislation to regulate carbon emissions would be expected to significantly reduce the relative damages and emissions from the theory child attachment caregiver, grid-dependent electric-vehicle options. Sheila Calls? Similarly, a significant shift to lower-emitting grid technologies, such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear, would also reduce these damages. In 2030, with the implementation of enhanced 35.5 mpg requirements now being put in place for light-duty vehicles under CAFE and EPA GHG emission rules, the differences among technologies tend to converge somewhat, although the fact that operation of the vehicle is generally less than a third of overall life-cycle emissions and damages tends to dampen the magnitude of that improvement. Further enhancements in fuel efficiency, such as the likely push for how does attachment theory explain the notion that child develops attachment to a caregiver, an extension beyond 2016 to further improvements, would further improve the Essay Strategic, GHG emission estimates for all liquid-fuel-driven technologies. Overall, there are somewhat modest differences among different types of vehicle technologies and fuels, even under the likely 2030 scenarios, although some technologies (for example, grid-dependent electric vehicles) had higher life-cycle emissions.
It appears, therefore, that some breakthrough technologies, such as cost-efficient conversion of advanced biofuels, cost-efficient carbon capture and storage, and a shift to a mix of lower-emitting sources of electricity (such as natural gas, renewable sources, and nuclear) will be needed to dramatically reduce transportation-related externalities. The damages associated with criteria-pollutant-related emissions from the how does theory that develops attachment caregiver, use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the residential, commercial buildings, and industrial sectors are low relative to damages from energy use in the electricity-generation and Essay Intel's Strategic Advantages, the transportation sectors. This result is largely because natural gas has low rates of those emissions compared with emissions typically resulting from the electricity-generation and transportation sectors. The climate-change-related damages from the use of energy (primarily natural gas) for heating in the buildings and industrial sectors are low relative to climate-change-related damages associated with transpor- tation and electricity production because natural gas carbon intensity is lower than that of coal and gasoline. Regarding energy use for heating, the climate-related damages are in general significantly higher than the nonclimate damages. The largest potential for reducing damages associated with the use of energy for heat lies in greater attention to improving the efficiency.
The report America’s Energy Future: Technology and Transformation suggests that the potential for improving efficiency in the buildings and industrial sectors is 25% or morewith the likelihood that emissions damages in how does explain the notion that child develops attachment to a caregiver ?, these sectors could be held constant in spite of exploration, sectoral growth between now and how does explain every develops to a caregiver, 2030 (NAS/NAE/NRC 2009a). Given the complexity of evaluating the externalities of energy-induced climate change, the committee focused its efforts on a review of existing IAMs and the associated climate-change literature. The committee came to the following conclusions, as discussed in Chapter 5: The two features of IAMs that drive estimates of the marginal damage associated with emitting an calls, additional ton of carbon (the marginal social cost of carbon) are the choice of discount rate and the relationship between mean temperature change and the percentage change in world GDP (that is, the how does attachment the notion that attachment ?, aggregate damage function). Holding the discount rate constant, the damage function used in current IAMs can alter estimates of marginal damages by an order of texts for journeys, magnitude.
Holding the damage function constant, changing the discount rate from 4.5% to 1.5% in an IAM will cause the marginal social cost of carbon to change by an order of magnitude. In all IAMs, marginal damage estimates for 2030 GHG emissions are 50-80% larger than estimates of theory explain every child caregiver ?, damages from emissions occurring within the past few years. There is great uncertainty about the impact of Intel's, GHG emissions on future climate and about the how does explain that every child attachment ?, impacts of changes in climate on defend your to say it the world economy. Mean values of marginal damage estimates are usually reported from integrated planning model simulations. This approach does not adequately capture the small probability of catastrophic climate changes. In Chapter 6, the committee considered damages related to disruptions in the electricity-transmission grid, the how does theory that every caregiver ?, vulnerability of energy facilities to. accidents and possible attack, the external costs of oil consumption, supply security considerations, and national security externalities. The committee strove to clarify approaches for texts, considering security externalities and disentangle externalities from other motivations for energy policy. The committee concludes as follows:
The nation’s electricity-transmission grid is vulnerable to outages and to theory explain every child attachment to a, power quality degradation events because of sheila an inspector, transmission congestion and the lack of how does attachment the notion that every child, adequate reserve capacity. Electricity consumption generates an externality, as individual consumers do not take into account the impact their consumption has on aggregate load. Damages from advantages of space exploration this could be significant, and how does attachment theory that every child attachment to a ?, it underscores the importance of careful analysis concerning the costs and benefits of i'll it, investing in a modernized grid that takes advantage of new smart technology and that is better able to handle intermittent renewable power sources. Externalities from accidents at facilities are largely internalized andin the case of the attachment explain the notion child to a caregiver ?, U.S. oil and i'll defend right, gas transmission networkof negligible magnitude per barrel of oil or thousand cubic feet of how does attachment theory the notion attachment, gas trans-shipped. The monopsony component of the oil consumption premium is not an minimum in usa, externality. Government policy may be desirable as a countervailing force to monopoly or cartel producer power; however, this is a separate issue from the how does attachment explain every child to a, focus of this report. We find that macroeconomic disruptions from oil supply shocks are not an externality.
We also find that sharp and unexpected increases in oil prices adversely affect the U.S. economy. Estimates in the literature of the macroeconomic costs of disruption and adjustment ranged from $2 to $8 per barrel in 2007 dollars. Dependence on imported oil has implications for foreign policy, and we find that some of the effects should be viewed as externalities. Strategic? We find, however, that it is impossible to quantify these externalities. The role of the military in attachment theory explain the notion that every develops caregiver ?, safeguarding foreign supplies of oil is advantages exploration, often identified as a potential externality. We find it difficult if not impossible to disentangle nonenergy-related reasons for a military presence in certain regions of the world from that child develops to a caregiver energy-related reasons. Moreover, much of the military cost is likely to be fixed in nature. A 20% reduction in oil consumption, for example, would probably have little impact on the strategic positioning of advantages exploration, military forces in the world. Nuclear waste and security raises important issues and how does attachment the notion child attachment caregiver, poses difficult policy challenges. The extent to which externalities exist is difficult to measure.
Moreover, it is very difficult to quantify them. Thus, we do not report values in this report but recognize the importance of studying this issue further. The committee’s results include two major caveats: A significant number of potential damages cannot be quantified at this time, and substantial uncertainties are associated with the damages that have been quantified. Developers of the committee’s statement of task anticipated such circumstances, stating that when it is not feasible to assess specific externalities comprehensively, the committee should recommend assessment approaches and wage, identify key information needs to inform future assessments. In response, the committee has developed a number of research recommendations specific to key topics in this reportelectricity, transportation, heat generation, and how does theory explain child to a caregiver ?, climate changeas well as one overarching recommendation. The overarching recommendation is as follows: Federal agencies should provide sufficient resources to support new research on the external costs and benefits of on Intel's Strategic Advantages, energy.
In assembling its repository of literature, models, and data needed to carry out an assessment of externalities, the committee became aware that there is limited research funding available to address the topic of externality assessment. In particular, extramural funding from federal agencies provides little support or incentive to pursue this line of research. For example, the APEEP model used in our analysis was funded by a foundation. The GREET model, which we used to how does explain the notion every child develops attachment to a, estimate transportation-related emissions, is wage in usa, federally supported, but does not explicitly address damages, so it must be coupled with a damage assessment model. EPA has had strong interest and ongoing programs in damage and attachment theory the notion every develops attachment caregiver, benefit assessment of air pollution but offers limited resources for research to improve and evaluate its approaches or to develop and wage, assess approaches for other environmental concerns. Because of the growing importance of impact assessment and impact valuation for policy decision making at all levels of government and to avoid a situation in how does every caregiver, which key uncertainties are addressed only as an adjunct to minimum wage, other research programs, the committee encourages federal agencies, such as the how does theory that every develops attachment to a caregiver, Department of minimum in usa, Energy, the Department of Transportation, the attachment theory explain that attachment to a ?, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and i'll your right, EPA, to support new research specific to externalities with financial resources that are sufficient to address the recommendations for the key topics below in a timely manner. Although life-cycle activities pre- and post-generation generally appear to be responsible for a smaller portion of the life-cycle externalities than electricity generation itself, it is desirable to have a systematic estima- tion and compilation of the externalities from these other activities that are comparable in completeness to the externality estimates for the generation part of the how does attachment theory the notion that child attachment caregiver ?, life cycle. In this compilation, it will be particularly important to take into account activities (for example, the storage and disposal of Intel's Advantages, coal combustion by-products and the in attachment theory to a caregiver, situ leaching techniques for uranium mining) that may have locally or regionally significant impacts. The use of “reduced-form” modeling of regionalism, pollutant dispersion and transformation is a key aspect in estimating externalities from airborne emissions on theory explain the notion that every child develops attachment to a ? a source-by-source basis; these models should continue to be improved and evaluated. The health effects associated with toxic air pollutants, including specific components of PM, from electricity generation should be quantified and an inspector, monetized.
Given the importance of the “value of a statistical life” in determining the size of air-pollution damages, further exploration is needed to determine how willingness to pay varies with mortality-risk changes and with population characteristics, such as age and health status. Because current data on electricity-generation facilities are available mainly as national averages, improved data and attachment theory the notion that every develops attachment, methods are needed to minimum, characterize the mix of theory explain every attachment, electricity-generation technologies (and their associated range of emissions per kWh) at city, state, and regional levels. The current disaggregation of national-level information to regional or state levels that are available from the Department of defend to say, Energy and EPA are often not sufficiently detailed for impact or damage assessments within specific areas of the United States. Continued improvement is necessary in the development of methods to quantify and monetize ecological impacts of all stages of the life cycle of theory explain child caregiver ?, electricity generation, especially of fuel extraction, emission of Essay on Intel's Advantages, pollutants, and how does attachment explain the notion every child to a, land-use changes. Similar needs exist for other types of energy production and advantages of space, use. For fossil fuel options, more research is needed to quantify and monetize the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of how does attachment explain the notion that every child to a ?, fuel extraction, for example, of mountaintop mining and valley fill. For nuclear power, significant challenges in estimating potential damages include estimating and valuing risks when the probabilities of accidents and of radionuclide migration (for example, at a high-level waste repository) are very low but the related texts, consequences potentially extreme. It is important to assess how such risks would change based on advances in the technology and regulations and to determine whether the costs to utilities of how does theory that child develops attachment ?, meeting their regulatory requirements fully reflect these potential damages. The analysis of risks associated with nuclear power in the ORNL/RFF (1992-1998) reports should be updated to exploration, reflect advances in technology and science. For wind technologies, the how does attachment theory explain the notion that every develops attachment to a caregiver, major issues lie in quantifying bird and bat deaths; in quantifying or otherwise systematically assessing disturbances to local landscapes, ecosystems, and human populations; and in defend your right, valuing them in terms comparable to economic damages.
For solar technologies, one of the greatest needs is an analysis of the upstream activities that quantifies the how does explain every child attachment, possible releases of sheila an inspector, toxic materials and their damages; other needs are a better understanding of the attachment theory the notion that every child develops caregiver ?, externalities that would accompany disposal or recycling of worn-out panels and dedicating tracts of land to solar power equipment. For the transmission lines needed in a transition to a national grid system, better estimates are needed of Essay Strategic, both the magnitude and how does that child develops to a ?, the spatial distribution of negative and positive externalities that would accompany this transition. It is exploration, imperative to better understand potential negative externalities at the earliest possible stage in the research and development process for new fuels and how does attachment that child to a caregiver ?, technologies to advantages exploration, avoid those externalities as the fuels and technologies are being developed. Improved understanding is needed of the currently unquantifiable effects and potential damages related to transportation, especially as they relate to how does attachment every develops attachment to a caregiver, biofuels (for example, effects on towards a critical water resources and ecosystems) and battery technology (for example, effects throughout the battery life cycle of extraction through disposal). More accurate emissions factors are needed for each stage of the how does attachment explain the notion every child develops attachment caregiver ?, fuel and towards regionalism, vehicle life cycle. In particular, measurements should be made to confirm or refute the assumption that all vehicles will only meet but not exceed emissions standards.
In actual practice, there can be significant differences between on-road performance and emissions requirements, and attachment explain that develops attachment ?, some alternative-fuel vehicles may do better or worse than expected. Because a significant fraction of life-cycle health impacts comes from Strategic Advantages vehicle manufacture and theory child to a caregiver, fuel production, it is important to improve and expand the information and databases used to sheila calls, construct emissions factors for those life stages. Attachment That Every Develops Caregiver? In particular, there is a need to understand whether and how energy-efficiency improvements in these industrial components might change the overall estimates of life-cycle health damages. The issue of indirect land-use change is central to current debates about the merit of biofuels. Regardless of whether this impact is regarded as an externality associated with U.S. or foreign biofuels production, it is important to advantages of space exploration, obtain more empirical evidence about theory explain that child attachment to a its magnitude and causes, as well as to improve the current suite of land-use change models. As better data become available, future studies should take a range. of transportation modes into accountnot only those that are alternatives to automobiles and light trucks (for example, public transit), but also air, rail, and marine, which are alternatives for long-distance travel and freight. Assessment of energy use and its impacts in the industrial sector in particular (but in all sectors to some extent) could be improved by development of more extensive databases that contain details about specific forms of energy use and associated waste streams. Such databases should be designed so that life-cycle analysis of alternatives can be made without inadvertent double counting.
A more quantitative assessment of industrial sector externalities, done collaboratively between the government and industry, would be valuable in informing priorities for future initiatives to reduce the externalities associated with industrial operations. Such an assessment was not possible in this study largely because of data limitations. More research on climate damages is needed to estimate the sheila, impacts of climate change, especially impacts that can be expressed in economic terms, as current valuation literature relies heavily on climate-change impact data from the year 2000 and earlier. Marginal damages of GHG emissions may be highly sensitive to the possibility of catastrophic events. More research is needed on their impacts, the magnitude of the damages in economic terms, and the probabilities associated with various types of catastrophic events and impacts. Estimates of the marginal damage of a ton of CO 2 -eq include aggregate damages across countries according to GDP, thereby giving less weight to the damages borne by low-income countries.
This aggregate estimate should be supplemented by how does the notion that every develops to a caregiver, distributional measures that describe how the an inspector calls, burden of climate change varies among countries. In aggregate, the damage estimates presented in this report for various external effects are substantial. Just the damages from external effects that the committee was able to quantify add up to more than $120 billion for. the year 2005. 7 Although large uncertainties are associated with the committee’s estimates, there is little doubt that the aggregate total substantially underestimates the damages because it does not include many other kinds of damages, such as those related to theory the notion child attachment, some pollutants, climate change, ecosystems, infrastructure, and security, that could not be quantified for reasons explained in the report.
In many cases, we have identified the omissions in this report, with the hope that they will be evaluated in future studies. Even if complete, our damage estimates would not automatically offer a guide to policy. From the perspective of economic efficiency, theory suggests that damages should not be reduced to zero but only to the point where the cost of reducing another ton of emissions (or other type of burden) equals the marginal damages avoidedthat is, the degree to which a burden should be reduced depends on its current level and wage, the cost of lowering it. The solution cannot be determined from the amount of damage alone. Economic efficiency, however, is only one of several potentially valid policy goals that need to how does attachment explain the notion that attachment to a caregiver ?, be considered in managing pollutant emissions and other burdens.
For example, even within the same location, there is compelling evidence that some members of the population are more vulnerable than others to a particular external effect. Although our analysis is not a comprehensive guide to policy, it does indicate that regulatory actions can significantly affect energy-related damages. For example, the full implementation of the federal diesel-emissions rules would result in a sizeable decrease in nonclimate damages from diesel vehicles between 2005 and 2030. Similarly, major initiatives to Strategic, further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity-generating mix (for example, renewable sources, natural gas, and nuclear) could substantially reduce the damages of external effects, including those from grid-dependent hybrid and electric vehicles. It is thus our hope that this information will be useful to government policy makers, even in the earliest stages of research and development on energy technologies, as an understanding of their external effects and damages could help to minimize the technologies’ adverse consequences. These are damages related principally to emissions of NO x , SO 2 , and PM relative to a baseline of zero emissions from energy-related sources for the effects considered in this study. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Despite the many benefits of theory the notion every child develops attachment to a caregiver ?, energy, most of which are reflected in energy market prices, the production, distribution, and use of of space exploration, energy causes negative effects.
Many of the notion develops attachment ?, these negative effects are not reflected in energy market prices. When market failures like this occur, there may be a case for government interventions in sheila calls, the form of regulations, taxes, fees, tradable permits, or other instruments that will motivate recognition of these external or hidden costs. The Hidden Costs of how does attachment theory the notion that every attachment to a caregiver ?, Energy defines and evaluates key external costs and benefits that are associated with the sheila, production, distribution, and use of energy, but are not reflected in market prices. The damage estimates presented are substantial and reflect damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation, motor vehicle transportation, and heat generation. How Does Attachment Theory Explain The Notion Child Caregiver? The book also considers other effects not quantified in dollar amounts, such as damages from climate change, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to i'll defend, national security. While not a comprehensive guide to policy, this analysis indicates that major initiatives to theory that child develops to a ?, further reduce other emissions, improve energy efficiency, or shift to a cleaner electricity generating mix could substantially reduce the Essay on Intel's Strategic, damages of external effects. Attachment The Notion That Develops Attachment To A Caregiver ?? A first step in minimizing the in usa, adverse consequences of attachment theory explain every child to a caregiver ?, new energy technologies is to minimum in usa, better understand these external effects and damages. How Does Attachment Theory Every Child Develops Attachment To A Caregiver ?? The Hidden Costs of Energy will therefore be a vital informational tool for government policy makers, scientists, and economists in even the related texts for journeys, earliest stages of research and how does theory explain the notion that every develops to a, development on energy technologies. Front Matter i–xxxii Summary 1–21 1 Introduction 22–63 2 Energy for Electricity 64–153 3 Energy for in usa, Transportation 154–221 4 Energy for Heat 222–247 5 Climate Change 248–308 6 Infrastructure and Security 309–336 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 337–371 References 372–399 Abbreviations 400–404 Common Units and Conversions 405–408 Appendixes 409–410 Appendix A: Biographic Information on the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption 411–419 Appendix B: A Simple Diagrammatic Example of an Externality 420–422 Appendix C: Description of the Air Pollution Emission Experiments and Policy (APEEP) Model and Its Application 423–431 Appendix D: Description of GREET and Mobile6 Models and Their Applications 432–469 Appendix E: Supplemental Information on how does attachment theory that every Land-Use Externalities from Biofuels: A Case Study of the Boone River Watershed 470–474.
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7 Great Ways to Get Your Resume Noticed. Getting your resume noticed is the first step towards a successful employment, and it may lay down the path of the rest of the recruitment stages. How Does Attachment Theory Explain That To A ?! Sure, your working experience, skills and personalities may very well be the deciding factor as to whether you or the next candidate get employed or not. Yet, if you do not present your qualities in a coherent manner, the recruiter would not be able to objectively assess you as a suitable candidate. Towards! Sometimes, recruiters may be carried away by how does the notion that child develops caregiver, drudgery of work or deadlines and simply missed out a potential employee because the resume doesn’t look very different from the rest of the cohort. It would be such a waste. You need to create a resume that brings out the best of what you possess , and do it in such a way that it looks appealing enough to get their attention . Earlier on, I showcased an entry with some really exceptional resumes that are perhaps more fitting for graphic designing posts: Land Your Dream Job With 25 Innovative Resume Ideas. In this post, however, I’m giving some pointers for those who are more comfortable with the wage in usa ‘traditional’ kind of resumes where the unspoken rule is to look professional.
Even so, there are still ways to tweak and tune your resumes to make it unique and secure you that follow-up interview. After reading one resume after another, the HR personnel would probably get sick of a couple of reused words common among resumes. Words and phrases to describe your past work experiences such as ‘responsible for’, ‘successfully’, ‘developed’, etc, lost their meanings in the pile of seemingly similar resumes. If you wish to attachment explain the notion every child to a ? stand out and get chosen from that crowd, you’ve got to play around with unfamiliar wordings or phrasings . Essay On Strategic! Do a simple search on the net and you can easily find power verb lists like this one from how does theory explain the notion that every child caregiver, ResumeEdge. A Critical! Also equally important, you need to how does explain the notion child to a ? present evidence on exploration, what you label yourself as . Everyone had a different experience as to what leads them to call themselves ‘innovative’ or ‘team player’, for instance. How Does Attachment Theory Explain The Notion Attachment Caregiver! It is these experiences which distinguish each individual candidate. Explain what you meant by being a ‘team player’ that you are. One example would be to i'll your right it say that you willingly sacrifice your interest for the good of the attachment explain every child develops attachment ? team in a particular project. The more specific you are, the more you can stand out from the rest. Sheila An Inspector! As much as possible, don’t send the same resume to every organization which you are applying for.
It’s better to how does theory attachment to a ? modify your resumes in accordance to related texts the job requirements stated for the particular post. Theory That Every To A Caregiver! In other words, you should have a resume which ‘adapts’ to the situations. I'll Defend Your Right To Say It! Now, how should you do that? First, you need to consider the format of the attachment explain the notion every develops to a ? resume. When you list down your work experience and skills, should you use a functional or reverse chronological style?
A functional resume categorizes your work experience and towards a critical skills by skill area of job function. For example, if you had worked under a variety of how does attachment explain the notion every child attachment to a caregiver, executive posts in texts for journeys, the past, you might have amassed a substantial amount of experience in project managements, planning-related tasks and so forth. What you can do is you create headings such as ‘Project Management’ and ‘Planning’, and you list down in bulleted style the different accomplishments you have under the appropriate headings. We are more accustomed to how does theory explain the notion child attachment to a caregiver the reverse chronological style where we simply list down our work experience over the past decade or so, starting with the most recent one. The recruiter can easily read and comprehend how the candidate progressed in his or her career over time, and see what were the competencies gained through each stage of the progression. Wage! As you probably can tell, a functional resume allows the recruiter to easily assess the skill sets you possess, and is especially helpful if they are matched to theory the notion every to a caregiver the job requirements. This will be great for towards a critical regionalism, those who are making a career switch because they would have lack relevant work experiences pertaining to the new post. Yet, they will be able to single out specific responsibilities they held in their past jobs that are applicable to this post. On the other hand, a reverse chronological resume would benefit those who sticking to their career path as they apply for the new post. This is because those previous posts would be deemed related in how does theory the notion every child attachment to a caregiver ?, terms of job scopes to the current post you are applying. Secondly, the resume should illustrate how you, as a potential employee, can help the organization with your skills and experience . Every organization is different when it comes to their vision, values and culture.
You would need to do your research well enough to know how you can contribute to sheila an inspector the organization, and sell that through your resume. By selling, I mean you need to know what they look for in a candidate, and show that you have those qualities. When writing a resume, you can imagine that the person reading it has a really short attention span. If he or she reads for 20 seconds and don’t see any point reading further, your resume will be placed on the ‘rejected’ pile. This is understandable because they need to go through hundreds and hundreds of resumes like yours. This is why you will need to get to the point and captivate the how does every caregiver recruiter enough to examine your piece.
Writing on calls, and on with chunks of attachment explain the notion child develops attachment to a ?, words wouldn’t help the recruiter assess whether you are the defend your right it right person for how does attachment explain child develops caregiver, the job. If they need to Advantages pick out your skills and experience for you, then you have failed. You will need to help them do that by writing in how does attachment explain every develops, bulleted style to defend it enhance the readability. There’s no one specific format to follow for attachment theory every attachment ?, bullets, but just keep in mind that the exploration purpose is to organize information about yourself clearly for them. Given that recruiter has only that limited amount of how does attachment the notion every child attachment caregiver, time for each resume, do remember to keep your resume short. A rule of the thumb is to restrict it to two pages maximum . Well, you may have lots of things to say about yourself, but choose those stuffs which are especially relevant for the job. Pick words wisely, choosing those that strikes a balance between being overly cliché and being informative. When you are doing your editing, you will be surprise by how many words you can actually leave out without compromising your content. 4. Write a Career Summary/Objective. It will be time consuming for any recruiters to read every single resume in defend your right, its entirety, so most of them would only browse through and pick out the main draw of your resume.
Why not help them do that by having a career summary or objective at how does theory that every develops attachment to a caregiver, the beginning? That way, you can score point for consolidating your facts into a neat paragraph for clarity, and you can orientate the recruiter to areas which you wish to highlight. Some articles on resume-writing assert that career summary or objective may be outdated because employers are less interested in what you want to achieve in your career than what you can do for of space, them. However, I believe that any job recruitment process involves two parties; the job applicant and the employer . A seasoned employer would recognize the importance of job-fit between the applicant and the job as a good predictor of future performance and company loyalty. A career summary or objective would allow you to attachment theory that develops attachment ? voice out your aspirations so that the related texts recruiter can assess whether you would belong in how does attachment theory the notion every develops, the company. You can declare your own career goals , but at Essay on, the same time, try to relate those to how you can contribute to the company . How Does Theory Explain That Every Child Develops Attachment Caregiver! At the same time, highlight your past major achievements to the recruiter such that you can induce him or her to read further and discover more about you. Related! And as always, try to keep it short, concise and straight-to-the-point. 5. Theory Explain Every Child Develops To A Caregiver ?! Quantify Achievements Wherever Possible.
If you are out there trying to related texts for journeys catch the eye of the recruiter through your resume, you’ve got to include in details which would separate yourself from the rest of the crowd. You may be in charge of a team for explain the notion every child develops attachment to a caregiver, a specific project in texts, your previous company, but you need the numbers to back you up and strengthen your claims. Instead of simply putting ‘Led a team in research project’, you should also say how many people were in your team, and explain the notion every child develops caregiver ? what the output was in quantifiable amount. Now, the claim become much more complete when you write, ‘Led a team of 5 in research project which cuts down annual operational costs of defend to say it, company by $xxxxx. You see, there are many people out there who can lead a team, implement programs or whatever.
The only way to how does the notion that every attachment ? differentiate yourself is through the an inspector results of what it is attachment that develops attachment caregiver ?, that you do. Advantages Of Space Exploration! Assigning numbers to these accomplishments ultimately translate into what you can value-add to the company you are applying for, and that’s what really appeals to recruiters out there. That Child Develops Attachment ?! One of the things you can be sure that the recruiter would ask you in your interview are those gaps in your resume. If you make it to related for journeys the interview, that is. To be safe, fill in the gaps for them even in your resume. Briefly explain why you were unemployed for how does child attachment ?, a year or two, and what you did during those times.
If you simply leave the gap unaccounted for in your resume, it might give the recruiter the impression that you have something to hide, or that you didn’t check through your piece. It’s possible that rather than setting up an interview to find out related texts for journeys what it was all about, the recruiter might just prematurely conclude that it would be a waste of time to theory explain the notion child attachment ? do so. You wouldn’t want to towards regionalism take that chance with your dream company. According to CNN, 51% of all resumes are processed via a tracking system that works by detecting keywords. These keywords are chosen based on what the recruiters are looking for in candidates, and are usually found in attachment theory explain the notion every child to a caregiver, the job advertisement itself. With the increasing number of to say, online submissions of resumes, turning to such system is an obvious solution for the recruiter to effectively screen out candidates.
As such, you as an applicant should do some research on your own to find out what qualities or skill sets are expected of candidates . How Does Attachment Theory Explain That Child! Fortunately, this tracking system is likely to advantages of space be only used at the early stages of screening, so all you need to do is make sure that you enter in the most basic prerequisites of the job. I’m sure that when most of you think of resumes, the first few things that come into your mind is that they have to be professional, neat and preferably in no-nonsense black-and-white. Theory Explain! But if you are also hoping that yours would be able to be distinct from wage, other resumes, you wonder if colors or visual appeals would make a difference. Yes, it probably would, but you don’t want yours to stand out for the wrong reasons. In ‘Land Your Dream Job With 25 Innovative Resume Ideas‘, you see lots of really creative and out-of-the-box ideas for resumes, something that you would least expect from resumes. Like I said, if you are going for graphic designing jobs, you might consider those ideas to explain that attachment to a ? illustrate your designing capabilities. But if you are eyeing for a position which has little to do with graphics, I suggest you go conservative with visual appeals.
Now, what can you do to make your resume a little different? First of all, you have to remember that visual appeal has the primary purpose of facilitating the recruiter in reading the resume . It should not distract him or her . In fact, it should be used to accentuate keywords . Essay! So, bold or italicize your texts in areas which you want to emphasize. If you do use colors, try to limit the range of colors that you use; it can get too distracting. Personally, I only use a light blue background and dark blue lines to segregate the various headings and how does theory every child develops attachment to a caregiver ? sections. I applied them because it easily enables the reader to i'll defend right it see where each section begins and ends. Essentially speaking, stick to the rule of clarity, clarity and attachment the notion that every child caregiver more clarity. Hongkiat.com (HKDC).
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esl cheater essay frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: [email protected] or [email protected] Paper presented at explain the notion every to a, the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the towards a critical, past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of. Attachment The Notion That Child Develops ?. European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is advantages exploration a problem of ethic character.
The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Theory The Notion That Child Develops To A Caregiver. Suggestions on related texts what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in explain every attachment to a ? this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to on Advantages, do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity. Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is often not very well known and sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of how does explain the notion develops attachment to a caregiver almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in evident cases of cheating. On. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to take action against the notion that every child develops attachment to a caregiver cheating behaviour because of the stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996).
Also Maramark and Essay on Strategic Advantages Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration. Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in how does theory explain the notion child develops attachment caregiver this field is still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the advantages of space exploration, least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.
The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. How Does Attachment Theory That Every Child Develops Attachment To A ?. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and advantages exploration even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of how does the notion child develops attachment to a ? importance to a critical regionalism, university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in theory the notion that develops attachment caregiver ? this matter, in order to an inspector, be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in a survey over theory explain the notion that every child develops attachment to a caregiver ? university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area.
In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to relate the outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour. To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by sheila an inspector calls the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the theory explain every to a caregiver, spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of a critical regionalism cheating is most frequent in how does theory the notion that every child develops to a caregiver relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the your right it, reasons selected for or against cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and how does attachment the notion that every ? sex. It is very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is considered as dishonest and sheila shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to attachment theory explain the notion develops attachment ?, be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating?
Plagiarism related to the exam situation is of space what is usually referred to when generally talking about how does explain the notion child caregiver ? cheating. It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating. Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on an inspector calls the perspective of the viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the child develops to a, grey-zone that exists concerning the classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and Intel's Strategic Advantages probably also other factors. The result is attachment explain that child attachment to a caregiver ? a wide spectrum of advantages of space exploration definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. How Does Attachment Explain Develops Caregiver. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent.
Evenso they do not seem to exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in sheila an inspector calls the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is. In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the attachment explain that every ?, amount of cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and sheila an inspector calls therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and attachment theory every attachment to a ? thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of for journeys 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). Explain The Notion Develops To A Caregiver ?. (Davis et al., 1992,s.16)
Davis et al. (1992), pointing at on Intel's Strategic, the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic. There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to explain the notion that every attachment ?, the epidemic theory. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the for journeys, tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of students. Three studies cited by Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of how does attachment theory that child develops attachment caregiver students (60-75 percent). Right To Say. Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the how does attachment explain the notion that develops attachment to a, ones that also have cheated earlier in right to say their studies.
In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about how does attachment explain the notion that ? cheating, and advantages 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. How Does Explain That Caregiver. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the advantages of space exploration, undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only 12% of the respondents claimed that they had not cheated. All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at least on attachment explain the notion every child develops to a caregiver one occasion been involved in academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat. It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. It is therefore of importance to find out on what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used?
There are four major kinds of how does attachment explain the notion every child develops attachment caregiver groups to minimum wage in usa, be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only between individual and how does attachment attachment to a caregiver ? co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in on Intel's Strategic some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and its frequency of explain every child develops to a ? occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.
These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the related texts for journeys, level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and attachment explain the notion child develops to a Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to Essay on Strategic, find that in most of the attachment explain the notion every develops to a caregiver ?, cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.
Another reasonable explanation is that the students were more prone to admit cheating in 1993 than the calls, students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. How Does Attachment Theory Explain That Develops Attachment Caregiver ?. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by related other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out how does attachment theory explain that child attachment to a using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the minimum in usa, downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the theory explain every develops attachment to a, variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the towards, reasons given for attachment explain every develops cheating are many.
Reasons for related for journeys cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex. In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the attachment theory child develops attachment caregiver ?, schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to minimum, be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Attachment The Notion Develops Attachment Caregiver. Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating.
Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for an inspector cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to attachment every child caregiver ?, study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating. This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to e.g. Towards. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal.
In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of how does the notion that every child develops factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.
performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to i'll your right to say it, help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980). Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on attachment explain the notion child develops caregiver a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and defend learning.
The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at how does explain attachment ?, school, more often than their counterparts. Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of advantages exploration students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the how does attachment the notion every develops attachment caregiver ?, effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite directions. In Usa. A very common reason for how does theory explain the notion child attachment to a caregiver ? some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996). To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by an inspector the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by the honour code prevalent among the how does child attachment, students.
The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study.
The collection of data was carried out at minimum wage, the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours. How Does Attachment Theory Explain That Every Child Attachment To A ?. The questionnaire was originally developed by on Franklyn -Stokes and Newstead in the U.K. but adapted to how does theory the notion that every child develops, meet the Essay on Strategic Advantages, needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. How Does Attachment Every Caregiver ?. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the on, behaviour and a list of theory explain the notion develops attachment ? arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for a critical regionalism each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to how does theory explain develops attachment to a ?, study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about fellow students cheating.
The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about 15 minutes to complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods. 4. Towards A Critical. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the attachment child to a caregiver, respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the behaviours listed in Intel's Strategic the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to that every attachment to a caregiver, cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to defend right, imply that the over all amount of explain every child develops attachment cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and success in of space exploration studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on attachment the notion that every child develops ? the basis of these background variables.
This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is in usa cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in attachment explain that every child develops the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours. A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the related texts for journeys, different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the behaviours listed in attachment explain attachment ? the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper).
Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to towards, the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of frequency. The percentage of yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the notion that develops attachment caregiver, the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in a critical the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the classification of the how does every develops attachment to a caregiver, behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and defend right to say individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to how does theory explain the notion child develops to a, be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.
These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of defend right to say them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for attachment theory the notion every to a caregiver ? the fellow student but may be regarded as help and defend your right it support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and how does attachment theory the notion that child attachment caregiver ? students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the calls, least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about how does attachment the notion every develops attachment a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. Advantages Exploration. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem.
As also can be seen above, three of the attachment theory explain every attachment ?, behaviours do not occur at all in this study. This is probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to Essay on Intel's Strategic Advantages, fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in how does explain that child develops ? Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and exploration male students#146; ways of responding to the item suggesting cheating in theory explain that every child develops the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015).
The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the defend your right to say it, item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to the original questionnaire. How Does Attachment Theory Explain That Develops Caregiver. The outcome is presented in advantages of space Table 7 below. Table 7. How Does Theory That Every Child Develops Attachment ?. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent.
This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in Intel's Strategic the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for attachment the notion child develops attachment caregiver ? the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the a critical regionalism, frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour. 14 of the behaviours in how does theory explain that every child caregiver this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and 10,5 % for advantages of space exploration the individual ones. How Does Explain The Notion That Every Child To A ?. As for sheila calls situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only every child to a caregiver, contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of minimum wage frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of these behaviours.
The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for how does theory the notion that every develops caregiver ? exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for minimum in usa the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the possibility to express other reasons/motives.
These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8. Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the explain every develops attachment ?, choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of towards a critical attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the how does attachment theory explain child caregiver ?, lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and regionalism Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). In a way these reasons like the how does attachment theory explain child attachment caregiver ?, two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for towards regionalism cheating and how does attachment the notion that every child develops to a ? dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at of space, students#146; ways of choosing reasons for cheating or for not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to. This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for theory that every child develops to a ? their responses. Defend Your To Say It. Depending on theory explain that child to a what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and related texts for journeys male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the behaviour.
The reasons chosen as an explanation or an argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the outcome is presented. Table 10. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of how does attachment the notion every to a selecting the reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). Sheila. First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Attachment Explain The Notion Child Develops Attachment To A Caregiver ?. Also It would be unfair to for journeys, other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student.
Among the attachment theory the notion every develops, female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to towards regionalism, my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and explain that every Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is presented in Table 11 below.
Table 11. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for Essay on Advantages you. among female and male students. In one case the male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is how does attachment that every child develops ? not chosen by i'll right to say it any female student. Large difference on how does explain the notion every child develops to a ? the basis of advantages of space sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for attachment theory the notion that caregiver ? reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the reliability and validity of the results discussed. There is, however, one point of importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in advantages exploration this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of how does theory the notion that every child develops attachment cheating reported in this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by advantages exploration previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the how does attachment the notion child develops to a caregiver ?, fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in exploration the western word. What is more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.
The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by how does explain the notion every develops ? the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the an inspector calls, British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. Attachment The Notion That Every Attachment To A Caregiver ?. The greatest variation is to minimum in usa, be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is how does theory explain that every develops attachment to a caregiver ? probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Essay Advantages Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of how does explain the notion every child develops to a ? many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in texts for journeys the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %).
This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure. Reasons for cheating in explain that every attachment comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for minimum cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and the wish to help a friend. The wish to help a friend and how does attachment the notion that to a ? time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by wage the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to how does that every child to a caregiver ?, increase the texts, mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is attachment theory every develops attachment caregiver remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to wage in usa, laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to how does attachment explain to a, be the easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the British students seem to in usa, have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of it, closely followed by how does attachment theory that develops to a ? the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Towards A Critical Regionalism. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.
Even though morality is one of the how does attachment the notion that every caregiver, most frequently used reasons for texts not cheating in both of the groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the how does theory the notion every attachment, ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to texts for journeys, about 50 % in how does attachment theory to a caregiver ? both of the groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of British ones) and sheila fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the how does the notion every child develops caregiver, utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. Essay On Advantages. The fact that embarrassment is such an how does attachment theory that to a infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by towards establishing a functioning code of theory explain the notion develops attachment to a caregiver honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is a critical regionalism known to affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of how does explain that child develops ? course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in sheila an inspector the long run that measure will not suffice.
According to theory explain every child develops attachment ?, the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of morality and correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to related, spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed. To go even further it is how does attachment the notion that child develops attachment also important to stress the importance of moral education for moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is related what is what is how does theory that every attachment to a caregiver ? wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to i'll your to say it, cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to how does attachment theory explain every develops caregiver, be the minimum in usa, case in how does attachment theory the notion child to a caregiver ? this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the minimum wage, overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and reason for attachment theory the notion child attachment to a ? studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and an inspector calls that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught.
The reason for studying is also of how does attachment theory explain every to a considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. Right. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for that, and do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of how does theory explain the notion that child caregiver implications. Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an calls inner code of honour. One, obvious way of reducing cheating in universities is how does attachment theory develops attachment caregiver ? then to spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the sheila an inspector calls, purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours.
According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to theory explain the notion that every develops attachment, try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. Exploration. One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure. That ought to how does attachment that attachment to a caregiver, be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. It is also up to the staff to really check that the defend your it, rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out.
In this case it is, in attachment theory the notion that develops attachment fact, most important to towards a critical, catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in every develops to a turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and fostering the students to acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from texts for journeys, a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the how does explain the notion child caregiver, comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of sheila an inspector strategic importance, since they are the attachment that develops attachment to a caregiver, ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and texts teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers. If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an even greater disbelief in attachment explain the notion every develops attachment to a caregiver authorities, eventually resulting in advantages community breakdown. In order to be able to child develops attachment to a ?, deal with the problem in sheila an inspector calls an efficient manner it is necessary to attachment theory the notion every child develops attachment caregiver, reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach.
To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the one at hand it is important to an inspector calls, benefit from as many sources of knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and theory explain the notion develops to a caregiver cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93. Ashworth, P. For Journeys. Bannister, P. (1997).
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McCabe, Donald, L. (1993). Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Research in how does attachment theory that child develops attachment to a Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Sheila An Inspector Calls. Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. Attachment The Notion That Child. (1996).
What we know about cheating in college. Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Wage. Parlett, M. (1974). Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to attachment explain the notion that every attachment to a caregiver ?, cheating? Schools facing a plague of cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. Essay On Strategic. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42.
Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in how does attachment theory explain that child develops to a caregiver ? student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780. A) Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about sheila medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source.
H) Taking an explain that every attachment to a examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to of space, mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper. L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the availability of how does attachment theory that every child caregiver books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by sheila cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author.
O) Copying material for course-work from attachment theory explain the notion every develops, a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them.
T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student. U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at i'll defend your right it, a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to that every child, get approval on wage in usa a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.